Struggling for the Umma

Changing Leadership Roles of Kiai in Jombang, East Java

Turmudi Endang

Department of Sociology, Faculty of Arts

Table of Contents

Abbreviations and Glossary
1. Introduction
Background of the Study
Review of the Literature
The Fieldwork
Source of Data
The Survey
The Importance of the Study
Organisation of the Thesis
2. Kiai and the Pesantren
Concept and Variation of Kiaiship
The Pesantren Tradition
Nahdlatul Ulama (NU)
Modernisation of the Pesantren
The Main Pesantren Observed
The Pesantren Darul Ulum
The Pesantren Tebuireng
The Pesantren Bahrul Ulum
3. Kiaiship through the Tarekat Movement
The Nature of the Tarekat Movement
The Tarekat Qadiriyah Wa Naqsyabandiyah
The Jam‘iyah Ahli Thoriqoh Al-Mu‘tabaroh An-Nahdliyah: Tarekat Cukir
Other Tarekat Movements
The Tarekat Shiddiqiyah
The Penyiar Sholawat Wahidiyah
The Kiai's Role in the Society
The Underlying Principle of Relationship: Baraka
The Fragmented Organisation of Islam
The Modern Kiai and Santri
5. The Kiai and the Dynamics of Politics at the Local Level
The Kiai's Politics in the Tarekat
The Followers’ Perspective
NU at National Politics
Local Political Conflict
6. Islam and Politics: Implications in Electoral Behaviour
The Islamic Political Party
The Politics of Javanese Muslims
The Penggembosan and Changing Muslims Political Support
New Social Groupings
Islam and Electoral Behaviour
7. The Kiai in the Context of Socio-Political Change
Changing Kiai's Islamic Politics
Kiai's Political Influence: Post-‘Back to Khittah’
The Charisma factor
The Kiai's New Relationship with Authority
8. The Kiai's Effort in Remoulding Relationships with other Muslim Groups
Differences and Locality
The Conflict Reduced
Reformulation of Ukhuwa Islamiya
Expanding Da‘wa
9. Conclusion

List of Figures

1.1. Map of East Java
1.2. Jombang: Kecematan
6.1. Results of the General Election in Jombang
6.2. Muslim Support for Political Parties in Various Kecamatan in Jombang in the 1971 General Election
6.3. A Tendency of Social Grouping and Support for a Certain Political Organisation among NU Members (Former PPP Supporters) in Jombang
6.4. Muslim Political Orientation in Jombang

List of Tables

2.1. The Number of Santri Attending Schools within the Pesantren Darul Ulum, 1990–1991
2.2. The Number of Santri with their Place of Origin
6.1. Percentage of Votes Shared by Political Parties in Jombang in General Elections
6.2. Number of Votes of the Major Parties in the 1971 General Election in Jombang
6.3. Percentage of Islamic Parties' and PPP's Share of Votes in Various Kecamatan in Jombang
6.4. Percentage of the Decline in PPP's Vote Share in Various Kecamatan in the 1987 General Election
6.5. Muslim Respondents' Standpoint on Political Manoeuvres of Penggembosan
6.6. Percentage of Muslim Respondents' Reasons for their Support for PPP
6.7. Percentage of Voting Pattern of Muslim Respondents in the 1977, 1982, 1987 and 1992 General Elections
6.7a. Changing Voting Pattern of PPP Respondents
6.8. Percentage of the Muslim Respondents' Perspective on the Difference in PPP after 1985, and the Area in which such a Difference Occurs
7.1. Number of Respondents in the Four Villages of Three Districts of Jombang to whom Jombang Kiai are Known (The Kiai are Listed in Alphabetical Order)
7.2. The Respondents' Views on the Idealised Person to Lead an Islamic Organisation
8.1. Percentage of Respondents' Attitude to the Availability of Many Islamic Organisations
8.2. Percentage of Respondents' Perspective of the Ideal Society
8.3. Perception of Intermarriage Between Members of Various Muslim Groups
8.4. Reasons to Accept and Refuse Intermarriage
8.5. Percentage of Respondents' Preference as Marriage Partner for their Children