Reformist Muslims in a Yogyakarta village

The Islamic Transformation of Contemporary Socio-Religious Life

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
Review of Studies about Islam in Java
Organisation and Objectives of the Study
2. Recent Socio-Economic Developments in Kolojonggo
Kolojonggo: A Hamlet in Yogyakarta
Introduction of the Green Revolution
Development of the Rural Labour Market in Kolojonggo
Differentiation of Peasants in terms of Landholdings
3. From Bamboo Langgar to Brick Masjid: Islamic Development in Kolojonggo
Development of Islam under the Dutch Colonialism
Islamic Development after the Independence of Indonesia
From Bamboo Langgar to Brick Masjid
Islamic Development after the Construction of the Masjid
4. The Islamisation of Everyday Life
Religious Activities of Muslim Villagers
Salat and the Fast
Islamic Law and Everyday Life
The Islamisation of others' everyday life
5. The Islamisation of Village Tradition
The Process of Kendhuri
Various Occasions to Celebrate Kendhuri
Islamic Development and Kendhuri
Islamising the Meaning of Ritual Foods
Syncretism and Tradition
Constructing a New Islamic Tradition
6. Reformist Islam and Supernatural Beings
Previous Situation of Belief in Supernatural Beings
Reformist Attack and Supernatural Beings
The Position of Supernatural Beings
The Diversification of Villagers Seeking Ilmu
7. Muslim and Christian Relations in Kolojonggo
Development of Christianity in Java and Yogyakarta: Some Statistical Considerations
Development of Christianity in Kolojonggo
Clarification of the Boundary between Muslims and Christians
Expansion of Religious Difference in Non-Religious Domains
8. War of Words: The Muslim Villagers' View of Christians, Christianity and Christianisation
Harmony and Tension in Everyday Life
Conversion; Ideological War
Superiority of Islam
9. Concluding Remarks
Socio-Economic Developments in Kolojonggo before 1965
Economic History of Yogyakarta in the 19th century
Reorganisation in the Principalities
Rural Economy in the Old Order Period
The War of Words: Voices of the Christians

List of Figures and Plates

Figure II-1: The Special Region of Yogyakarta
Plate 1: A bird's-eye View of kelurahan Sumber. The areas surrounded by trees are residential areas.
Plate 2: Female Harvesters with the ani-ani.
Figure III-1: Number of Attendants at the Collective Prayer during the Fasting Month in 1994
Plate 3: Improvement of the masjid before the coming of the fasting month in 1993.
Plate 4: View of the masjid in Kolojonggo just before the beginning of the fasting month in 1993.
Plate 5: Salat Idul Fitri in Sumber
Plate 6: Sacrifice of a Sheep for Idul Adha in Kolojonggo
Plate 7: The contents of a besek. Two brown yams (ketela) at the upper centre are kolak; road break at the lower centre is apem; and banana leaf is ketan (glutinous rice).
Plate 8: Ingkung
Plate 9: The celebration of a kendhuri. The kaum is the third on the left sitting along the wall.
Plate 10: The recitation of the Quran during a wedding ceremony
Plate 11: Moment of chaos in a jathilan performance.
Plate 12: The last scene in the drama performed by Muslim youth (drama No. 1 in the text). From left to right: dhukun; Parjo's father; street musician from Parjo's village; Parjo; Parjo's wife.
Figure VII-1: Percentage of Christians in Java and Indonesia (1930-1990)
Figure VII-2: Number of Christians in Java (1930-1990)
Figure VII-3: Percentage of Christians in 82 Districts in Java, 1980
Plate 13: Bu Nangun's house before reconstruction.
Plate 14: Gotong-royong mobilised by Muslim villagers to build Bu Nangun's House.
Figure A-1: Use of Sawah under Foreign Planters

List of Tables

Table II.1: Area and Population in Yogyakarta in 1990
Table II.2: Population in Kolojonggo in 1971 and 1993
Table II.3: Places Where the Villagers Registered in the 1971 Census Lived in 1993
Table II.4: Inputs and Outputs for Rice Cultivation Per Cropping (per 1000m2)
Table II.5: Last School Attended by Villagers Aged between 15 and 34
Table II.6: Primary Occupations of All Male Villagers Aged above 15 in Kolojonggo
Table II.7: Primary Occupations of All Female Villagers Aged above 15 in Kolojonggo
Table II.8: Cases of Land Transactions in Kolojonggo between 1950 and 1993a
Table II.9: Land Purchased by Pak Tio's Household between 1972 and 1978
Table II.10: Land Price in Sumber in 1951-93
Table II.11: Rice Producers' Terms of Trade (TT) in Yogyakarta (1976=100)
Table II.12: Cases of Sawah Transactions after 1980
Table II.13: Land Ownership and Sawah Cultivation in Kolojonggo in 1971 and 1993
Table II.14: Sawah Owned by Three Groups of Landholders in 1943-93 (%)
Table III.1: Participation of Male Villagers Aged over 15 in the Collective Prayers in 1994
Table IV.1: Religious Activities of an Islamic Activist
Table VII.1: Percentage of Christians in Java (City and District / Urban and Rural)
Table VII.2: Percentage of Christians in Central Java and Yogyakarta
Table A-1: Landholdings in Kolojonggo in 1943
Table A-2: Landholdings in Kolojonggo in 1960
Table A-3: Land transactions in five hamlets in Sumber (1950-1964)
Table A-4: Size of Sawah owned by Land Buyers Before They Bought Land between 1950 and 1964