Previous Next

Aboriginal Placenames

1. Aboriginal placenames around Port Jackson and Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia

Sources and uncertainties

Val Attenbrow

Introduction

Around Sydney Harbour (Port Jackson1) and Botany Bay and the intervening coastline (an area I refer to as coastal Sydney), Aboriginal names were recorded for over 100 places, though names can be linked with any certainty to only 89 locations. For the other names the specific locations to which they belong are presently unknown or unresolved. Some names, such as Bondi, Parramatta and Woolloomooloo, were adopted by the colonists and are still used today, but for many other locations the placenames given by the British colonists persisted.

The lists of Aboriginal placenames included in this paper (Tables 1.1 and 1.2, Figures 1.1 and 1.2) were compiled as part of my research into the Aboriginal occupation of the Sydney region (Attenbrow 20022). These placenames relate to specific locations, i.e. geographical features, and are not the names of clan or language group territories. They were originally recorded or first reported by a number of people over a period of 123 years – from 1788 to 1911. Because of this long history and the contexts of recording, I encountered several problems and issues in compiling the list of placenames; they concerned: ensuring the names had an Aboriginal origin, which involved identifying when and by whom they were first reported; identifying clearly an association between a placename and a specific location; and how the names should be written. However, before discussing these issues, the historical context in which the names were recorded is briefly outlined.

Figure 1.1: Aboriginal placenames around Port Jackson and Botany Bay from historical sources. See Table 1.1 for key to placenames and sources.

figure0101.jpg

A brief historical background

In January 1788 the British First Fleet landed on Australia’s south-eastern coast. Captain Arthur Phillip was to establish a penal colony, and on board the 11 ships were over 1000 people – marines, officers and other officials, as well as convicts (Phillip 1790a[1892]: 298). The first settlement was established in Port Jackson, in a small bay they called Sydney Cove. The initial reactions of the local Aboriginal people to the British were mixed – sometimes openly antagonistic with shouting and angry gesticulations and at other times curiously friendly and showing them to freshwater (Bradley 1786-1792[1969]: 59; Tench 1789: 53-54[1979: 35]). At first the local inhabitants3came in and looked around the colonists’ camp but then they almost totally avoided the area.

Figure 1.2: Aboriginal placenames around Port Jackson from historical sources. See Table 1.1 for key to placenames and sources.

figure0102.jpg

Phillip had hoped that the local inhabitants would freely visit the colonists’ settlement, or that a family would reside with them so they could learn the local language, enter into a dialogue and learn more about their way of life. However, this situation, in which meaningful dialogue was absent, continued for almost two years (Phillip 1790b[1892: 308]; Tench 1789: 136[1979: 73]). As a last resort, a young man called Arabanoo was captured in December 1788 and brought to live in Sydney town (Phillip 1790b[1892: 308]). However, Arabanoo died in April 1789 during an epidemic thought to be smallpox. During the epidemic, a young boy and girl, Nanbaree and Booroong (Arbaroo), were brought into the town (White 1790[1962: 19]). Both survived the disease and acted as informants and communicators between the two groups for some time (Collins 1798[1975: 112]). The epidemic, however, had a disastrous impact on the local population – in just over a year, well over half the original inhabitants of coastal Sydney were estimated to have died (Phillip 1790b[1892: 308]).

In November 1789, Phillip captured two men Colbee and Bennelong (Phillip 1790a[1892: 300]), though both escaped shortly afterwards. Despite these and subsequent events, a strong and lasting association developed between both men and the colonists. The subsequent series of events, during which Phillip was speared in September 1790, was the major turning point in relationships between colonists and local inhabitants, and also marked the end of the local inhabitants’ independence and self-reliance (Hunter 1793[1968]: 204-205).

In the early 1790s, the colony expanded rapidly – demographically and geographically. The occupied lands no longer provided a viable subsistence base for the surviving Aboriginal population who could not continue a traditional way of life in the areas settled by the British. As a result of being dispossessed from their lands, many people left the coastal Sydney area. By 1800, few of the original inhabitants of Sydney Harbour lived around its shores. However, as relatively peaceful relations came to exist between the colonists and those who remained, people from neighbouring regions came to live in Sydney town and its associated settlements. These included Bungaree and his family who came from Broken Bay. People who now camped together came from much wider and/or different geographical areas than in pre-colonial times and group composition, in terms of the clans and language groups that people came from, was quite different. Camps existed in many different places in the Sydney region until the early 1900s – including the foreshores of Sydney Harbour, Botany Bay and the intervening coastline.

Figure 1.3: Port Jackson – Botany Bay: Number of Aboriginal placenames recorded in each period.

figure0103.jpg

The Aboriginal placenames

In the 18th and 19th centuries, numerous Aboriginal placenames were recorded for locations in coastal Sydney. Eighty-nine locations are listed in Table 1.1 and shown on Figures 1.1 and 1.2, but there are many more recorded placenames than locations listed as some locations have more than one name recorded for them. Insufficient information is available in the historical documents which I consulted for me to definitely associate 18 placenames with specific locations and these are not included in Figures 1.1 and 1.2 and Table 1.1, but are listed separately in Table 1.2.

Some Aboriginal placenames, such as Woolloomooloo, Bondi, Coogee, Maroubra, Parramatta and Toongabbie, continued in use, whilst for other locations a placename given by the British colonists has persisted and their Aboriginal name has remained known to only a few local residents, historians, linguists and other researchers. However, in 2005, based on information in Tables 1.1 and 1.2, the NSW Geographical Names Board Dual Naming Project re-introduced Aboriginal placenames to several locations in Port Jackson which since British colonisation had been known only by a British placename (Attenbrow 2006; Jopson 2003; Skelsey 2004; NSW Government Gazette no. 3, 7 January 2005: 40-41).

The Aboriginal placenames around Port Jackson and Botany Bay were recorded at different times over a period of 123 years by a number of people. Except for one placename, the earliest references I found for each of the Aboriginal placenames were in documents dating from 1788 to 1899. After 1899, although numerous lists of placenames were published, only one additional placename is reported for the Port Jackson–Botany Bay area. The documentary sources in which the Aboriginal placenames have been found are discussed below, as well as some of the problems and uncertainties that exist because of their history of recording. All reported placenames have been written as they appear in the sources with their diacritics and no attempt has been made to identify how they should have been written.

Documentary sources

First Fleet officers began recording Aboriginal placenames around Port Jackson and Botany Bay in 1788 – the first year of British colonisation. The recording of other placenames continued, but it appears that the first documented reporting or acknowledgment of an Aboriginal placename for a specific location occurred principally in three periods: from 1788 to 1800, 1828 to 1836, and 1873 to 1899 (Table 1.3, Figure 1.3). However, it should be noted that the date of the first identified written record of a placename is unlikely to be the time when the placename first came into use.

1788–1800: First Fleet records

Just over half the placenames (60) were recorded initially by officers of the First Fleet between 1788 and 1800 during various interactions with the local inhabitants (Table 1.3). Three of the earliest manuscripts that include Aboriginal placenames were written between 1790 and 1792. They contain much information about the Sydney language including extensive vocabularies, an orthography, comments about grammar with examples of short sentences, and people’s names as well as placenames (Figures 1.4 to 1.6). Two of these manuscripts were compiled by Second Lieutenant William Dawes (1790, 1790-17914). His 1790 manuscript also has a rough sketch map on the inside front cover with Aboriginal placenames for several locations near Sydney Cove (Keith Smith in Jopson 2002). The third document (Vocabulary… c.1790-1792) contains word-lists which have been attributed to Governor Arthur Phillip, Captain David Collins and Captain John Hunter (Troy 1993: 45; 1994a: 14-15). Most of the placenames recorded in the period 1788–1800 come from this third document.

Some of the placenames in these three documents are mentioned in other reports, letters and publications of the time: David Collins (1798[1975], 1802[1971]), Governor Arthur Phillip (1790b[1892], 1792[1892], in Hunter 1793[1968]), Daniel Southwell (1788[1893]) and Watkin Tench (1793[1979]). However, Phillip’s report of 2 October 1792 and Southwell’s letter of 12 July 1788 add two further placenames – ‘Toon-gab-be’ west of Parramatta, and ‘Woo-la-ra’ for the area around ‘The Look-out’ on South Head, respectively. Although most of the Aboriginal placenames are reported in word-lists (e.g. Dawes 1790, 1790-1791; Vocabulary … c.1790-1792) or included in descriptions of events of the time (e.g. Collins 1798[1975]; Tench 1793[1979]), a few (Parramatta, Toongabbe, Wooloo Mooloo) were marked on maps as well (e.g. Grimes 1796; Hunter 1796, 1798). These were Aboriginal placenames that had been adopted by the British for their own settlements.

1801–1825: D’Arcy Wentworth and others

The principal written document known for this period is amongst the ‘Papers of D’Arcy Wentworth…’ which have dates ranging from 1801 to 1825. Unfortunately, the list of placenames is undated. The 18 placenames, written on a single page, include seven which were previously recorded (though there are variations in spelling and sometimes in location to earlier reports) as well as eleven new names (Wentworth 1801-1825).

Other people who recorded Aboriginal placenames in this period include Francois Peron (1809: 275) who visited Port Jackson in 1802 with the French Baudin expedition, and the artist Joseph Lycett (1824). Both refer to the location Woolloomooloo – as ‘Wallamoula’ and ‘Wooloomooloo’ respectively. In this period, maps produced by James Meehan, the Assistant Surveyor of Lands (1807, 1811) indicate Aboriginal placenames in the vicinity of Sydney Cove.

Figure 1.4: Example of information recorded in Dawes 1790-1791: 26, including the names of places and Aboriginal people from whom he learnt the Sydney language.

figure0104.jpg

Figure 1.5: List of Aboriginal placenames as recorded in Dawes 1790-1791: 44.

figure0105.jpg

Figure 1.6: List of Aboriginal placenames as recorded in Vocabulary 1790-1792: 37-38.

figure0106.jpg

1828–1836: James Larmer and others

James Larmer is the principal source of Aboriginal placenames for this period. He arrived from England to work with the NSW Surveyor General’s Department in 1829 and retired in 1853. His list of ‘Native names of points of land in Port Jackson’ was reproduced in two typescripts (Larmer 1832[1853]; Stack 1906), and two articles published at the end of the 19th century (Larmer 1832[1898]; Aboriginal Names of Places… 1900). In Table 1.1, to save repetition, references for the 34 placenames in Larmer’s published lists are included for only the 1898 publication, though there are variations in the spelling of some names in each of the documents. In the 1898 version, this is due to damage to the document from which it was copied (which was acknowledged). Other variations are of a nature which suggest they are transcription or typographical errors. Larmer’s published list of 34 placenames included 24 which were not in earlier documents.

Stack (1906: 46, 51–53) includes other placenames which he says were “taken from notes made by Mr Surveyor Larmer in 1833”. Nine of them are in the Port Jackson–Botany Bay area and include the names ‘Coogee’ and ‘Bondi’, which also appear in Larmer’s fieldbook sketches as ‘Great Coogee’ and ‘Bondi Bay’ (Larmer 1829: 58, 64). ‘Wolomoloo’ also appears several times on sketch plans in Larmer’s 1830 fieldbook (p. 8, 16-21) as well as ‘Woolloomoloo Estate’ (p. 67). The names ‘Bondi’/‘Bondi Bay’, ‘Coogee’ and ‘Wolomoloo’ are shown on maps produced in this period – Berni 1828; ‘Map of the Town of Sydney’ 1831 and 1833; Caporn 1836.

Of the 34 placenames in Larmer’s published list, 32 are also documented in the papers of Major T. L. Mitchell (n.d.) with some variations in spelling. A note in the State Records NSW catalogue for Location SZ1002 suggests Mitchell copied Larmer’s list.

Jervis (1945: 399) says Larmer’s 1832 list included the Aboriginal name of Careening Cove as ‘Weeawyai’, as well as ‘Weye Weye’ for Careening Cove Head. However, neither Larmer’s 1832[1898] published list nor the typescripts (Larmer 1832: 36-37; Stack 1906: 49) include ‘Weeawyai’ (only ‘Weye Weye’ as Careening Cove Head). Interestingly, ‘Weeawyai’ is recorded in Mitchell’s list (n.d.: 420) whereas ‘Weye Weye’ is missing. The original of Larmer’s 1832 list was not available at the time of this research.

1854–1870: W. A. Miles and Joules Joubert

Only one previously unrecorded Aboriginal placename was documented in this period. Joules Joubert, a property owner and resident of Hunters Hill, wrote in a letter dated 27 October 1860 that he had “at last found the Native name of the Peninsula … – ‘MocoBoula two waters’”. This is the only document in which this name occurs. The name ‘Coogee’, although used some 20 years earlier by Larmer, appears only now to be acknowledged by W. A. Miles (1854: 41) as an Aboriginal placename.

An undated County of Cumberland Parish Map for Willoughby incorporated Aboriginal placenames from Larmer’s list. Comparison with other dated maps suggests it was made in the 1860s.

1873–1899: Numerous publications

It was not until the end of the 19th century that many more Aboriginal placenames were reported. In contrast to earlier lists, most of which were hand-written manuscripts, these lists are published in journals such as the Town and Country Journal and the Science of Man (later Australasian Anthropological Journal) as well as local newspapers e.g. the Sydney Morning Herald. In this period Larmer’s 1832 list was published in Journal of the Royal Society of NSW (1898). Also, Obed West, a local resident, land-owner and businessman, included Aboriginal placenames in a series of small articles for the Sydney Morning Herald which were subsequently published in booklet form (West n.d.[c.1882]; Marriott 1988: xiv).

Whilst these late 19th century lists repeat placenames given in earlier sources, they include an additional 15 placenames not found in earlier documents, particularly for locations along the ocean coastline between Port Jackson and Botany Bay. Again there are variations in spelling and some uncertain provenances. Several lists and articles were written by the Hon. George Thornton (1892[1893], 1896, 1899), as well as ‘Sydney Cove’ (1878a, 1878b, 1878c) which may have been the pseudonym for Obed West. (Marriott 1988: 21-22). A map produced by W. H. Huntingdon in 1873 is acknowledged as a source of information about Aboriginal placenames in Port Jackson Aboriginal Names (1910), but this map has not been relocated.

Post-1899

Of the many lists of placenames published after 1899, only one additional Aboriginal placename for the coastal Sydney area appears: ‘Mugga’ for Long Bay (Metropolitan district) (Aboriginal Names and Meanings 1911: 214).

Aboriginal sources

None of the authors made direct statements about the source of their information. However, the entries in William Dawes’ manuscripts (1790, 1790-1791) show clearly that he obtained information about the language spoken around Port Jackson direct from conversations with several local Aboriginal people who were frequent visitors to the British settlement. (e.g. Figure 1.4; see Dawes 1790-1791: 808, also 812, 813) These people included Bennelong and his wife Barangaroo, as well as Patyegaráng, a young woman who was Dawes’ chief informant and teacher (Troy 1992).

It is tempting to suggest some of the placenames in the manuscript referred to as Vocabulary… (c.1790-1792) were given to the British colonists by the Aboriginal man called Arabanoo (who the colonists called Manly, until they learnt his name). My speculation is based on a passage written by Watkin Tench for New Years Day 1789:

1st January 1789. To-day being new-year’s-day, most of the officers were invited to the governor’s table: Manly dined heartily on fish and roasted pork;…

To convince his countrymen that he [Arabanoo] had received no injury from us, the governor took him in a boat down the harbour, that they might see and converse with him: … At length they began to converse. Our ignorance of the language prevented us from knowing much of what passed; it was, however, easily understood that his friends asked him why he did not jump overboard, and rejoin them. He only sighed, and pointed to the fetter on his leg, by which he was bound.

In going down the harbour he had described the names by which they distinguish its numerous creeks and headlands: he was now often heard to repeat that of Weè-rong (Sydney), which was doubtless to inform his countrymen of the place of his captivity; and perhaps invite them to rescue him. (Tench 1793: 13[1979: 142]) (my underlining)

Certainly, most placenames recorded in the manuscript are for bays and headlands. Flynn (1997: 28–29) argues on similar grounds that it was Bennelong who told King of the eight placenames between Parramatta and Prospect (nos. 32a–g in Table 1.1, Figure 1.1) as they walked there together in April 1790.

Placenames in publications by the First Fleet officers would have been known to the 19th century sources, though they are unlikely to have known of the manuscripts by Dawes (1790, 1790-1791) and Vocabulary… (c.1790-1792), which probably went back to England with Dawes in 1791 and with another First Fleet officer in 1792 respectively, and were only found in the School of Oriental and African Studies Library in 1972. Larmer’s unpublished and published lists (1832[1853], 1832[1898]; Aboriginal Names of Places… 1900; Stack 1906), acknowledge the Aboriginal origin of the placenames but there are no details about the people who provided information. Larmer would have been amongst the surveyors who, in 1829, were instructed by Major Thomas Mitchell to record Aboriginal placenames, probably in response to a communication of 23 June 1828 from the Colonial Secretary (Havard 1934: 121; Millin 1945: 314). Larmer would have met Aboriginal people as he was surveying the coastline, and he may have seen names on earlier maps. Stack (1906: 46) notes that Larmer “had a wide knowledge of the Aborigines in the Coastal districts in the neighbourhood adjacent to Sydney”.

Of the late 19th century authors, George Thornton and Obed West both mention they had contacts with Aboriginal people (Swancott n.d.: 11; Thornton 1892[1893]: 2, 5, 1896 in Organ 1990: 358; West n.d.[c.1882]: 29). Even though their writings date to the late 19th century, these men lived in Sydney during the early part of the century. George Thornton MLC was born in 1819 and died in 1901. He was a member of a committee that, in 1858, distributed blankets to Aboriginal people in the Sydney area. In the early 1880s he was a councillor of the NSW Aborigines Protection Association and a founding member of the NSW Aborigines Protection Board. Obed West was born in 1807 and died in 1891. He lived in the east Sydney district all his life and wrote several journal and newspaper articles on Sydney’s early history. Huntingdon came to Sydney much later, but was associated with the Rev. William Ridley, a missionary to Aboriginal communities in the Sydney region in the late 1800s (Port Jackson Aboriginal Names 1910: 34; Huntingdon 1911: 167-168). In discussing the origin of the name ‘Woolloomooloo’, Huntingdon (1911: 167) mentioned ‘Ricketty Dick’ as one of the Aboriginal people with whom the ‘old colonists’ spoke. Ricketty Dick, who died in 1863, was a member of a community that lived around Sydney town, Rose Bay and South Head and included Queen Gooseberry (one of Bungaree’s wives) (Jervis and Kelly c.1960: 66-67; Attenbrow 2002: 135).

By 1800, after the original populations were drastically reduced in number, particularly by the ‘smallpox’ epidemic but also other diseases, dispossession and hostilities, there appear to have been few of the original inhabitants of lower Port Jackson living around its shores. Many people in the groups who camped around Port Jackson in the early 1800s were from other areas. For example, Bungaree and his family, who lived on the northern shore of Port Jackson, came from the northern side of Broken Bay, some 35 kilometres to the north. These people from other areas may have learnt the placenames from survivors of the Sydney clans. However, it is also possible that from this time on some Aboriginal placenames recorded for Port Jackson were given by people who did not originally come from the Port Jackson or Botany Bay area, and who perhaps gave locations or localities their own placenames.

The apparent clustering in the recording of placenames in different periods may also be due to the differential survival of written documents, to date. Future researchers may find earlier sources for placenames presently known only in post-1800s documents, as well as finding reports of other placenames.

Problems and uncertainties

Several problems were encountered, particularly when attempting to associate the Aboriginal placenames with specific localities, or in deciding how they should be written down. With regard to the latter, it was decided to include all spelling variations in Tables 1.1, 1.2 and 1.4 as they were written in the sources. Problems and areas of uncertainty arose for a variety of reasons, as outlined below.

  1. 1. Where an Aboriginal placename was recorded several times by different authors, each author often gave a different spelling (e.g. nos. 39, 46, 47, 52, 62, 64 and 77-78 in Table 1.1). This was perhaps due to the recorders’ varying levels of linguistic expertise and experience, to the way individual recorders heard the placenames spoken, or the orthography they used. William Dawes’ orthography in his 1790-1791 manuscript indicates he had some language training.
  2. 2. In some early manuscripts (e.g. Figure 1.5, see Dawes 1790-1791: 817; also 1790: 772 (inside front cover); Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 360; Wentworth 1801-1825) the handwriting is indistinct or illegible, which makes it difficult to determine the spelling of some names; e.g. Table 1.1 nos. 3 and 7, and Table 1.2.
  3. 3. The sketch map on the inside cover of Dawes’ 1790 notebook has seven placenames written on it. Only two of the placenames on the sketch are well-provenanced in other documents (the island marked as ‘Memel’ or ‘Mımıl’, i.e. Goat Island, and ‘Dara’ or ‘Tara’ (Dawes Point). Suggested locations for the other placenames are thus based on comparing the sketch map with other early maps and noting their relative position of other named points of land (Table 1.1 nos. 39, 40, 42, 44, Table 1.2).
  4. 4. A seemingly erroneous association is given between an Aboriginal placename and a British placename, both of which are more securely associated with other locations, e.g. in Wentworth’s 1801-1825 list ‘Warang’ is associated with Rose Bay rather than Sydney Cove (Table 1.4).
  5. 5. The British placename, or description of a location associated with an Aboriginal placename, is ambiguous or not specific enough to identify the exact location to which it belongs (Table 1.2).
  6. 6. Some early British placenames have changed and their current names not yet identified so that the Aboriginal placename cannot be matched to a current place (Figure 1.6, Table 1.2).
  7. 7. More than one location has the same British placename, e.g. ‘Breakfast Point’ (at Mortlake, Balmain and Greenwich) and ‘Long Bay’ (in Middle Harbour and Malabar) (Table 1.1 nos. 10 and 34 respectively).
  8. 8. More than one Aboriginal name was recorded for a location, e.g. ‘Gomora’ and ‘Tumbulong’ for Darling Harbour, and ‘Pannerong’ and ‘Ginnagullah’ for Rose Bay (Table 1.1 nos. 41 and 64 respectively).
  9. 9. Aboriginal names, which may be variant spellings of the same name, are associated with more than one location, e.g. ‘Kayoomay’, ‘Kay-ye-my’ and ‘Kay-yee-my’ with Collins Cove and Manly Bay (Table 1.1 no. 4).
  10. 10.  Variations in spelling due to transcription or typographical errors during copying and publishing, e.g. in the various versions of Larmer’s list (1832[1853], 1832[1898], Aboriginal Names of Places… 1900; Stack 1906; and Mitchell n.d.). In Larmer’s 1832[1898] published version, it is noted that the copy from which they were transcribing was damaged and some names were incomplete; this may be the reason for ‘Yarrandab’ for Macleay Point in the 1898 version but ‘Yarrandabby’ elsewhere, as it is listed in Larmer’s unpublished 1832[1853] typescript as ‘Yarrandabby’ (Table 1.1 no. 57). However, for other placenames, variations may be due to transcription errors. ‘Givea’ given as the name for the south head of Botany Bay in Stack (1906: 52) may be mis-copying of ‘Gwea’, i.e. ‘iv’ for ‘w’ (Table 1.1 no. 88), which Collins (1798[1975]: 453) said was the name for the southern shore of Botany Bay, and today is usually accepted as the country of a clan, the Gweagal.
  11. 11.  Incorrect recollections by an author, particularly the late 19th century authors, e.g. the north head of Botany Bay is given as ‘Bunnabee’ by Larmer (in Stack 1906: 52) but as ‘Bunnabi’, ‘Bunnabee’ and ‘Bunnabri’ at different times by Thornton (1892[1893]: 7, 1896 in Organ 1990: 358, and 1899: 210 respectively) (Table 1.1 no. 81). Similarly, are ‘Yaranabe’ and ‘Eurambie’ incorrect recollections of ‘Yarrandabby’, although the former two names were recorded as the placename for Darling Point, and the latter for Macleay Point (Table 1.1 nos. 59 and 57 respectively).

Tables 1.1, 1.2 and 1.4 include all placenames, variations in spellings and locations that I found in documents that date from 1788 to 1850, but only the first occurrence of additional placenames in later documents up to and including 1911. Issues relating to some individual placenames are discussed below (the number beside the name indicates the location number in Table 1.1 and on Figures 1 and 2).

Booridiow-o-gule (34)

‘Booridiow-o-gule’ is associated with Breakfast Point in Vocabulary… (c.1790-1792: 362) (Figure 1.6) which may be present-day Breakfast Point at Mortlake on the Parramatta River, but could also be Yurulbin (present-day Longnose Point, Birchgrove) or Greenwich Point. Bradley (1786-1792[1969]: 76) referred to a point where breakfast was cooked during a survey of the upper part of Port Jackson on 5 February 1788 as Breakfast Point; the index to the facsimile edition suggests the point was “Long Nose Point” [sic] in Port Jackson (Bradley 1786-1792[1969]: 462). However, Breakfast Point is also marked as the name of Greenwich Point on an 1827 ‘Chart of part of New South Wales’ by Joseph Cross (Russell 1970: 49).

Cooroowal (11)

In 1899 ‘Cooroowal’ was listed as the Aboriginal name for a place called ‘Fig Tree Point’ (Thornton 1899: 210). Later, it was listed against ‘Fig Tree Point, Middle Harbour’, without explanation (Aboriginal names… 1908: 128). However, it is also possible that ‘Fig Tree Point’ as listed by Thornton referred to Sommerville Point, Balmain, which earlier on was also called ‘Figtree Point’ (Millin 1945: 323). ‘Cooroowal’ could even be outside the Sydney region as the 1899 and later lists included placenames that were in the Illawarra region as well as the Sydney region. Confusingly, in Aboriginal names… (1910: 137) it is listed as “Cooroowal (wild fig tree), Fig-tree Point (Middle Harbour), Wollongong”, but this list also has Wollongong beside the names Cubba Cubbi (Middle Head) and Currungli (Spring Cove) which are definitely Port Jackson names/places.

Gomora (41)

‘Gomora’ was recorded as the Aboriginal placename for Long Cove in Vocabulary… (c.1790-1792: 362). David Collins’ (1798[1975]: 17, 194) descriptions suggest ‘Long Cove’ was the name for Darling Harbour up to September 1792 at least, and Port Jackson Aboriginal names (1910: 35) says Darling Harbour’s “original names were Long Cove and Cockle Harbor”.5

By the 1840s ‘Long Cove’ was the name of present-day Iron Cove (maps by W. Meadows-Brownrigg c.1846-1851 and James Willis 1868, reproduced in Kelly and Crocker 1977: 26-28). On these maps Darling Harbour is marked as Darling Harbour. In 1945 Millin (1945: 323) said that “Iron Cove is sometimes called Long Cove” (see also Jervis 1945: 394). It seems most likely that ‘Gomora’ was the name for present-day Darling Harbour (which had several name changes), rather than Iron Cove as I suggested in Attenbrow 2002: Table 2.1.

Gurugal (14)

Larmer (1832[1898: 229]) and Mitchell (n.d.: 420) listed ‘Gurugal’ and ‘Gurrugal’ respectively as the name for a location called ‘West Head’. Today, the name ‘West Head’ makes one think of West Head in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park overlooking Broken Bay, which is associated with the name ‘Garigal’. However, in these 19th century sources the name is firmly listed as a place in Port Jackson. It is unlikely that ‘Gurugal’ is a different spelling of the name Dawes (1790–1791: 817) and Vocabulary… (c.1790–1792: 361) record for ‘Inner North Head’ – i.e. ‘Garangal’ and ‘Car-rang-gel’ respectively (as suggested in Attenbrow 2002: Table 2.1), as they are probably different phonologically (Koch pers. comm. 2006).

Millen (1945: 332) has ‘Gurugal’ as the name for Chowder Head, and in the context of other headlands at the mouth of Port Jackson being called ‘North’, ‘South’ and ‘Middle Head’, it is possible that ‘West Head’ was an earlier name for Chowder Head, as it is ‘west’ of the others. Millen notes that Georges Head was already named by 1801, so in 1832 if Larmer knew ‘Gurugal’ was the name for Georges Head he would have listed it as such and not as ‘West Head’. A County of Cumberland parish map possibly dating to the 1860s, which includes Larmer’s Aboriginal placenames, has the name ‘Gurugal’ adjacent to Chowder Head.

Kaneagáng and Kowang, and other placenames on Dawes’ 1790 sketch map

Seven placenames are written on the sketch map on the inside cover of Dawes’ 1790 notebook, only two of which are well-provenanced in other documents: the island marked as ‘Memel’ or ‘Mımıl’, i.e. Goat Island, and ‘Dara’ or ‘Tara’ (Dawes Point) (Dawes 1790: 727 reported by Keith Smith in Jopson 2002). The map has neither a north point nor a scale. By comparing the sketch map with other early maps and noting the relative position of the named points of land, quite definite associations can be made (e.g. Table 1.1 nos. 40, 42 and 44, even if the latter name is difficult to read). The other two placenames ‘Kaneagáng’ and ‘Kowang’ are less certain and are thus listed in Table 1.2.

Kayyeemy, Kayyemy and Kayoomay (4)

The actual locations associated with both of these placenames are much debated. Early documents and maps are not consistent or specific enough in their locational details to say which of the bays in North Harbour was originally called ‘Collins Cove’ and which was originally ‘Manly Bay’. It thus cannot be said with certainty which of the bays were called ‘Kayoomay’ and ‘Kayyemy’, or whether the latter name was used to refer to the whole of North Harbour.

Both ‘Kayoomay’ (as Collins Cove) and ‘Kay-ye-my’ (as Manly Bay) are listed on the same page in Vocabulary… (c.1790-1792: 362) (Figure 1.6). Phillip (in Hunter 1793[1968]: 466) states that “the place where the Governor was wounded”, i.e. where he was speared in September 1790 was ‘Kay-yee-my’. This comment taken together with a description of events that took place at Manly Bay (p. 459) indicates ‘Kay-yee-my’ was the name for Manly Bay. Other writers of this time, however, refer to the place where Phillip was speared as Collins Cove (Bradley 1786–1792[1969]: 225-226) or Manly Cove (Tench 1793[1979]: 176-177). This suggests there was either confusion over the exact place where Phillip was speared, or confusion/indecision at the time as to what the different bays in North Harbour were to be called. Early maps vary in the placement of the names of Collins Cove, Manly Cove and Manly Bay (e.g. Hunter 1788a, 1788b; Grimes 1796; and Freycinet 1802 in Swancott n.d.: 10-11).

Local historians Shelagh and George Champion (1993) concluded from their research that Phillip was speared in present-day Manly Cove. Accordingly, Manly Cove could be either ‘Kayoomay’ or ‘Kayyeemy’/‘Kayyemy’, or both. After 1788, the whole of North Harbour was referred to as Manly Bay, which suggests the name ‘Kayyeemy’ could equally have been the name for North Harbour.

Kogerrah (58)

‘Kogerrah’ is listed as the placename for Rushcutters Bay in ‘Port Jackson Aboriginal Names’ (1910: 35), for which the source was W. H. Huntingdon’s 1873 map. West (n.d.[c.1882]: 22) also said the name for Rushcutters Bay was “Kogerah”, adding that it was “a name also applied to a place near George’s River”.

Kudgee, Coojee, Kooja, Koojah or Bobroi (77 and 78)

Sources which acknowledge an Aboriginal origin for the name ‘Coogee’ and situate it in present-day Coogee Bay are, except for Miles (1854: 41), late 19th century or later; they give the name as ‘Kudgee’, ‘Kooja’, ‘Koojah’ or ‘Coojee’. Local resident Obed West, however, was adamant that the name ‘Coogee’ belonged to Gordons Bay and that the Aboriginal name for present-day Coogee Bay was ‘Bobroi’. (West n.d.[c.1882]: 28)

Miles (1854: 41) simply said it was “a small bay between the large bays of Port Jackson and Botany Bay called by the natives ‘Kudgee’ or ‘Coojee’”. However, a yet earlier use of the name on a sketch plan in Larmer’s fieldbook (Larmer 1829: 58), without referring to an Aboriginal origin for the name, shows present-day Coogee Bay as ‘Great Coogee’. Maps dating from at least the 1850s to 1885 mark Clovelly Bay as ‘Little Coogee Bay’ (Kelly and Crocker 1977: 25, 28, 34, 40; see also discussion in Lynch and Larcombe 1976: 13-16).

Maroubra (79)

In late 18th century documents, Vocabulary… (c.1790-1792: 348) listed ‘Mo-roo-berra’ as “a natives name”, Southwell (1788[1893: 697]) gave ‘Moo-roo-bărah’ as a “Man’s Name”, and Collins (1798[1975: 489, 492]) referred to a man called ‘Mo-roo-ber-ra’ in discussing ritual combats. None of these authors referred to the man’s status or country.

It is not until the late 19th century that it is referred to as a placename, using several different spellings, e.g. “Maroubra or Merooberah” (Larmer 1833 in Stack 1906: 52), ‘Mooroobra’ (‘Sydney Cove’ 1878b), ‘Maroobera’ (Thornton 1892[1893]: 7) and ‘Merooberah’ (Thornton 1896 in Organ 1990: 358, 1899: 210). These 19th century placename lists vary in their descriptions:

  • • in 1878 ‘Sydney Cove’ reported that ‘Mooroobra’ was “The name of the chief of the tribe who lived at that spot (just south of Coogee)”;
  • • in 1892, George Thornton gave a similar description: “another chief of a tribe a little south of Coogee was called ‘Maroobera’, and the beach is still called so after him”;
  • • in 1896, Thornton (in Organ 1990: 358) described ‘Merooberah’ as being “the native name of a pretty sandy beach a few miles south of ‘Koojah’, that being the name of a tribe and also their chief, who inhabited that particular locality”;
  • • in 1899, Thornton (p. 210) said ‘Merooberah’ was “A pretty sandy beach south of Kooja. The beach was named after the tribe which inhabited that particular place”.

The name ‘Maroubra’, in its various early spellings, thus changed from being simply the name of a man, to a place named after a chief of a ‘tribe’, and finally a place named after the name of the ‘tribe’. In other parts of Australia it is common for a person to have a personal name which is also a placename which they share with others; in those contexts, the name is not necessarily the name of a clan that is a land-owning group. The late 19th century changes in the origin of ‘Maroubra’ as a placename may reflect embellishment of the explanation for the origin of the placename over time. However, comments and spellings in Thornton’s later writings suggest he was prone to speculation and may have had a ‘bad memory’ in some cases.

Mugga for Long Bay – Middle Harbour or Malabar (10)

In 1911 ‘Mugga’ was listed as the Aboriginal placename for “Long Bay, Metropolitan district” (Aboriginal names and meanings 1911: 214). In her local history of Northbridge, Leslie (1988: 20) wrote that the Aborigines called Long Bay in Middle Harbour ‘Mugga’. However, it is possible that Aboriginal names and meanings refers to Long Bay at Malabar on the coast between Maroubra and Cape Banks, as this list includes placenames from all over New South Wales with only one other coastal Sydney name – nearby Maroubra Bay. However, an earlier source (West n.d.[c.1882]: 29), gives ‘Boora’ as the Aboriginal placename for Long Bay which he says is between Maroubra Bay and Little Bay.

Pannerong, Bungarong, Ginnagullah or Warang for Rose Bay (64)

The Aboriginal placename for Rose Bay was recorded initially as ‘Pannerong’ (Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362) and ‘Pannerrong’ (Collins 1798[1975]: 489-490). Wentworth’s later 1801-1825 list has ‘Bungarong’ against Point Piper, the western headland of Rose Bay. Much later, towards the end of the 19th century, ‘Ginnagullah’ is reported as the Aboriginal name for Rose Bay (Huntingdon 1873 chart in Port Jackson Aboriginal names 1910: 35).

The placename ‘Warang’ against Rose Bay in Wentworth (1801-1825) would seem to be an error, given the spelling is essentially the same as some versions of the name recorded for Sydney Cove (Table 1.1 no. 46).

Tubowgule, Toobowgulie, Tobegully, Jubughalee and Jubùghallee (47)

The 1790s and 1807 sources for the name of Bennelong Point, whilst varying in spelling, all have a ‘T’ at the beginning of the name. Larmer’s 1832 spelling with a ‘J’ is probably his adoption of a different letter of the alphabet for the Aboriginal sound ‘dj’ (Troy 1994a: 23-27).

‘Jubagulla’ written against Dawes Battery in Wentworth’s (1801-1825) list appears to be an error. However, it may not be. In addition to the battery on the west side of the cove, Dawes was in charge of constructing a small redoubt on the east side of Sydney Cove which stood from 1788 to 1791, and then in the early 1800s a second battery was built on what is now called ‘’Bennelong Point’ (McGuanne 1901: 10; see also Watson 1918: 384). Wentworth may thus have been referring to ‘Dawes Battery’ on Bennelong Point.

Wareamah or Biloela for Cockatoo Island (37)

Vocabulary… (c.1790-1792: 361) lists the placename for Cockatoo Island as ‘Wareamah’. The name ‘Biloelo’ or ‘Biloela’, which has been cited by some (Millin 1945: 336) as the Aboriginal name for Cockatoo Island, has not been included in Table 1.1. ‘Biloela’ was the name given to the Public Industrial School and Reformatory for Girls established on Cockatoo Island in 1871 (Jervis 1945: 402; State Records NSW 2006). In reporting this, Jervis suggests that, although biloela was an Aboriginal word meaning ‘cockatoo’, it was taken from the Rev. Ridley’s book on Kamilaroi language6 and was not a coastal Sydney word.

Willárrá, Woo-lā-ră or Bungarung for Point Piper (62)

Larmer (1832: 35, 1832[1898: 228]) reported the Aboriginal name for Point Piper as ‘Willárrá’. Earlier, Wentworth (1801-1825) had listed ‘Bungarong’ against Point Piper. However, ‘Pannerong’, probably a variation in writing ‘Bungarung’, was recorded more than 100 years earlier in Vocabulary… (c.1790-1792: 362) and Collins (1798[1975]: 489-490) as the name for Rose Bay. Point Piper is part of the western headland of Rose Bay, which may be the reason for Wentworth’s association.

The name ‘Willárrá’, if a written variant of ‘Woo-lā-ră’, may have referred to a larger area than just Point Piper (Watson 1918: 374), as the latter (Woo-lā-ră) was recorded as the name for ‘The Look-out’ (Southwell 1788[1893: 699] which was at Outer South Head (Bradley 1786-1792[1969]: Chart 6), known today as Dunbar Head.

Conclusions

For Port Jackson, Botany Bay and in the intervening coastline, more than 100 Aboriginal placenames were recorded between 1788 and 1911 in a wide range of documents. For many of the placenames, the association between the name and a location known today by a British placename is clear and unambiguous. For other placenames, however, an association with a specific location and/or its spelling is less clear, ambiguous or in some cases unknown. These problems and uncertainties arise for a variety of reasons, and in many cases are unlikely to be solved. Variations in spelling a placename probably occurred because of the First Fleet authors’ lack of understanding of the sound system of Aboriginal languages or the general lack of linguistic training of most. However, the late 19th and 20th century authors also often provide slightly different spellings and sometimes slightly different locations to the earlier writers, but provide no reasons for the alternative spellings or locations they use. The alternative spellings may be different interpretations or mis-readings of original hand-written lists by either the authors or the publishers, or typographical errors. Incorrect recollections may also account for some variations in spelling and location, particularly where the placenames are reported in the reminiscences of late 19th and 20th century authors.

Over half the Aboriginal placenames were recorded in the period 1788-1800, but previously undocumented names continued to be reported until the end of the 19th century. From documents found to date, it appears that there were three main periods when Aboriginal placenames for Port Jackson and Botany Bay were documented: 1788-1800, 1828-1836 and 1873-1899, with much smaller numbers reported in the intervening periods, and only one after 1900. Whether the placenames recorded in the periods after 1800 were names used by the pre-1788 inhabitants of the region, or names introduced by people who came in from neighbouring regions is not stated anywhere but is a possibility. Research by others no doubt will in time add further sources with Aboriginal placenames around Port Jackson and Botany Bay. These may include additional placenames, earlier use or recording of presently known placenames, and more certain information about the Aboriginal people from whom the placenames were initially obtained.

Acknowledgements

Many thanks to Harold Koch and Sarah Colley for helpful comments and discussion, as well as to Flavia Hodges, Susan Poetsch and other members of the Australian National Placenames Survey, and Greg Windsor of the Geographical Names Board of NSW for inviting me to participate in ‘Australian Place Names: An Interdisciplinary Colloquium’ in 2002 and the 2003 Dual Naming Workshop. I also wish to thank Susannah Rayner, Head of Archives and Special Collections at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, and photographer Glenn Ratcliffe for facilitating a speedy delivery of the images of pages from the Dawes manuscript.

Table 1.1: Aboriginal placenames around Port Jackson and Botany Bay from historical sources. See Figures 1.1 and 1.2 for locations. [All variations in spellings and locations in documents dating up to 1855 are included; only previously unreported placenames with sources and other selected placenames are included from post-1850s documents. Diacritics are as written in original sources. Letters in square brackets with a question mark were written unclearly; words/letters in square brackets are my suggestions for illegible or omitted words or letters.]

No on FIG. 1.1

NAME – ABORIGINAL

NAME – PRESENT

REFERENCE

NAME/LOCATION – IN SOURCE

1

Bora

North Head – outer

Wentworth 1801–1825

North Head

1

Boree

North Head – outer

‘Sydney Cove’ 1878c: 641

North Head (Sydney Harbour)

2

Garangal

North Head – inner

Dawes 1790-1791: 817

N[orth] do [Head]

2

Car-rang-gel

North Head – inner

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

North Head

2

Carrangle

North Head – inner

Wentworth 1801–1825

Quarantine Ground

3

Biri[mbinne ?] [writing illegible]

Collins Beach

Wentworth 1801–1825

Collins Flat

4

Kayoo-may

Manly Cove [see text]

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362

Collins Cove

4

Kay-ye-my

Manly Cove or North Harbour [see text]

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362

Manly Bay

4

Kay-yee-my

Manly Cove or North Harbour [see text]

Phillip in Hunter 1793[1968]: 459, 466

Manly Bay; ‘The place where the Governor was wounded’ [in September 1790]

5

Canna

North Harbour

Wentworth 1801–1825

Manly Beach

5

Kun’-ná

North Harbour

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

North Harbour

5

Kunnà

North Harbour

Mitchell n.d.: 420

North Harbour

5

Cannae

North Harbour

Huntington 1873 map referred to in Port Jackson Aboriginal Names 1910: 35

Manly Beach

6

Jilling

Balgowlah

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Fincham’s, North Harbour or Balgowlah Township

6

Jilling

Balgowlah

Mitchell n.d.: 420

Balgowla Township

7

No[m?]ble [writing illegible]

Middle Harbour

Wentworth 1801–1825

Middle Harbour

7

Warrin gá

Middle Harbour

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Middle Harbour

7

Warringà

Middle Harbour

Mitchell n.d.: 420

Middle Harbour

8

Burra-brú

The Spit, Middle Harbour

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

The Spit, Middle Harbour

8

Burrabru

The Spit

Mitchell n.d.: 420

The Spit

9

Parriwi

Parriwi Head, The Spit

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Point East of Spit

9

Parriwi

Parriwi Head, The Spit

Mitchell n.d.: 420

Pt East of Spit

10

Mugga

Long Bay, Middle Harbour (or possibly Long Bay, Malabar [see text])

Aboriginal Names and Meanings 1911: 214

Long Bay (Metropolitan District)

11

Cooroowal

Fig Tree Point in Long Bay, Middle Harbour (or possibly Somerville Point, Balmain; or Wollongong area [see text])

Thornton 1899: 210

Fig Tree Point

12

Kuba Kaba

Middle Head

Dawes 1790-1791: 817

Middle H[ead]

12

Caba-caba

Middle Head

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

Middle Do [Head]

12

Cā-ba Cā-ba

Middle Head

Collins 1798[1975]: 513

The middle head of Port Jackson

13

Koreé

Chowder Bay

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Chowder Bay

13

Koree

Chowder Bay

Mitchell n.d.: 420

Chouder [sic]

14

Gurugal

Chowder Head [see text]

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

West Head

14

Gurrugal

Chowder Head [see text]

Mitchell n.d.: 420

West Head

14

Gurugal

Chowder Head [see text]

County of Cumberland Parish map, Willoughby, n.d. [probably 1860s]

Gurugal inserted on map adjacent to Chowder Head

15

Taliangy

Between Bradleys Head and Middle Head

Dawes 1790-1791: 817

[?? illegible] water (on list between Bradley’s Point and Middle Head)

15

Tal-le-ongi-i

Between Bradleys Head and Middle Head

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362

Bradley Point

16

Booragy

Bradleys Head

Dawes 1790-1791: 817

Bradley’s Point

16

Búrroggy

Bradleys Head

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Bradley’s Head

16

Burròggy or Broggy

Bradleys Head

Mitchell n.d.: 420

Bradley’s Point

17

Goram bullagong

Mosman Bay

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Mossmans Whaling Establishment Sirius Cove

17

Gorambùllagong

Mosman Bay

Mitchell n.d.: 420

Mossmans Whaling Estt

18

Wulworrá-jeung

Robertsons Point

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Robertson’s Point

19

Kurrá bá

Kurraba Point

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Point west of Robertsons

19

Kurrábá

Kurraba Point

Mitchell n.d.: 420

Point West of Robertsons Point

20

Wurru-birri

Kurraba Point western side

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

McLarens Store

21

Wéyé Wéyé

Careening Cove, head of

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Careening Cove Head

21

Weeawya

Careening Cove

Mitchell n.d.: 420

Careening Cove

22

Wudyong

Wudyong Point

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Point east of Milsons

22

Wudyong

Wudyong Point

Mitchell n.d.: 420

Point east of Milsons

23

Ciar Billie

Kirribilli Point

Lycett 1824: Plate 3 caption

the one next above that [i.e. Bradley’s Head, as looking west]

23

Kiarabilli

Milsons Point–Kirribilli

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Milson’s Point

23

Kiarabily

Milsons Point–Kirribilli

Mitchell n.d.: 420

Milsons Point

24

Quibéreé

Lavender Bay

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Hulk Bay

24

Quiberee

Lavender Bay

Mitchell n.d.: 420

Hulk Bay

25

Warung áréá

Blues Point

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Billy Blues Point

25

Warrungarea

Blues Point

Mitchell n.d.: 420

Billy Blues Point

26

Turramurra

Lane Cove district

Larmer 1832–1833 in Stack 1906: 53

Turramurra – Big Hill – Lane Cove district

27

Turranburra

Lane Cove River

Thornton 1899: 210

Lane Cove River

28

Moco Boula

Hunters Hill–Woolwich peninsula

Joules Joubert 27 October 1860

Native name of the Peninsula beginning at the mouth of the Lane Cove River

29

Mar-ray-mah

Charity Point, Meadowbank

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362

Dinner Point

30

Paramatín

Parramatta

Dawes 1790-1791: 806, 808

Translated as ‘from Parramatta’ in short sentences

30

Para-matta

Parramatta

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 360

Rose Hill

30

Parramatta

Parramatta

Phillip 13 February 1790b[1892: 309]

‘Rose Hill which the natives call Parramatta’

30

Parramatta

Parramatta

Phillip in Hunter 1793[1968: 531]

Parramatta; ‘the name given by the natives to the spot on which the town was building’

30

Par-ra-màt-ta

Parramatta

Tench 1793: 132 [1979: 239, n2, 325]

‘the name of the settlement at the head of the harbour’ … … ‘Par-ra-màt-ta the native name of it’

30

Parramatta

Parramatta

Hunter 1796 and 1798 maps

Parramatta marked on map in its present location

30

Par-ra-mat-ta

Parramatta

Collins 1798[1975]: 137

‘Par-ra-mat-ta being the name by which the natives distinguished the part of the country on which the town stood’

31

Toon-gab-be

Toongabbie

Phillip 2 October 1792[1892: 645]

3 miles to the westward of Parramatta

31

Toongabbee

Toongabbie

Grimes 1796 map

Toongabbee marked on map near Prospect Hill; at start (SE end) of Road to the Hawkesbury

31

Toongabbe

Toongabbie

Hunter 1796 and 1798 maps

Toongabbee marked on map near Prospect Hill

31

Toongabbie

Toongabbie

Collins 1798[1975]: 189

the settlements beyond Parramatta (… distinguished by the name of Toongabbie)

32a

Wau-maille / War-mul

To the west of Parramatta

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 360

‘In going to the westward from Rose Hill, you walk in ten minutes to …’

32b

Malgray-matta / Mal-gra-mattar

To the west of Parramatta

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 360

‘In going to the westward from Rose Hill, you walk … in nineteen [minutes] to …’

32c

Era-worong / A-rar-woo-rung

To the west of Parramatta

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 360

‘In going to the westward from Rose Hill, you walk … in seven [minutes] to …’

32d

Carra-matta / Car-rar-mattar

To the west of Parramatta

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 360

‘In going to the westward from Rose Hill, you walk … in eighteen [minutes] to …’

32e

Boolbane-matta / Bul-barn-mattar

To the west of Parramatta

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 360

‘In going to the westward from Rose Hill, you walk … in five [minutes] to …’

32f

Carro-wotong / Kar-rar-wo-tong

To the west of Parramatta

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 360

‘In going to the westward from Rose Hill, you walk … in twenty-nine [minutes] to …’

32g

Mar-rong / Mararong

Prospect

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 360

‘In going to the westward from Rose Hill, you walk … in seventeen [minutes] to Mararong – Prospect Hill’

33

Arrowanelly

Homebush Bay – originally an island on western side near mouth but now joined to river bank

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 360

Island at the Flats

34

Booridiow-o-gule

Breakfast Point, Mortlake (or possibly Yurulbin [Longnose Point, Balmain] or Greenwich Point [see text])

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362

Breakfast Point

35

Gong-ul

Spectacle Island

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

8th or Spectacle Island

36

Ar-ra-re-agon

Snapper Island

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

7th island

37

Wa-rea-mah

Cockatoo Island

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

6th or Cockatoo Island

38

Yerroulbin

Yurulbin (Longnose Point prior 1994)

Larmer 1832[1898: 228]

Long Nose Point

38

Yerroulbine

Yurulbin (Longnose Point prior 1994)

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Long Nose Point

39

Memel (or Mımıl)

Goat Island

Dawes 1790: 727 (inside front cover) reported by Keith Smith in Jopson 2002

Memel (or Mııil) is written on a rough sketch map inside an island

39

Me-mil

Goat Island

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

5th island

39

Memill

Goat Island

Phillip in Hunter 1793[1968]: 470

Memilla (at Memill)

39

Me-mel

Goat Island

Collins 1798[1975]: 497

Goat Island

39

Milmil

Goat Island

Larmer 1832[1898: 228]

Goat Island

39

Milmil

Goat Island

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Goat Island

40

Wari wal

South-western end of Goat Island

Dawes 1790: 727 (inside front cover) reported by Keith Smith in Jopson 2002

Wari wal is written on a rough sketch map adjacent to the south-western end of Memel/Mımıl [Goat Island]

41

Go-mo-ra [see text]

Darling Harbour

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362

Long Cove

Tumbulong

Darling Harbour

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Darling Harbour

Tumbulong

Darling Harbour

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Darling Harbour

42

Coodye

Millers Point

Larmer 1832[1898: 228]

Jack the Millers Point

42

Coodye

Millers Point

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Jack the Millers Point

42

Ilkan máladál

Millers Point ?

Dawes 1790: 727 (inside front cover) reported by Keith Smith in Jopson 2002

Ilkan máladál is written on a rough sketch map adjacent to what could be Millers Point

43

Tara (or Dara)

Dawes Point

Dawes 1790: 727 (inside front cover) reported by Keith Smith in Jopson 2002

Tara (or Dara) is written on a rough sketch map on a point of land that suggests it is Dawes Point

43

Tar-ra

Dawes Point

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362

Do Do [Sydney Cove] W Point

43

Tarra

Dawes Point

Meehan 1807 and 1811 (maps)

Tarra is inserted on northern side of Campbells Cove on western side of Sydney Cove

43

Tárrá

Dawes Point

Larmer 1832[1898: 228]

Slaughter House Point

43

Tarra

Dawes Point

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Slaughter House Point

44

Melia-Wool

Campbells Cove ?

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362

A small cove within [presumed within Sydney Cove]

44

Lin...?…noor? [writing illegible]

Campbells Cove ?

Dawes 1790: 727 (inside front cover) reported by Keith Smith in Jopson 2002 as Lineagirnoor

This name is written on a rough sketch map in a relationship to Tara that suggests it is Campbell’s Cove

45

Talla-wo-la-dah

The Rocks – west side of Sydney Cove

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362

Where the hospital stands

46

War-ran

Sydney Cove

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 352

‘War-ran-jam-ora’ translated as ‘I am in Sydney Cove’

46

War-ran

Sydney Cove

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

Sydney Cove

46

Weé-rong

Sydney Cove

Tench 1793[1979: 142]

Sydney

46

Warrane

Sydney Cove

King in Hunter 1793[1968]: 412

Sydney Cove

46

Warrang

Sydney Cove

Meehan 1807 and 1811 (maps)

Sydney Cove

47

Tu-bow-gule

Bennelong Point

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362

Sydney Cove E Point

47

Tubow-gule

Bennelong Point

Phillip in Hunter 1793[1968: 476, 487]

The eastern point of the cove [Sydney Cove]

47

Too-bow-gu-liè

Bennelong Point

Collins 1798[1975]: 492–3

The point [near First Govt House]

47

Tobegully

Bennelong Point

Meehan 1807 and 1811 (maps)

On map name is placed on western shore of Farm Cove

47

Jubughalee

Bennelong Point

Larmer 1832[1898: 228]

Bennelong Point

47

Jubùghallee

Bennelong Point

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Bennelong Point

48

Woggan-ma-gule

Farm Cove

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

Farm Cove

48

Woccanmagully

Farm Cove

Meehan 1807 and 1811 (maps)

Marked on map in Farm Cove

49

Cockaroo

Royal Botanic Gardens

Wentworth 1801–1825

Government garden

49

Cookaroo

Farm Cove Beach

Thornton 1899: 210

Farm Cove Beach

50

Yu-ron

Mrs Macquaries Point

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

East bank of do [Farm Cove]

50

Yurong

Mrs Macquaries Point

Meehan 1807 and 1811 maps

Name placed on peninsula on map

50

Urong

Mrs Macquaries Point

Wentworth 1801–1825

Lady Macquarie’s chair

50

Yourong

Mrs Macquaries Point

Larmer 1832[1898: 228]

Mrs Macquarie’s Point

50

Yurong

Mrs Macquaries Point

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Mrs Macquaries Pt

51

Mat-te-wan-ye

Fort Denison, Pinchgut Island

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

4th or Rock Island

51

Mat-te-wan-ye

Fort Denison, Pinchgut Island

Collins 1802[1971: 10]

‘The small island which is situated in the middle of the harbour, and named by the natives’

51

Mattewai

Fort Denison, Pinchgut Island

Larmer 1832–1833 in Stack 1906: 51

Pinch Gut Island

52

Walla-mool

Woolloomooloo Bay

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

Cove next to Farm Cove

52

Wooloo Mooloo

Woolloomooloo

Hunter 1796 map

Name inserted on map on land adjacent to Farm Cove

52

Walloomooloo Bay

Woolloomooloo Bay

Meehan 1808 and 1811 maps

Name marked in bay

52

Wallamoula

Woolloomooloo

Peron 1809: 275

‘Not far from a contiguous creek, a spot which the natives call Wallamoula, is the charming habitation of Mr Palmer, the commissary general’

52

Wooloomooloo

Woolloomooloo

Lycett 1824: Plate 4 text

Half a mile from the town of Sydney, to the south-east of Government House

52

Wolomoloo

Woolloomooloo

Larmer 1830: 8, 16, 18–21

Names marked on sketch plans as ‘Wolomoloo’, ‘Wolomoloo Estate’, ‘Wolomoloo Bay’

52

Wolomoloo

Woolloomooloo

Caporn 1836 map

Name inserted on map east of Hyde Park

52

Wolomoloo

Woolloomooloo

Map of the Town of Sydney 1831 and 1833

Name marked on map east of Hyde Park

53

Ba-ing-hoe

Garden Island

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

3rd or Garden Island

54

Derawun

Potts Point

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

East point of do [ie cove next to Farm Cove]

55

Carraginn

Elizabeth Bay

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

Next cove [cove next to cove next to Farm Cove]

56

Jerrowan

Elizabeth Point

Larmer 1832[1898: 228]

Elizabeth Point

56

Jèrrowan

Elizabeth Point

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Elizabeth Point

57

Yarrandab [see text]

Macleay Point

Larmer 1832[1898: 228]

Mr McLeay’s Point

57

Yarrandabby

Macleay Point

Larmer 1832[1953: 35]

Mr McLeays Point

57

Yarrandabby

Macleay Point

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Mr McLeay’s Point

58

Kogerrah

Rushcutters Bay

Huntington 1873 chart referred to in Port Jackson Aboriginal names 1910: 35

Rushcutter Bay

58

Kogerah

Rushcutters Bay

West n.d.[c.1882]: 22

Rushcutter Bay

59

Yaranabe

Darling Point [see text]

‘Sydney Cove’ 1878a: 545

Darling Point

59

Eurambie

Darling Point [see text]

Thornton 1899: 210

Darling Point

60

Dienda gella

Double Bay

Wentworth 1801–1825

Double Bay

61

Be-lang-le-wool

Clarke Island

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

2nd do [island coming up the harbour]

61

Billong-ololah

Clarke Island

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Clark [sic] Island

61

Billòng-olòla

Clarke Island

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Clark [sic] Island

62

Willárrá

Point Piper [see text]

Larmer 1832[1898: 228]

Point Piper

62

Wallàra

Point Piper

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Point Piper

63

Bo-a-millie

Shark Island

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

1st island coming up the harbour

63

Boam bill-… [word incomplete – mutilated in binding]

Shark Island

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Shark Island

63

Boam billy

Shark Island

Larmer 1832 in Stack 1906: 49

Shark Island

63

Boambilly

Shark Island

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Shark Island

64

Pannerong

Rose Bay

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362

Rose Bay

64

Pan-ner-rong

Rose Bay

Collins 1798[1975]: 489–490

Rose Bay

64

Bungarong

Rose Bay [see text]

Wentworth 1801–1825

Point Piper

64

Pan-Ner-Rong

Rose Bay

Larmer 1832–1833 in Stack 1906: 51

Rose Bay

64

Ginnagullah

Rose Bay [see text]

Huntington 1873 chart referred to in Port Jackson Aboriginal names 1910: 35

Rose Bay

65

Burrowwo

Steel Point (Shark Point)

Larmer 1832[1898: 228]

Rocky Point (South of Vaucluse)

65

Burrow way

Steel Point (Shark Point)

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Rocky Pt south of Vaucluse

66

Móring

Vaucluse Point (Bottle and Glass Point)

Larmer 1832[1898: 228]

Vaucluse Point

66

Moring

Vaucluse Point (Bottle and Glass Point)

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Vaucluse Point

67

Coulong

Vaucluse

Wentworth 1801–1825

Vaucluse

68

Courmangara

Watsons Bay

Wentworth 1801–1825

Watson’s Bay

68

Kutti

Watsons Bay [Kutti Beach]

Larmer 1832[1898: 228]

Siddons and Watsons

68

Kutti

Watsons Bay [Kutti Beach]

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Siddons & Watson’s Residences

69

Mit-tă-lā

Laings Point, Watsons Bay

Southwell 1788[1893: 699]

The Green Point

69

Metallar

Laings Point, Watsons Bay

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362

W[est] point of Camp Cove

69

Ku-bung hárrá

Laings Point, Watsons Bay

Larmer 1832[1898: 228]

Lang’s Point [sic]

69

Kubungarra

Laings Point, Watsons Bay

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Laings Point

70

Ba-rab-bă-ră

Sow and Pigs Reef

Southwell 1788[1893: 699]

The Mid-Rock

70

Bir-ra-bir-ra

Sow and Pigs Reef

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362

The rock in the Channel

70

Birrur bi-… [word incomplete – mutilated in binding]

Sow and Pigs Reef

Larmer 1832[1898: 229]

Sow and Pigs

70

Birrur birra

Sow and Pigs Reef

Larmer 1832–33 in Stack 1906: 49

Sow and Pigs

70

Birrur Birah

Sow and Pigs Reef

Mitchell n.d.: 419

Sow and Pigs

71

Burra.wă-rā

South Head [inner]

Southwell 1788[1893: 699]

Inner South Head

71

Bara woory

South Head [inner]

Dawes 1790-1791: 817

S[outh] H[ea]d, ie South Head

71

Barraory

South Head [inner]

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

Inner Sth Do, ie South Head

71

Burrawarre

South Head [inner]

Wentworth 1801–1825

South Head

72

Woo-lā-ră

South Head [outer], Dunbar Head, Vaucluse

Southwell 1788[1893: 699]

The Look-Out

72

Tar-ral-be

South Head [outer]

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 361

South Do, ie South Head

73

Marevera

Murriverie Pass

West n.d.[c.1882]: 26

Between Ben Buckley and Bondi

74

Benbuckalong

Ben Buckler

West n.d.[c.1882]: 26

Ben Buckley

75

Bondi

Bondi

Berni 1828

Bondi Bay

75

Bondi

Bondi

Larmer 1829: 64

Bondi Bay written on sketch map in present day Bondi Bay

75

Boondi

Bondi

Larmer 1832–1833 in Stack 1906: 52

Bondi or ‘Boondi’

75

Bondi

Bondi Bay

Sydney Gazette 29(No. 1985) 16 June 1831: 4(col. 1).

Bondi Bay

76

Cramaramma

Tamarama

West n.d.[c.1882]: 28

The bay known as Nelson’s

77

Coogee

Coogee

Larmer 1829: 58

Great Coogee written on sketch map in present-day Coogee Bay

77

Koojah

Coogee

Larmer 1832–1833 in Stack 1906: 52

Coogee or ‘Koojah’

77

Coogee

Gordons Bay [see text]

West n.d.[c.1882]: 28

The bay north of the bay now known as Coogee

77-78

Kudgee or Coojee

Gordons Bay or Coogee [see text]

Miles 1854: 41

A small bay between the large bays of Port Jackson and Botany Bay

78

Bobroi

Coogee

West n.d.[c.1882]: 28

The bay where the two hotels are

79

Merooberah [see text]

Maroubra

Larmer 1832–1833 in Stack 1906: 52

Maroubra or ‘Merooberah’

80

Boora

Long Bay

West n.d.[c.1882]: 29

Between Maroubra and Little Bay

81

Bunnabee

Botany Bay – north head

Larmer 1832–1833 in Stack 1906: 52

North Head of Botany Bay

82

Wadba wadba

Botany Bay – north head, near Bare Island

Dawes 1790-1791: 815

The name of country near Bare island

83

Currewol (also Curriwul and Cooriwal)

Frenchmans Bay, La Perouse

George Hill and unnamed correspondent in Sydney Morning Herald, 16 January 1883: 5, cited in Nugent 2005: 53, Fn34.

The beach near the ‘Black’s Camp’ at La Perouse.

84

Yarra

Yarra Bay, La Perouse

West n.d.[c.1882]: 31

Yarra Bay

85

Ka-may

Botany Bay

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792: 362

Botany Bay

86

Bunna Bunna

Bonna Point, Kurnell/Quibray Bay

Thornton 1899: 210

Bonna Point, Botany Bay

87

Kundal

Captain Cook’s Landing Place, Kurnell peninsula

Larmer in 1832–1833 Stack 1906: 52

Captain Cook’s Landing Place, Botany Bay

88

Givea [probably Gwea - see text]

Botany Bay – south head

Larmer in 1832–1833 Stack 1906: 52

South Head of Botany Bay

89

Goonoomarra

Cronulla to Kurnell

Thornton 1896 in Organ 1990: 358

Beach and sand hills about Port Hacking

Table 1.2: Aboriginal placenames around Port Jackson and Botany Bay from historical sources: names for which a location was not determined or unresolved.

ABORIGINAL NAME

NAME OR INFORMATION – IN SOURCE

REFERENCE

COMMENTS

Kaneagáng

Kaneagáng is written on a rough sketch map inside a ‘point of land’ adjacent to two well-provenanced placenames – an island marked as Memel or Mımıl (Goat Island) and Dara or Tara (Dawes Point), and three other points of land.

Dawes 1790: 727 (inside front cover) reported by Keith Smith in Jopson 2002.

Smith equates Kaneagáng with Yurulbin, but depending how the map is oriented and interpreted, i.e., if Ilkan máladál is Millers Point and Kowang is East Balmain, it could be Darling Point on Pyrmont peninsula.

Kowang

Kowang is written on a rough sketch map inside a ‘point of land’ adjacent to two well-provenanced placenames – an island marked as Memel or Mımıl (Goat Island) and Dara or Tara (Dawes Point), and three other points of land.

Dawes 1790: 727 (inside front cover)

Depending how the map is oriented and interpreted, i.e., if Ilkan máladál is Millers Point and Kaneagáng is Darling Point, it could be part of East Balmain peninsula. If Cow-wan (see below) where Lt Gen. Ross had a farm, is another spelling of Kowang, this would support it being part of East Balmain peninsula.

Yéra yérăra

Do of a pond of [tol.?] water between it & [where fishing party ?].

Dawes 1790-1791: 815

Possibly Yarra Bay, La Perouse (No. 84 in Table 1.1), but this entry is one of three on a single page. It comes after Wadba Wadba which is said to be near Bare Island (No. 82 in Table 1.1), but before Paŋarāŋ which is Captain Parker &c dined – – –. The phrase ‘where fishing party’ is ambiguously placed. It is possible that the description after Yéra yérăra ends after the ‘&’. The three names listed together could be interpreted as ‘Yéra yérăra … between it=Wadba Wadba & Paŋarāŋ, and if so could be referring to a lake associated with the Waterloo and Lachlan swamps.

Ngangoon

Bush or Rush? point [initial letter unclear]

Dawes 1790-1791: 817

Too roo magoolie

a small cove

Dawes 1790-1791: 817

Karamúng

? well of ? water [writing illegible]

Dawes 1790-1791: 817

Ng’algara

ditto … ?? [writing illegible]

Dawes 1790-1791: 817

Talia

??? [writing illegible]

Dawes 1790-1791: 817

Tuberai

Another do [Head]

Vocabulary … c.1790-1792: 361

Weeaggy-wallar

a little sandy bay

Vocabulary … c.1790-1792: 362

Boor-roo-wan

an island

Vocabulary … c.1790-1792: 362

Some late 19th century and subsequent lists associate Booroowan with Garden Island, but Vocabulary … c.1790-1792: 362 lists Garden Island separately with another name - Ba-ing-hoe.

Tarrangera guy

where the fishermans hut is

Vocabulary … c.1790-1792: 362

Possibly somewhere in Sydney Cove as this name is listed after other placenames in Sydney Cove

Cow-wan

Ross Farm

Vocabulary … c.1790-1792: 362

Listed after Gomora Long Cove. Cow-wan may another spelling of Kowang (see above). Lt Gen. Ross had a farm at Balmain, and thus Cow-wan may be part of the East Balmain peninsula.

Pa-rein-ma

The Point called the docks

Vocabulary … c.1790-1792: 362

Boum[bana?]kine [letters illegible]

Greens Flat

Wentworth 1801-1825

Corumbla

Long Beach

Wentworth 1801-1825

Cullagala

North West Flat

Wentworth 1801-1825

Yamba

a point near Botany Heads

Thornton 1899: 210

Table 1.3: Port Jackson – Botany Bay: number of Aboriginal placenames recorded in different periods, sources of information and geographic areas. (Note: there are more provenanced placenames than listed in Table 1.1 and shown in Figures 1.1 and 1.2 as more than one name is known for some locations.)

Period

Sources of information

Geographical area

No. of placenames –previously unrecorded

Prov-enanced

Unprov-enanced

Total

1788-1800

The First Fleet journalists:

Daniel Southwell 1788

Arthur Phillip 1790b, 1792

William Dawes 1790, 1790-1791

Vocabulary… c.1790-1792 (attributed to Phillip, King & Collins)

Watkin Tench 1793

Arthur Phillip in Hunter 1793

Philip Gidley King in Hunter 1793

David Collins 1798, 1802

Maps by

C. Grimes 1796

John Hunter 1796, 1798

Port Jackson – north and south shores and islands

along Parramatta River

Parramatta–Toongabbie area

46

14

60

1801–1825

D’Arcy Wentworth 1801-1825

Francois Peron 1809

Joseph Lycett 1824

Maps by James Meehan 1807, 1811

Port Jackson – north and south shores

Woolloomooloo

Vicinity of Sydney Cove

9

3

12

1828–1836

James Larmer fieldnotes: 1829, 1830

James Larmer typescripts: ‘1832’ and E. Stack 1906

James Larmer published 1898 and 1900

Sydney Gazette 29 (No. 1985) 1831

T. L. Mitchell n.d.

Map of the Town of Sydney 1831, 1833

Maps by P. L. Berni 1828 and W. G. Caporn 1836

Port Jackson – north and south shores

North Harbour

Middle Harbour

Coastline between Port Jackson and Botany Bay

29 (but see text)

29

1854–1870

W. A. Miles 1854

Jules Joubert 1860

Co. of Cumberland Parish map Willoughby n.d. (ca 1860s)

Coastline between Port Jackson and Botany Bay

Hunters Hill peninsula

Port Jackson north shore

1

1

1873–1899

‘Sydney Cove’ 1878a, 1878c

Obed West n.d.[c.1882]

George Thornton 1892[1893], 1896 in Organ 1990, 1899

Map by W.H. Huntingdon 1873 in Port Jackson Ab’l Names 1910

Coastline between Port Jackson and Botany Bay

North Head (outer)

Lane Cove River

Farm Cove Beach

Rose Bay

Botany Bay–Kurnell peninsula

14

1

15

1911

Aboriginal Names and Meanings 1911: 214

Long Bay (Metropolitan district)

1

1

Totals

100

18

118

Table 1.4: Aboriginal placenames around Port Jackson and Botany Bay from historical sources: erroneous associations.

NAME – ABORIGINAL

NAME – IN SOURCE

REFERENCE

CORRECT ASSOCIATION

Jubagulla

Dawes Battery

Wentworth 1801-1825

Bennelong Point [see text]

Warang

Rose Bay

Wentworth 1801-1825

Sydney Cove

Boum billie

Shark Beach

Wentworth 1801-1825

Shark Island

References

(Maps are listed separately below)

Aboriginal Names and Meanings. Places about Sydney, 1908, Science of Man, vol. 10, no. 8: 128.

Aboriginal Names and Meanings, 1910, Science of Man, vol, 13, no. 7: 137.

Aboriginal Names and Meanings, 1911, Science of Man, vol. 13, no. 11: 214.

Aboriginal Names of Places in Port Jackson, 1900, Science of Man, vol. 3, no. 3: 47.

Attenbrow, V. 2002, Sydney’s Aboriginal Past, UNSW Press, Sydney.

— 2006, Dual naming for Aboriginal placenames in and around Sydney Harbour, NSW, Australia – an intangible cultural landscape, http://www.ncl.ac.uk/unescolandscapes/

Bradley, W. 1786-1792[1969], A Voyage to New South Wales. The Journal of Lieutenant William Bradley RN of HMS Sirius 1786-1792, [reproduced in facsimile from original manuscript by The Trustees of the Public Library of NSW in association with Ure Smith, Sydney].

Champion, S. and G. Champion 1993, ‘The Naming of Manly Cove’, unpublished typescript provided by authors.

Collins, D. 1798[1975], An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales, vol. 1, T. Cadell Jun. & W. Davies, The Strand, London [Republished by A.H. & A.W. Reed in association with the Royal Australian Historical Society, Sydney].

— 1802[1971], An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales, vol. 2, T. Cadell Jun. & W. Davies, The Strand, London. [Reproduced by the Libraries Board of South Australia, Adelaide].

Dawes, W. 1790, Grammatical Forms of the Language of N.S. Wales, in the Neighbourhood of Sydney, by –– Dawes, in the year 1790, MS, Original in Library of School of Oriental and African Studies, London, Marsden Collection Ms 41645(a). Microfilm copy in Mitchell Library of State Library of NSW, Reference FM4/3431, Reel 5, frames 771-794. (Pagination in text refers to microfilm frame numbers.)

— 1790-1791, Vocabulary of the Language of N. S. Wales, in the Neighbourhood of Sydney (Native and English) by –– Dawes, MS, Original in Library of School of Oriental and African Studies, London, Marsden Collection, Ms 41645(b). Microfilm copy in Mitchell Library of State Library of NSW, Reference FM4/3431, Reel 5, frames 795-817. (Pagination in text refers to microfilm frame numbers.)

Flynn, M. 1997, ‘Holroyd History and the Silent Boundary Project’, research report for Holroyd City Council.

Havard, W. L. 1934, ‘Native Place Names’, Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 20, no. 2: 121.

Hunter, J. 1793[1968], An Historical Journal of the Transactions at Port Jackson and Norfolk Island, ... including the journals of Governors Phillip and King, and of Lieut. Ball; and the voyages from the first sailing of the Sirius in 1787 to the return of that Ship’s company to England in 1792, printed for John Stockdale, Piccadilly, London [Australiana Facsimile Editions no. 148, Libraries Board of South Australia, Adelaide].

Huntingdon, W. H. 1911, ‘The Meaning of the Word “Woolloomooloo”, August 16th, 1902’, Science of Man, vol. 14, no. 8: 166-169.

Jervis, J. c.1960, The History of Woollahra. A Record of Events from 1788 to 1960 and A Centenary of Local Government, The Municipal Council of Woollahra, Sydney.

— and Kelly, V. 1945, The Origin of the Names in Port Jackson’, Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 31, no. 6: 390–402.

Jopson, D. 2002, ‘Nudged by a Smudge to Revisit Indigenous Sydney’, Sydney Morning Herald, 5-6 October 2002: News 12

— 2003, ‘Voice of Survival Rings in Reclaimed Names’, Sydney Morning Herald, 26-28 December, 2003: News 5

Joubert, J. 1860, Letter to Elyard, Sydney 27 October 1860, manuscript in Hunters Hill Historical Society Archives.

Kelly, M. and Crocker, R. 1977, Sydney takes Shape. A Collection of Contemporary Maps from Foundation to Federation, The Macleay Museum, University of Sydney.

Larmer, J. 1829, Larmer: Between Sydney & Botany Vol. 1, 1829, NSW Surveyor General Fieldbook no. 316 held at State Records New South Wales, Location 2/4946.

— 1830 &c, Vol. 3. Surveys of an Allotment. Pt of Alexandria – of Middle Harbour, Darling Harbour, Double Bay, South Head & Botany Road – Creeks, etc. County of Cumberland, NSW Surveyor General Fieldbook no. 343 held at State Records New South Wales, Location 2/4972.

— 1832[1853], Native Names of Points of Land in Port Jackson, in Larmer’s Vocabulary of Native Names 1853, Sep 1832-24 Nov 1853, Typescript. Mitchell Library of State Library of NSW, reference DL MS 256, Microfilm CY Reel 4355, frames 1-42 (Port Jackson lists on frames 35-38).

— 1832[1898], ‘Native Names of Points of Land in Port Jackson (south shore) and Native Names of Points of Land, North Shore of Port Jackson, reproduced in Native vocabulary of miscellaneous New South Wales objects’, Journal of the Royal Society of New South Wales, no. 32: 223-229.

Leslie, E. 1988, The Suburb of Northbridge: A Community History, The Bicentennial Community Committee of Willoughby Municipal Council, Management Development Publishers Pty Ltd, Sydney.

Lycett, J. 1824, Views in Australia or New South Wales, & Van Diemen’s Land, J. Souter, London, republished (n.d.) Thomas Nelson (Australia) Limited, Melbourne.

Lynch, W. B. and F. A. Larcombe 1976, Randwick 1859-1976, Oswald Ziegler Publications, Sydney, revised Ambascol Press, Artarmon.

Marriott, E. W. 1988, The Memoirs of Obed West. A Portrait of Early Sydney, Barcom Press, Bowral, NSW.

McGuanne, J. P. 1901, ‘Bennilong Point and Fort Macquarie’, Journal and Proceedings of the Australian Historical Society, vol. 1, no. 2: 9-13.

Miles, W. A. 1854, ‘How did the natives of Australia become acquainted with the demigods and daemonia, and with the superstitions of the ancient races? and how have many oriental words been incorporated in their dialects and languages?’ Journal of the Ethnological Society of London, no. 3: 4-50.

Millin, B. 1945, ‘Origin of Names in Port Jackson’, Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 31, no. 5: 313-337.

Mitchell, T. L. n.d., Native names of points and islands in Port Jackson, in Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell, Papers, Vol. 8 Miscellaneous c.1801-1849: 419-420, MS, Mitchell Library of State Library of NSW, reference A.295/3, CY Reel 248, frames 328-329.

Nugent, M. 2005, Botany Bay. Where Histories Meet. Allen and Unwin.

Organ, M. 1990, A Documentary History of the Illawarra & South Coast Aborigines 1770-1850, including a Chronological Bibliography 1770–1990, Aboriginal Education Unit, Wollongong University.

Peron, F. 1809, A Voyage of Discovery to the Southern Hemisphere, performed by order of the Emperor Napoleon, during the years 1801, 1802, 1803 and 1804, translated from the French, Richard Phillips, Bridge Street, Blackfriars, London.

Phillip, A. 1790a[1892], Letter from Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney, Government House, Sydney Cove, February 12th, 1790, in Historical Records of NSW vol. 1 no. 2 – Phillip 1783-1792, Government Printer, Sydney: 293-301.

— 1790b[1892], Letter from Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney, Government House, Sydney Cove, February 13th, 1790, in Historical Records of NSW vol. 1, no. 2 – Phillip 1783-1792, Government Printer, Sydney: 304-310.

— 1792[1892], Letter from Governor Phillip to The Right Hon. Henry Dundas. Sydney, New South Wales, October 2nd, 1792, in Historical Records of NSW vol. 1 no. 2 – Phillip 1783-1792, Government Printer, Sydney: 643-649.

Port Jackson Aboriginal Names 1910, from ‘The Northern Suburbs Echo’, Science of Man vol. 12, no. 2: 34-35.

Russell, E. 1970, Lane Cove 1788–1895–1970. A North Shore History, Council of the Municipality of Lane Cove.

Skelsey, M. 2004, ‘Sydney to Harbour a Double Identity’, Daily Telegraph, Tuesday 29 June 2004: 11.

Southwell, D. 1788[1893], Extract of a copy of a letter from D. Southwell to the Rev. W. Butler, dated 12th July, 1788, from Sydney Cove, of which the original has not been preserved; a list of such words … an account of an engagement, in Historical Records of NSW vol. 2 – Grose and Paterson 1793-1795, F. M. Bladen (ed.), Government Printer, Sydney: 696-704.

Stack, E. 1906, Native Names and Meanings, 1906. Extracted from notes by J. Larmer 1832-1833, typescript, Mitchell Library of State Library of NSW, reference DL MS.23; Microfilm CY Reel 4355, frames 43-57. (Pagination in text refers to microfilm frame numbers).

State Records NSW 2006, http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/archives/archives_in_brief_59_2120.asp, accessed May 2006.

Swancott, C. n.d., Manly 1788 to 1968, D. S. Ford, Sydney.

‘Sydney Cove’ 1878a, ‘Aboriginal Names of Places in Australia’, Town and Country Journal, 21 September 1878: 545.

‘Sydney Cove’ 1878b, ‘Notes and Queries’, Town and Country Journal, 14 September 1878: [page number not recorded].

‘Sydney Cove’ 1878c, ‘Notes and Queries’, Town and Country Journal, 5 October 1878: 641.

Tench, W. 1789, 1793[1979], Sydney’s First Four Years, being a reprint of A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay, and A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson in New South Wales, L. F. Fitzhardinge (ed.), Library of Australian History in association with Royal Australian Historical Society, Sydney.

Thornton, G. 1892[1893], ‘Notes on the Aborigines of New South Wales’, Appendix, in J. Fraser (ed.), The Aborigines of New South Wales, New South Wales Commissioners for the World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893, Sydney: 2-8.

— 1896, ‘Aboriginal Names of Places’, Illawarra Mercury, 24 March 1896, reproduced in M. Organ 1990, A Documentary History of the Illawarra & South Coast Aborigines 1770-1850, including a Chronological Bibliography 1770-1990, Aboriginal Education Unit, Wollongong University: 358-359.

— 1899, ‘Linguistics – Aboriginal Names of Places at Port Jackson and along the Coast’, Science of Man and Australasian Anthropological Journal (New Series), vol. 11, no. 2: 210-11.

Troy, J. 1992, ‘The Sydney Language Notebooks and Responses to Language Contact in Colonial NSW’, Australian Journal of Linguistics, no. 12: 145-170.

— 1993, ‘Language Contact in Early Colonial New South Wales 1788 to 1791’, in M. Walsh and C. Yallop (eds), Language and Culture in Aboriginal Australia, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra: 33-50.

— 1994a, The Sydney Language, Jakelin Troy, Canberra.

— 1994b, ‘The Sydney Language’, in Macquarie. Aboriginal Words, N. Thieberger and W. McGregor (eds), Macquarie Library Pty Ltd, The Macquarie Dictionary, Macquarie University, Sydney: 61-78.

Vocabulary of the Language of N. S. Wales in the Neighbourhood of Sydney. (Native and English but not alphabetical), c.1790-1792, MS, original in Library of School of Oriental and African Studies, London, Marsden Collection, Ms 41645 (c), microfilm copy, Mitchell Library of State Library of NSW, reference FM4/3432, Reel 6, frames 342-366. (Pagination in text refers to microfilm frame numbers).

Watson, J. H. 1918, ‘Origin of Names in Port Jackson. Part I–The South Side’, Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. 4, no. 8: 361-385.

Wentworth, D. 1801-1825, ‘Native Names of Place in Port Jackson’, Papers of D’Arcy Wentworth 1801-1825, from the estate of Miss Dorothy Wentworth, MS, Mitchell Library of State Library of NSW, reference no. A4073, FM4/9151, Frame 29.

West, O. n.d.[c.1882], ‘XX–Our Harbour and Ocean Bays’, in Old and New Sydney, no. 6: 22-32, reprinted from The Sydney Morning Herald by permission of the proprietors by Edward Hordern & Sons, Sydney.

White, J. 1790[1962], Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales, J. Debrett, Piccadilly, London, A. H. Chisholm (editor of 1962 edition), republished by Angus & Robertson in association with the Royal Australian Historical Society, Sydney.

Maps

Berni, P. L. 1828, Section of Part of the Surveyed Portion of His Majesty’s Colony of New South Wales: A.D. 1828, Reproduced in Census of New South Wales. November 1828, M. R. Sainty and K. A. Johnson (eds) 1985, (reprint), Library of Australian History, Sydney.

Caporn, W. G. 1836, Map of the Town of Sydney 1836, Drawn and engraved for the proprietor W. G. Caporn, reproduced in The Memoirs of Obed West. A Portrait of Early Sydney, E. W. Marriott, 1988, frontispiece map. Barcom Press, Bowral, NSW.

County of Cumberland, Willoughby Parish Map: n.d. [1860s?], State Records NSW Map no. 294. (Suggested date based on comparison with other dated maps of that age.)

Cross, J. 1827, Chart of Part of New South Wales, London 1827, Partially reproduced in Lane Cove 1788–1895–1970. A North Shore History, E. Russell 1970, Council of the Municipality of Lane Cove: 49.

Grimes, C. 1796, Plan of the Settlements in New South Wales, reproduced in Historical Records of NSW Vol. 3 – Hunter 1796-1799, F. M. Bladen (ed.), 1895, Government Printer, Sydney: frontispiece.

Hunter, J. 1788a, Chart of Port Jackson, New South Wales as Survey’d by Captn John Hunter… 1788, reproduced in The Art of the First Fleet and Other Early Australian Drawings, B. Smith and A. Wheeler (eds) 1988, Oxford University Press: Plate 70.

Hunter, J. 1788b, Chart of Port Jackson, New South Wales, survey’d Feb. 1788, reproduced in The Art of the First Fleet and Other Early Australian Drawings, B. Smith and A. Wheeler (eds), 1988, Oxford University Press: Plate 69.

— 1796, New South Wales Sketch of the Settlements, 20th August 1796 by Governor Hunter [Enclosure to Portland 20th August 1796], reproduced in Historical Records of NSW Vol. 3 – Hunter 1796-1799, F. M. Bladen (ed.) 1895, Government Printer, Sydney: between 72-73.

— 1798, Map of New South Wales in 1798 by Governor Hunter [Enclosed in Gov. Hunter’s letter to the Duke of Portland of 10th January 1798], reproduced in Historical Records of NSW Vol. 3 – Hunter 1796-1799, F. M. Bladen (ed.) 1895, Government Printer, Sydney: between 346-347.

Huntingdon, W. H. 1873, ‘Map Referred to in Port Jackson Aboriginal Names 1910 from “The Northern Suburbs Echo”’, Science of Man, vol. 12, no. 2: 34-35.

Map of the Town of Sydney 1831, Compiled by Hoddle, finished by Larmer, State Records New South Wales, Map no. 5449.

Map of the Town of Sydney 1833, Drawn & engraved for the NSW General Post Office Directors by permission of the Surveyor General, State Records of New South Wales.

Meadows-Brownrigg, W. c.1846-1851, Parish of Petersham, County of Cumberland, reproduced in Sydney takes Shape. A Collection of Contemporary Maps from Foundation to Federation, M. Kelly and R. Crocker 1977, The Macleay Museum, University of Sydney: 26.

Meehan, J. 1807, Plan of the town of Sydney in New South Wales, by Jas. Meehan, Assistant Surveyor of Lands by order of His Excellency Governor Bligh, 31st October 1807, original in Mitchell Library of State Library of NSW, reproduced in Historical Records of NSW vol. 6 – King and Bligh 1806, 1807, 1808, F. M. Bladen (ed.) 1898, Government Printer, Sydney: 366.

Meehan, J. 1811, Plan of the town of Sydney, New South Wales, shewing Common, original in Mitchell Library of State Library of NSW, reproduced in Historical Records of NSW vol. 7 – Bligh and Macquarie 1809, 1810, 1811, F. M. Bladen (ed.) 1901, Government Printer, Sydney: opp. 594.

Willis, J. 1868, Map of Port Jackson and City of Sydney, showing the adjacent municipalities, NSW, reproduced in Sydney takes Shape. A Collection of Contemporary Maps from Foundation to Federation, M. Kelly and R. Crocker 1977, The Macleay Museum, University of Sydney: 27-28.

1 Port Jackson is generally known as Sydney Harbour, but Sydney Harbour is only one of three harbours within Port Jackson, the others being Middle Harbour and North Harbour.

2 Tables 1.1 and 1.2 and Figures 1.1 and 1.2 include some additions and amendments made since Attenbrow 2002: Table 2.1 was published.

3 I use the term ‘the local inhabitants’ as coastal Sydney was inhabited by numerous clans, each affiliated with a specific area of land, and I am talking generally about more than one clan. There is also much debate about the name and number of language groups and/or dialects in the region (Attenbrow 2002: 22-35).

4 Dawes 1790-1791 is an undated manuscript bound with Dawes 1790 and Vocabulary… c.1790-1792. Dates within the undated Dawes manuscript (see Figure 1.4) indicate it was compiled during 1790 and 1791. I have therefore cited it as Dawes 1790-1791, as other recent researchers have.

5 ‘Cockle Harbor’ probably refers to Cockle Bay, which was the term commonly used in historical accounts.

6 Ridley, W. 1875, Kámilarói, and other Australian Languages, Thomas Richards, Sydney: 20 lists “cockatoo – bīloëla or morāi”.


Previous Next