Dictatorship, disorder and decline in Myanmar

Table of Contents

Editors’ note
1: Overview
Political Update
2: The dramatic events of 2007 in Myanmar: domestic and international implications
The fuel-price protests of August 2007
Myanmar fuel policy
Why a different reaction this time?
The events of September 2007 and their impact
The events of September 2007
The significance of the involvement of Buddhist clergy
Domestic implications
The impact on the regime’s political program
Socioeconomic issues
Dialogue with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi
3: Internal dynamics of the Burmese military: before, during and after the 2007 demonstrations
Historical antecedents
Characteristics of the SLORC period (1988–92)
Internal dynamics before the August–September 2007 demonstrations
Internal dynamics during the August–September 2007 demonstrations
Internal dynamics after the August–September 2007 demonstrations
Future scenarios
Economic Update
4: Myanmar’s GDP growth and investment: lessons from a historical perspective
Myanmar’s ‘good’ performance from a comparative viewpoint
Reservations about Myanmar’s growth performance
Review of Myanmar’s economic performance using time-series data
Double-digit real GDP growth, 1948–2005
Real GDP growth and the GDI/GDP ratio, 1948–2005
5: Migrant-worker remittances and Burma: an economic analysis of survey results
The importance of remittances
Individual poverty alleviation
Broader concerns: remittances and economic development
Negative aspects of remittances
Remittance channels and instruments
Formal funds-transfer schemes
Informal funds-transfer schemes
Personal delivery
Choosing between formal and informal transfer schemes
Survey findings
Results: amounts sent
Uses for remittances
Methods and instruments
Gender differences
Some conjectures
Remittances and foreign reserves
Remittances and business capital
Remittances and financial development
Impact of the ‘Saffron Revolution’
Concluding thoughts
6: Myanmar’s economic relations with China: who benefits and who pays?
Historical and political background
Trade relations
China as an important but unbalanced trading partner
Exports: weak impacts on the economic development of Chinese trade
Imports: China as a major supply source
Border trade: the main artery of the Myanmar economy
Economic and business cooperation
State-owned economic enterprises
Energy development
Conclusion: who benefits and who pays?
Education and Health Update
7: Myanmar education: challenges, prospects and options
The setting: the land and its people
Myanmar education: the roles of the stakeholders
The role of teachers
The role of parents/families
The role of students
The education process
Issues in Myanmar education
Prospects and options
Challenges for tertiary education: options
8: Evolving Education in Myanmar: the interplay of state, business and the community
The issue of private-sector involvement—a global phenomenon
Education in Myanmar — past and present
The state of education today: some different perspectives
Private education in Myanmar
Primary and secondary supplementary schools
International schools, pre-collegiate programs and higher education
Outside Yangon in an ethnic minority area: the case in Mitkyina
Appendix 8.1 Structure of educational institutions in Myanmar
Appendix 8.2 Examples of private schools in Yangon
1. Horizon International Education Centre
2. International Language and Business Centre (ILBC)
3. Summit International Learning Centre
4. Nelson International Education Centre
5. Ayeyarwady Media Service
9: The (re)-emergence of civil society in areas of state weakness: the case of education in Burma/Myanmar
Civil society in the context of authoritarianism and state weakness: some theoretical reflections
Civil society under authoritarian rule
Spaces for civil society in areas of state weakness
The weakness of the state-run education system
Civil society-based education systems in government-controlled areas
Buddhist monastic education
Extra tuition, early childhood development, professional skills training and capacity building: the role of NGOs, community-based organisations and individuals
Community-based schools in rural areas
Civil society-based education systems in cease-fire areas
Christian education
NGO and community-based organisation education and education support activities
Culture and literature committees
10: Islamic education in Myanmar: a case study
Different Myanmar Muslim groups
Madrasahs in Myanmar
Curriculum of madrasahs in Myanmar
Languages used in Myanmar madrasahs
Famous and reputable madrasahs in Myanmar
Challenges faced by madrasahs in Myanmar
11: Contemporary medical pluralism in Burma
Overview of the healthcare system
Patterns of health seeking
Humanitarian and medical aid
Human rights abuses
Transnational and cross-border health care
Conclusion: human rights and the right to health
12: Health security among internally displaced and vulnerable populations in eastern Burma
The current security situation in eastern Burma
The health status of internally displaced persons
Border-based health programs
Case study: Border-Based Reproductive Health Coordination Group
Case study: health information systems training
Success of border-based health programs
Case study: expansion of the BPHWT
Case study: KDHW Malaria Control Program