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An Archaeology of Early Christianity in Vanuatu

List of Figures

Figure 1.1 Map of southern Vanuatu, including islands and communities mentioned in the text.

Figure 2.1 Map of lo (districts) on Erromango, and sites mentioned in text. Note that division boundaries are approximate only and meant to be for general reference.

Figure 2.2 A traditional Erromangan garden.

Figure 2.3 Siman lo (men’s house) at Dillon’s Bay, Erromango.

Figure 2.4 Marker of John Williams’ grave, Apia, Samoa.

Figure 2.5 Event landscape covering the death of John Williams and James Harris (see text for explanation of features).

Figure 2.6 Plan of G. Gordon House.

Figure 2.7 Closing plan photograph and stratigraphic profile of TU1/2/3, G. Gordon House. Note that the vertical scale of the profile drawing has been distorted to make the layering clearer.

Figure 2.8 Stratigraphic profiles, TU6, G. Gordon House.

Figure 2.9 Stratigraphic profiles, TU5, G. Gordon House.

Figure 2.10 Decorated ceramics, including transfer-printed whitewares and Chinese porcelain (second from right on bottom row).

Figure 2.11 Event landscape covering the deaths of George and Ellen Gordon (point 1: G. Gordon Mission house; point 4: ‘guard’s house’, apparently belonging to a native guard meant to protect the house; point 5: Vedavil Stream, the nearest water source; see text for explanation of features 2 and 3).

Figure 2.12 Burned bottle glass shards from G. Gordon House.

Figure 2.13 Mission building, Cook’s Bay.

Figure 2.14 Archaeological features in and around Potnuma.

Figure 2.15 Petroglyphs at Malap.

Figure 2.16 Petroglyphs at Bomtal associated with oral traditions about Sou Sou.

Figure 2.17 Plan map of James Gordon’s church at Potnuma.

Figure 2.18 Plan of J. Gordon House.

Figure 2.19 Surface artefacts from J. Gordon House.

Figure 2.20 Stratigraphic profiles, TU1, J. Gordon House.

Figure 2.21 Stratigraphic profiles, TU2, J. Gordon House.

Figure 2.22 Glass artefacts from J. Gordon House.

Figure 2.23 Ceramic manufacturers’ marks and other markings, J. Gordon House.

Figure 2.24 ‘Minerva’ transfer-pattern ceramics, J. Gordon House.

Figure 2.25 Slate pencil fragments, J. Gordon House.

Figure 2.26 Tabu tree where Nerimpau’s body was hung.

Figure 2.27 Sea turtle-shaped memorial to James Gordon, Potnuma.

Figure 2.28 Plan of Robertson House, Dillon’s Bay.

Figure 2.29 Stratigraphic profiles, TU1, Robertson House.

Figure 2.30 Map of stone walls in the Robertson Mission compound.

Figure 2.31 Stratigraphic profiles, TU2/5/6, Robertson House.

Figure 2.32 Plan and cross-section of earth oven features and stone alignment, TU4, Robertson House.

Figure 2.33 British (left) and French (right) coins from TU1, Robertson House.

Figure 3.1 Map of netata (land divisions) on Tanna, including sites and locations mentioned in the text. Note that division boundaries are approximate only and meant to be for general reference.

Figure 3.2 Kava-drinking ground near Waisisi.

Figure 3.3 ‘Yam gardens, East Tanna’, Symons Collection, Australian Museum (AMS354–244).

Figure 3.4 Archaeological features, Kwamera area, south Tanna.

Figure 3.5 Plan map of survey area, Kwaraka and Anuikaraka.

Figure 3.6 Surface features, Kwaraka.

Figure 3.7 Imwarim (kava-drinking ground) at Irumien.

Figure 3.8 Nukwei nuk (yam stones).

Figure 3.9 Surface features, Anuikaraka.

Figure 3.10 Mound 9 plan and TU6 stratigraphic profile, Anuikaraka.

Figure 3.11 View along ‘the fish’s tail’, Port Resolution. The small outcrop on the far right of the peninsula is named ‘Captain Cook’.

Figure 3.12 Port Resolution area site locations.

Figure 3.13 Schematic of the later mission compound at Port Resolution (1: mission church; 2: mission house; 3: printing house; 4: Agnes Watt grave; 5: boat landing). Forms and locations of features are approximate only.

Figure 3.14 Old mission bell in a tree, Port Resolution.

Figure 3.15 Plan of Imua Mission.

Figure 3.16 Stratigraphic profile, TU3, Imua Mission.

Figure 3.17 Stratigraphic profiles, TU1/2/4/5, Imua Mission.

Figure 3.18 Plan of western excavation area after removal of the topsoil revealed the full extent of stone alignments, and concentration of building materials and artefacts from the mission house at Imua.

Figure 3.19 In situ concentration of lime mortar fragments and ceramic sherds, Imua.

Figure 3.20 Lime mortar fragments with wattle impressions, Imua.

Figure 3.21 Hand-wrought iron nails, possibly bent intentionally, Imua.

Figure 3.22 Buttons from Imua (top row, from left: three iron with blue glass paste jewel, one copper alloy disc; bottom row, from left: handmade bone button with three holes, mother of pearl disc with copper alloy shank).

Figure 3.23 Nerita shell pendant, Imua.

Figure 3.24 Ceramic sheep’s head, Imua.

Figure 3.25 ‘Arcadia’ transfer pattern, Imua.

Figure 3.26 Other transfer patterns from Imua (see text for details).

Figure 3.27 Selter’s stoneware mineral water bottle from Imua.

Figure 3.28 Ceramic vessel forms, vessels are whiteware with Arcadia transfer-pattern unless otherwise indicated.

Figure 3.29 Canoe mound where Paru rested when not at sea, Kwaraka.

Figure 3.30 Detail plan of excavation locations in Enclosure 1 (‘New Kwaraka’), Anuikaraka.

Figure 3.31 Stratigraphic profiles, TU1/2/3/4/5, Enclosure 1 (‘New Kwaraka’), Anuikaraka.

Figure 4.1 Photograph of the Watt Mission compound in the 1890s.

Figure 4.2 Plan of the Watt Mission area, showing test unit locations.

Figure 4.3 Stratigraphic profiles, TU1, Watt Mission.

Figure 4.4 Plan of the human burial, TU1, Watt Mission.

Figure 4.5 Close up of excavation photograph, TU7, Watt Mission.

Figure 4.6 Stratigraphic profile, TU2, Watt Mission.

Figure 4.7 Stratigraphic profiles, TU3/4/5/6, Watt Mission.

Figure 4.8 Writing slate fragments from TU3, Watt Mission.

Figure 4.9 Stoneware ink jar fragment, Watt Mission.

Figure 4.10 Waisisi area features.

Figure 4.11 ‘Nitela’, the large natapoa tree planted by Shipi to mark the end of the Shipimanwawa conflict.

Figure 4.12 Detail of a land survey plan by William Gray of mission land in Waisisi.

Figure 4.13 Mission steps, Waisisi.

Figure 4.14 Mission bell (top) and Triton shell trumpets (bottom), Waisisi.

Figure 4.15 Goat pen, Waisisi.

Figure 4.16 Grave of Lomai, Lenakel.

Figure 4.17 Lenakel area features.

Figure 4.18 Topographic map and hillshade showing the Lenakel church on its terrace. Approximately 3,500m3 of earth were moved to make room for the church.

Figure 4.19 Detail of footings stratigraphy and foundation plans as they changed through time, Lenakel church.

Figure 4.20 Repurposed top-plate used as a roof support pillar, Lenakel church.

Figure 4.21 Detailed plan and elevation of the Lenakel church.

Figure 4.22 Nicholson House plan, Lenakel.

Figure 4.23 ‘Nun’s’ house, Lenakel.

Figure 4.24 Mission hospital foundation features, Lenakel.

Figure 4.25 Central cluster of mounds and house alignment, Kwaraka.

Figure 4.26 Stratigraphic profile, Mound 4, TU1, Kwaraka.

Figure 4.27 Stratigraphic profiles, House 1, TU2, Kwaraka.

Figure 5.1 Iron hatchets hafted on carved wooden club handles, probably from the 1800s. Curated in Dillon’s Bay by Thomas Poki.

Figure 5.2 Sacred stones from Aneityum.

Figure 5.3 Navela (stone money) from Erromango.

Figure 5.4 The two main Erromangan club forms (above, telugohmti star-headed club; below, netnivri spindle-headed club).

Figure 5.5 Nemasitse (barkcloth) with writing, man on horseback as well as traditional designs.

Figure 5.6 Neko (barkcloth beaters) from Erromango.

Figure 5.7 Carved bamboo combs from Erromango.

Figure 5.8 Necklaces of shell, pig tusk, and whale’s tooth from southern Vanuatu (2009.11.2: shell necklace with glass beads; 2009.11.3: necklace of pig’s tusk beads, Aneityum; 2009.11.4: polished cone shell tops; 2009.11.5: cowrie shells on fibre cord; 2009.11.6: whale’s tooth and whale’s tooth-shaped pendants).

Figure 5.9 Pearl shell pendants.

Figure 5.10 Shark’s tooth dagger, said to be from Erromango but the form is typical of Kiribati.

Figure 5.11 Melanesian Mission building at Kohimarama/Mission Bay, formerly used as a museum displaying objects collected by the missionaries.

Figure 5.12 Acts of Apostles in the Kwamera language, printed at the Glasgow Foundry Boys Society Press on Tanna by William Gray in 1881.

Figure 5.13 Polished wooden headrest, Tanna. (Weltmuseum; Inv. Nr. 8, Neckrest, Island of Tanna, New Hebrides, Vanuatu, Coll. James Cook [1774], Weltmuseum Wien 1806 [former: Museum für Völkerkunde, Wien, 1806]. Polished wood [the root of a tree, mangrove ?]. Measurements: L. 28.5 cm, W. 12.5 cm, H. 17 cm.)

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