Summary

Christians and Muslims have co-existed in Kolojonggo since the first conversion to Christianity in the early 20th century. Until recently, the significance of religious difference between Muslims and Christians did not go beyond the religious domain. Villagers of one religion gathered on religious occasions but this grouping did not extend into non-religious life. In some cases, Christians were even included in the religious activities of Muslims and vice versa, as the exchange of foods and visits in the fasting month and at Christmas showed. As Islamic reform has accelerated, this situation has gradually changed. A clear line has been drawn dividing the umat Islam from the umat Christian, and villagers' consciousness of each others' religious difference has grown. This consciousness has been paralleled by the formation of the idea of 'in-group' and 'out-group' and, the exclusiveness of this concept has begun to extend into non-religious domains. It is now an important matter whether Muslims should make friends with Christians, may marry Christians, should choose a Christian in a election and should help Christians or not.

The clear awareness of religious difference has created tensions and friction between Muslims and Christians. Until now, these strained relations have not led to open conflict. Even verbal discord is seldom heard in public places where Muslims and Christians gather together. The maintenance of harmony in public life has been possible due to the effectiveness of the government's policy of imposing the ideology of Pancasila on public life and the pervading social norm emphasising harmony (rukun) in public. This does not mean, however, that the same attitude prevails within the 'in-group'. On the contrary, the reformist Muslims have been quick to point out offensive and provocative behaviour by Christians which jeopardises harmony between followers of different religions and they have tried to attack Christianity.

One of the issues of most concern to the reformist Muslims is the conversion of Muslims to Christianity. As a way of challenging this, Muslims wage an ideological war against Christians. In this ideological war, the main weapons they employ are Pancasila and the concept of akal. The concept of Pancasila, which is interpreted as not permitting any missionary activities among those who already confess a religion, is employed to highlight the unfair tactics used by the Christian mission. The concept of akal is used to show the logical absurdity of Christian theology, the truthfulness of Islam and the ideological dominance of Islam over Christianity.

The purpose of this chapter has been to examine the changing nature of the relations between Muslims and Christians in Kolojonggo. Apart from giving a better understanding of this relationship, the discussion has also provided a chance to look at the impact of the presence of Christians on the on-going process of Islamic development in Kolojonggo. As was indicated in Chapter III, Islamic development has opened a door for Muslim villagers to have intense contact with the scriptural tradition of Islam. The increasing religious knowledge, on the one hand, and the numerical increase of Muslims who make every effort to observe religious prohibitions and commands, on the other hand, have brought a diversification of the meaning of 'Muslim-ness'. At least to a certain segment of Muslims, especially those referred to as reformist villagers, the simple act of reciting sahadat Islam, once thought to be a sufficient condition of 'Muslim-ness', can no longer be regarded as a criterion to make someone a Muslim. They see it as merely the starting point. The differentiation made through this concept of 'Muslim-ness' has been recognised by the reformist Muslims, so that the term, 'Islam KTP', is used, even if not openly, to designate those Muslims who do not carry out their religious duties and who do not participate in Islamic activities.

The trend of the reformist villagers to divide the Muslim population into two, however, has not been fully developed [17] and an inclusive attitude is still retained by them vis-à-vis villagers belonging to 'Islam KTP'. One of the most important factors in maintaining this inclusive attitude is the presence of Christians and their threats to the umat Muslim. This makes it urgent for the boundary of the umat Islam to be drawn to embrace all Muslims, impeding the process of differentiation amongst Muslims in conceptual and in social forms. As a result, the umat Islam is still defined in its most inclusive form, namely, as including anyone who is not a Christian, irrespective of his or her religiosity.