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An Archaeology of Early Christianity in Vanuatu

Appendices

Appendix A: Archaeological sites and features

Site/Feature Name

Location

Description

Robertson Mission

Robertson Church

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Standing mission church in Dillon’s Bay.

Robertson House

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Stone foundation from Robertson Mission house.

Chief Mete House

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Lime mortar footing for a 19th-century structure under modern house.

Store House

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Lime mortar footing from the store house in Robertson Mission.

Mission Walls

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Stone walls surrounding Robertson Mission.

Dillon’s Bay Memorial

Nokiyangauwi

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Memorial enclosure for missionaries killed on Erromango.

John Williams Event Landscape

Williams’ Body Laid Out

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Place where Williams’ body was taken after he was killed.

Limestone Staircase

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Lime mortar staircase next to Williams’ River.

Martyr Stone

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Stone marked with small depressions for head, feet, and hands of Williams.

Dividing Stone

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Stone where Williams’ body was divided and sent around Erro.

Williams’ Skull

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Coconut palm where they buried Williams’ skull.

George Gordon Mission

Guard House

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Guard house for the Gordon Mission to Dillon’s Bay.

Gordon House

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

George and Ellen Gordon Mission house.

Vedavil Stream

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Nearest water source for Gordon Mission in Dillon’s Bay.

Gordon’s Footprint

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Stone where Gordon put his foot while bleeding to death.

Wash Basin

Dillon’s Bay, Erromango

Stone where Gordon’s murderers washed the blood from their hands.

James Gordon Mission

James Gordon Church

Potnuma, Erromango

Lime mortar foundations from James Gordon Mission church.

James Gordon House

Potnuma, Erromango

Remains of foundation for James Gordon Mission house.

Blood Stone

Potnuma, Erromango

Upright stone marking where Gordon’s blood ran after he was killed.

James Gordon Tomb

Potnuma, Erromango

Turtle-shaped lime mortar enclosure with a a concrete slab grave inside.

Pontal 2/ER 19

Bomtal

Port Narvin, Erromango

Petroglyph field with cupules counting the battles of Sou Sou.

Malap 2/ER 23

Malap

Port Narvin, Erromango

Petroglyph field with culture contact motifs.

Netngonavon/Navon/ER 24

Netngonavon

Port Narvin, Erromango

Rockshelter with rock art inside near Port Narvin.

Port Narvin ‘Shipwreck’

Neilson Anchor

Port Narvin, Erromango

Anchor reported to be from a mission ship sunk by local people.

North of Potnuma

Potnepko

Eastern Erromango

Tube in the limestone used to store sacrificial victims to close the road.

Potnepko 2

Eastern Erromango

Blowhole where people would place the dead.

Vetemanu’s Footprints

Eastern Erromango

Footprints of a legendary figure who was the son of a great chief from Efate.

Ntue

Eastern Erromango

Place where Nialnowre had her pig enclosure, which was the first one.

Sipiempu

Eastern Erromango

White sand beach where Novlu spotted Nerimpau, then caught and killed him.

Nipmilamli

Eastern Erromango

Tabu site, a tree where Nerimpau’s head was put after his death.

Potmosi

Eastern Erromango

Village site inland. Beach was place where Nerimpau’s body was displayed.

Nduwe

Eastern Erromango

Large boulder with pecked bird egg-shaped impressions.

Velumap Cave

Velumap Cave

Eastern Erromango

Cave used for storing sandalwood before shipping.

Cook’s Bay Mission

Cook’s Bay Mission Site

Eastern Erromango

Stone remains of the Cook’s Bay Mission.

Lenakel Mission

Old Mission Well

Lenakel, Tanna

Stone alignment possibly related to first mission well in Lenakel.

1912 Church

Lenakel, Tanna

Historic church building in Lenakel.

Trigg Grave

Lenakel, Tanna

Graves uphill from 1912 Church.

Second Church

Lenakel, Tanna

Location of earlier church, only concrete corner footings with metal brackets remain.

Grave of Lomai

Lenakel, Tanna

Grave with a limestone headstone and concrete slab where Lomai is buried.

Second School

Lenakel, Tanna

No surface remains, but local informants noted as location of old school.

Milking Shed

Lenakel, Tanna

Concrete slab used in recent memory for milking cows.

Nun’s House

Lenakel, Tanna

Standing wooden house on concrete piers.

Lenakel Mission Hospital

1911 Hospital

Lenakel, Tanna

Remains of old hospital consisting of a large concrete slab and some walls.

Hospital Pantry

Lenakel, Tanna

Concrete slab with row of cinder blocks in the middle.

TB Ward

Lenakel, Tanna

Concrete slab with beam slots on downhill side, water tank on southern end.

Laundry and Bread Oven

Lenakel, Tanna

Old features possibly related to hospital.

Maternity Ward

Lenakel, Tanna

Concrete slab where the maternity ward for the hospital was located.

Nicholson House

Lenakel, Tanna

Remains of Dr Nicholson’s house.

Surveyor’s Datum

Lenakel, Tanna

Old surveyor’s datum, a small pipe in a concrete cylinder.

Inland Paton Mission

John Paton Mission

Port Resolution, Tanna

Not many surface remains, but apparently first place Paton settled in the area.

First Mango

Port Resolution, Tanna

Apparently first mango trees, which came with missionaries in the 1800s.

Relocated Paton Grave

Port Resolution, Tanna

Graves of John Paton’s wife and son, as well as Johnston.

Main Port Resolution Mission

Gibson Ship

Port Resolution, Tanna

Shipwreck on the beach from a 1960s mission boat.

Yakuperang

Port Resolution, Tanna

First nakamal where missionaries arrived.

Relocated Church

Port Resolution, Tanna

After first church destroyed in a storm, it was moved here, though no remains today.

Church Bell

Port Resolution, Tanna

Old brass bell from 1890 placed in a tree.

Elders’ Graves

Port Resolution, Tanna

Graves from the first church elders in Port Resolution.

Mission Church

Port Resolution, Tanna

Located under current yacht club, which follows old mission church footprint.

Mission Printers

Port Resolution, Tanna

Under yacht club bungalow, but apparently where old printing press was located.

Mission House

Port Resolution, Tanna

Under yacht club bungalow, but apparently where old mission house was located.

Mission Landing

Port Resolution, Tanna

Landing used by missionaries for Port Resolution Mission near current yacht club.

Watt Grave

Port Resolution, Tanna

Grave of Agnes Watt (described at length in introduction to ‘25 Years Mission Life’).

Captain Cook

Captain Cook

Port Resolution, Tanna

Outcrop where Cook stood to take surveying measurements.

Watt Mission

Kwamera Mission Graves

Kwamera, Tanna

Two graves, one of which has a headstone in memory of Rev. Gray’s son.

Watt Mission

Kwamera, Tanna

Mission house and church complex built by the Watts.

Old Bell

Kwamera, Tanna

Place where bell used to call people to worship used to hang.

Mission Launch

Kwamera, Tanna

Former location with a winch to pull in the mission launch.

Kwaraka

Kwaraka

Kwaraka, Tanna

Stone walls in area where Yeni Yarisi brough gospel to south Tanna.

New Kwaraka

Kwaraka, Tanna

Stone enclosure where people took gospel from old Kwaraka.

Nokwenuk

Kwaraka, Tanna

Kastom stone of the yam god.

Netata

Kwaraka, Tanna

Stone shaped like a ship, symbolic of Kwaraka.

Iarisi Garden

Kwaraka, Tanna

Iarisi’s garden, now visible as a single stone mound from clearing the soil.

Miscelaneous Kwamera Features

Mark Mellon

Kwaraka, Tanna

Big tree named for a surveyor who worked on south Tanna.

Imua

Kwamera, Tanna

Hill where Paton and Matheison first settled in south Tanna.

Enapa

Kwamera, Tanna

No surface remains, but local informants noted as location of a trading post.

Irumien

Irumien

Kwaraka, Tanna

Large, well preserved historic nakamal with stone walls.

Waisisi Mission

Gray Church

Waisisi, Tanna

Place where Gray’s original church was located (now only marked by foundation stones).

Gray Mission Path/Stair

Waisisi, Tanna

Old path connecting the church to the mission house and sea, ruined mortar stairs remain.

Gray House

Waisisi, Tanna

Remains of Gray’s house.

Goat Pen

Waisisi, Tanna

Stone goat pen built by a later missionary (Ken Calvert), includes recent grave.

Irene Gray Grave

Waisisi, Tanna

Grave of the Grays’ daughter.

Corner Peg

Waisisi, Tanna

Upright stone marking the boundary of mission lands erected by Gray.

Shipi-Manwawa

Nitela

Waisisi, Tanna

Natapoa tree planted by ‘Shipi’ at the end of the Shipi-Manwawa war.

Manwawa

Waisisi, Tanna

Natapoa tree planted by ‘Manwawa’ at the end of the Shipi-Manwawa war (no longer standing).

Uelel

Waisisi, Tanna

Stones where people hid during wartime.

Noanpai

Waisisi, Tanna

Sea side nakamal of Nalpini Asim, a war chief. Now underwater, moved inland.

Waisisi Kastom Sites

Temitonga

Waisisi, Tanna

Tabu stone where a white man was killed in the colonial era.

Naburi

Waisisi, Tanna

Old nakamal remembered as a place for fishing magic.

Lamatetengi

Waisisi, Tanna

Stone altar (‘chair’) where the spirits of the dead would rest before joining the ancestors.

Kasali

Waisisi, Tanna

Kastom stone.

Ulin

Waisisi, Tanna

Small hillock next to Kwalep Nakamal, had the power to cause illness.

Kwalep

Waisisi, Tanna

Nakamal where William Gray was accepted in 1882.

Sakutu

Waisisi, Tanna

Burial ground on the other side of Kwalep village.

Netanu

Waisisi, Tanna

Relates to the turtle. Very sacred, marked with the skulls of sacrificed turtles and pigs.

Appendix B: Excavated contexts and brief descriptions

Site/Area

Layer/Feature

Munsell Colour

Sediment Texture

Brief Interpretation

G. Gordon House

TU1/2/3

I

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Sandy Loam

Topsoil layer accumulated since site abandonment.

TU1/2/3

II

[7.5YR3/2] Dark Brown

Clay Loam

Occupation layer abutting stone retaining wall.

TU1/2/3

III

[7.5YR3/2] Dark Brown

Sandy Clay (80%), Limestone Pebbles (20%)

Transition to clay subsoil with underlying uplifted reef limestone (bedrock) inclusions.

TU4

I

SEE NOTES

Sandy Loam

Topsoil/shallow superficial occupation deposit.

TU4

II

SEE NOTES

Clay

Subsoil.

TU5

I

SEE NOTES

Loam

Topsoil.

TU5

IIa

SEE NOTES

Clay Loam, Compact

Main occupation layer (inside house).

TU5

IIb

SEE NOTES

Silty Clay, Compact

Occupation layer (outside house).

TU5

IIIa

SEE NOTES

Silty Clay Loam (85%), Limestone Pebbles (10%), Charcoal (5%)

Possible construction fill from the terrace on which the site was built. Cross-bedded with other LyIII/LyIV deposits.

TU5

IIIb

SEE NOTES

Clay

Possible construction fill from the terrace on which the site was built.

TU5

IVa

SEE NOTES

Silty Clay

Possible construction fill from the terrace on which the site was built.

TU5

IVb

SEE NOTES

Clay, Compact

Possible construction fill from the terrace on which the site was built.

TU5

V

SEE NOTES

Clay Loam

Subsoil underlying construction fill deposits.

TU6

I

SEE NOTES

Loam

Topsoil/occupation deposit.

TU6

F01 (PN17)

SEE NOTES

Loam (20%), Limestone and Volcanic Cobbles (80%)

Linear stone feature, possibly a former wall footing.

TU6

II

SEE NOTES

Clay, Compact

Subsoil.

TU7

I

SEE NOTES

Loam

Topsoil/shallow superficial occupation deposit.

TU7

II

SEE NOTES

Clay

Subsoil.

J. Gordon House

TU1

I

[10YR3/2] Very Dark Greyish Brown

Silty Clay (90%), Limestone and Volcanic Cobbles (10%)

Occupation deposit, abuts base of lime mortar wall footings.

TU1

II

[7.5YR2.5/2] Very Dark Brown

Clay

Subsoil; disturbed by animal burrowing (crabs).

TU2

I

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Silty Clay Loam (90%), Limestone and Volcanic Cobbles and Pebbles (10%)

Occupation deposit, abuts base of lime mortar wall footings.

TU2

II

[10YR3/2] Very Dark Greyish Brown

Silty Clay

Subsoil; disturbed by animal burrowing (crabs).

TU3

I

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Silty Clay

Occupation deposit.

TU3

II

[10YR3/2] Very Dark Greyish Brown

Silty Clay

Subsoil.

Robertson House

TU1

I

[7.5YR2.5/1] Black

Sandy Loam (40%), Waterworn Pebbles (60%)

Topsoil.

TU1

F01

[7.5YR2.5/1] Black

Loam

Planting Feature.

TU1

IIa

[7.5YR2.5/1] Black

Sand (20%), Coral Fragments (80%)

Paving Layer.

TU1

IIb

[7.5YR2.5/1] Black

Sandy Loam (90%), Waterworn Pebbles (10%)

Paving Layer.

TU1

IIIa

[7.5YR2.5/1] Black

Sandy Loam

Fill (flood deposit?)

TU1

IIIb

[7.5YR4/4] Brown

Sandy Loam, Compact

Paving Layer.

TU1

IVa

[7.5YR2.5/1] Black

Sand (40%), Waterworn Cobbles (60%)

Paving Layer.

TU1

IVb

[7.5YR2.5/1] Black

Sandy Loam (10%), Coral Fragments (90%)

Paving Layer.

TU1

V

[7.5YR3/2] Dark Brown

Sandy Loam (30%), Waterworn Cobbles (60%)

Lowest paving layer; abuts lime mortar wall footing/buried step. Overlies construction fill.

TU1

VI

[7.5YR2.5/1] Black

Sand (30%), Waterworn Cobbles and Boulders (70%)

Construction fill relating to the house foundation, base of the layer corresponds to the lowest level of the footings.

TU1

VII

[7.5YR2.5/1] Black

Sand

Beach sand underlying the house, no artefacts or inclusions.

TU2/5/6

I

SEE NOTES

Sandy Loam

Topsoil.

TU2/5/6

II

SEE NOTES

Sandy Loam (80%), Coral and Pebbles (20%)

Paving layer from the path leading to the house.

TU2/5/6

III

SEE NOTES

Sandy Loam (40%), Large Cobbles and Small Boulders (40%)

Construction fill underlying the path, or flood deposit (?).

TU5

IVa

SEE NOTES

Sand, Compact

Compact layer of reddish sand (cf. TU1 LyIIIb), possible pavement layer.

TU2/6

IVb

SEE NOTES

Sandy Loam (50%), Coral Fragments (50%)

Possible lenses of coral pavement.

TU2/5/6

V

SEE NOTES

Sand

Beach sand deposit.

TU6

VI

SEE NOTES

Sand (40%), Coral Fragments (60%)

Coral lens.

TU6

VII

SEE NOTES

Sand

Beach sand deposit.

TU6

VIII

SEE NOTES

Sand (70%), Waterworn Cobbles (30%)

Possible flood/storm surge deposit.

TU6

IX

SEE NOTES

Sand

Beach sand deposit.

TU6

X

SEE NOTES

Sand (75%), Pebbles and Small Cobbles (25%)

Possible flood/storm surge deposit.

TU3/4

I

SEE NOTES

Sandy Loam

Topsoil/recent sedimentary deposition.

TU3/4

F01 (PN130)

SEE NOTES

Sandy Loam (30%), Volcanic and Limestone Cobbles (65%), Mortar Fragments (5%)

Possible earth oven. Rounded pit feature filled with cobbles and rubbish.

TU3/4

F02 (PN131)

SEE NOTES

Sandy Loam (50%), Volcanic and Limestone Cobbles (50%)

Possible earth oven. Rounded pit feature filled with cobbles and rubbish, including large amounts of faunal material.

TU3/4

II

SEE NOTES

Clay Loam, Compact

Paving layer (cf. TU1 LyIIIb; TU5 LyIVa). Cut by earth oven/pit features.

TU3/4

III

SEE NOTES

Sandy Loam

Sedimentary deposit underlying the red clay loam (not excavated).

Anuikaraka

TU1/2/3/4/5

I

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Loam

Topsoil.

TU1/3/5

IIa

[7.5YR2.5/2] Very Dark Brown

Loam (60%), Volcanic Cobbles and Pebbles (40%)

Rocky layer, probably a flood deposit from the nearby intermittent stream though there is a slight possibility this is a stone paving or levelling fill.

TU2/4

IIb

[10YR3/3] Dark Brown

Loam (95%), Pebbles (5%)

Much less rocky sediment closer to the stream, some shell and charcoal. Possibly accumulated from habitation/slope wash?

TU1/2/3/4

III

[10YR3/3] Dark Brown

Loam

Subsoil layer?

TU2

IV

[7.5YR2/3] Very Dark Brown

Sand (85%), Pebbles and Cobbles (15%)

Rocky layer, probably a flood deposit.

TU6

I

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Loam (30%), Pebbles, Cobbles, and Boulders (70%)

Construction fill of the mound feature, high concentration of artefacts including shell, bone, charcoal, large cobbles of red ochre.

TU6

II

[10YR2/1] Black

Loam

Sediment underlying the mound; ground surface from before the mound was constructed.

TU6

III

[10YR2/1-2/2] Very Dark Brown

Loam (80%), Pebbles (20%)

Slightly lighter subsoil mottled in places with LyII, no cultural materials found.

Imua Mission

TU1/2/4/5

I

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Loam

Topsoil. Sediment overlying the stone features.

TU1/2/4/5

F01 (PN193/194/203/204)

--

Small Boulders

Stone alignment, probably a garden path or fence footing, abuts/overlies abandonment layer (bioturbation-animal burrows)

TU1/2/4/5

IIa

[7.5YR2.5/2] Very Dark Brown

Loam (60%), Pebble-sized Lime Mortar (40%)

Destruction/abandonment layer from the house. Contains the bulk of cultural materials. Materials from this layer were disturbed by animal burrows.

TU4

IIb

[10YR3/2] Very Dark Greyish Brown

Loam

Abuts LyIIa, but lacks cultural materials, probably contemporaneous level but outside the area of the house.

TU1/2/4/5

III

[10YR3/3] Dark Brown

Clay Loam

Compact sediments underlying LyII. Subsoil.

TU3

I

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Loam

Topsoil.

TU3

II

[7.5YR2.5/2] Very Dark Brown

Clay Loam (90%), Pebble-sized Lime Mortar (10%)

Occupation layer from the house, includes mortar, ceramics, etc., but much lower concentration than TU1/2/4/5.

TU3

III

[7.5YR2.5/3] Very Dark Brown

Clay, Compact

Subsoil.

Watt Mission

TU1

I

[10YR3/2] Very Dark Greyish Brown

Sandy Loam (60%), Small Pebbles (40%)

Topsoil/paving deposit, abuts the base of the building footings.

TU1

II

[10YR3/2] Very Dark Greyish Brown

Sandy Loam

Sediment underlying the building. Possibly a levelling fill, or the extant beach sand upon which the mission building was constructed.

TU1

III

[10YR2/1] Black

Sand (75%), Waterworn Pebbles and Cobbles (25%)

Beach terrace fill, predates the mission (bioturbation-animal burrows).

TU1

IV

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Sand (95%) Waterowrn Pebbles (5%)

Deposit in which the human burial was discovered (excavation halted; burial uncovered but left in situ).

TU2

I

[10YR3/2] Very Dark Greyish Brown

Sandy Loam (80%), Pebbles (20%)

Topsoil and later 20th-century disturbance from construction of the nearby church.

TU2

II

[7.5YR3/1] Very Dark Grey

Sand

Possible mission-period deposit, with a small concentration of 19th-century material.

TU2

III

[7.5YR3/1] Very Dark Grey

Sand

Subsoil.

TU3

I

[10YR2/1-2/2] Very Dark Brown

Loamy Sand (90%), Pebbles (10%)

Topsoil.

TU3

F01 (PN226)

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Loam (70%), Pebbles and Cobbles (30%)

Later 20th-century (post-mission) posthole.

TU3

II

[7.5YR2.5/2]

Loamy Sand (97%), Pebbles (3%)

Fill layer. Later 20th century (post-mission).

TU3

III

[10YR2/1-2/2] Very Dark Brown

Loamy Sand (75%), Pebbles and Coral Fragments (25%)

Fill layer, possibly mission-era/19th century.

TU3

IV

[10YR2/1] Black

Sand (98%), Pebbles and Cobbles (2%)

Subsoil.

TU4

I

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Sandy Loam

Topsoil.

TU4

II

[10YR3/2] Very Dark Greyish Brown

Sandy Loam (85%), Coral Fragments (15%)

Fill or paving layer. Later 20th century (post-mission).

TU4

F01 (PN220)

[10YR3/2] Very Dark Greyish Brown

Sandy Loam (90%), Coral Fragments and Pebbles (10%)

Later 20th-century (post-mission) posthole.

TU4

IIIa

[7.5YR3/2] Dark Brown

Sandy Loam

Fill deposit.

TU4

IIIb

[7.5YR3/2] Dark Brown

Sandy Loam with Limestone Flecks

Fill deposit.

TU4

IV

[10YR2/1] Black

Sandy Loam (70%), Small Pebbles to Large Cobbles (30%)

Fill deposit. Overlies a deposit with fewer stone inclusions (not excavated).

TU5

I

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Loam

Topsoil.

TU5

II

[10YR3/6] Dark Yellowish Brown

Clay Loam

Fill deposit.

TU5

F01 (PN240)

--

Small Boulders

Possible stone alignment (wall footing?).

TU5

III

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Loam (80%), Mortar Fragments (20%)

Abuts the stone feature, mortar may relate to this.

TU5

IV

[10YR3/3] Dark Brown

Loam

Fill deposit.

TU5

V

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Loam

Fill deposit, probably transitioning to subsoil.

TU6

I

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Loam

Topsoil.

TU6

II

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Loam (85%), Pebbles and Coral Fragments (15%)

Fill deposit.

TU6

III

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Clay Loam, Compact (90%), Pebbles (10%)

Fill deposit.

TU6

IV

[10YR2/1-2/2] Very Dark Brown

Sandy Loam (95%), Cobbles and Pebbles (5%)

Fill deposit. Overlies slightly darker, looser deposit (possibly the beach terrace sediment, cf. TU1 LyIII).

Kwaraka

TU1

I

[10YR2/1] Black

Loam

Sediment overlying the construction fill of the mound.

TU1

II

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Sandy Loam (50%), Large Pebbles and Cobbles (50%)

Loose, rocky construction fill, contains some 19th/20th-century material in the top 30cm of the deposit, which probably have drifted down post-deposition from LyI; lower levels contained charcoal and faunal materials.

TU1

III

[10YR2/1] Black

Sandy Loam

Sediment from the surface upon which the mound was built.

TU2

I

[10YR3/3] Dark Brown

Sandy Loam

Topsoil.

TU2

II

[10YR2/1] Black

Sandy Loam (85%), Pebbles (15%)

Occupation/paving layer from the house, which is mid-20th century or later based on artefacts (plastic pen caps, etc.).

TU2

F01 (PN65)

[10YR2/1] Black

Sand (60%), Pebbles (40%)

Drip line with three associated small (5-10cm diameter) postholes from mid-20th-century house.

TU2

III

[10YR2/1] Black

Sandy Loam

Fill deposit containing some 20th-century material.

TU2

IV

[10YR2/2] Very Dark Brown

Sandy Loam

Slightly lighter sediment, contains charcoal and faunal materials only (predates the house).

Appendix C: Summary artefact tables, Erromango and Tanna sites

Erromango Summary Artefact Table (NISP)

 

G. Gordon House

J. Gordon House

Robertson Mission

Undam

Grand Total

Alloy

2

1

6

 

9

Bar

2

2

Bullet

1

1

Button

1

4

5

Coin

1

1

Aluminum

 

 

16

 

16

Fragment

2

2

Pull tab

5

5

Screen

1

1

Washer

8

8

Architectural stone

1

 

 

 

1

Architectural stone

1

1

Basalt flake

1

 

2

13

16

Basalt flake

1

2

13

16

Bird bone

 

 

1

 

1

Gallus(?)

1

1

Bone

 

 

16

 

16

Unid. bone

16

16

Brass

 

 

1

 

1

Shotgun shell

1

1

Brick

113

 

1

 

114

Brick

113

1

114

Bronze

 

 

2

 

2

Coin

2

2

Carbon rod

 

 

4

 

4

Carbon rod

4

4

Ceramic

2

 

4

 

6

Button

1

1

Pipebowl

1

3

4

Pipestem

1

1

Charcoal

317

501

446

70

1334

Bulk

281

166

432

69

948

Coconut shell

12

119

11

1

143

Tiny/crushed

0

0

0

Twig/branch

24

3

27

Twigs/branches

216

216

Coarse EW

 

12

1

3

16

Unid.

12

1

3

16

Coconut shell

 

 

3

 

3

Armband

3

3

Copper

1

 

7

 

8

Earring

1

1

Nail

2

2

Sewing pin

2

2

Strap

1

1

Tack

1

1

Wire

1

1

Copper alloy

1

3

11

 

15

Bullet

1

1

Cap

1

1

Eyehook

1

1

Peg

1

1

Pipe

3

3

Safety pin

2

2

Sheet

1

1

Shell

1

1

Strap

3

3

Tack

1

1

Coral

6

 

1

 

7

Coral

4

1

5

Fragment

2

2

Crystal

 

 

1

 

1

Gem

1

1

Fire-cracked rock

10

37

61

14

122

Fire-cracked rock

10

37

61

14

122

Fish bone

 

 

6

 

6

Unid. fish bone

5

5

Elasmobranchii

1

1

Fish scale

 

 

1

 

1

Unid. fish scale

1

1

Garbage

 

 

10

 

10

Garbage

10

10

Glass

258

648

279

 

1185

Bead

1

1

Bottle

86

143

89

318

Bottle stopper

1

1

Bottle/jar

1

1

Drinking glass

1

1

Flake

3

2

8

13

Jar

3

3

Lightbulb

1

1

Marble

2

2

Mirror

2

2

Paste jewel

1

1

Plate

1

1

Unid.

116

36

152

Vessel

10

223

17

250

Vial

46

1

47

Window

43

193

155

391

Iron

232

204

650

 

1086

Button

2

2

Clothespin spring

1

1

Cut nail

5

10

15

Finish nail

10

10

Fragment

44

8

237

289

Grate

1

1

Hinge

1

1

Hook

1

1

Key

1

1

Nail

52

41

156

249

Rod

1

1

Round wire nail

2

15

154

171

Screw

18

18

Staple

1

1

Strap

1

1

Tack

9

9

Vessel

22

62

84

Washer

3

3

Wrought nail

111

70

47

228

Lead

3

1

1

 

5

Piece

1

1

Sheet

1

1

Solder

1

1

Strap

2

2

Limestone

1

3

4

4

12

Limestone

1

3

4

4

12

Lithic flake, unid.

 

 

1

 

1

Lithic flake, unid.

1

1

Mammal bone

 

 

54

 

54

Unid. mammal bone

6

6

Sus scrofa

4

4

Sus(?)

44

44

Mammal tooth

 

 

3

 

3

Ovis/Capra(?)

1

1

Phocidae(?)

1

1

Sus scrofa

1

1

Metal

 

 

1

 

1

Thimble

1

1

Mineral

 

 

4

 

4

Clay

4

4

Mortar

624

176

1403

 

2203

Mortar frag.

624

176

1403

2203

Nut shell

 

 

1

 

1

Nut shell

1

1

Other

 

 

1

 

1

Graphite

1

1

Plastic

 

 

21

 

21

Bead

1

1

Comb

3

3

Plastic

17

17

Porcelain

1

16

5

 

22

Closed vessel

1

4

5

Measuring cup

1

1

Open vessel

4

4

Teacup

1

1

Unid.

11

11

Pumice

 

 

20

 

20

Pumice

20

20

Red ochre

3

 

2

 

5

Red ochre

3

2

5

Red stone

 

1

3

 

4

Red stone

1

3

4

Refined EW

15

71

9

 

95

Bowl

5

5

Closed vessel

6

6

Jar

4

4

Open vessel

3

31

2

36

Plate

6

2

8

Platter

1

1

Unid.

12

18

5

35

Rubber

 

 

1

 

1

Sandal

1

1

Sea urchin spine

6

 

14

3

23

Abrader

2

2

4

Fragment

4

12

3

19

Sheetrock

 

 

7

 

7

Sheetrock

7

7

Shell

27

51

1215

14

1307

Unid. Shell

8

1

1

10

Arciidae

1

77

78

Bead

1

1

Button

1

1

Cardiidae

1

3

4

Cerithiidae

2

1

62

65

Chiton

22

22

Conidae

2

294

1

297

Crustacean

2

2

Cymatiidae

16

16

Cypraea

105

105

Gafrarium

7

7

Limpet

5

5

Mitridae

1

1

Muricidae

1

40

41

Nacellidae

6

6

Nerita

10

142

152

Nerita sp.

1

1

Polymesoda

1

1

Spondylydae

16

16

Strombidae

25

25

Terebra

3

3

Tridachna sp.

1

1

Tridacna

29

29

Trochidae

2

1

118

121

Turbo

1

30

125

156

Turbo (operculum)

30

30

Turbo sp.

2

2

Unid.

4

7

86

10

107

Veneridae

2

2

Slate

 

 

1

 

1

Slate

1

1

Stone

4

18

2

 

24

Chip

1

1

Curl

1

1

Slate pencil

4

17

21

Unid.

1

1

Stone and metal

 

 

1

 

1

Stone and metal

1

1

Stoneware

21

10

 

 

31

Closed vessel

5

5

10

Jar

1

2

3

Lid

2

2

Unid.

15

1

16

Terra Cotta

 

 

5

 

5

Flowerpot

5

5

Tin

 

 

1

 

1

Foil

1

1

Waterworn stone

2

 

 

 

2

Waterworn stone

2

2

Grand Total

1651

1753

4310

121

7835

Tanna Summary Artefact Table (NISP)

Row Labels

1912 Church

Imua Mission

Kwaraka

New Kwaraka

Watt Mission

Grand Total

Alloy

3

1

 

 

6

10

Button

1

3

4

Coin

3

3

6

Aluminum

 

 

 

 

6

6

Fragment

2

2

Plate

1

1

Washer

3

3

Basalt core

 

1

 

 

 

1

Basalt core

1

1

Basalt flake

 

29

 

6

1

36

Basalt flake

29

6

1

36

Bone

 

1

9

 

65

75

Unid. bone

9

19

28

Button

1

1

Chelonioidea(?)

1

1

Gallus(?)

2

2

Pteropus(?)

1

1

Unid.

42

42

Brass

 

 

 

 

1

1

Button

1

1

Ceramic

 

1

4

1

2

8

Figurine

1

1

Pipebowl

2

1

3

Pipestem

2

2

4

Charcoal

 

81

446

1978

508

3013

Bulk

45

326

648

480

1499

Bulk (Point Prov.)

7

7

Coconut shell

25

120

22

167

Coconut shells

1207

1207

Crushed

0

0

0

Nut shell (burned)

1

1

Point prov

15

15

Point prov charcoal

3

3

Twig/branch

2

2

Twigs/branches

11

99

110

Twigs/branches (Point prov.)

2

2

Coarse EW

 

 

 

 

2

2

Unid.

2

2

Composite

 

3

 

 

 

3

Button

3

3

Copper

1

 

 

 

 

1

Coin

1

1

Copper alloy

 

4

2

 

2

8

Fragment

2

2

Nail

1

1

Nub

1

1

Strap

3

3

Tube

1

1

Coral

 

1

 

 

2

3

Coral

1

2

3

Crustacean

 

2

 

 

 

2

Unid. Crustacean

2

2

Fire-cracked rock

 

9

6

 

53

68

Fire-cracked rock

9

6

53

68

Fish bone

 

 

2

 

1

3

Unid. fish bone

2

1

3

Fish tooth

 

 

 

 

1

1

Tetraodontidae(?)

1

1

Foam

 

 

 

 

1

1

Foam

1

1

Garbage

 

 

1

 

3

4

Garbage

1

3

4

Gill plate

 

 

 

 

1

1

Unid. gill plate

1

1

Glass

6

738

105

1

257

1107

Bead

2

2

Bottle

13

19

1

11

44

Bottle/jar

2

2

Button

1

1

2

Drinking glass

1

1

Flake

36

15

51

Marble

2

1

3

Other

1

1

Shotglass

5

5

Syringe

4

4

Vessel

30

15

45

Window

3

722

14

208

947

Glass and metal

 

 

1

 

1

2

Clasp

1

1

Lightbulb

1

1

Gum

 

 

 

 

1

1

Unid.

1

1

Human tooth

 

 

2

 

 

2

Homo sapiens

2

2

Iron

1

1641

640

102

2026

4410

Ball

1

1

Block

1

1

Box

19

19

Button

1

1

Cut nail

11

2

3

16

Eyelet

1

1

2

Finish nail

2

2

Fragment

56

611

102

1797

2566

Large fragment

1

1

Lock

1

1

Nail

87

10

81

178

Plate

1

1

Round wire nail

30

15

107

152

Screw

1

8

9

Spiral nail

1

1

Spring

1

1

Vessel

34

34

Wrought nail

1422

2

1424

Lead

 

 

1

 

 

1

Ammunition, rifle bullet

1

1

Mammal bone

 

5

107

34

9

155

Unid. mammal bone

5

64

5

74

Bos(?)

1

2

3

Sus scrofa

1

1

2

Sus(?)

41

34

1

76

Mammal bone/tooth

 

 

2

 

 

2

Sus scrofa

2

2

Mammal tooth

 

 

26

12

2

40

Unid. mammal tooth

6

6

Canis(?)

1

1

Capra(?)

2

2

Sus scrofa

18

12

30

Sus(?)

1

1

Metal

 

 

 

 

2

2

Fragment

1

1

Safety Pin

1

1

Mineral

 

 

 

 

1

1

Ochre

1

1

Mortar

9

1628

 

 

943

2580

Mortar frag.

9

1628

943

2580

Nut shell

 

 

 

 

1

1

Nut shell

1

1

Plastic

1

 

9

 

18

28

Button

1

2

3

Figurine

1

1

Fragment

2

2

Pen

1

1

Pen cap

2

2

Plastic

5

11

16

Plate

1

1

Rope

1

1

Toothbrush

1

1

Porcelain

 

 

 

 

2

2

Closed vessel

2

2

Pumice

 

 

 

 

1

1

Pumice

1

1

Red ochre

 

3

 

76

 

79

Red ochre

3

76

79

Refined EW

 

2735

 

 

2

2737

Bowl

11

11

Chamberpot

50

50

Knob

1

1

Open vessel

381

1

382

Other

2

2

Plate

2

2

Strainer

9

9

Unid.

2280

2280

Sea urchin spine

 

29

 

 

20

49

Abrader

1

1

Fragment

29

19

48

Seed

 

 

 

2

 

2

Seed

2

2

Shell

2

569

161

103

1383

2218

Unid. Shell

2

2

Arcidae

19

19

Arciidae

6

178

184

Buccinidae

2

2

Cerithiidae

140

1

61

202

Chiton

1

12

13

Conidae

18

5

160

183

Conidae(?)

1

1

Conus

28

28

Cowrie

3

3

Crustacean

1

4

5

Cymatiidae

3

3

Cymattidae

10

10

Cypraea

24

3

3

135

165

Gafrarium

49

2

51

Limpet

33

50

83

Muricidae

2

4

18

24

Nerita

28

3

55

86

Olividae

1

1

Ostreidae

9

9

Pectinidae

2

2

Pendant

1

1

Polymesoda

13

13

Pulmonadae

10

167

177

Spondylydae

1

46

47

Strombidae

4

1

6

11

Tonnidae

1

1

Tridacna

2

2

Triton

59

59

Trochidae

36

17

126

179

Turbo

20

53

97

166

336

Turbo (operculum)

18

37

55

Unid.

1

61

45

3

151

261

Stainless

 

 

 

 

1

1

Straight pin

1

1

Stone

 

3

 

2

16

21

Adze

2

2

Pendant

1

1

Red crystal

6

6

Slate pencil

3

3

6

Tool

1

1

Volcanic rock

5

5

Stoneware

 

4

 

 

2

6

Bottle

1

1

Jar

1

1

Open vessel

1

1

Unid.

2

2

Vessel

1

1

Wood

25

 

 

 

 

25

Wood

25

25

Writing slate

 

15

 

 

34

49

Writing slate

15

34

49

Grand Total

48

7503

1524

2317

5377

16769

Appendix D: Radiocarbon dates

BETA Sample No.

Deposit

calAD(68%)

calAD(95%)

Conventional 14C Age

389338

TN/KW New Kwaraka Mound 9/TU6 Construction Fill

1665–1805

1655–post-1950

210 +/-30BP

389339

TN/KW New Kwaraka Mound 9/TU6 Base of Excavations (120cmbs)

1510–1645

1500–1655

330 +/-30BP

389340

TN/KW Watt Mission Burial Context

1155–1215

1055–1225

910 +/-30 BP

389341

ER/DB Robertson House TU6 Base of Excavations

1700–post-1950

1680–post-1950

130 +/-30 BP

Appendix E: Museum objects sorted by museum and island

Note: Island names in bold, objects from each island follow below. Because of page size limitations, list is composed of two sections: Section 1 covers (alphabetically) the museums from Auckland to Nova Scotia; Section 2 covers (alphabetically) the museums from Otago to Weltmuseum and the Grand Total.

Section 1: Auckland Museum-Nova Scotia Museum

Island

Auckland Museum

Australian Museum

Hunterian Museum

Museums Glasgow

National Museum of Scotland

New Brunswick Museum

Nova Scotia Museum

Ambrym

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Arrow

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Aneityum

3

14

1

14

33

 

2

Adze, stone

1

 

 

1

3

 

 

Basket

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

Bead

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Belt

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Blindfold

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Canoe model

 

 

1

1

1

 

 

Club

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Comb

1

 

 

1

 

 

 

Coral

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Dance club

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Doigtier/spear thrower

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

Drill bit

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Feather ornament

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

Fish gouge

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

Flute

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Greenstone pendant

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

Head scratcher

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

House model

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Kava bowl

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

Love charm

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Magic stone

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

Neck rest

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

Necklace

 

 

 

1

2

 

 

Pendant

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Sacred stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Shell scraper

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

Skirt

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

Sleeping mat

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Sling

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Slit gong

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Stone axe

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Tapa

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Whale’s tooth pendant

 

7

 

 

 

 

 

Wooden tool

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Aniwa

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Basket

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Anuta/Erro?

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comb

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Efate

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Canoe model

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Emae

 

 

 

5

1

 

 

Fan

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Shell ornament

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

Erromango

7

120

3

12

24

1

24

Costume piece

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adze, shell

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

Adze, stone

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

Apron

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arrow

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basalt

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Basket and bundles, magic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Belt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bow

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Candlenut

 

19

 

 

 

 

 

Carved bamboo

 

1

 

 

4

 

 

Club

1

32

3

4

9

 

9

Coconut shell armband

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

Comb

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

Coral charm

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Dagger

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Digging stick

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Drill

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

Fish palate charm

 

12

 

 

 

 

 

Hatchet

 

1

 

 

1

 

 

Headrest

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Magic stone

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

Necklace

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Quartzite

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Quiver

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quiver/arrows

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Red ochre

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Sacred stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scraper

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Sinker

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Skirt

 

4

 

4

3

1

 

Sleeping mat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Slit gong

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Stone money

1

13

 

 

1

 

4

Tapa

1

6

 

2

2

 

4

Tapa beater

 

2

 

 

3

 

7

Throwing club

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Whale’s tooth necklace

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Erromango(?)

 

13

 

 

 

 

 

Miniature pot

 

13

 

 

 

 

 

Futuna

 

18

 

13

29

 

 

Abrader

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basket

 

 

 

4

1

 

 

Box

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Canoe model

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Club

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Coconut shell armband

 

4

 

4

3

 

 

Coral gods

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

Ear plug

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Earring

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Greenstone pendant

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

Pearl shell

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

Pearl shell ornament

 

3

 

 

19

 

 

Sacred stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shell armlet

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Throwing club

 

2

 

 

1

 

 

Tortoise shell

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Whale’s tooth pendant

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

Malakula

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

Adze, shell

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figurine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pearl shell ornament

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Shell ornament

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

New Caledonia

2

 

 

5

2

 

 

Adze, greenstone

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doigtier/spear thrower

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

Necklace

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Pearl shell ornament

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

New Caledonia/New Hebrides

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Adze, greenstone

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

New Hebrides

14

4

3

36

27

67

39

Adze

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Adze, limestone

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Adze, shell

 

 

 

 

3

10

 

Adze, stone

 

1

 

 

2

6

14

Armguard

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Arrow

 

 

 

 

 

18

 

Axe handle

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Bamboo

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Basket

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bead

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Belt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Boomerang

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bow

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

Canoe model

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Carved bamboo

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Chisel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Club

5

 

 

3

1

 

3

Coconut shell armband

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comb

1

 

 

 

8

10

 

Cord

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Dance club

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Ear plug

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Ear spool

 

 

 

1

 

2

 

Earring

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

Fan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fishhook

 

 

 

1

 

2

 

Flute

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Greenstone

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Greenstone pendant

 

 

 

1

6

 

 

Hair

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hat, Western

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hatchet

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Headrest

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Kava bowl

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Kava root

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Lasso

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

Musical instrument

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

Neck rest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Necklace

1

 

 

1

1

4

 

Paddle

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Pan pipes

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

Pearl shell ornament

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

Pig tusk

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Pipe

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

Pottery

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pudding knife

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

Sacred stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sandalwood

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Scraper

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shell ornament

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Shell trumpet

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Skirt

 

 

 

3

 

1

 

Sleeping mat

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Spear

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Spiderweb cone

2

 

 

 

 

1

 

Spiderweb purse

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Stone tool

 

 

 

3

4

 

 

Tapa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tapa beater

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Throwing club

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

Whale’s tooth pendant

 

 

 

4

 

5

 

Yam knife

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tanna

8

20

1

8

6

2

1

‘Death stone’

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adze, shell

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Adze, stone

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arrow

1

 

 

 

 

1

 

Bamboo

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Bamboo ‘churn’

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Belt

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Bow

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Bracelet

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Club

2

2

 

1

1

 

1

Coconut shell armband

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earring

 

2

 

1

 

 

 

Feather ornament

 

 

 

2

1

 

 

Greenstone pendant

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hair

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

Necklace

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

Pan pipes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pearl shell ornament

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Polished stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seed pod

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

Shell money

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Shell ornament

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Skirt

 

1

 

 

1

 

 

Slaying stone

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Stone ‘adze’

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stone axe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Throwing club

 

5

1

1

2

 

 

Yam stone

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Tongoa

 

 

 

2

1

 

 

Adze, stone

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Breastplate

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Canoe model

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Grand Total (each museum)

35

189

8

97

127

70

66

Section 2: Otago Museum-Grand Total (all museums)

Island

Otago Museum

Queensland Museum

Redpath Museum

Royal Ontario Museum

University of Aberdeen Museums

Welt-museum

Grand Total (all museums)

Ambrym

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Arrow

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Aneityum

 

 

1

 

2

 

70

Adze, stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Basket

 

 

1

 

 

 

3

Bead

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Belt

 

 

 

 

1

 

2

Blindfold

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Canoe model

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Club

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Comb

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Coral

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Dance club

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Doigtier/spear thrower

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Drill Bit

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Feather ornament

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Fish gouge

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Flute

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Greenstone pendant

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Head scratcher

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

House model

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Kava bowl

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Love charm

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Magic stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Neck rest

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Necklace

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Pendant

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Sacred stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Shell scraper

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

Skirt

 

 

 

 

1

 

4

Sleeping mat

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Sling

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Slit gong

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Stone axe

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Tapa

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Whale’s tooth pendant

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

Wooden tool

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Aniwa

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Basket

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Anuta/Erro?

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Comb

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Aoba

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

Kava bowl

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

Efate

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Canoe model

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Emae

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

Fan

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Shell ornament

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Epi/Paama

 

 

 

1

 

 

1

Club

 

 

 

1

 

 

1

Erromango

4

11

70

6

11

41

334

‘Costume piece’

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

Adze, shell

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Adze, stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

Apron

 

 

 

 

 

3

3

Arrow

 

 

38

1

 

27

70

Basalt

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Basket and bundles, magic

 

 

5

 

 

 

5

Belt

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

Bow

 

 

 

1

1

4

6

Candlenut

 

 

 

 

 

 

19

Carved bamboo

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Club

1

9

2

 

8

3

81

Coconut shell armband

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Comb

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Coral charm

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Dagger

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

Digging stick

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Drill

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Fish palate charm

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

Hatchet

 

 

 

 

1

 

3

Headrest

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Magic stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Necklace

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Quartzite

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Quiver

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

Quiver/arrows

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Red ochre

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Sacred stone

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

Scraper

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Sinker

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Skirt

 

1

16

2

 

 

31

Sleeping mat

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

Slit gong

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Stone money

2

 

1

 

 

 

22

Tapa

 

1

4

2

 

 

22

Tapa beater

 

 

3

 

 

 

15

Throwing club

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Whale’s tooth necklace

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Erromango(?)

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

Miniature pot

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

Futuna

3

 

 

 

3

 

66

Abrader

2

 

 

 

 

 

2

Basket

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Box

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Canoe model

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Club

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Coconut shell armband

 

 

 

 

 

 

11

Coral gods

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Ear plug

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Earring

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Greenstone pendant

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Pearl shell

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Pearl shell ornament

 

 

 

 

3

 

25

Sacred stone

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

Shell armlet

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Throwing club

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Tortoise shell

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Whale’s tooth pendant

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Malakula

 

 

 

1

1

 

4

Adze, shell

 

 

 

1

 

 

1

Figurine

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

Pearl shell ornament

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Shell ornament

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Malakula, Solomon Is.

 

3

 

 

 

 

3

Ear spool

 

3

 

 

 

 

3

New Caledonia

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

Adze, greenstone

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Doigtier/spear thrower

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Necklace

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Pearl shell ornament

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

New Caledonia/New Hebrides

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Adze, greenstone

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

New Hebrides

3

5

46

15

15

7

281

Adze

 

 

 

 

5

 

6

Adze, limestone

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Adze, shell

 

 

2

3

 

 

18

Adze, stone

 

 

8

1

 

 

32

Armguard

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Arrow

 

 

 

 

 

 

18

Axe handle

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Bamboo

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Basket

 

 

1

 

1

1

4

Bead

 

 

 

2

 

 

3

Belt

 

 

 

1

 

 

1

Boomerang

 

 

 

 

4

 

4

Bow

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Canoe model

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Carved bamboo

 

2

5

 

 

 

8

Chisel

 

 

 

1

 

 

1

Club

 

 

 

6

1

1

20

Coconut shell armband

1

 

8

 

3

 

12

Comb

 

 

10

 

 

2

31

Cord

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Dance club

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Ear plug

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Ear spool

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Earring

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Fan

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

Fishhook

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Flute

 

1

 

1

 

 

3

Greenstone

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Greenstone pendant

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

Hair

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

Hat, Western

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

Hatchet

1

 

 

 

 

 

3

Headrest

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Kava bowl

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Kava root

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Lasso

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Musical instrument

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Neck rest

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

Necklace

 

 

5

 

 

 

12

Paddle

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Pan pipes

 

 

 

 

 

1

3

Pearl shell ornament

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Pig tusk

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Pipe

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Pottery

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

Pudding knife

 

 

1

 

 

 

7

Sacred stone

1

 

1

 

 

 

2

Sandalwood

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Scraper

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Shell ornament

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Shell trumpet

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Skirt

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Sleeping mat

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Spear

 

 

 

 

 

1

5

Spiderweb cone

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Spiderweb purse

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Stone tool

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

Tapa

 

2

 

 

 

 

2

Tapa beater

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Throwing club

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Whale’s tooth pendant

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

Yam knife

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

Tanna

7

2

 

 

3

2

60

‘Death stone’

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

Adze, shell

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Adze, stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Arrow

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Bamboo

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Bamboo ‘churn’

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

Belt

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Bow

 

 

 

 

 

1

2

Bracelet

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Club

 

2

 

 

2

 

11

Coconut shell armband

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

Earring

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Feather ornament

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Greenstone pendant

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

Hair

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Necklace

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Pan pipes

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

Pearl shell ornament

1

 

 

 

 

 

2

Polished stone

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

Seed pod

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Shell money

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Shell ornament

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Skirt

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Slaying stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Stone ‘adze’

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Stone axe

 

 

 

 

 

1

1

Throwing club

 

 

 

 

1

 

10

Yam stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Tongoa

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Adze, stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Breastplate

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Canoe model

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Grand Total (each museum)

18

21

117

23

35

50

Total Assemblage: 856


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