Assessing the evidence on Indigenous socioeconomic outcomes: a focus on the 2002 NATSISS


Table of Contents

Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgements
Abbreviations and acronyms
1. Towards a history of Indigenous statistics in Australia
The watershed years
Statistics for protection and assimilation
The crisis of the protection/assimilation model
Some features in the new archive
2. Statistical needs in Indigenous affairs: the role of the 2002 NATSISS
A brief history of the 1994 NATSIS and the 2002 NATSISS
The 2002 NATSISS in the overall statistical framework
NATSISS and Indigenous policy and practice
Conclusion
3. The 2002 NATSISS—the ABS survey methodology and concepts
ABS statistical activity
The 2002 NATSISS
Sample design
Comparison between 1994 and 2002 survey methodologies
Scope
Geography
Content
Statistics for policy
4. Selected methodological issues for analysis of the 2002 NATSISS
Survey methodology
Scope of the survey
Sample selection and survey design
Questionnaire design and output
Interviewing techniques
Remote/non-remote and CA/NCA
Sampling and non-sampling issues
Sampling error
Benchmarking 2002 NATSISS data against population estimates in the 2001 Census
Non-sampling errors
Possible non-sampling issues for selected variables in 2002 NATSISS
Outputs from the 2002 NATSISS
ABS publications using the 2002 NATSISS
The 2002 NATSISS CURF
Concluding remarks
5. Differentials and determinants of Indigenous population mobility
Background: survey development and questions
The scale and age pattern of mobility
Differentials and determinants of mobility
Reasons for movement
Conclusion
6. Aboriginal child mortality in Australia: Recent levels and covariates
Data quality issues
Mortality estimates
Covariates of child mortality
Concluding remarks
7. Understanding housing outcomes for Indigenous Australians: what can the 2002 NATSISS add?
Housing tenure profiles and household size by remoteness
Affordability and adequacy issues by tenure and remoteness
Comparisons with non-Indigenous Australians and over time
Conclusion
8. Revisiting the poverty war: income status and financial stress among Indigenous Australians
Poverty wars and the ABS low income category
Revisiting Indigenous income status and poverty
Income status and financial stress
A brief digression on validating the top-coding assumptions when using grouped income data for Indigenous people
Indigenous and other Australian poverty in 2002
Concluding remarks
9. Family and community life
Why study family and community?
Family and community life domains
Household and family type
Fertility and child survival
Removal from natural family
Support in time of crisis
Stressors experienced
Neighbourhood problems
Voluntary work
Two illustrations of the value of the 2002 NATSISS data
Child care
Removal from natural family
Concluding comments
10. Labour market issues
Strengths of the 2002 NATSISS
An illustration of new information available from the 2002 NATSISS
A limitation of the survey
Concluding comments
11. Asking the right questions?
Employment and the hard policy choices
Employment
Demand and supply
Welfare reforms (the supply side of the labour market)
The Fair Pay Commission (the demand side of the labour market)
Further data issues
CDEP
Program evaluation
Concluding comments
12. The real ‘real’ economy in remote Australia
A brief overview of the customary sector and the hybrid economy model
2002 NATSISS questions and results
Fishing or hunting in a group
Participation in, and payment for, cultural activities
Ability to meet cultural responsibilities while in employment
Shortcomings in the 2002 NATSISS
Coverage of Indigenous population and key customary sector activities
Economic versus cultural activity
Group versus individual activity
Seasonality
Lack of comparability between the 1994 NATSIS and the 2002 NATSISS
Restrictions on geographic analysis
Recommendations for NATSISS 2008
Conclusion
13. Panel Discussion: Diverse perspectives on the evidence
Jon Altman
Larissa Behrendt
Geoff Scott
Tom Calma
QUESTIONS
Boyd Hunter
Murray Geddes
Geoff Scott
Jon Altman
Paul Howarth
Geoff Scott
Peter Radoll
Tom Calma
Larissa Behrendt
14. Education and training: the 2002 NATSISS
1994 NATSIS and 2002 NATSISS: what has been lost and gained?
2002 NATSISS: an overview of findings about education and training
NATSISS, education and training beyond 2002: is it worth the trouble?
15. Indigenous Australians and transport—what can the NATSISS tell us?
Remote area ethnography of transport
Does having access to a vehicle mean being able to drive it, if you want to?
Sample selection: remote, very remote and non-remote
Equity and access to vehicles
Forms of transport and questions of availability
Diversity of transport
Perceived level of difficulty with transport
Suggestions for re-phrasing and re-sequencing the questions
Conclusion
16. Information and Communication Technology
Usefulness of the data
Digital divide defined
Australia’s digital divide
Income
Education
Location
Purpose
Frequency
Other inhibitors of ICT use
Employment
Age
Health status
Justice system
Telephone status
Accessing money
Conclusion
17. Health
The data
What information was asked?
What information should have been asked
Issues with the way the information was collected
Analysis of the 2002 NATSISS data
Summary health indicators, Indigenous Australia, 2002
Selected disability characteristics by remoteness, Indigenous Australia, 2002
Health variables by quintile of weekly equivalised gross household income, Indigenous Australia, 2002
Health indicators by age and gender, Indigenous Australia, 2002
Comparing health indicators, Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australia, 2002
Indigenous health, Australia, 1994 and 2002
Health characteristics by non-school qualification and highest year of school completed, Indigenous Australia, 2002
Health characteristics by labour force status, Indigenous Australia, 2002
Disability status and self-assessed health status by age
Indigenous health indicators by State/Territory and Australia, 2002
Concluding remarks
18. Substance use in the 2002 NATSISS
Overview of the 2002 NATSISS methods in relation to substance use
Selecting a representative sample
Asking about drug use in the 2002 NATSISS
Tobacco
Alcohol
Illicit drug use
Estimates of Indigenous drug use from the 2002 NATSISS
How do the 2002 NATSISS results compare with other national surveys of Indigenous drug use?
1994 NATSIS
The 2001 NHS
1994 NDSHS Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples Supplement
What can be said about the results of the 2002 NATSISS?
Exclusion of residents living in non-private dwellings
Insufficient data on drinking patterns
Lack of confidentiality leading to unreliable responses
Insensitivity to geographical and cultural diversity
Limited corroboration with other sources of information
Conclusions
19. Crime and justice issues
Diversity in existing crime data collections
Crime, safety, and ‘justice’ questions in omnibus Australian surveys
Socioeconomic factors underlying Indigenous arrest
Crime and justice issues in Indigenous social surveys
Broad trends in crime and justice between 1994 and 2002
Describing selected crime and justice issues in 2002
Concluding remarks
20. Culture
Changes to survey questions
Findings on cultural participation/involvement in social activities
Cultural identification
Cultural and family responsibilities
Conclusion
21. Language
The language questions in 2002 NATSISS
Is there a future for Indigenous languages?
Are speakers of Indigenous languages different from other Indigenous people?
Level of schooling
Labour force status
Conclusion
22. Torres Strait Islanders and the national survey model
The 1992 pre-NATSIS workshop
The 1996 post-NATSIS workshop and publication
The 2002 NATSISS
Some results from 2002 NATSISS
Conclusion
23. Social justice and human rights: using Indigenous socioeconomic data in policy development
Recent international developments—the human rights context
A human rights approach to assessing Indigenous socioeconomic outcomes
Recent developments in Indigenous policy in Australia
Implications for data collection and research
So the 3.1 billion dollar question is: how will we know whether the new arrangements are delivering improved outcomes or not?
Conclusion
24. Influencing Indigenous policy making with statistics
References
Notes on Contributors

List of Figures

3.1. Form type by area, 2002 NATSISS
3.2. Mainstream employment by State, 1994 and 2002
4.1. School attainment in non-remote areas, 2001 and 2002
4.2. School attainment in remote areas, 2001 and 2002
4.3. Labour force status in non-remote areas, 2001 and 2002
4.4. Labour force status in remote areas, 2001 and 2002
4.5. Non-school qualifications, 2001 and 2002
5.1. Age-specific Indigenous movement rates: 1996 Census, 2001 Census and 2002 NATSISS
5.2. Indigenous movement propensities by State and Territory, 2002
6.1. Average number of children born per woman: Aboriginal Australians, 2002
6.2. Proportion of children who have died by age of women: Aboriginal Australians, 2002
8.1. Financial stress by labour forces status and remoteness, 2002
12.1. Conceptual representation of the hybrid economy
16.1. Home computer use and home internet use by Indigenous status, 2002
16.2. Computer use and internet use by income quintile, 2002
16.3. Computer use and internet use by education level, 2002
16.4. Computer use and internet use by remoteness, 2002
16.5. Computer use by location and remoteness, 2002
16.6. Purpose of internet use by remoteness, 2002
16.7. Frequency of internet use by remoteness, 2002
16.8. Information and Communication Technology use by employment status, 2002
16.9. Information and Communication Technology use by age, 2002
16.10. Information and Communication Technology use by health status, 2002
16.11. Computer use by whether ever charged, 2002
16.12. Telephone status by remoteness, 2002
16.13. Money access mode by remoteness, 2002
16.14. Electronic money access by remoteness, 2002
17.1. Disabilities by quintile of household income
17.2. Disabilities by age and gender
17.3. Self-assessed health status by Indigenous status, non-remote areas
17.4. Labour force status by self-assessed health
18.1. A comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous drinking levels, from the 2002 NATSISS and the 2001 NDSHS
18.2. Estimated national alcohol-attributable death rates for Indigenous people versus the general Australian population
18.3. Estimates of alcohol use by Indigenous Australians: a comparison of three surveys
18.4. 2002 NATSISS, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander risky/high-risk alcohol consumption
22.1. Torres Strait Islander population, 1880–2001: a contextual note
22.2. Selected characteristics for Islanders living in the Torres Strait and rest of Australia
22.3. Selected comparisons between Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders

List of Tables

2.1. ABS Indigenous household surveys program: 1999–2011
3.1. Sample size, 2002 NATSISS
4.1. Differences in data collection in CA and NCA areas
4.2. Implications of ABS definition of low incomea
5.1. Social, economic and geographic differentials in movement propensity
5.2. Net effects of socioeconomic, spatial and household characteristics on Indigenous mobility: logistic regression results, 2002 NATSISSa
5.3. Reasons for last move by age group: 2002 NATSISS
6.1. Estimates of early age mortality: Aboriginal Australians, comparison of existing estimates with 2002 NATSISS
6.2. Estimated effects of socioeconomic, spatial and household characteristics on Aboriginal child mortality: results of Poisson regression model, 2002 NATSISS
7.1. Tenure of dwellings containing Indigenous households by remoteness, 2002
7.2. Housing tenure of Indigenous persons aged 15 years or over by remoteness, 2002
7.3. Household size of dwelling containing Indigenous households by remoteness, 2002
7.4. Household size of Indigenous persons aged 15 years or over by remoteness, 2002
7.5. Housing tenure of Torres Strait Islander persons aged 15 years and over by area, 2002
7.6. Weekly rents (in 2002 $) of dwellings containing Indigenous households by tenure, 2002
7.7. Adequacy and affordability characteristics of dwellings containing Indigenous households by tenure, 2002
7.8. Housing adequacy and affordability characteristics of Indigenous persons aged 15 years or over by tenure, 2002
7.9. Adequacy and affordability characteristics of dwellings containing Indigenous households by remoteness, 2002
7.10. Housing adequacy and affordability characteristics of Indigenous persons aged 15 years or over by remoteness, 2002
7.11. Housing tenure characteristics of Indigenous and non-Indigenous persons aged 18 years or over, 2002
7.12. Housing tenure characteristics of Indigenous persons aged 15 years or over, 1994 and 2002
8.1. Income   summary   by   Indigenous   status   in   non-remote   areas,   2002a b
8.2. Income summary by remoteness, 2002
8.3. Indigenous persons aged 15 years or over, selected income characteristics by remoteness, Australia, 2002
8.4. Indigenous persons aged 15 years or over, mean weekly equivalised gross household income quintiles by selected characteristics, Australia, 2002
8.5. Proportion with less than 50 per cent of median equivalised household income
8.6. Scoping the feasible range of equivalence scales: proportion with less than 50 per cent of median household income, 2002
9.1. Use of child care by persons with primary responsibility for children according to employment status, Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, 2002
9.2. Removal from natural family
10.1. Indigenous labour force status by region, 2002
10.2. Labour market data collected in the 2002 NATSISS
10.3. Duration on CDEP by region of residence, 2002a
10.4. Participation in VET in the last 12 months, by labour force status and region, 2002a
10.5. OLS wage regressionsa
10.6. Effect of experience on wage (percentage)
10.7. Effect of experience on probability of employment (percentage)
11.1. Various employment-to-population ratios for adult Indigenous Australians
11.2. Selected characteristics of the Job Network eligible population, 2002–03
11.3. Employment and population changes for Indigenous Australians (in 000’s)
11.4. Hypothetical estimates of labour market circumstances 16 months after being referred to Intensive Assistance
12.1. Percentage of Indigenous population in CAs who did and did not fish or hunt in a group in the last three months, by recognising and living on homeland, 2002a
12.2. Percentage of Indigenous population in CAs who fished or hunted in a group in the last three months, by industry and hours worked, 2002
12.3. Percentage of Indigenous population who participated in, and were paid for, various cultural activities, by remoteness, 2002
12.4. Presence of, and ability to meet, cultural responsibilities while in employment, by remoteness (number of persons), 2002
12.5. Percentage of population who were able to meet cultural responsibilities, by industry and remoteness, 2002
12.6. Percentage of each State/Territory engaged: in fishing or hunting in a group; paid; and unpaid arts and crafts activity, 2002
14.1. Comparison of education and training data collected in NATSIS (1994) and NATSISS (2002)
14.2. Indigenous persons aged 15 years or over, selected education characteristics, Australia, 1994 and 2002
14.3. Indigenous persons aged 15 years or over, main reason left school by remoteness, Australia, 2002
14.4. Unemployed Indigenous persons aged 15 years or over, main difficulty finding work by remoteness, Australia, 2002
14.5. Indigenous persons aged 15 years or over, whether attended vocational training, by remoteness, Australia, 2002
14.6. Indigenous persons aged 15 years or over, whether used vocational training, by remoteness, Australia, 2002
14.7. Indigenous persons aged 15 years or over, how vocational training was used, by remoteness, Australia, 2002
14.8. Indigenous persons aged 15 years or over, non-school qualification by highest year of school completed by selected characteristics, Australia, 2002
15.1. Access and use of motor vehicles and walking (aged 15 and over) by sex and remoteness, 2002a
15.2. Indigenous people aged 15 years or over, modes of transport usage by remoteness, Australia, 2002
15.3. Perceived level of difficulty with transport—percentage of the population (aged 15 plus) by sex
17.1. Summary health indicators by remoteness and Indigenous statusa
17.2. Selected disability characteristics by remoteness
17.3. Self-assessed health variables by quintile of weekly equivalised gross household income
17.4. Self-assessed health status by age and gender
17.5. Indigenous health, Australia, 1994 and 2002a
17.6. Non-school qualification by highest year of school completed by selected health characteristicsa
17.7. Labour force status by disabilitiesa
17.8. Self-assessed health status by age and disability
18.1. Drug use among Indigenous Australians: results from the 2002 NATSISS
18.2. Indigenous and non-Indigenous rates of hospitalisation (per 1000) for a selection of alcohol-attributable conditions 2002–03
19.1. Indigenous people aged 15 years or over, selected law and justice issues in Australia, 1994 and 2002
19.2. Selected law and justice issues by remoteness, 2002
19.3. Interactions with the justice system by remoteness and sex, 2002
19.4. Law and justice by age first formally charged, 2002a
19.5. Socioeconomic factors underlying formal interactions with the criminal justice system by ever formally charged, 2002
20.1. Cultural participation/ involvement in social activities in 1994 and 2002a
20.2. Cultural participation/involvement in social activities by remoteness, 2002
20.3. Paid and unpaid participation in cultural activities, 2002
20.4. Participation in sporting activity by remoteness, 2002
20.5. Activities participated in during the three months before the 2002 NATSISS
20.6. Identification with a tribal group, a language group or a clan 2002
20.7. Relations with homeland/traditional country, by remoteness in 2002
21.1. Those who speak an Indigenous language by State, 1994 and 2002
21.2. Those whose main language at home is an Indigenous language, by state, 2002
21.3. Knowledge and use of Indigenous language by age group
21.4. Language fluency, by remoteness category
21.5. Educational attainment: Indigenous language versus remote areas
21.6. Whether speaks an Indigenous language (remote versus very remote areas), by labour force status
22.1. Relevant Islander population groups, 2001
22.2. Relevant Islander and Aboriginal population groups, 2001
22.3. The survey events and data requested: 1992 to 2002