Previous Next

The Aranda’s Pepa

Appendix A

IAD Pronunciation Guide to Arrernte orthography1

a

Basically long ‘ah’ when stressed; ‘uh’ when not stressed at the beginning of a word. ay like ‘ay’ in ‘hay’ in a few special words and endings, and sometimes before rt, rn, or rl; like ‘ie’ as in ‘lie’ when stressed in normal words. aw like ‘ow’ in ‘how’ when stressed.

e

Basically like ‘uh’ or ‘er’ as in ‘catcher’, Like ‘i’ in ‘bit’ before ty, ny or ly. At end of words it is either like ‘uh’ or ‘er’ as in ‘catcher or not pronounced at all. ey like ‘ee’ when stressed. we like ‘oo’ in ‘wood’ after another consonant; like ‘woo’ otherwise, except at ends of words. wey like ‘wee’. ew like ‘ow’ in ‘snow’ when stressed.

h

A bit like ‘w’ as in ‘wonder’, but without rounded lips. Not used by some younger speakers.

i

Like ‘i’ in ‘bit’ or ‘e’ in ‘bet; like ‘ee’ before rn, rt, rl, ty, ny or ly.

k

Like ‘k’ or ‘g’.

l

Like ‘l’.

lh

Like ‘l’ but tongue touches back of upper teeth.

lth

= lh+th

lty

= l+ty or =ly+ty

ly

Like ‘lli’ in ‘million.

m

‘m’

n

‘n’

ng

Like ‘ng’ in singer, not as in finger.

nh

Like ‘n’ but tongue touches back of upper teeth.

nth

= nh+th

nty

= n+ty or = ny+ty.

ny

Like ‘ny’ in ‘canyon’.

p

Like ‘p’ or ‘b’.

r

Normal Australian English ‘r’.

rl

Like ‘l’ but tongue tip curled back up higher.

rn

Like ‘n’ but tongue tip curled back up higher.

rr

Hard or rolled ‘r’.

rt

Like ‘t’ or ‘d’ but tongue tip curled back up higher.

rtn

= rt+rn

t

Like ‘t’ or ‘d’.

th

Like ‘t’ or ‘d’ but tongue touches back of upper teeth.

thn

= th + nh

tnh

= th + nh

tny

= ty + n

ty

Like ‘ch’ or ‘j’.

u

Like ‘or’ when stressed; like ‘oo’ in ‘wood’ when unstressed.

w

Like ‘w’; also see ew and aw above.

y

Like ‘y’ in ‘you’, not as in ‘city’; also see ey and ay above.

Pronunciation Guide to Western Arrarnta orthography2

a

This central vowel has several sounds. 1. The high sound, like ‘u’ in ‘curt’. 2. The sound like ‘er’ I the English word, ‘father’. 3. The sound like ‘u’ in the English word ‘umbrella’. Nearly every Western Arrarnta word ends with a.

e

Like ‘e’ in ‘every’.

h

A bit like ‘w’ as in ‘wonder’, but without rounded lips. Not used by some younger speakers.

i

Like ‘i’ in ‘ink’ or ‘bit’, like ‘ee’ in ‘sheep’ or like a soft ‘e’ in ‘every’.

k

Like ‘k’ or ‘g’ in English. Most Aboriginal Australian languages do not distinguish between ‘g’ and ‘k’.

l

Aveolar sound like ‘l’ in English.

lh

Dental sound like ‘l’ but tongue touches back of upper teeth.

ly

Palatal sound like ‘lli’ in ‘million’.

m

‘m’

n

‘n’

ng

Velar sound made at the back of the mouth like ‘ng’ in singer, not as in finger.

nh

Dental sound like ‘n’, but tongue touches back of upper teeth.

ny

Palatal sound like ‘ny’ in ‘canyon’.

p

Like ‘p’ or ‘b’. Most Aboriginal Australian languages do not distinguish between ‘b’ or ‘p’

r

Normal Australian English ‘r’.

rl

Retroflex sound like ‘l’ but tongue tip curled back up higher.

rn

Retroflex sound like ‘n’ but tongue tip curled back up higher.

rr

Hard or rolled ‘r’.

rt

Retroflex sound like ‘t’ or ‘d’ but tongue tip curled back up higher.

rtn

Retroflex sound like rt+rn together.

t

Like ‘t’ or ‘d’. Most Aboriginal Australian languages do not distinguish between ‘d’ and ‘t’.

th

Dental sound like ‘t’ or ‘d’ but tongue touches back of upper teeth.

tj

Like ‘ch’ or ‘j’ as in ‘jaw’.

tnh

= th + nh

tny

= tj + ny

u

Like ‘oo’ in ‘foot’ or ‘ou’ in ‘court’, or as in ‘two’.

w

Bilabial sound like ‘w’.

y

Palatal sound like ‘y’ in ‘you’, not as in ‘city’.

Short Pronunciation Guide to Luritja3

Point of Articulation

Stops

Nasals

Laterals

Bilabial

p

m

Apico-Alveolar

t

n

l

Apico-Domal

rt

rn

rl

Lamino-Alveolar

tj

ny

ly

Velar

k

ng

Vibrants

Semiconsonants

Apico-Alveolar

rr

w

Bilabial

y

Apico-Domal

r

Vowels

Short

Long

High front unrounded

i

ii

High back rounded

u

uu

Low central unrounded

a

aa


1 Reproduced from Henderson and Dobson (1994).

2 Adapted from Roennfeldt, D. with members of the communities of Ntaria, Ipolera, Gilbert Springs, Kulpitarra, Undarana, Red Sand Hill, Old Station and other outstations (2005).

3 Reproduced from Heffernan and Heffernan (1999).


Previous Next