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Fire Mountains of the Islands

Illustrations

Volcano Names and Totals

Volcanoes of Near Oceania

Chapter 1

Figure 1. Map by William Dampier showing track of the Roebuck in 1700

Figure 2. Ulawun volcano on map and sketch by William Dampier in 1700

Figure 3. Ritter Island as seen by William Dampier in 1700

Figure 4. Long and Crown islands as seen by William Dampier in 1700

Figure 5. Portrait of William Dampier

Figure 6. New Oceania showing selected volcanoes and modern bathymetry

Figure 7. Giant beneath Etna volcano in 18th century engraving

Chapter 2

Figure 8. Detail of New Guinea area from the 17th Century chart Insulae Molvccae

Figure 9. Manam Island as seen by Abel Tasman in 1643

Figure 10. Rabaul volcanoes as seen by Philip Carteret in 1767

Figure 11. Rabaul volcanoes as seen by John Hunter in 1791

Figure 12. Bagana volcano as seen by John Parker Wilson in 1842

Chapter 3

Figure 13. Rabaul Harbour as mapped by Simpson and Greet in 1872

Figure 14. Fergusson Island geothermal area as seen by John Moresby
in 1874

Figure 15. Miklouho-Maclay in staged photograph probably in late 1870s

Figure 16. Manam Island as painted by Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay in 1877

Figure 17. Rabaul Harbour in 1875 as shown in map by G.E.G. von Schleinitz

Figure 18. Portrait of Wilfred Powell

Figure 19. The larger of the Beehives in Rabaul Harbour in 1883

Figure 20. Lolobau Island as seen by Wilfred Powell in 1878

Figure 21. Ulawun and Bamus volcanoes as seen by Wilfred Powell in 1878

Figure 22. Volcanoes of the Willaumez Peninsula area as mapped by Wilfred Powell in 1878

Chapter 4

Figure 23. Manam Island as seen by Otto Finsch in 1884

Figure 24. Ritter Island as seen by G.E.G. von Schleinitz in about 1887

Figure 25. Aerial view of modern Ritter Island

Figure 26. Rabaul Harbour after the 1878 eruption as shown in map published in 1888

Figure 27. Portraits of Karl Sapper and Albert Hahl

Figure 28. Bamus volcano as seen during voyage by L. Couppe in 1894

Chapter 5

Figure 29. Detail from 1875 map of journey in highlands of New Guinea by J.A. Dawson

Figure 30. Volcanic features of Mount Victory

Figure 31. Evan R. Stanley and family in 1919

Figure 32. Detail from 1924 geological map of Papua

Figure 33. Modern view of Giluwe volcano

Figure 34. Profiles of Bosavi volcano

Figure 35. Volcanoes of the Fly-Highlands province

Chapter 6

Figure 36. Australian troops at entrance to Rabaul Harbour in about 1918

Figure 37. Australian troops at Tavurvur, Rabaul, during the First World War

Figure 38. Pago volcano in eruption in 1918

Figure 39. View of Dakataua volcano in 1921

Figure 40. Krakatau-type caldera formation

Figure 41. Glen Coe-type caldera formation

Figure 42. Rabaul area shortly after the 1937 eruption

Figure 43. Vulcan eruption in 1937 on front page of Daily Telegraph

Figure 44. Lightning in Vulcan eruption cloud in 1937

Figure 45. Vulcan and Tavurvur in reduced eruption in 1937

Figure 46. C.E. Stehn visiting the Durour in 1937

Figure 47. N.H. Fisher at Vulcan in 1937

Figure 48. Volcanological observatory building at Rabaul in about 1940–1941

Chapter 7

Figure 49. Tavurvur in eruption in 1941

Figure 50. Takashi Kizawa at the Sulphur Creek Observatory, Rabaul

Figure 51. Bomber attack at Rabaul Harbour in 1943

Figure 52. Devastated area at Goropu volcano in 1943

Figure 53. Goropu volcano as seen on modern topographic map

Figure 54. Base surge at Long Island in 1955

Figure 55. Omori seismograph at Rabaul in the early 1950s

Chapter 8

Figure 56. Aerial view of Lamington eruption cloud on 21 January 1951

Figure 57. Area of volcanic destruction at Lamington in 1951

Figure 58. Victims on the road to Higaturu in 1951

Figure 59. Destruction from pyroclastic surge near Higaturu in 1951

Figure 60. Requiem mass on a jeep on road to Higaturu in 1951

Figure 61. Tony Taylor at Popondetta Airstrip in February 1951

Figure 62. Aerial view of Mount Lamington from the north in February 1951

Figure 63. Visit to active lava dome and crater on Lamington in February 1951

Figure 64. Pyroclastic flow at Sangara Plantation in March 1951

Figure 65. Cross section through an active pyroclastic flow

Figure 66. Ceremonial opening of the memorial cemetery at Popondetta in November 1952

Figure 67. Leslie Topue being awarded his British Empire Medal in November 1952

Chapter 9

Figure 68. Taylor descending into crater at Langila volcano in 1952

Figure 69. Long Island topography and settlements

Figure 70. Surtseyan eruption from Lake Wisdom, Long Island, in 1953

Figure 71. Bam Island topography

Figure 72. Bam Island from the south-west in 1970

Figure 73. Bam islanders evacuating by boat in 1954

Figure 74. Radial valleys and summit craters of Manam Island

Figure 75. Village damage on Manam Island in 1958

Figure 76. Pyroclastic flow in North East Valley of Manam Island in 1960

Figure 77. South West Valley of Manam Island in 1963

Figure 78. Admiralty Islands including Lou and Tuluman islands

Figure 79. Tuluman volcano in eruption in 1957

Chapter 10

Figure 80. Small surtseyan eruption at Kavachi volcano in 1977

Figure 81. Subduction and formation of a volcanic arc

Figure 82. Leslie Topue and Ben Talai in the RVO recording
room at Rabaul

Figure 83. Landslide at Koranga Crater in 1967

Figure 84. Volcanoes and settlements of Dawson Strait

Figure 85. Boundaries of tectonic plates in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands

Figure 86. Madang and Josephstaall earthquake aftershock zones

Figure 87. Portrait of G.A.M. Taylor

Chapter 11

Figure 88. Portrait of R.J.S. Cooke

Figure 89. Ulawun volcano in 1967

Figure 90. Ulawun volcano topography and settlements

Figure 91. Incandescent lava flows at Ulawun in 1978

Figure 92. Matapun Beds on Long Island

Figure 93. Long Island and inferred original thicknesses of Tibito Tephra

Figure 94. Karkar volcano topography and the seismograph/Kinim link used in the 1970s

Figure 95. Devastated campsite on Karkar volcano in March 1979

Figure 96. Chris McKee at Karkar observation camp in 1979

Chapter 12

Figure 97. Blanche Bay and Rabaul town in the 1970s

Figure 98. Aerial photograph mosaic of north-eastern Blanche Bay

Figure 99. Monthly earthquakes totals at Rabaul for 1971–1988

Figure 100. Two different patterns for the ‘seismic annulus’ at Rabaul

Figure 101. Cross-section through magma reservoirs beneath Rabaul Caldera

Figure 102. Estimated airfall-ash thicknesses for a large eruption at Rabaul

Figure 103. Ceremony commemorating the 50th anniversary of the 1937 Rabaul eruption

Chapter 13

Figure 104. Ash clouds from Tavurvur on 19 September 1994

Figure 105. Eruption from inclined vent at Vulcan on 19 September 1994

Figure 106. Westward progress of Vulcan eruption cloud on 19 September 1994

Figure 107. View from space of Rabaul eruption clouds on 19 September 1994

Figure 108. Damage in part of Rabaul town

Figure 109. Relative ash-damage map for Rabaul town

Figure 110. Portrait of Ben Talai in about 1999

Figure 111. Strombolian eruption at Tavurvur volcano on 14 March 1997

Figure 112. Monthly earthquakes totals at Rabaul for 1968–1994

Figure 113. Epicentres of ‘north-east’ earthquakes for 1994–1998

Figure 114. Seismic velocities beneath the Rabaul area

Figure 115. Population movements from Rabaul to the Warangoi
Valley area

Chapter 14

Figure 116. Volcanoes of central-north New Britain

Figure 117. Volcanic-cone collapse and tsunami generation

Figure 118. Pyroclastic flow at Ulawun volcano in 1985

Figure 119. Lava issuing from Pago volcano during 2002–2003

Figure 120. Contoured thicknesses of lava flow erupted at Pago
volcano in 2002–2003

Figure 121. Obsidian artefacts from Talasea-Mopir area of New Britain

Figure 122. Pyroclastic flows at Manam volcano in 1996

Figure 123. Manam volcano imaged from space in November 2004

Figure 124. Tavurvur volcano in explosive eruption in October 2006

Chapter 15

Figure 125. Economic zones and new settlement belt in northern
East New Britain Province

Figure 126. Ash-fall on Rabaul including the Cathedral of St Francis Xavier

Figure 127. Three volcano systems of Rabaul volcano

Figure 128. Two magma reservoirs beneath the Rabaul area

Figure 129. Night-time view of Tavurvur in eruption and town
lights of Rabaul and Kokopo

Chapter 16

Figure 130. Jonathan Kuduon at Bokure village, Manam Island

An Epilogue

Internal volcano architecture by C.K. Wungi


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