Culture and Sustainable Development in the Pacific

Abstract

Throughout the South Pacific, notions of ‘culture’ and ‘development’ are very much alive – in political debate, the media, sermons, and endless discussions amongst villagers and the urban elites, even in policy reports.

Often the terms are counterposed, and development along with ‘economic rationality’, ‘good governance’ and ‘progress’ is set against culture or ‘custom’, ‘tradition’ and ‘identity’. The decay of custom and impoverishment of culture are often seen as wrought by development, while failures of development are haunted by the notion that they are due, somehow, to the darker, irrational influences of culture.

The problem is to resolve the contradictions between them so as to achieve the greater good – access to material goods, welfare and amenities, ‘modern life’ – without the sacrifice of the ‘traditional’ values and institutions that provide material security and sustain diverse social identities.

Resolution is sought in this book by a number of leading writers from the South Pacific including Langi Kavaliku, Epeli Hau’ofa, Marshall Sahlins, Malama Meleisea, Joeli Veitayaki, and Tarcisius Tara Kabutaulaka. The volume is brought together for UNESCO by Antony Hooper, Professor Emeritus at the University of Auckland. UNESCO experts include Richard Engelhardt, Langi Kavaliku, Russell Marshall, Malama Meleisea, Edna Tait and Mali Voi.


Table of Contents

Abbreviations
Contributors
Preface
Introduction
Culture and development in Pacific discourse
Culture
Development
The papers
General
Specific
Cultural tourism
‘Further action’
Proposals
Notes
References
1. Culture and sustainable development in the Pacific
Culture
Sustainable development
Culture and sustainable development
The Pacific islands situation
The future
Challenge of choice
Reference
2. The Ocean in us
A regional identity
The Oceania Centre for Arts and Culture
Oceania
Notes
References
3. On the anthropology of modernity, or, some triumphs of culture over despondency theory
What has not been too enlightening
The indigenisation of modernity
Tradition and change
Corollary: money and markets, moralities and mentalities
Reversing centre and peripheries
Culture is not disappearing
Notes
References
4. Gender, culture and sustainable development – the Pacific way
Building on the customary systems
Case one—the vision of Pacific women
Case two—the economic strategies of Pacific women
To conclude: are the family systems supporting women?
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Some Pacific realities
References
5. Governance, development and leadership in Polynesia: a microstudy from Samoa
The case of the two-storey house
Conclusion
References
6. Rumble in the jungle: land, culture and (un)sustainable logging in Solomon Islands
Logging and cultural production
Logging in Solomon Islands: a background
Land tenure and logging
Logging and a political culture
Conclusion
References
7. Knowing about culture: the handling of social issues at resource projects in Papua New Guinea
Mine impact studies in Papua New Guinea after Bougainville
Ok Tedi
Porgera
Lihir
Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References
8. Culture and sustainable marine resource development in the Pacific
9. Fisheries resource-use culture in Fiji and its implications
Traditional resource-use culture
The contemporary resource-use culture
Issues of fisheries resource-use culture
Future implications
References
10. Local hierarchies of authority and development
Participatory development
People in proximity
Opaque communities and oblique communications
The total social situation
Tongan village fishing
Possible solutions
11. A paradox of tradition in a modernising society: chiefs and political development in Fiji
Chieftainship and the control of militant ethnicity
The chiefs in the political economy of colonial Fiji
The chiefs in inter-ethnic relations
Three models for nationhood
Conclusion
Notes
References
12. Development and Maori society: building the centre or the edge?
History: retribution or recovery?
From the centre or the edge?
Sustainability: fiat or ethic?
Conclusion
13. Culturally and ecologically sustainable tourism development through local community management
Tourism and cultural preservation
Two case studies, from Vietnam and Laos
Hue, Vietnam
Luang Namtha, Lao PDR
Conservation problems at world heritage sites
Conclusion
14. Tourism and culture: a sustainable partnership
15. Vaka Moana – a road map for the South Pacific economy
The paradigm of international ecotourism
Vaka Moana: beyond the world decade
Defining the multi-layered dimension of the South Pacific heritage
Equipping the region’s heritage resources with conservation guarantees
Providing for diversification and upgrading of the heritage experience in the region
The road ahead
References
16. Vaka Moana – the ocean roads
Vaka Moana
The Vaka Moana working committee
The dilemmas of Vaka Moana
Conceptual development
Description
Development objectives
Operational goals
Outcomes
Central themes
Culture and tourism
Culture and Science
Contemporary Pacific societies
Culture and education
Culture and environment
Resources
References
17. Afterword: after the World Decade

List of Tables

4.1. Micro-enterprises by type
4.2. Pattern of multiple small enterprises and employment for family members