Appendix 8.1 Structure of educational institutions in Myanmar

The Myanmar education system is governed through five departments—the Department of Basic Education, the Department of Higher Education, the Myanmar Examination Board, the Myanmar Education Research Bureau and the Myanmar Language Commission—which are each led by a director-general or equivalent. There is also a Council of the Universities Academic Bodies and a Universities Central Administrative Council.

Basic education is divided into the normal mainstream as well as technical and vocational education. The time a child spends in the normal stream is five years in primary, four years in lower secondary and three years in upper-secondary levels. According to government data, there were 7.2 million students with 224 000 teachers and 38 800 schools in 1996–97. For technical and vocational education, there are seven state agricultural institutes, 17 technical high schools, 10 agricultural high schools, three commercial schools, two machinery repair and maintenance schools, 11 handicraft schools, six schools of home sciences and two schools of fishery—a total of 58 in 1996–97. There are five teacher-training colleges, 14 teacher-training schools and three correspondence courses for training various levels of basic education teachers. Today, there are 38 universities, one management college and five degree colleges (<http://www.myanmar-education.edu.mm/moe_main/index.php>).