The Islamic Traditions of Cirebon

Ibadat and Adat Among Javanese Muslims

Abdul Ghoffur Muhaimin


Table of Contents

Foreword
Acknowledgements
Abstract
Preface
1. Introduction
POINTS OF DEPARTURE: REVIEW OF PREVIOUS STUDIES
Response to Geertz
THE STUDY IN PERSPECTIVES
The Demographic Issue: Statistical records
The Popular Narratives of Early Islam in Cirebon
THEORETICAL ORIENTATION
THE FIELD WORK
Geographic Descriptions
The field work strategy
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
2. Belief System
THE IDEA OF GOD
BELIEF IN SPIRITUAL BEINGS
Malekat
Iblis, Setan and Mrekayangan
Jinn
3. Mythology and Cosmology of Cirebonese Traditions
INTRODUCTION
THE MYTH OF CREATION
Creation and Origin of The Universe
Creation of mankind
Origin of Javanese Inhabitants and Religion
ESCHATOLOGICAL IDEAS: THE CALAMITY AND THE END OF THE WORLD
LIFE AFTER DEATH
TAKDIR AND IKHTIAR: THE PROBLEM OF HUMAN DESTINY
PITUNGAN AND PENA'ASAN: JAVANESE NUMEROLOGY
4. THE RITUAL PRACTICE: IBADAT
PROLOGUE TO THE ANALYSIS OF CIREBONESE RITUAL
IBADAT: AN AMBIGUOUS CONCEPT OF RITUAL IN ISLAM
IBADAT DEFINED: CLARIFYING THE AMBIGUITY
The Kaula-Gusti Relationship
Fiqh and Tasawuf: Dual aspects of ibadat
THE PRACTICE OF IBADAT: SALAT
THE PRACTICE OF IBADAT: FASTING
CHARITY AND OTHER PRACTICES OF IBADAT
5. THE RITUAL PRACTICE: ADAT
INTRODUCTION
THE NATURE OF ADAT
THE COMMEMORATION OF ISLAMIC HOLY DAYS
Suroan
Saparan
Muludan and Rajaban
Rajaban
Ruwahan
Syawalan
CELEBRATION AND COMMEMORATION OF THE LIFE CYCLE: SLAMETAN
The nature and pattern of Slametan
The Occasions for Slametan
6. The Veneration of Wali and Holy Men: Visits to the Shrines
GENERAL FEATURES OF VENERATION: INTRODUCTION TO ZIARAH
Hadiwan and Manaqib
Hawl and Ngunjung
BABAD NARRATIVE ACCOUNTS OF SOME CIREBONESE HOLY MEN
Walangsungsang (Cakrabuana) and Rarasantang
Syarif Hidayatullah (Sunan Gunung Jati) and Fatahillah
Syeikh Datu Kahfi and Pangeran Panjunan
Nyi Mas Panguragan and Pangeran Karang Kendal
THE OBJECT OF ZIARAH: TWO EXAMPLES OF KRAMAT
Astana Gunung Jati
Kramat Trusmi
THE PROCEDURE OF ZIARAH
Wong Ziarah and Wong Nyepi
7. The Transmission of Religious Traditions: The Role of Pesantren
INTRODUCTION
THE GENERAL FEATURE OF RELIGIOUS TRANSMISSION
Ngaji
Mesantren
Sekolah Madrasah
THE ROLE OF PESANTREN: THE CASE OF BUNTET
The location and setting
Administration and Leadership
THE RISE AND DEVELOPMENT OF PESANTREN BUNTET
The early period: Mbah Muqayim
Kyai Mutta'ad (1785–1852)
Kyai Abdul Jamil (1842–1919)
Kyai Abbas (1879–1946)
Kyai Mustahdi Abbas (1913–1975)
Kyai Mustamid Abbas (1975–1988) and Kyai Abdullah Abbas (1988–…)
THE PESANTREN IN OPERATION: AN EXAMPLE OF DAILY ACTIVITIES
8. Pesantren and Tarekat: The Role of Buntet
INTRODUCTION
EARLY TAREKAT IN BUNTET: SYATTARIYAH
TAREKAT TIJANIYAH
The Origin of Tijaniyah
Some Tijaniyah's Essential Doctrines
The Role of Buntet
9. Concluding Remarks
Bibliography

List of Figures

The Regency of Cirebon
Plate 1: Kraton Kesuphuhan.
Plate 2: Pakuningrat S.H., Sultan Kesepuhan.
Plate 3: A business centre: a scene in the city of Cirebon.
Plate 4: A scene in the village.
Plate 5: Two children at play: a scene in the village.
Plate 6: Pak Shofie (right), his family and close kin.
Figure 4.1: Scope of Ibadat in Cirebonese popular conception.
Plate 8: Attending sermon at 'Id prayer.
Plate 9: Pak Shofie (third from left) and his sons pray at Pak Shofie's mother's tomb after 'Id prayer (at left is the researcher).
Plate 10: Pagersari-kraton on "Muludan" ceremony prior to the "Panjang Jimat" procession.
Plate 11: Kraton religious officials on "Muludan" ceremony prior to the "Panjang Jimat" procession.
Plate 12: A group of circumcision grooms.
Plate 13: A circumcision groom on becak returns from "ngembang" at his elders' graves.
Plate 14: A circumcision ceremony.
Plate 15: A circumcision groom on display.
Plate 16: A carnival to fetch the groom for "munggah" ("marriage ceremony").
Plate 17: Seated: The bride, the groom and the Penghulu at a marriage contract.
Plate 18: A seven month pregnant woman is bathed at "Ngrujaki" ceremony.
Plate 19: Water with flowers, and a young yellow hybrid coconut crafted with Qur'anic verses and coin inserted used at the "Ngrujaki" ceremony.
Plate 20: The bathed pregnant woman at "Ngrujaki" ceremony.
Plate 21: Chanting "Marhaba" to honour the pregnant woman.
Figure 6.1: Marriage alliance between Sunan Gunung Jati and Raden Fatah
Plate 22: A gate at Kramat Nyi Mas Gandasari.
Plate 23: The tomb of Nyi Mas Gandasari.
Map of Desa Astana
Figure 6.2: Sketch of Astana Gunung Jati Grave Complex
Sketch of the site of Kramat Mbah Buyut Trusmi (1926).
Figure 6.5: Sketch of Kramat Mbah Buyut Trusmi (1995).
Plate 24: An entrance to Astana Gunung Jati grave complex.
Plate 25: Astana Gunung Jati custodians at the "Pekemitan" hall.
Plate 26: Pilgrims at Astana Gunung: the "Pesujudan" door is closed.
Plate 27: The "Pesujudan" door is open. (The ascending pathway leads to Sunan Gunung Jati's tomb.)
Plate 28: A "wong kraman" serves pilgrims.
Plate 29: Astana Gunung Jati custodians and Kecamatan Administrative officials pray together on a festival occasion.
Plate 30: Two Qur'anic learners at "khataman" ceremony to mark the completion of the whole Qur'an.
Plate 31: Demonstrating the recital of the Qur'an.
Map of Desa Mertapada Kulon Kec. Astanajapura Kab. Cirebon
Figure 7.1: Genealogy of Sesepuh and Sohibul Wilayah
Figure 7.2: Intellectual Network of Kyai Abbas
Figure 7.3: Military Network of Pesantren Buntet under Kyai Abbas.
Pesantren Bunten Complex
Figure 7.4: Political Network of Pesantren Buntet under Kyai Abbas.
Figure 7.5: Sample of endogamous Marriage in Pesantren Buntet.
Figure 7.6: Genealogy of Some Kyai in Buntet.
Plate 32: Kyai Abbas.
Plate 33: Kyai Abdullah Abbas (in sarong and white cap) before "Haul" ceremony.
Plate 34: The main "pondok" of Pesantren Buntet.
Plate 35: Commemorating the Independence Day at Pesantren Buntet.
Plate 36: The Pesantren Mosque in Buntet.
Plate 37: Girlscouts of Pesantren Buntet on exercise.
Figure 8.1: Recruitment of Syattariyah Mursyid in Buntet
Figure 8.2: Main Entrance of Tijaniyah to Java.
Figure 8.3: Recruitment of Tijaniyah Muqaddam from Buntet
Figure 8.4: Spiritual Genealogy of Some Tijaniyah Muqaddam in Java
Plate 39: Kyai Fahim Hawi (left), a Tijaniyah Muqaddam of Buntet.
Plate 40: Kyai Abdullah Syifa and his five year old son.
Plate 41: Kyai Fu'ad Hasyim.
Plate 42: Kyai Fahim Hawi among Tijaniyah followers.
Plate 43: Nyai Hammah, a Tijaniyah Muqaddam of Kuningan.
Plate 44: Nyai Hamnah (centre), her followers and Kyai Imam Subki (Nyai Hamnah's husband).

List of Tables

Table 3.1: Months of the Javanese and Islamic Calendars
Table 3.2: Naktu and Jejer of the Days of the Days of the Ordinary and the Pasaran Weeks
Table 3.3: Months of the Year and Years of the Windu and their Naktu
Table 3.4: Schedule of the Domination of Astronomical Objects
Table 3.5: First Day of the Months, the Lowong and the Raspatit (Year Alif)
Table 3.6: Sample of Lists of Good and Bad Days
Table 7.1: Number of Students/Santri at Buntet (1992)
Table 8.1: The Spiritual Genealogy (Silsilah) of Tarekat Syattariyah at Buntet
Table 8.2: Ancestral Genealogy of Abu Abbas Ahmad at-Tijani The founder of Tijaniyah order
Table 8.3: Spiritual genealogy of Syeikh Ali At-Thayyib al-Madani (West Java gate of Tijaniyah)