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The Personality Cult of Stalin in Soviet Posters, 1929–1953

List of illustrations

Fig. 2.1 ‘Komsomol political education system mid-Volga organisation V.L.K.S.M for 1930–31’, unidentified artist, 1930, (Samara), 28 x 75 cm, edn 5,000

Fig. 2.2 ‘Under the Lenin banner for socialist construction’, Gustav Klutsis, 1930

Fig. 2.3 ‘With the banner of Lenin we were victorious in the battle for the October revolution …’, Viktor Deni, 1931, Izogiz (Moscow, Leningrad), 52 x 72 cm, edn 20,000

Fig. 2.4 ‘Shock work at the machine is combined with the study of Marxist–Leninist theory’, A.M. Rumiantsev, 1931, Izogiz (Moscow), 85 x 58 cm, edn 40,000

Fig. 2.5 ‘With the banner of Lenin …’, Viktor Deni, 1933, Izogiz (Moscow), 77 x 109 cm, edn 60,000

Fig. 2.6 ‘With the banner of Lenin …’, Gustav Klutsis, 1933, Izogiz, 62 x 88 cm, 300,000

Fig. 2.7 ‘With the banner of Lenin …’, Iraklii Toidze, 1933, Izogiz (Moscow, Leningrad), 62 x 94 cm (edn of 300); 82 x 110 cm, edn 1,000

Fig. 2.8 ‘Long live the great party of Lenin–Stalin — leader and organiser of the victorious building of socialism!’, L. Stenberg, 1937

Fig. 2.9 ‘Chronicle of the arrests, exiles and escapes of Comrade Stalin’, unidentified artist, 1938

Fig. 2.10 ‘Be as the great Lenin was’, Vasilii Elkin, 1938, Izogiz (Moscow, Leningrad), 60 x 94 cm, edn 100,000

Fig. 2.11 ‘Be as the great Lenin was’, A.I. Madorskii, 1938, edn 15,000

Fig. 2.12 ‘Be as the great Lenin was’, A.I. Madorskii, 1939, 60 x 90 cm, edn 20,000

Fig. 2.13 ‘Departing from us …’, Vladimir Kaidalov, 1940, UzFimgiz (Tashkent), 60 x 92 cm, edn 7,000

Fig. 2.14 ‘Under the banner of Lenin, under the leadership of Stalin — forward to new victories!’, Petr Golub, 1945, Iskusstvo, 85.5 x 61 cm, edn 200,000

Fig. 2.15 ‘1918–1943 Long live the XXV anniversary of the Leninist–Stalinist Komsomol’, Vladimir Serov, 1943, Iskusstvo (Leningrad), 70 x 52 cm, edn 5,000

Fig. 2.16 ‘The banner of Lenin …’, L. Stenberg, 1949, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 85 x 56.5 cm, edn 100,000. Another edition of 100,000 was issued in 1951

Fig. 2.17 ‘26 years without Lenin, but still on Lenin’s path’, Mytnikov, 1950, Izdanie Rostizo (Rostov-Don), edn 15,000

Fig. 2.18 ‘In the name of communism’, Viktor Govorkov, 1951, Iskusstvo (Moscow), 86 x 97 cm, edn 600,000

Fig. 2.19 ‘Glory to the great leaders of October’, Naum Karpovskii, 1951, Iskusstvo (Moscow), 64.5 x 87.5 cm, edn 100,000

Fig. 2.20 ‘Glory to Lenin, glory to Stalin, glory to great October’, V. Reshetnikov, 1952, Latgosizdat, edn 3,000

Fig. 2.21 ‘Long live the great, united party of Lenin–Stalin …’, unidentified artist, 1952

Fig. 2.22 ‘Long live the Bolshevik Party, the Lenin–Stalin Party, the vanguard of the Soviet people forged in battle, the inspiration and organiser of our victories!’, Vladislav Pravdin, 1950, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 64.5 x 87.5 cm, edn 1,000,000

Fig. 2.23 ‘Raise higher the banner of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin!’, Gustav Klutsis, 1933, edn 50,000 and then an edition of 30,000. In 1936 an edition of 250,000 was released

Fig. 2.24 ‘Long live the great, invincible banner of Marx–Engels–Lenin’, Nikolai Dolgorukov, 1934, 163.5 x 56 cm

Fig. 2.25 ‘Long live the great invincible banner of Marx–Engels–Lenin–Stalin!’, Vladislav Pravdin & Zoia Pravdina, 1938, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 62 x 94 cm, edn 100,000

Fig. 2.26 ‘Long live the great invincible banner of Marx–Engels–Lenin–Stalin! Long live Leninism!’, unidentified artist, 1940, edn 6,000

Fig. 2.27 ‘Long live the great invincible banner of Marx–Engels–Lenin–Stalin!’, Nikolai Denisov & Nina Vatolina, 1941, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), edn 100,000

Fig. 2.28 ‘Glory to great Stalin!’, Vladimir Kaidalov, 1949, Gosizdat (Tashkent), edn 5,000

Fig. 2.29 ‘But there is one branch of science …’, Bainazar Al’menov, 1951, Tatgosizdat (Kazan), edn 13,000

Fig. 2.30 ‘Long live the great invincible banner of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin’, A. Kossov, 1953, Iskusstvo (Moscow), 66 x 92 cm, edn 500,000

Fig. 2.31 ‘Under the banner of Marx–Engels–Lenin–Stalin, under the guidance of the Communist party — forward, to the victory of communism!’, Boris Belopol’skii, 1955, 54.5 x 87 cm

Fig. 3.1 ‘Thank you Comrade Stalin for our happy life!’, Nikolai Zhukov, 1940, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 62 x 92 cm, edn 100,000

Fig. 3.2 ‘Stalin’s kindness illuminates the future of our children!’, Iraklii Toidze, 1947, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 61 x 43 cm

Fig. 3.3 ‘Stalin is the wisest of all people …’, Vartan Arakelov, 1939, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), edn 75,000

Fig. 3.4 ‘So — greetings, Stalin, and live for a hundred years …’, Konstantin Cheprakov, 1939, UzFimGiz (Tashkent), 62 x 94 cm

Fig. 3.5 ‘For communism! …’, Mikhail Reikh, 1948, Uzdarnashr (Tashkent), edn 10,000

Fig. 3.6 ‘We are warmed by Stalin’s affection …’, unidentified artist, 1949, 47 x 61 cm6

Fig. 3.7 ‘Great Stalin is the beacon of communism!’, Viktor Ivanov, 1949, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 74 x 52.5 cm, edn 300,000

Fig. 3.8 ‘Stalin takes care of each of us from the Kremlin’, Viktor Govorkov, 1940, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 62 x 92 cm, edn 100,000

Fig. 3.9 ‘The captain of the Soviet Union leads us from victory to victory!’, Boris Efimov, 1933, Izogiz (Moscow, Leningrad), 62 x 94 cm, edn 200,000

Fig. 3.10 ‘Glory to Stalin, the great architect of communism!’, Boris Belopol’skii, 1951, Iskusstvo (Moscow), edn 500,000

Fig. 3.11 ‘Glory to great Stalin, the architect of communism!’, N. Petrov & Konstantin Ivanov, 1952, Iskusstvo (Moscow), edn 200,000

Fig. 3.12 ‘Thank you beloved Stalin for our happy childhood’, Viktor Govorkov, 1936, Izogiz, 71 x 103.2 cm

Fig. 3.13 ‘On the joyous day of liberation …’, Viktor Koretskii, 1943, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), edn 50,000

Fig. 3.14 ‘XXV years of the Komsomol’, Vladimir Fedotov, 1943

Fig. 3.15 ‘We’ll surround orphans with maternal kindness and love’, Nikolai Zhukov, 1947, 79 x 57 cm

Fig. 3.16 ‘Best friend of children. Glory to great Stalin!’, Elena Mel’nikova, 1951, Iskusstvo (Moscow), edn 50,000

Fig. 3.17 ‘Glory to Stalin’s falcons — the conquerors of aerial elements!’, Viktor Deni & Nikolai Dolgorukov, 1937

Fig. 3.18 ‘Long live the Soviet pilots — the proud falcons of our motherland!’, Nina Vatolina & Nikolai Denisov, 1938

Fig. 3.19 ‘To the new achievements of Soviet aviation!’, Vladislav Pravdin, 1950

Fig. 3.20 ‘Stalin raised us to be loyal to the people!’, Petr Golub, 1948, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 86 x 61 cm

Fig. 3.21 ‘And Stalin raised us to be loyal to the people, inspired us to work and to deeds!’, Leonid Golovanov, 1949, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 76.5 x 56 cm, edn 300,000

Fig. 3.22 ‘“Long life and prosperity to our motherland!” I. Stalin’, F. Litvinov, 1949, Krymizdat, edn 10,000

Fig. 3.23 ‘We have overthrown capitalism …’, Mikhail Kuprianov, 1933, (Moscow), edn 4,000

Fig. 3.24 ‘Without a revolutionary theory there can be no revolutionary movement …’, Pikalov, 1933, Izogiz (Leningrad), 77 x 109 cm, edn 30,000

Fig. 3.25 ‘Shock workers of the fields engage in fighting for the socialist reconstruction of agriculture …’, Gustav Klutsis, 1932

Fig. 3.26 ‘Our noble people’, Konev, 1935, Obshchestvo sodeistviia oborone i aviatsionno-khimicheskomu stroitel’stvu SSSR (Kharkov), 85 x 60 cm, edn 20,000

Fig. 3.27 ‘Stalinists! Extend the front of the Stakhanovite movement!’, Genrikh Futerfas, 1936

Fig. 3.28 ‘Long live our teacher, our father, our leader, Comrade Stalin!’, Nikolai Avvakumov, 1946, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), edn 200,000

Fig. 3.29 ‘Long live our leader and teacher the great Stalin!’, Vladislav Pravdin & Nikolai Denisov, 1948, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad)

Fig. 3.30 ‘Reach for prosperity!’, Viktor Ivanov, 1949

Fig. 3.31 ‘Under the banner of Lenin, under the leadership of Stalin, forward to the victory of communism!’, Iraklii Toidze, 1949, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 85 x 61 cm

Fig. 3.32 ‘Long live the equal-rights woman in the USSR, an active participant in the administration of the nation’s state, economic, and cultural affairs!’, Marina Volkova & Natalia Pinus, 1938

Fig. 3.33 ‘“Such women didn’t and couldn’t exist in the old days” I.V. Stalin’, Mikhail Solov’ev, 1950, Iskusstvo (Moscow), 101 x 68 cm, edn 200,000

Fig. 4.1 ‘I.V. Stalin’, unidentified artist, 1930, Litografia CKKPO (Krasnodar), edn 25,000

Fig. 4.2 ‘The Civil War 1918–1920’, unidentified artist, 1938, 92 x 62.5 cm

Fig. 4.3 ‘Defence of the USSR’, unidentified artist, 1938, 92 x 62.5 cm

Fig. 4.4 ‘Comrade I.V. Stalin at the Front of the Civil War’, S. Podobedov, 1939, RKKA8

Fig. 4.5 ‘Military Oath’, S. Podobedov, 1939

Fig. 4.6 ‘Long live our leader and teacher, best friend of the Red Army, our dear and beloved Stalin!’, S. Podobedov, 1940, RKKA

Fig. 4.7 ‘Long live our dear invincible Red Army!’, Dmitrii Moor & Sergei Sen’kin, 1938

Fig. 4.8 ‘To continue the policy of peace and of strengthening business relations with all countries …’, M. Kaminskii, 1939, Mistetstvo (Kiev), 60 x 92 cm, edn 20,000

Fig. 4.9 ‘Long live the organiser and leader of the victorious Red Army great Stalin!’, S. Podobedov, 1938, RKKA

Fig. 4.10 ‘Long live the creator of the first cavalry, best friend of the Red Cavalry — Comrade Stalin!’, unidentified artist, 1939, RKKA

Fig. 4.11 ‘Stalin’s spirit makes our army and country strong and solid’, Viktor Deni & Nikolai Dolgorukov, 1939

Fig. 4.12 ‘The foreign policy of the Soviet Union is clear and explicit’, unidentified artist, 1940, Izostat

Fig. 4.13 ‘If the leader calls …’, Viktor Koretskii, 1941, Izvestiia, 35 x 25 cm

Fig. 4.14 ‘“The spirit of the great Lenin and his victorious banner inspires us now in the Patriotic War as it did 23 years ago.” Stalin’, unidentified artist, 1941, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 82.5 x 59.5 cm, edn 10,000

Fig. 4.15 ‘Under the banner of Lenin–Stalin we were victorious in the great October Socialist Revolution …’, A.V. Vasil’ev and S.F. Yanevich, 1941, Izdanie (Leningrad), edn 20,000

Fig. 4.16 ‘“All our forces — to support our heroic Red Army and our glorious Red Navy! All the power of the people — to defeat the enemy!” Stalin’, Iraklii Toidze, 1941, edn 6,000

Fig. 4.17 ‘We swore an oath to our leader to fight the enemy …’, Konstantin Cheprakov, 1941, Gosizdat (Tashkent), 60 x 94 cm, edn 10,000

Fig. 4.18 ‘Under the name of Stalin we won. Under the name of Stalin we will win!’, unidentified artist, 1941, Iskusstvo (Leningrad), edn 25,000

Fig. 4.19 ‘The spirit of the great Lenin and his victorious banner inspires us now in the Patriotic War as it did 23 years ago’, Boris Mukhin, 1942, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 90 x 60 cm, edn 20,000

Fig. 4.20 ‘We can and must clear our Soviet soil of the Hitlerite filth!’, V. Mirzoe, c. 1942, Sakhelgami, edn 1,500

Fig. 4.21 ‘Under the invincible banner of the great Lenin — forward to victory!’, Nikolai Kogout, 1942, Gosizdat, edn 15,000

Fig. 4.22 ‘The path to our glory is immutable — Fascism will die! …’, Pen Varlen, 1942, Gosizdat (Tashkent), edn 10,000

Fig. 4.23 ‘Under the banner of Lenin, forward, to victory!’, Vladimir Serov, 1942, Iskusstvo (Leningrad), 89 x 63 cm, edn 10,000

Fig. 4.24 ‘Comrades of the Red Army …’, Viktor Ivanov & Ol’ga Burova, 1942, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 88 x 59 cm, edn 30,000

Fig. 4.25 ‘Okno UzTAG No. 123’, Nadezhda Kashina, 1942, Okno UzTAG (Uzbekistan), 84 x 183 cm

Fig. 4.26 ‘Okno TASS No. 590’, Pavel Sokolov-Skalia, 1942, TASS (Moscow), 218 x 102 cm, edn 400

Fig. 4.27 ‘During the war …’, Vlasob’, 1943, (Baku), edn 5,000

Fig. 4.28 ‘For the Soviet fatherland …’, Nikolai Zhukov & Viktor Klimashin, 1943, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), edn 25,000

Fig. 4.29 ‘“The spirit of the great Lenin and his invincible banner inspire us now in the patriotic war” (I. Stalin)’, Veniamin Pinchuk, 1943, Iskusstvo (Leningrad), edn 4,000

Fig. 4.30 ‘For our great motherland!’, Nina Vatolina, 1944, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), edn 50,000

Fig. 4.31 ‘Under the leadership of Comrade Stalin, forward to complete victory over our enemy!’, A.A. Babitskii, 1944, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 90 x 59 cm, edn 5,000

Fig. 4.32 ‘“Glory to the great heroic Red Army, defending the independence of our country and winning victory over the enemy!” I. Stalin’, Vladimir Kaidalov, 1945, Dal’giz, edn 5,000

Fig. 4.33 ‘Great Stalin — first deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR’, Stepan Razvozzhaev, 1945, Izdanie (Irkutsk), edn 25,000

Fig. 4.34 ‘Long live the creator of the constitution of socialist society, the leader of the Soviet people, great Stalin!’, unidentified artist, portrait by Karpov, Undated, c. 1945, Izdatelstvo Krasnyi Krym, edn 10,000

Fig. 4.35 ‘The Soviet people are full of gratitude and love for dear STALIN — the great organiser of our victory’, Viktor Koretskii, 1945, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), edn 75,000

Fig. 4.36 ‘Long live generalissimus STALIN — great leader and general of the Soviet people!’, Viktor Deni, 1945, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), edn 50,000

Fig. 4.37 ‘Forward, to new victories of socialist construction!’, Iraklii Toidze, 1946, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 103 x 68 cm, edn 50,000

Fig. 4.38 ‘1917–1946 Glory to the Red Army, defending the gains of the great October socialist revolution!’, Viktor Koretskii, 1946, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 96 x 63 cm, edn 70,000

Fig. 4.39 ‘Long live the V.K.P.(b) — the party of Lenin–Stalin, inspirer and organiser of our great victories!’, Iraklii Toidze, 1946, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), edn 250,000

Fig. 4.40 ‘Long live the leader of the Soviet people — great Stalin’, Onufriichuk, 1946, Mistetstvo, edn 50,000

Fig. 4.41 ‘Long live the leader of the Soviet people — great Stalin!’, Boris Mukhin, 1947, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), edn 300,000

Fig. 4.42 ‘Long live the leader of the Soviet people, great Stalin!’, Boris Mukhin, 1947, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad)

Fig. 4.43 ‘Long live the leader of the Soviet people — great Stalin’, Vladislav Pravdin & Nikolai Denisov, 1947, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), edn 200,000

Fig. 4.44 ‘Glory to the leader of the Soviet people — great Stalin!’, Georgii Bakhmutov, 1947, Mistetstvo, edn 70,000

Fig. 4.45 ‘Stalin is our fighting banner’, Aleksandr Druzhkov & I. Shagin, 1948, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad)

Fig. 4.46 ‘Glory to great Stalin!’, Boris Mukhin, 1948, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad)

Fig. 4.47 ‘It is our good fortune …’, N. Petrov, 1948, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad)

Fig. 4.48 ‘Long live the V.K.P.(b) inspirer and organiser of the victory of the Soviet people!’, B.I. Lebedev, 1948, Izdatelstvo (Moldavia), edn 5,000

Fig. 4.49 ‘Long live the party of Lenin–Stalin, inspirer and organiser of our victories!’, F. Litvinov, 1948,Krymizdat

Fig. 4.50 ‘Long live the VKP(b) …’, Aleksandr Druzhkov, 1948, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad)

Fig. 4.51 ‘We will struggle to reap a big cotton harvest!’, Vladimir Kaidalov, 1950, 86 x 58.5 cm

Fig. 4.52 ‘“We stand for peace and we defend the cause of peace.” I. Stalin’, Boris Berezovskii, 1947, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 118 x 68 cm

Fig. 4.53 ‘“Long life and prosperity to our motherland!” I. Stalin’, Iraklii Toidze, 1947, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad)

Fig. 4.54 ‘Stalin is our great standard-bearer of peace!’, Viktor Ivanov, 1950, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 83.4 x 56.4, edn 100,000

Fig. 4.55 ‘Great Stalin is the banner of friendship of the peoples of the USSR!’, Viktor Koretskii, 1950, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), edn 200,000

Fig. 4.56 ‘Great Stalin is the best friend of the Latvian people!’, Petr Golub, 1950, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), edn 20,000

Fig. 4.57 ‘“We stand for peace and we defend the cause of peace.” I. Stalin’, Boris Belopol’skii, 1952, Iskusstvo (Moscow), 82 x 64 cm, edn 300,000

Fig. 4.58 ‘“The world will be saved and enhanced if people take responsibility for maintaining peace into their own hands and defend it to the end.” I. Stalin’, Boris Belopol’skii, 1952, Iskusstvo (Moscow), 69 x 56 cm, edn 100,000

Fig. 4.59 ‘Happy New Year, beloved Stalin!’, Konstantin Ivanov, 1952, Iskusstvo (Moscow), 55.5 x 37 cm, edn 50,000

Fig. 4.60 ‘Long live the Leninist VKP(b), organiser of victorious socialist construction’, Viktor Deni & Nikolai Dolgorukov, 1934, Izogiz (Moscow, Leningrad), 62 x 94 cm, edn 6,500

Fig. 4.61 ‘Glory to great Stalin!’, V. Paradovskii, 1947, Kirgosizdat, edn 2,190

Fig. 4.62 ‘Cadres decide everything’, Gustav Klutsis, 1935, Izogiz (Moscow, Leningrad), 77 x 109 cm, edn 20,000

Fig. 4.63 ‘Long live the Stalinist Order of Heroes and Stakhanovites!’, Gustav Klutsis, 1936, 71.3 x 101.2 cm

Fig. 4.64 ‘Our government and the Party does not have other interests …’, Viktor Koretskii, 1938, Izogiz (Moscow, Leningrad), 86 x 61.3 cm, edn 300,000

Fig. 4.65 ‘The reality of our program …’, I. Shagin, 1947, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), edn 300,000

Fig. 4.66 ‘Under the leadership of the great Stalin — forward to communism!’, Boris Berezovskii, Mikhail Solov’ev & I. Shagin, 1951, Iskusstvo (Moscow), edn 500,000

Fig. 4.67 ‘Glory to the first candidate for deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, great Stalin!’, Viktor Govorov, 1946, Ogiz

Fig. 4.68 ‘We gathered under the red banner of Lenin …’, Nikolai Denisov, 1949, Iskusstvo (Moscow, Leningrad), 89 x 60 cm, edn 100,000

Fig. 4.69 ‘I would like comrades to systematically influence their deputies …’, Be-Sha (Boris Shapoval) & Rozenberg, 1940, Mistetstvo (Kiev), edn 40,000

The following repositories hold copies of the posters included in this volume:

  • The Museum of Contemporary History, Moscow
  • The Russian State Library, Moscow
  • The State Historical Museum, Moscow
  • The State Museum of the History of the Blockade of Leningrad, St Petersburg, Russia
  • Hoover Institution Archives, Stanford, California, United States
  • The Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Museum, New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
  • Tom and Jeri Ferris Collection of Russian and Soviet Culture, University of Southern California, United States
  • The David King Collection, London.

See the image sources for location details relating to each image.


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