New Perspectives in Southeast Asian and Pacific Prehistory
I will always remember the hard digging down the deepest trenches, the hoping and hoping for something special, the fine sieving, the heat and dust, and conversely the heat and rainforest humidity, and of course the local workers, the graduate students, and the many colleagues and past teachers … (interview with Peter Bellwood, 2011).
A brief introduction
Peter Bellwood is known for his decades of contributions to Asian and Pacific archaeology, responsible for formulating the fundamental chronological sequences of the region and situating these findings within broader contexts of human migrations, the ‘farming/language dispersal hypothesis’, origins and spread of Austronesian cultures, and interdisciplinary approaches to prehistory. The worldwide impact of Peter’s work is evident in more than 300 academic publications since 1967, translations and updated revised editions of his major books, more than 50 invitations as a key speaker in international conferences, and as supervisor to more than 30 graduate students who have filled professional positions in Australia, USA, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Laos, Thailand, Japan, Hong Kong, China and Taiwan (see list of students this chapter).
Many of Peter’s colleagues link his name with The Australian National University (ANU) and with the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association (IPPA), which indeed comprised two of his chief occupations for some decades, among several other activities. Peter’s tenured posts began as Lecturer in Prehistory at University of Auckland in 1967–1972, followed by a succession of positions at ANU as Lecturer in Prehistory (1973–1975), Senior Lecturer in Prehistory (1976–1983), Reader in Archaeology (1984–1999), Professor of Archaeology (2000–2013), and currently as Emeritus Professor of Archaeology since September 2013. Concurrent with his employment duties at ANU, Peter devoted many sustained years of service as the Secretary or Secretary General of the IPPA (Figure 1.1) while also acting as editor of the Association’s publication Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, 1978–2009. Further, Peter has been a Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities since 1983, a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy since 2016, a member of editorial boards of journals such as Antiquity, Asian Perspectives, and Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, and he is the Honorary Editor of Journal of Austronesian Studies.
Figure 1.1 Peter Bellwood (centre) attending the 15th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association at Chiang Mai, Thailand, in 1994, with (from left to right) Trinh Nang Chung, Ha Van Tan, Vu The Long, Nguyen Kim Dung, Hoang Xuan Chinh and Bui Vinh.
Source: Courtesy of Peter Bellwood.
Born in Leicester, England, in 1943, Peter followed his interest in archaeology from a young age. He completed his academic degrees at the University of Cambridge (Figure 1.2), including a BA in 1966, MA in 1969, and PhD by publication in 1980. By the time of receiving his PhD, Peter had already published an impressive roster of works that continue to influence archaeological research today. His first academic publication in 1967 was concerning ‘A Roman dam in the Wadi Caam, Tripolitania’, printed in Libya Antiqua (IV: 41–44). Ever since then, Peter’s published work has been based on his years of research in Asia and the Pacific, including his pioneering directions in cross-regional syntheses and interdisciplinary coordination of archaeology with historical linguistics, human biology, and other perspectives.
Source: Courtesy of Peter Bellwood.
One of the hallmarks of Peter’s career has involved seeing the ‘big picture’ of regional and cross-regional archaeology, augmented by his direct field experience in New Zealand, the Cook Islands, the Marquesas Islands, the Talaud Islands, Brunei, western Malaysia, India, Sabah, Sarawak, Maluku, the Batanes Islands, northern Vietnam, southern Vietnam, northern Luzon, Taiwan, Bali, and Kalimantan. As early as 1975, Peter had already established his reputation as a grand synthesiser with the publication of an influential research article ‘The Prehistory of Oceania’ in Current Anthropology (16: 9–28). This early success was magnified with the publication of two books in 1978. The Polynesians (Thames and Hudson, 1978) was later translated into French (1983) and Japanese (1985). Man’s Conquest of the Pacific (Collins, 1978) proposed a novel integration of Southeast Asian and Pacific archaeology, later re-printed by Oxford University Press (1979) and translated into Russian (1986) and Japanese (1989). Yet his major regional synthesis was Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago, first published by Academic Press in 1985 and subsequently undergoing a number of reprints, revised editions, and language translations, with the latest fourth edition currently (2017) in production by Wiley-Blackwell as Prehistory and Human Migration in Island Southeast Asia.
Peter’s insights into the interlinking of Asian and Pacific archaeology have been tied to the recognition of the widespread Austronesian-speaking communities, their language histories, and the connections between those language histories and archaeological evidence of the pan-regional spread of farming societies. This work has made Austronesian prehistory in the Asia-Pacific into one of the world’s classic textbook examples of human migrations attested in archaeology. It has further been associated with the ‘farming/language dispersal hypothesis’, concerning how the world’s major patterns of language groups reflect the migrations of farming societies in antiquity. Perhaps the broadest recognition of Peter’s output regarding the Austronesian synthesis began with his 1991 research article ‘The Austronesian dispersal and the origin of languages’ (Scientific American 265/1: 88–93), followed in 1995 by the edited volume (with James Fox and Darrell Tryon) The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (published by Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, ANU). Related to larger issues of human migrations, Peter co-edited (with Colin Renfrew) Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis (2002, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research), and he most recently edited The Global Prehistory of Human Migration (2015, Wiley-Blackwell), in addition to his sole-authored monographs such as First Farmers (2005, Blackwell) and First Migrants (2013, Wiley-Blackwell). Without exaggeration, these products can be said to have changed the picture of world archaeology, noting that First Farmers received the Society for American Archaeology Book Award as well as the Association for American Publishers Award for Excellence in Professional and Scholarly Publishing, and so far it has been translated into Japanese (2008) and Vietnamese (2010). A special section of Antiquity was published in Peter’s honour in 2011 (vol. 85).
As someone who has produced so much material, with broad regional coverage and touching on enduring central research themes of world archaeology, Peter has been no stranger to controversy at different points in his career. Admirably, he has revised and updated his work according to new developing ideas and datasets, not the least of which have included his own efforts. The ever-improving nature is evident from looking at Peter’s earlier work in comparison to later editions and newer products, which simultaneously have proven the long-term value of Peter’s primary contributions and have served as inspiration for generations of scholars.
As any student or colleague working with Peter can affirm, his legendary knowledge of Asian and Pacific archaeology is matched only by his enthusiastic support of others. Peter’s years of teaching and major funded research projects have provided life-changing opportunities for countless students and professional colleagues internationally, as seen at least partially in the chapters of this book. This volume illustrates just a sample of the depth and breadth of Peter’s impact and influence. Undoubtedly, we can expect to see more, as Emeritus Professor Peter Bellwood remains an active and leading figure in archaeology.
Interview with Peter Bellwood
In 2011, Professor Shuicheng Li of Peking University in Beijing invited Hsiao-chun Hung to conduct an interview with Professor Peter Bellwood, as part of the ‘World Distinguished Scholar Series’ of Journal of Cultural Relics in Southern China (Nanfang Wenwu). Twelve questions were asked by Hung about Peter’s student life, research career, current work, and the role of Chinese archaeology. The completed version of the 2011 interview was translated by Hung into Chinese and then published by the journal in China during the same year (Bellwood and Hung 2011). In the interview, Peter talked about his study of ancient Austronesian migration, the development and testing of the ‘farming/language dispersal hypothesis’, and the significance of Neolithic farmers in worldwide perspective. He additionally gave valuable advice for students who are interested in studying archaeology. The following interview record is based on the 2011 version, with a few new questions added in January 2015.
Q1: You have been known as the representative figure of research on Southeast Asian and Pacific archaeology since the 1970s. Could you please tell us how your interest started in this region?
I became interested in archaeology at age 17 in 1960, through reading popular books on the topic. At this time, I was an apprentice shoe machinery worker in Leicester, England, my city of birth. After finishing my university entrance studies I was able to get a State Scholarship to Cambridge University (King’s College) in 1963, where I studied Roman and European archaeology for my BA degree (1966) (Figure 1.3). The professor at that time was Grahame Clark, an authority on economic archaeology and the European Mesolithic. I was also taught by Edmund Leach (social anthropology), Glyn Daniel (European Neolithic), John Coles (European archaeology), Eric Higgs (economic archaeology), Brian Hope-Taylor (Anglo-Saxon archaeology) and Joan Liversidge (Roman archaeology). As a student I was able to take part in archaeological field projects in Tunisia, Libya, France, Denmark, Turkey and Iran, as well as on Roman and Medieval excavations in England.
Source: Courtesy of Peter Bellwood.
My Cambridge archaeology background always kept me interested in the relations between archaeology, history and human culture. I was still an undergraduate student when the ‘New Archaeology’ hit American and British archaeology in the mid-1960s, but I was never able to develop an interest in the more mechanistic aspects of this rather anti-historical approach to the human past. History, evolution and migration always remained my central interests, as they are today. As a student I became very interested in the archaeology of Polynesia, through reading the writings of the pioneer archaeologist Robert Suggs. Polynesia in the 1960s was a very romantic place, and the scene of a great human migration that had puzzled Western minds for over 200 years. In 1966, I applied for a job as a lecturer in archaeology at Auckland University in New Zealand, and emigrated from England to New Zealand in early 1967, then aged 23 and still without a PhD. At that time, the expansion of universities in the British Commonwealth was so strong that people with specialised bachelor degrees from Oxford and Cambridge were able to get tenurable teaching positions. This would be unthinkable nowadays, and a PhD is rightly essential for all advancement. I received my PhD from Cambridge in 1980, after submitting four of my books and monographs in lieu of writing a thesis (Cambridge University had special regulations to allow this for its former students who, like me, had full-time teaching positions and hence were unable to devote three years to writing a specialist thesis).
I spent six years at Auckland University, and during this time I came to understand the importance of historical linguistics in reconstructing the past, via my colleagues Roger Green and Andrew Pawley. I carried out fieldwork in Polynesia (Figure 1.4), in New Zealand itself from 1967–1970, in the Society and Marquesas Islands in 1967–1968 (with Yosihiko Sinoto of the Bishop Museum in Honolulu), and in the Cook Islands from 1968–1972. In 1972, I was invited by Professor John Mulvaney to apply for a lectureship in a new Department of Prehistory that he had just founded in The Australian National University in Canberra. I moved there in 1973, and am still there now (but it is now called the School of Archaeology and Anthropology, College of Arts and Social Sciences).
During my time in Auckland a distant relative, Peter Lewin, who worked as a publisher’s agent in London, contacted me. Peter was very helpful because he suggested I apply for contracts to write books for international publishers. By 1978 I had my first two books published – Man’s Conquest of the Pacific (Collins, Auckland, and Oxford University Press, New York) and The Polynesians (Thames and Hudson, London). During this time, between about 1970 and 1978, I was thinking broadly about the whole prehistory of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, in terms of the archaeology, the biological anthropology, and the comparative linguistics. At that time, comparative linguistics was actually quite far ahead of both archaeology and biological anthropology in its power to interpret Austronesian population history (the modern science of population genetics was only in its infancy then, and had little useful to say on such issues). Because of this, I discovered the tremendous importance of the linguistic population that we today term ‘the Austronesians’, and of the archaeological record that can putatively be associated with their remote ancestors.
Source: Courtesy of Peter Bellwood.
Q2: We learned from your publications that you have worked on many sites in many countries. Could you tell us how your research focus has changed over the last decades?
Due to my growing interest in Austronesian prehistory, and in the expansion history of Neolithic populations in general, I ceased my Polynesian research in 1972 and moved into Island Southeast Asia, continuing my research over many years in eastern Indonesia (Talaud Islands and northern Moluccas), East Malaysia (Sabah, northern Borneo), and the Batanes Islands (northern Philippines). It was obvious then, as now, that Polynesia was simply the end of the line for ancient Oceanic voyaging, despite its huge extent and the vast distances between islands. The Austronesians had not evolved their foundation of cultural and linguistic characteristics in Polynesia, but far to the west in southern China and Island Southeast Asia (an earlier idea that ancestral Polynesians arrived via the Americas was no longer held seriously by the 1970s). Since 1974, most of my fieldwork has therefore been focused within Southeast Asia
Source: Courtesy of Peter Bellwood.
Many of my students during the period from 1978 onwards also came from Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines and Taiwan, and all carried out valuable fieldwork in these regions (Figures 1.5 and 1.6). Since 2004 my research and fieldwork interests have also moved into Vietnam, but my interests have always remained most strongly focused on the Neolithic. Of course, I have worked on the archaeology of many other periods as well – Palaeolithic in Indonesia, Hoabinhian in Malaysia, Indian contact in Indonesia at ca. 2,000 years ago, Bronze Age in northern Vietnam, ceramic trade in recent prehistory in Island Southeast Asia – but my central interest has always remained the history of early food-producing populations, their economies and their languages.
Today, my research focus has moved into worldwide issues with the first being the expansions of early food-producing populations in all continents, which I discussed in my 2005 book First Farmers. More recently, I have published my book First Migrants (Wiley-Blackwell 2013), which covers the prehistory of human migration everywhere, from African hominins at 2 million years ago to eastern Polynesians at only 800 years ago. I have also edited Global Prehistory of Human Migration for Wiley-Blackwell (2015), a book that contains over 50 chapters by many authors on all aspects of ancient human migration from archaeological, linguistic and genetic perspectives.
Source: Courtesy of Hsiao-chun Hung.
Q3: What are some of the more memorable places where you have conducted field research?
My earliest experiences remain most strongly in my mind. These include my first pre-university excavations as a volunteer and site supervisor at Cirencester and Leicester (both Roman cities) in England in 1961–1963; as a volunteer at Herculaneum in Italy in 1963; tracing archaeological remains with my Cambridge contemporary Norman Hammond along a Roman road in Tunisia and Libya in 1964; excavating a tepe in the province of Luristan, western Iran, with Clare Goff in 1966; excavating rock shelters in the Marquesas Islands in French Polynesia with Yosihiko Sinoto in 1967; and then starting my own research projects with my own students in New Zealand and the Cook Islands in 1967 and 1968. In 1974 I carried out my first research in Southeast Asia with Indonesian archaeologist I Made Sutayasa in the remote Talaud Islands of northeastern Indonesia, and then commenced a project with David McReady and the Sabah Museum in 1978 in the southeastern rainforests of Sabah, northern Borneo. In 1990 I began another project with Geoffrey Irwin and Gunadi Nitihaminoto in the northern Moluccas in Indonesia, and then in the late 1990s, due to growing social unrest in this region, I moved my research interests into the Batanes Islands in the northern Philippines, commencing there with Atholl Anderson and Bong Dizon in 2002. Since 2004 I have been also excavating sites in both northern and southern Vietnam, with Judith Cameron, Marc Oxenham, Philip J. Piper and many Vietnamese colleagues (Figure 1.7).
Since my pre-student days, in 1961, I have taken part in archaeological fieldwork in no less than 20 countries, much of it with graduate students undertaking surveys and excavations for their Master’s and PhD projects. I will always remain grateful for all this opportunity, which has shown me how varied are the populations of the world, and how important are the prehistories of everyone, not just of the dominant cultures and conquest civilisations.
Source: Courtesy of Philip Piper.
In terms of those fieldwork ‘sensations’ that are hard to forget, I will always remember the hard digging down the deepest trenches, the hoping and hoping for something special, the fine sieving, the heat and dust, and conversely the heat and rainforest humidity, and of course the local workers, the graduate students, and the many colleagues and past teachers, some of whom are no longer with us. Naturally, from time to time, discoveries of an immediate material nature came to light – a gold ring down a Roman drain in Leicester, a Dong Son (Iron Age) boat with locked mortise and tenon construction in northern Vietnam, an earring of Taiwan jade in the Batanes Islands, even small pieces of obsidian that travelled more than 3,000 km, more than 3,000 years ago, from the Bismarck Archipelago in Melanesia to the site of Bukit Tengkorak in Sabah (East Malaysia). There are also discoveries of a much deeper nature that have taken lots of analysis and thought to reach, and it is these deeper discoveries that have informed most of my books and articles over the years.
Q4: What have been some of your most important research findings?
I think my most important research finding, which I was approaching in the late 1970s and early 1980s, has been that the expansions of major language families have gone hand in hand in many cases with the expansions of early populations of food producers (Neolithic in European terminology, or Formative in the Americas). Colin Renfrew was working on this theme in Cambridge at the same time, but on Indo-European and the European Neolithic, whereas I was considering Austronesian and the Southeast Asian Neolithic. So we were working independently. My Austronesian experience up to the mid-1980s gradually made it clear to me that a linked farming and language explanation was the only conceivable one to explain most of their dispersal, via population growth, but of course with maritime skills contributing as well in this instance. Linked food producer and language family expansion worked not just for Austronesian but for many of the other major agriculturalist language families of the world, although such explanations do not necessarily imply population replacement – a much more gradual process of demic diffusion and population mixing has always been, in my view, far more likely in all regions of the world where farmers have spread, including China. Some of my opponents claim from time to time that I favour a virtual extermination of hunter-gatherers by farmers, but most of them do not read my writings in detail and make blanket assumptions.
In terms of excavation discoveries, I cannot claim to have uncovered any ancient cultures or fossils that have revolutionised understanding of human history. But I think some of my fieldwork has led to new insights into a number of locally significant issues. For instance, my late 1960s excavations of Maori fortifications in New Zealand revealed substantial information about the internal organisation and defences of such sites. The 1990s excavations in the northern Moluccas revealed a 40,000-year-old Palaeolithic culture on one of the migration routes to New Guinea and Australia, and my excavations here and in the Talaud Islands (in 1974) led me to recognise the importance of a very widespread Neolithic tradition of red-slipped pottery, especially in the Philippines and eastern Indonesia. The 2000 BP Dong Xa boat, discovered in northern Vietnam in 2004, revealed possible contacts with the Mediterranean. My work in the Batanes Islands has revealed important data on the early movement of Austronesian-speaking populations between Taiwan and the Philippines. Finally, our current excavations with Vietnamese archaeologists in southern Vietnam are revealing the presence there of peoples growing japonica rice (of Yangzi origin, presumably), and keeping pigs and dogs and making fine pottery, commencing about 4,000 years ago. These Vietnam discoveries relate very closely to discoveries made in recent years in central and northeastern Thailand.
Q5: The quality of your book First Farmers was recognised with an award for the best book by the Society for American Archaeology (SAA) in 2005, and this book’s success prompted translation into multiple languages (such as Vietnamese and Japanese). Could you please tell us how you developed the idea for this book?
After many years of research on the Austronesians, drawing the conclusion that their expansion had begun with Neolithic populations in southern China and Taiwan, I felt myself drawn into considering other regions of the world. Colin Renfrew in the 1980s was working on the suggestion that speakers of Indo-European languages had entered Europe during the early Neolithic, migrating as farmers from Anatolia. Luca Cavalli-Sforza and Albert Ammerman had also examined the same idea for the European Neolithic from an archaeological and genetic perspective, but without considering the languages. It remained to consider all three areas of research together – languages, genes and archaeology – and when this was done it became ever more clear that the pre-colonial distributions of other major language families, such as Austroasiatic, Afroasiatic, Bantu, Sino-Tibetan, Uto-Aztecan and Iroquoian, could be explained from a similar perspective. Of course, not all language families expanded to great extents, and those that have expanded have not all done so due to early agricultural population growth, but it was never my intention to apply the farming/language hypothesis to all situations. However, it seems to work for many, and in 2003 I was invited by Jared Diamond to join him in preparing a paper on the topic for the journal Science. I also organised a conference on the theme with Colin Renfrew in the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research in Cambridge in 2001.
Q6: Concerning the farming/language dispersal issues in general, what is your current thinking?
Early on in my research, I perhaps tended to assume that farming dispersal began very soon after the initial shift from hunting and gathering to farming in many parts of the world. But new work is showing that the development of full agriculture with domesticated crops and animals took several millennia to advance from the early phases of cultivating wild plants and taming of wild animals. In the Middle East, China and Mesoamerica, these developments took perhaps 3,000 years – for instance, from Natufian to the end of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B in the Levant and Anatolia, or from Shangshan to the Songze culture in the lower Yangzi Basin in China. This means that the very first ‘farmers’, however we might wish to define them in economic terms, did not commence the major migrations. They began later when large populations were already dependent on food production, and became more intensive as these populations began to impact heavily on their home environments, encouraging them to look for new resources and land elsewhere, especially in terrain only hitherto occupied by hunters and gatherers. I feel that current results from archaeology, genetics and comparative linguistics are supporting this farming/language viewpoint very strongly, especially for highly significant regions of early farming such as the Middle East, northern Sub-Saharan Africa, China, Mesoamerica, and the central Andes and Amazonia. The farming/language dispersal viewpoint has many enemies, but I rarely find their arguments well informed or watertight. More often they seem to reflect a natural tendency to avoid using migration as an explanation for any significant patterning in human prehistory, except for the presumed migration that brought modern humans out of Africa in the first place.
My views have also changed over the years on the degree to which indigenous populations contributed genes and even perhaps some cultural knowledge to incoming populations of farmers. I find it hard to accept that indigenous foraging populations would ever have adopted farming unless substantial numbers of farmers had already entered their territory. But we have many cases – I called them ‘friction zones’ in my First Farmers – in which the incoming farming populations did not enjoy any very significant demographic advantages over the indigenous foragers. Such situations might initially have developed in regions where farming was rather marginal for various climatic or other environmental reasons, but the fact remains that large populations of mainly indigenous forager ancestry could have adopted farming in such areas, increased their populations, and begun their own expansions.
I think the greatest significance of the farming/language model for Neolithic expansion is that it can explain the pre-colonial racial distributions of mankind so very clearly. By ‘racial’ I refer only to phenotypic surface characters, which vary with latitude and geography. No one believes any more that races are fixed and clearly bounded entities, and all intergrade as a result of the enormous number of human movements that have occurred in both prehistory and history. But, even so, clear racial differences do exist between populations such as Africans, Europeans, Asians, Australians and Melanesians. These differences in skin colour and hair form undoubtedly evolved initially in the Paleolithic, after modern humans spread from Africa, but they have not remained fossilised in distribution according to the pattern that might have existed 30,000 years ago. Instead, the modern distributions of Africans south of the Sahara, Eurasians north of the Sahara and in western and central Eurasia, and Asians in East and Southeast Asia, in my view, reflect very greatly the expansions that occurred during the Neolithic. The Americas were of course settled long before farming developed, but farming expansions occurred there too, as in Melanesia and New Guinea.
Q7: Specifically concerning the topic of Austronesian origins and dispersals, what is your current thinking?
The ancestors of the Austronesian-speaking people clearly migrated from some homeland region right across the Pacific in ancient times, taking their genes, languages, material culture and food-producing economies with them. I could never agree with the idea that languages simply moved without human migration, and still do not now, even though I find many of my colleagues are rather eager to adopt this most unrealistic scenario. ‘Language shift’, as linguists call it when people abandon their own native language and adopt an incoming one, has always been a localised process in human affairs, although colonial states have certainly increased its significance in the past 500 years. But language shift alone does not explain the distributions of major language families such as Austronesian. The early Austronesians were real people, undergoing real canoe-borne migrations into the Pacific. But from where, when, and in which directions? In 1978, when I wrote Man’s Conquest of the Pacific, the answers to these questions were not as clear as they are now, and while I still agree with most of what I published at that time, I have developed my thoughts greatly in subsequent years on the deeper prehistory of the Austronesians, and indeed of humanity in general. The geographical region known as ‘China’ now bulks much larger in my thinking about Southeast Asia and the Pacific than it did in 1978, and this is attributable to the developments alluded to in the previous sections, especially amongst the Neolithic populations of the Yangzi Basin and southern China.
But the early Austronesians were not ‘Chinese’ – they did not speak Sinitic languages or have any obvious direct connections with the roots of Chinese culture in the Yellow River Valley (although I should add here that linguist Laurent Sagart believes there were such connections during the Neolithic, and to me this possibility is extremely interesting). Before 2,500–2,000 years ago, China was a kaleidoscope of many very diversified Neolithic (and some Bronze Age) populations, many of whom have descendants in Southeast Asia and Oceania nowadays, and of whom many were ultimately to be incorporated into the expanding Chinese cultural world. Linguists today refer to these populations of Southeast Asia and Oceania as Tai, Austroasiatic, Austronesian and Tibeto-Burman – all can, to some degree, be traced to origins in southern China, allowing for the obvious factor of intermixing with native populations in all regions.
As far as the early Austronesians are concerned, my opinion over many years has been that their Pre-Austronesian ancestors moved as Neolithic and probably rice- and millet-cultivating populations from Fujian to Taiwan between 5,000 and 6,000 years ago. In Taiwan, they developed what linguists reconstruct today as ‘Proto-Austronesian’ (no Austronesian speakers ever inhabited southern China according to linguistic records, but Pre-Austronesian ones obviously did), and honed their coastal economies for more than a millennium before moving on into the Batanes Islands and the northern Philippines at about 4,000 years ago, carrying with them traditions of making red-slipped pottery, ornaments of Taiwan (Fengtian) jade, polished and sometimes stepped stone adzes, domesticated crops, pigs and dogs, and of course a well-developed maritime tradition of fishing and canoe construction, using sails. The prehistory of the Austronesian world is far too complex to summarise here, but it is important to remember that it took more than 3,000 years for colonists to spread gradually, from island to island, until they finally reached New Zealand around AD 1250, via the islands of central and eastern Polynesia. As I have stated, I do not agree with some current views that Austronesian languages spread through Island Southeast Asia without human migration, and I regard food production as being just as important as maritime knowledge in fuelling the expansion. Naturally, early colonists found many wild resources in previously uninhabited islands, especially sea mammals and birds, so amongst these early colonists we can expect the importance of agriculture to have declined a little, and temporarily, as we see in early Maori (‘Moa-Hunter’) New Zealand. But this does not negate the overall significance of food production, without which many small Oceanic islands would not have been habitable by humans over the long term.
Q8: In the past two years, you have published two books about ancient human migrations (First Migrants and The Global Prehistory of Human Migration, both with Wiley-Blackwell). As we know, migration is always a major theme in your research. However, as you have mentioned, ‘when I was a student of archaeology in the 1960s, migration was becoming an uncomfortable concept for many archaeologists, and home-grown independence or multiregionalism was becoming the favoured perspective on the past in both human evolution and archaeology’. In fact, I myself encountered a similar feeling from many other archaeologists when I was a PhD student (in 2004–2008). Nonetheless, it seems that since 2010, the issue of migration in archaeology has become popular again. How do you see these waves and changes in thinking in the discipline, and what do you propose that archaeology can contribute to this topic?
In my First Migrants I examine all major episodes of human migration from early hominin movements out of Africa to the spreads of modern humans and later on of food producers, in all regions of the world. I see migration as one of the most significant aspects of human behaviour, one which can spread new forms of human biology and culture over vast distances and thus allow the forces of mutation, selection and drift that drive evolution to work on new canvases. Migration as an event has waxed and waned in significance over the millennia, and it was certainly more important during certain transitions in human history than in others. Migration as a concept within archaeology has also waxed and waned in its perceived significance. This might be a reflection of the simplistic way in which the concept was used on some occasions in the past to explain trivial changes in the archaeological record, and there is an undoubted level of guilt amongst educated people in the world today about human rights and the oppression of colonised populations during the colonial era. But, regardless of what might be contained within the archaeological record, I think it is imperative that modern archaeologists be aware of debates within other disciplines, such as linguistics, within which the issue of whether language families spread through migration of speakers or through ‘elite dominance’ is often of great significance (my answers usually favour migration of speakers, for reasons that I discuss in my book First Migrants).
More to the point, however, are the current remarkable developments in human genetics and the extraction of ancient DNA from bones. Geneticists can now survey whole human genomes in terms of the polymorphic nucleotide positions that reveal their deep ancestries and histories of admixture. I have just attended (January 2015) a genetics conference at Harvard University where the power of these new techniques has exposed a migration from the Russian steppes into central Europe about 4,500 years ago (Laziridis et al. 2014 provide preliminary data), a migration that I would associate with the spread of the Baltic- and Slavic-linguistic populations within the Indo-European language family. In many ways, it may be no longer relevant in such cases if some archaeologists wish to deny that a migration occurred since the genetic evidence is so clear and incontrovertible, as it is in the case of another recent analysis in which the very high importance of a Formosan ancestry component in the genomes of modern Austronesian language speakers has been clearly demonstrated (Lipson et al. 2014). Of course, archaeology still holds the power to provide a definite chronology and to illuminate the cultural contexts that allowed such migrations to occur, but it is time for all archaeologists to acknowledge the significance of multidisciplinary approaches and to cease burying themselves myopically in their own data sets.
Q9: In your research career, you received continued accolades from your colleagues, but sometimes you also faced criticism. How did you handle those criticisms, especially those that you might have regarded as unfair at the time?
Criticism is important for all of us, and I hold the view that if one receives no criticism then no one is reading one’s published work. Citations are important to me, and citations often reflect the intensity of discussion about a given topic, and by definition the existence of criticism. However, I become resentful when the criticism is couched in ad hominem and sometimes mildly insulting terminology – I hardly need to give examples! The late Roger Green, a Pacific archaeologist I much admired, once said to me that critics often fail because ‘they haven’t done their homework’ (Figure 1.8). He was right – doing homework is an endless and greatly time-consuming task, especially if one is trying to keep up with the new electronic literature in more than one discipline. Of course, criticism if one is actually wrong is another matter, but I enjoy well-informed criticism and try to modify my views whenever I feel it is truly necessary. When I receive criticism that I consider unfair or poorly informed, I reply immediately in print and try to keep my temper under control.
Source: Courtesy of Peter Bellwood.
Q10: In your opinion, what are some of the more interesting challenges facing Southeast Asian and Pacific archaeology research today and in the near future?
The most important historical and population questions will always revolve around issues such as the timing of modern human arrival, the timing and directions of the main agriculturalist expansions, and the nature of the later religious and trading contacts with external civilisations, such as those of India and China, after about 2,500 years ago. As far as modern human origins in the region are concerned, archaeologists face the problem that the normally accepted ‘markers’ of modern humanity, such as blade tools, projectile points and use of ochre are rare to absent [in Southeast Asia] in the period of time termed ‘the Upper Palaeolithic’, although new dating of rock art in Sulawesi to about 40,000 years ago must surely alter our perspectives a little (Aubert et al. 2014). Nevertheless, modern human behaviour in the Java Palaeolithic in Indonesia is not clearly distinguishable from the archaic human behaviour of Homo erectus in terms of the lithics that survive for archaeological inspection. Indeed, it is now becoming clearer in the western Old World generally that modern and archaic human behaviours cannot always be distinguished from each other, even in Africa. This means, of course, that archaeologists cannot interpret questions of modern human migration without paying serious attention to the results from biological anthropology and ancient DNA in bone.
Likewise, understanding of Neolithic developments nowadays can only proceed with attention to fields of research parallel to archaeology, such as comparative linguistics, and again the biological aspects. The days have long gone when archaeologists can assert that only they can study the past directly, and those who continue to assert this will soon find their works ignored by the growing torrent of research in ancient DNA, palaeoanthropology, and linguistic reconstruction.
There is another very important challenge, which I discover frequently whenever I have organised conferences of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. There is a kind of ‘tyranny of language’ in archaeological scholarship, in that all of us must from time to time deal with archaeological reports from countries whose published internal literature is often beyond our direct reading ability. Busy archaeologists cannot be expected to be fluent in several languages, although some certainly try to be, and it is not fair to expect everyone to have to learn English, or any other major language such as Mandarin, just so that they can read archaeological reports. In my view, the main long-term solution to this problem will come with more efficient methods of computer translation from one language to another. Fortunate students can often improve their foreign language skills by studying abroad, but this option is not open to everyone, and I know that many people who choose to study in a foreign country will often find it hard to enter the job queue in their home country, and can even be actively excluded from following a career at home. There are no simple answers to these problems, but one way to improve the access of local scholars to worldwide knowledge is to organise research projects with international personnel.
Q11: Nowadays, it seems that many archaeologists are becoming increasingly specialised, although we always will need to be aware of general knowledge. What is your advice for students who want to balance specialisation with a general approach? What is your advice for students who wish to engage in long-term archaeological research and seek a career in archaeology?
The best way to maintain a broad generalised approach to any research field is to teach it to undergraduates since the material has to be put into summary form and statements must be made as to its overall significance. Specialisation is essential if research is to proceed, but not at the expense of a broad and balanced perspective. Archaeologists have long argued over the merits and demerits of ‘bottom up’ approaches derived from actual field data, versus ‘top down’ approaches based on the testing of broad hypotheses derived from comparative and multidisciplinary research. I suggest both approaches be followed, not just one at the expense of the other, even though much of my own research has been top down in this regard.
The best way to become involved in long-term archaeological research is to join a large cooperative research project that has funding for several years and that can support postdoctoral researchers (having a PhD first is essential nowadays for a research career in archaeology or any other science). Many students do this through their PhD supervisors, and in Australia the funds come from the Australian Research Council (or the National Science Foundation in the USA). However, my experience in this regard is based in Australia, where virtually all significant archaeological research is undertaken by universities. In many countries, government-funded research institutes play this role and provide funding – for instance, the Institute of Archaeology in Beijing and the many provincial institutes in China; Academia Sinica in Taipei; the National Museum in Manila; and the Thai Fine Arts Department in Bangkok. But I would presume that the same advice still holds – join a large project and try to develop a specialisation that will place your skills in demand!
Q12: What other research topics would you like to address in the future, and do you have plans for upcoming field projects?
In 2014, with my colleagues Hsiao-chun Hung, Philip J. Piper and Mike Carson, I received another three-year grant from the Australian Research Council to continue our project on the Neolithic of Southeast Asia. We have excavations planned at the site of Thach Lac in Ha Tinh Province in north-central Vietnam, in eastern Taiwan, in the Cagayan Valley in the northern Philippines, and in the Mariana Islands, in each case excavating sites that give evidence for the earliest developments of Neolithic cultures. Our aim is to examine the widespread occurrence of Neolithic cultures in the centuries around 2000 BC from the perspectives of their material cultures and economies, especially seeking evidence for food production through animal domestication and through archeobotany, the latter in collaboration with the Institute of Archaeology in London. Our plans are to continue with this research into 2017, after which I will probably have retired to something a little less strenuous (Figure 1.9)!
Source: Courtesy of Peter Bellwood.
Aubert, M., A. Brumm, R. Ramli, T. Sutikna et al. 2014. Pleistocene cave art from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Nature 514: 223–227.
Bellwod, P. and Hung, H.-c. 2011. Professor Peter Bellwood’s reflections on archaeological research. Cultural Relics of South China (Nanfang Wenwu) 2011(3): 22–29 (in Chinese).
Laziridis, I., N. Patterson, A. Mittnik, G. Renaud et al. 2014. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature 513: 409–413.
Lipson, M., P-R. Loh, N. Patterson, P. Moorjani et al. 2014. Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia. Nature Communications 5: 4689.
Major field projects undertaken during Peter’s professional career, 1967–2013
1967 Skipper’s Ridge, New Zealand – excavation.
1967–1968 Society and Marquesas Islands (with Y. Sinoto) – 5 months survey and excavation.
1968 Otakanini pa, New Zealand – excavation.
1968–1970 Mangakaware, New Zealand – excavation (several short seasons).
1968–1972 The Cook Islands – survey and excavation (one year of fieldwork).
1974 Talaud Islands and Minahasa region, Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia – survey and excavation (with Dr I.M. Sutayasa).
1977–1978 Brunei (with Mr Matussin bin Omar) – 2 months excavation.
1979 Gua Cha, Kelantan, West Malaysia (with Adi Haji Taha) – excavation.
1984 Reconnaissance in the Sanjai valley, Bihar, India, with A.K. Ghosh and staff of the Department of Anthropology, University of Calcutta.
1980–1987 Sabah, Malaysia – 8 months of fieldwork and excavation.
1989 Sarawak (with Ipoi Datan) – excavation.
1990, 1994, 1995–1996 Halmahera, Morotai, Gebe and Kayoa islands, northern Maluku, Indonesia-survey and excavations, with G.J. Irwin of Auckland University, Indonesian archaeologists from Yogyakarta (Universitas Gadjah Mada, DPP Sejarah Purbakala and Balai Arkeologi) and two graduate students (Mahirta and Daud Tanudirjo, MA and PhD respectively).
1994 The caves of Gua Bukit Chawas and Gua Peraling, Kelantan, Malaysia – fieldwork, with Adi Haji Taha.
2001–2007 Fieldwork and excavation in the Batanes Islands, northern Luzon, Vietnam and Taiwan. Feb–March 2002 (Batanes: Batan Island), Sept–Oct 2002 (Ilocos Norte), Feb–March 2003 (Batanes: Batan, Sabtang Islands), Feb–March 2004 (Batanes: Itbayat, Batan Islands), June–July 2005 (Itbayat Island), May–June 2007 (Cagayan Valley and Sabtang Island). With Eusebio Dizon, Marc Oxenham, Janelle Stevenson, Armand Mijares and Hsiao-chun Hung.
2004 Excavation at Dong Xa and Yen Bac, northern Vietnam (with Judith Cameron, Nguyen Viet and Bui Van Liem).
2009 April–May: Excavation in the Neolithic site of An Son, Long An Province, southern Vietnam, with Bui Chi Hoang, Nguyen Kim Dung, and Marc Oxenham.
2009 November: excavation in the Neolithic site of Nagsabaran, Cagayan Valley, Philippines, with Hsiao-chun Hung, Marc Oxenham and Eusebio Dizon.
2012 March–April: Excavation in the Neolithic site of Rach Nui, Long An Province, Vietnam, with Marc Oxenham, Philip J. Piper and Nguyen Khanh Trung Kien.
2012 May: Excavations at Sembiran and Pacung, northern Bali, with Ambra Calo.
2013 March: Excavation of Loc Giang Neolithic mound, Long An Province, southern Vietnam, with Philip J. Piper and Nguyen Khanh Trung Kien.
2013 November: Excavation of Diang Balu cave in the headwaters of the Kapuas River (interior Borneo) with Vida Kusmartono.
Although Peter retired in 2013, he has continued field research in the Asia-Pacific region. For instance, he was part of the Loc Giang excavation in southern Vietnam during March–April 2014, and then he participated in the excavations at Ru Diep and Thach Lac in central Vietnam with Philip J. Piper and Lam Thi My Dung during April–May 2015. More recently, during October 2016, he was in Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands, western Micronesia with Mike Carson and Hsiao-chun Hung for excavations at the Bapot Site, where he discovered a beautiful shell ornament linked with previous findings in Southeast Asia.
Publications by Peter Bellwood (until July 2016)
These are classified under the following headings: A. Books and monographs; B. Edited volumes; C. Singled-authored journal articles; D. Singled-authored chapters in edited books; E. Jointly written articles in journals and edited books; F. Book reviews, letters to editors and other minor contributions.
A. Books and monographs
- 1972. A Settlement Pattern Survey of Hanatekua Valley, Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands. Honolulu: Bishop Museum: Pacific Anthropological Records Vol. 17, 50 pages.
- 1978. Man’s Conquest of the Pacific. Auckland and London: Collins. North American edition published by Oxford University Press, New York, 1979.
—— 1986. Russian translation of Man’s Conquest of the Pacific (Покорение человеком Тихого океана), published by Nauka, Moscow.
—— 1989. Japanese translation of Man’s Conquest of the Pacific (太平洋―東 南アジアとオセアニアの人類史), published by Hosei University Press, Tokyo.
- 1978. The Polynesians. London: Thames and Hudson.
—— 1983. French translation of The Polynesians (Les Polynésiens), published by Les Editions du Pacifique, Papeete, Tahiti.
—— 1985. Japanese translation of The Polynesians (ポリネシア), published by Taimeido, Tokyo.
- 1978. Archaeological Research in the Cook Islands. Pacific Anthropological Records No. 27. Honolulu: Bishop Museum.
- 1978. Archaeological Research at Lake Mangakaware, Waikato, 1968-1970. Volume 12, University of Otago Studies in Prehistoric Anthropology. New Zealand Archaeological Association, Monograph 9.
- 1985. Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago. Sydney: Academic Press.
- 1987. The Polynesians. Revised edition. London: Thames and Hudson.
- 1988. Archaeological Research in South-eastern Sabah. Kota Kinabalu: Sabah Museum Monograph no.2.
- 1997. Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago (2nd edition). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Republished online in 2007 by ANU E Press, Canberra.
—— 2000. Indonesian translation of Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago (Presejarah Kepulauan Indo-Malaysia) (2nd edition). PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta.
- 2005. First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Oxford: Blackwell.
—— 2008. Japanese translation of First Farmers (農耕起源の人類史), published by Kyoto University Press, Kyoto.
—— 2010. Vietnamese translation of First Farmers (Những Nhà Nông Đầu Tiên), published by The Gioi Publishing House, Hanoi.
- 2013. First Migrants: Ancient Migration in Global Perspective. Chichester, Boston and Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
—— 2016. Greek translation of First Migrants (Protoi Metanastes), published by Eikostou Protou, Athens.
- In press. First Islanders: The Prehistory and Human Migration in Island Southeast Asia. Chichester, Boston and Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
B. Edited volumes
- Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. Peter Bellwood was the main editor for every issue of this journal between 1982 (volume 3) and 2009 (volume 29).
- 1985. Recent Advances in Indo-Pacific Prehistory, edited by Virendra N. Misra and Peter Bellwood. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH.
- 1988. Proceedings of ‘Origin and expansion of the Austronesians’, edited by Peter Bellwood and Wilhelm G. Solheim II. Asian Perspectives, vol. 26, no. 1 (issue dated 1984–1985).
- 1992. Man and his Culture: A Resurgence, edited by Peter Bellwood, Asok Datta, P.G. Chatterjee and A.K. Sen. New Delhi: Books and Books.
- 1995. The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, edited by Peter Bellwood, James Fox and Darrell Tryon. Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, ANU.
- 1992–1997. Peter Bellwood served as general editor (with Dr Ian Glover) of a book series entitled Peoples of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, published by Basil Blackwell of Oxford. (Six volumes published: V.T. King, The Peoples of Borneo, 1993; Ian Mabbett and David Chandler, The Khmers, 1995; Angela Hobart, Urs Ramseyer and Albert Leemans, The Peoples of Bali, 1996; Christian Pelras, The Bugis, 1996; Patrick Vinton Kirch, The Lapita Peoples, 1997; Matthew Spriggs, The Island Melanesians, 1997). Anthony Milner, The Malays, was published by Wiley-Blackwell as a final contribution to this series in 2008.
- 2002. Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis, edited by Peter Bellwood and Colin Renfrew. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
- 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History, edited by Ian Glover and Peter Bellwood. London: RoutledgeCurzon. Paperback edition published 2005.
- 2013. 4000 years of Migration and Cultural Exchange: The Archaeology of the Batanes Islands, Northern Philippines, edited by Peter Bellwood and Eusebio Dizon. Terra Australis 40. Canberra: ANU E Press.
- 2013. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, Volume 1: Prehistory, edited by Peter Bellwood. Boston, USA and Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell Publishers (Vol. 1 of a 5-volume series, general editor Immanuel Ness).
- 2015. The Global Prehistory of Human Migration, edited by Peter Bellwood. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell (separate paperback publication of the previous item, volume 1).
C. Single-authored journal articles
- 1967. A Roman dam in the Wadi Caam, Tripolitania. Libya Antiqua IV: 41–44.
- 1969. Excavations at Skipper’s Ridge, Opito Bay, Coromandel Peninsula, North Island of New Zealand. Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania IV: 198–221.
- 1969. Pa excavations at Otakanini, South Kaipara and Lake Mangakaware, Waikato. New Zealand Archaeological Association Newsletter 12: 38–49.
- 1969. Archaeology on Rarotonga and Aitutaki, Cook Islands. Journal of the Polynesian Society 78: 517–530.
- 1970. Dispersal centres in East Polynesia, with special reference to the Society and Marquesas Islands. Pacific Anthropological Records 11: 93–104. Honolulu: Bishop Museum.
- 1971. Otakanini pa, South Kaipara. NZAA Newsletter 12: 74–76.
- 1971. Archaeological research at Lake Mangakaware, Waikato: A summary of results. New Zealand Archaeological Association Newsletter 14: 113–125.
- 1971. Fortifications and economy in prehistoric New Zealand. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 37, Part 1: 56–95.
- 1971. Varieties of ecological adaptation in the southern Cook Islands. Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 6, no. 2: 145–169.
- 1972. Excavations at Otakanini Pa, South Kaipara Harbour. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 2: 259–291.
- 1974. Lapita potters’ families. Hemisphere 18, no. 7: 17–21.
- 1974. Prehistoric contacts in the Cook Islands. Mankind 9: 278–280.
- 1975. Report on archaeological research in Sulawesi Utara. Far Eastern Prehistory Association Newsletter 4: 30–36.
- 1975. The prehistory of Oceania. Current Anthropology 16: 9–28.
- 1975. The atoll dwellers. Hemisphere 19, no. 11: 19–23.
- 1976. Archaeological research in Minahasa and the Talaud Islands, north-eastern Indonesia. Asian Perspectives 19, Part 2: 240–288.
- 1976. Review article on The Pacific Islanders, by W.W. Howells. Asian Perspectives 19, Part 2: 295–300.
- 1977. Less mysterious now. Hemisphere 21, no. 3: 36–41.
- 1977. Diversity galore. Hemisphere 21, no. 12: 16–20.
- 1978. City planning, B.C. Hemisphere 22, no. 6: 30–33.
- 1978. The sultanate of Brunei. Hemisphere 22, no. 11: 18–21.
- 1979. The real pioneers. Hemisphere 23, no. 6: 370–374.
- 1980. The peopling of the Pacific. Scientific American 243/5: 174–85, November, 1980 (UK edition pp. 138–147).
- 1981. Le peuplement du Pacifique. Pour La Science, January 1981, pp. 90–102. (French translation of the above article).
- 1980. Comment on D. Rindos, ‘Symbiosis, instability, and the origins and spread of agriculture’. Current Anthropology 21/6: 765–766.
- 1980. Indonesia, the Philippines and Oceanic prehistory. Journal de la Société des Océanistes 66–67 (vol. 36): 148–155.
- 1980. The Buidane Culture of the Talaud Islands, North-eastern Indonesia. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 2: 69–127.
- 1983. The ancient peoples of North Borneo. Hemisphere 28, no. 1: 48–52.
- 1983. New perspectives on Indo-Malaysian prehistory. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 4: 71–83. Also published in Archaeology at ANZAAS 1983 (Smith M. ed.), pp. 5–17. Perth: Western Australian Museum, 1983.
- 1983. On ‘Diffusionists’ and legitimate aims in Polynesian prehistory. Asian Perspectives 23/2: 323–325 (volume dated 1980, published 1983).
- 1983. The great Pacific Migration. (Encyclopaedia Britannica) Yearbook of Science and the Future for 1984, pp. 80–93.
- 1984. Comment on M. Marshall, ‘Structural patterns of sibling classification in Island Oceania’, Current Anthropology 25/5: 625.
- 1984. Archaeological research in the Madai-Baturong region, Sabah. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 5: 38–54.
- 1984. The 12th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 5: 1–13.
- 1984–1985. A hypothesis for Austronesian origins. Asian Perspectives 26 (1988): 107–117.
- 1987. The prehistory of Island Southeast Asia: a multidisciplinary review of recent research. Journal of World Prehistory 1, no. 2: 171–224.
- 1987. The impact of sea level changes on Pacific prehistory. Journal of Pacific History 22/2: 106–108.
- 1987. Comment on P.V. Kirch and R.C. Green, ‘History, phylogeny and evolution in Polynesia’, Current Anthropology 28: 443–444.
- 1988. Affluence and ranking, Southeast Asian style. Quarterly Review of Archaeology 9/3, Fall: 4–5.
- 1989. Archaeological investigations at Bukit Tengkorak and Segarong, southeastern Sabah. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 9: 122–162.
- 1990. Foraging towards farming; a decisive transition or a millennial blur? Review of Archaeology 11/2: 14–24.
- 1991. The Austronesian dispersal and the origin of languages. Scientific American 265/1: 88–93.
- 1991. La dispersion et l’origine des langues austronesiennes. Pour La Science 167: 48–53 (French translation of the above article).
- 1994. Chinese translation of the above article. Minzu Yicong 3: 29–34.
- 1991. The implications of the South Chinese Neolithic for the history of language families. Guang Dong Wen Bo (Guangdong Provincial Museum Journal) 15–16: 13–19 (in Chinese).
- 1992. Early Burmese urbanization: Inspired independence or external stimulus? Review of Archaeology 13/2: 1–7.
- 1992. The prehistory of Borneo. Borneo Research Bulletin 24: 7–15.
- 1993. Smokescreens? (reply to Stargardt, see item 46). Review of Archaeology 41/2: 33–35.
- 1993. Cultural and biological differentiation in Peninsular Malaysia: The last 10,000 years. Asian Perspectives 32: 37–60.
- 1994. An archaeologist’s view of language macrofamily relationships. Oceanic Linguistics 33(2): 391–406. Also published with minor modifications in Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 13: 46–60, 1993.
- 1994. Colonizing the limits. Review of Archaeology 15 (1): 16–23. Reprinted in RA 20/2, Fall 1999, pp. 23–28 (Retrospective Issue: from the Archives).
- 1995. Language families and human dispersal. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 5/2: 271–275.
- 1995. Archaeological research in the Northern Moluccas 1991–1994: A preliminary report. Southeast Asian Archaeology International Newsletter 7: 3–12.
- 1995. Comment on ‘Predicting similarity in material culture among New Guinea villages’ by Roberts, J.M. et al., Current Anthropology 36: 776–777.
- 1996. Phylogeny vs reticulation in prehistory. Antiquity 70: 881–890.
- 1997. Ancient seafarers. Archaeology March/April: 20–22.
- 1997. The Austronesian dispersal. Newsletter of Chinese Ethnology 35: 1–26. Taipei: Ethnological Society of China.
- 1997. Comment on Terrell, Hunt and Gosden, ‘Social life in the Pacific’, Current Anthropology 38: 175–176.
- 1997. Taiwan and the prehistory of the Austronesian-speaking peoples. Review of Archaeology 18/2: 39–48.
- 1999. Comment on Helen Leach, Intensification in the Pacific. Current Anthropology 40: 324–325.
- 1999. (Who were the statue carvers of Easter Island?). Text and illustrations for two double-page spreads in the Japanese graphic science magazine Newton vol. 19 no. 3, pp. 68–71 (in Japanese).
- 2000. Some thoughts on understanding the human colonization of the Pacific. People and Culture in Oceania 16: 5–17.
- 2001. Early agriculturalist population diasporas? Farming, languages and genes. Annual Review of Anthropology 30: 181–207.
- 2001. Comment on Terrell, Kelly and Rainbird, Foregone conclusions? Current Anthropology 42: 107–108.
- 2002. Review Article: Phylogeny in action. Cambridge Journal of Archaeology 12: 174–176.
- 2002. Lapita ascendant. Review of Archaeology 23, Part 1: 1–5.
- 2004. Comment on Colledge et al., Archaeobotanical evidence for the spread of farming in the eastern Mediterranean. Current Anthropology 45: S47–48.
- 2004. The origins of Afroasiatic (response to Ehret et al., commenting on Diamond and Bellwood 2003). Science 306: 1681.
- 2005. Mind the Gap. Asian Perspectives 44: 247–248.
- 2005. New Guinea, and its place in world prehistory. Review of Archaeology 26/2: 10–17.
- 2007. ‘Overview’ and ‘Reply’ in review feature on First Farmers. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 17: 88–91, 102–106. (Authors Bellwood, Gamble, Le Blanc, Pluciennik, Richards and Terrell).
- 2007. May the revolution prosper. Review of Archaeology 28: 68–71.
- 2007–2008. Understanding the Neolithic in northern India. Pragdhara 18: 331–346 (Journal of the Uttar Pradesh State Archaeology Department, India).
- 2009. The dispersals of established food-producing populations. Current Anthropology 50: 621–626, with comments pp. 707–708.
- 2010. Comment on Heggarty and Beresford-Jones, Agriculture and language dispersals, Current Anthropology 51: 182–183.
- 2010. Comment on Donohue and Denham, Farming and language in Island Southeast Asia, Current Anthropology 51: 240–241.
- 2011. Holocene population history in the Pacific region as a model for world-wide food producer dispersals. Current Anthropology 52, no. S4: 363–378.
- 2011. (interviewed and translated by Hsiao-chun Hung). Professor Peter Bellwood’s reflections on archaeological research. Cultural Relics in Southern China (Nanfang Wenwu), vol. 2011(3), pp. 22–29 (in Chinese).
- 2011. The checkered prehistory of rice movement southwards as a domesticated cereal – from the Yangzi to the Equator. Rice 4: 93–103.
- 2011. Comment on P. Sheppard, Lapita colonization across the Near/Remote Oceania boundary. Current Anthropology 52: 819–820.
- 2011. Comment on E. Holman et al., Automated dating of the world’s language families based on lexical similarity. Current Anthropology 52: 863–864.
- 2011. Đá mới ở Việt Nam, văn hóa Sa Huỳnh, và tiền sử Đông Nam Á (The Vietnam Neolithic, the Sa Huynh culture, and Southeast Asian prehistory). Thông Báo Khoa Học (Bulletin of Science) for 2011, pp. 16–38. Hanoi: National Museum of Vietnamese History (Bảo Tàng Lịch Sử Việt Nam). In Vietnamese.
- 2013. Interview entitled ‘New ideas in migration’, in online forum Thinking in Practice: Exploring New Thinking and Theory, vol. 15.
- 2015. Ban Non Wat: crucial research, but is it too soon for certainty? Antiquity 89: 1224–1226.
D. Single-authored chapters in edited books
- 1972. A prehistoric Maori settlement – Lake Mangakaware, Te Rore. In D.H. Goodall (ed.), The Waikato: Man and his Environment, pp. 27–29. Hamilton: N.Z. Geographical Society.
- 1976. Prehistoric plant and animal domestication in Austronesia. In G. de G. Sieveking, I.H. Longworth and D.E. Wilson (eds), Problems in Economic and Social Archaeology, pp. 153–168. London: Duckworth.
- 1976. The significance of excavated bronze objects and casting moulds from the Talaud Islands, northeastern Indonesia. In N. Barnard (ed.), Ancient Chinese Bronzes and Southeast Asian Metal and Other Archaeological Artefacts, pp. 413–420. Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria.
- 1979. Chapters entitled ‘The Oceanic context’ and ‘Settlement patterns’. In J.D. Jennings (ed.), The Prehistory of Polynesia, pp. 6–26, 308–322. Harvard University Press.
- 1978. Entries on Easter Island and New Zealand. In G.E. Daniel (ed.), The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Archaeology. London: Macmillan.
- 1980. Plants, climate and people; the early horticultural prehistory of Indonesia. In J.J. Fox (ed.) Indonesia: the Making of a Culture, pp. 57–74. Research School of Pacific Studies, ANU, Canberra.
- 1983. 184 separate entries on the prehistory of Southeast Asia and Oceania. In R. Whitehouse (ed.), The Macmillan Dictionary of Archaeology. London: Macmillan.
- 1984. Foreword. In An Archaeological Perspective of Panay Island, Philippines, by Peter J.F. Coutts. Cebu City: San Carlos Publications.
- 1985. Holocene flake and blade industries of Wallacea and their predecessors. In V.N. Misra and P. Bellwood (eds), Recent Advances in Indo-Pacific Prehistory, pp. 197–205. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH.
- 1986. Recent archaeological research in Sabah, and its implications for Indo-Malaysian prehistory. In Pertemuan Ilmiah Arkeologi IV, Volume 1: Evolusi Manusia, Lingkungan Hidup dan Teknologi, pp. 305–335. Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional.
- 1988. Texts for ‘The settlement of Polynesia,’ ‘Islands of Polynesia’ and ‘Maori New Zealand’. In C. Scarre (ed.), Past Worlds: The Times Atlas of World Archaeology, pp. 200–201, 268–270. London: Times Books.
- 1989. The colonization of the Pacific; some current hypotheses. In A.V.S. Hill and S.W. Serjeantson (eds), The Colonization of the Pacific; a Genetic Trail, pp. 1–59. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- 1990. From Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene in Sundaland. In C. Gamble and O. Soffer (eds), The World at 18000 BP, vol. 2; Low Latitudes, pp. 255–263. London: Unwin Hyman.
- 1990. The Tingkayu industry of Late Pleistocene Sabah. In I. Glover and E. Glover (eds), Southeast Asian Archaeology 1986. BAR International Series 561, pp. 1–10. Oxford.
- 1990. Hunters, gatherers and navigators. In T.A. Volkman and I. Caldwell (eds), Sulawesi, pp. 24–27. Berkeley: Periplus.
- 1991. Fils du Pleistocene. In A. Guerreiro and P. Couderc (eds), Bornéo; des ‘Chasseurs de Têtes’ aux Ecologistes, pp. 164–171. Paris: Autrement (Série ‘Monde’ HS 52).
- 1991. ‘Java Man’ and later migrations. In E. Oey (ed.), Java, pp. 30–31. Berkeley: Periplus.
- 1991. Bronze drums, migrations and megaliths. In. D. Pickell (ed.), East of Bali, pp. 26–27. Berkeley: Periplus.
- 1991. From flaked glass to iron and bronze. In E. Oey (ed.), Sumatra, pp. 28–29. Berkeley: Periplus.
- 1992. The antiquity of equatorial rainforest occupation in Southeast Asia. In P. Bellwood et al. (eds), Man and his Culture: A Resurgence, pp. 67–78. New Delhi: Books and Books.
- 1992. Southeast Asia before history. In N. Tarling (ed.), The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, vol. 1, pp. 55–136. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- 1992. New discoveries in Southeast Asia relevant for Melanesian (especially Lapita) prehistory. In J.C. Galipaud (ed.), Poterie Lapita et Peuplement, pp. 49–66. Nouméa: ORSTOM.
- 1993. The origins of Pacific peoples. In M. Quanchi and R. Adams (eds), Culture Contact in the Pacific, pp. 2–14. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
- 1993. Cave dwellers and forest foragers. In M. Wendy (ed.), West Malaysia and Singapore, pp. 24–25. Singapore: Periplus.
- 1993. Crossing the Wallace Line – with style. In M. Spriggs et al. (eds), A Community of Culture, pp. 152–163. Canberra: Dept. Prehistory RSPacS, ANU, Occasional Papers in Prehistory 21.
- 1994. Contributed text on Sumerian civilization for textbook Environmental Science, pp. 140–142, Australian Academy of Science.
- 1995. Early agriculture, language history and the archaeological record in China and Southeast Asia. In C.-T. Yeung and W.-L. Li (eds), Archaeology in Southeast Asia, pp. 11–22. Hong Kong: University Museum and Art Gallery, University of Hong Kong.
- 1995. Austronesian prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, exodus and transformation. In P. Bellwood, J. Fox and D. Tryon (eds), The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, pp. 96–111. Canberra: Dept. Anthropology RSPAS, ANU.
- 1996. Early agriculture and the dispersal of the Southern Mongoloids. In T. Akazawa and E. Szathmary (eds), Prehistoric Mongoloid Dispersals, pp. 287–302. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- 1996. Three entries on Indonesian prehistory for J. Miksic (ed.), Indonesian Heritage: Ancient History, pp. 28–33. Singapore: Didier Millet.
- 1996. The origins and spread of agriculture in the Asian-Pacific region. In D. Harris (ed.), The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, pp. 465–498. London: University College Press.
- 1996. Hierarchy, founder ideology and Austronesian expansion. In J. Fox and C. Sather (eds), Origin, Ancestry and Alliance, pp. 18–40. Canberra: Department of Anthropology, Comparative Austronesian Project, ANU.
- 1996. Entries on ‘Hoabinhian’ and ‘Origins of food production in the Pacific Islands’. In B. Fagan (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, pp. 305, 549–550.
- 1996. The Pacific. In J. Herrmann and E Zurcher (eds), History of Humanity: Scientific and Cultural Development, vol. III, pp. 435–438. Paris: Unesco.
- 1997. Prehistoric cultural explanations for the existence of widespread language families. In P. McConvell and N. Evans (eds), Archaeology and Linguistics: Aboriginal Australia in Global Perspective, pp. 123–134. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
- 1998. Between Southeast Asia and Oceania: preceramic occupation in the northern Moluccas and associated mysteries. In S. Atmosudiro (ed.), Jejak-Jejak Budaya II: Persembahan untuk Prof. Dr. R.P. Soejono, pp. 323–369. Yogyakarta: Asosiasi Prehistorisi Indonesia Rayon II.
- 1998. Human dispersals and colonizations in prehistory – the Southeast Asian data and their implications. In K. Omoto and P.V. Tobias (eds), The Origins and Past of Modern Humans – Towards Reconciliation, pp. 188–205. Singapore: World Scientific.
- 1998. La dispersion des Austronésians. In D. Newton (ed.), Arts des Mers du Sud, pp. 8–17. Paris: Société Nouvelle Adam Biro.
- 1998. The archaeology of Papuan and Austronesian prehistory in the northern Moluccas, Indonesia. In R. Blench and M. Spriggs (eds), Archaeology and Language, Volume 2: Correlating Archaeological and Linguistic Hypotheses, pp. 128–140. One World Archaeology Series, Routledge, London.
- 1998. Several entries in N.H.S.N. Abdul Rahman (ed.), Early History. vol. 4 of The Encyclopaedia of Malaysia, pp. 10, 20, 26–28, 44. Singapore: Archipelago Press.
- 1998. From Bird’s Head to bird’s eye view: Long term structures and trends in Indo-Pacific Prehistory. In J. Miedema, C. Odé and R. Dam (eds), Perspectives on the Bird’s Head of Irian Jaya, Indonesia, pp. 951–975. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
- 1999. Commemorative Speech: ‘Dispersal of people in the Pacific: past, present and future’. Published in International Ocean Symposium 1998: The Ocean, Can She Save Us? pp. 63–80 (Japanese text), 177–191 (English text). Tokyo: Nippon Foundation.
- 1999. Archaeology of Southeast Asian hunters and gatherers. In R.B. Lee and R. Daly (eds), The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Hunters and Gatherers, pp. 284–288. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- 2000. The time depth of major language families: an archaeologist’s perspective. In C. Renfrew, A. McMahon and L. Trask (eds), Time Depth in Historical Linguistics, pp. 109–140. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research (Papers in the Prehistory of Languages).
- 2000. Footsteps from Asia: The peopling of the Pacific. In B. Lal and K. Fortune (eds), The Pacific Islands: An Encyclopaedia, pp. 53–58. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
- 2000. Formosan prehistory and Austronesian dispersal. In D. Blundell (ed.), Austronesian Taiwan, pp. 337–365. Berkeley CA: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology.
- 2001. Southeast Asia Neolithic and Early Bronze. In P. Peregrine and M. Ember (eds), Encyclopaedia of Prehistory. Volume 3: East Asia and Oceania, pp. 287–306. New York: Kluwer/Plenum.
- 2001. Archaeology and the historical determinants of punctuation in language family origins. In A. Aikhenvald and R. Dixon (eds), Areal Diffusion and Genetic Inheritance: Problems in Comparative Linguistics, pp. 27–43. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- 2001. Archaeology and the history of languages. International Encyclopaedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 617–622. Amsterdam: Pergamon (2nd edition in 2015).
- 2001. Cultural evolution: Phylogeny versus reticulation. International Encyclopaedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 3052–3057. Amsterdam: Pergamon (2nd edition in 2015).
- 2001. Keynote address: Polynesian prehistory and the rest of mankind. In C.M. Stevenson, G. Lee and F.J. Morin (eds), Pacific 2000, pp. 11–25. Los Osos, California: Easter Island Foundation.
- 2002. Southeast Asian prehistory and archaeology at the turn of the millennium. In B. Cunliffe, W. Davies, and C. Renfrew (eds), Archaeology: The Widening Debate, pp. 318–334. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- 2002. Foreword, and Concluding Observations. In P. Bellwood and C. Renfrew (eds), Examining the Farming/language Dispersal Hypothesis, pp. xiii–xiv, 467–469. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
- 2002. Farmers, foragers, languages, genes: The genesis of agricultural societies. In P. Bellwood and C. Renfrew (eds), Examining the Farming/language Dispersal Hypothesis, pp. 17–28. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
- 2004. Colin Renfrew’s emerging synthesis: Farming, languages and genes as viewed from the Antipodes. In M. Jones (ed.), Traces of Ancestry: Studies in Honour of Colin Renfrew, pp. 31–41. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
- 2004. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. In I. Glover and P. Bellwood (eds), Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History, pp. 21–40. London: RoutledgeCurzon.
- 2004. Aslian, Austronesian, Malayic: suggestions from the archaeological record. In V. Paz (ed.), Southeast Asian Archaeology: Wilhelm G. Solheim II Festschrift, pp. 347–365. Diliman: University of the Philippines Press.
- 2004. Austronesiani. In Enciclopedia Italiana: Americhe Oceania, Parte Seconda, Oceania, p. 900. Roma: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana.
- 2005. 18 entries on Philippine, Indonesian and Malaysian archaeology, translated into Italian, for Enciclopaedia Archaeologica, pp. 797–826. Roma: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana.
- 2005. Examining the language/farming dispersal hypothesis in the East Asian context. In L. Sagart, R. Blench and A. Sanchez-Mazas (eds), The Peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics, pp. 17–30. London: RoutledgeCurzon.
- 2005. Keynote paper: Coastal South China, Taiwan, and the prehistory of the Austronesians. In C.-Y. Chen and J.-G. Pan (eds), The Archaeology of the Southeast Coastal Islands of China, pp. 1–22. Taiwan: Executive Yuan, Council for Cultural Affairs.
- 2006. Early Pacific Voyagers. In R. Hanbury-Tenison (ed.), The Seventy Great Journeys in History, pp. 26–28. London: Thames and Hudson.
- 2006. Asian farming diasporas? Agriculture, languages, and genes in China and Southeast Asia. In M.T. Stark (ed.), Archaeology of Asia, pp. 96–118. Malden: Blackwell.
- 2006. The dispersal of Neolithic cultures from China into Island Southeast Asia: Standstills, slow moves, and fast spreads. In Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (ed.), Prehistoric Archaeology of South China and Southeast Asia, pp. 223–234. Beijing: Cultural Relics Publishing House.
- 2006. Borneo as the homeland of Malay? The perspective from archaeology. In J. Collins and A. Sariyan (eds), Borneo and the Homeland of the Malays: Four Essays, pp. 45–63. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
- 2006. The early movements of Austronesian-speaking peoples in the Indonesian region. In T. Simanjuntak, I. Popoh and M. Hisyam (eds), Austronesian Diaspora and the Ethnogeneses of People in Indonesian Archipelago, pp. 61–82. Jakarta: Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI).
- 2007. Southeast China and the prehistory of the Austronesians. In T. Jiao (ed.), Lost Maritime Cultures: China and the Pacific. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.
- 2007. Tracing ancestral connections across the Pacific. In J.X. Li (ed.), Across Oceans and Time: Art in the Contemporary Pacific, pp. 32–40 (including translations into Chinese and French). Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, Taiwan.
- 2008. Archaeology and the origins of language families. In A. Bentley, H. Maschner and C. Chippindale (eds), Handbook of Archaeological Theories, pp. 225–243. Lanham: Altamira.
- 2008. Die erste reiche Ernte (‘History’s first bountiful harvest’). In J.A. Robinson and K. Wiegandt (eds), Die Ursprünge der modernen Welt, pp. 166–213. Frankfurt-am-Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag.
- 2009. Early farmers: Issues of spread and migration with respect to the Indian Subcontinent. In T. Osada (ed.), Linguistics, Archaeology and Human Past in South Asia, pp. 55–69. New Delhi: Manohar.
- 2010. La diffusion des populations d’agriculteurs dans le monde. In J-P. Demoule (ed.), La Revolution Neolithique dans le Monde, pp. 239–262. Paris: CNRS Editions.
- 2010. Language families and the history of human migration. In J. Bowden, N. Himmelmann and M. Ross (eds), A Journey through Austronesian and Papuan Linguistic and Cultural Space: Papers in Honour of Andrew K. Pawley, pp. 79–93. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
- 2011. La dispersione dei primi agricoltori e delle famiglie linguistiche in Estremo Oriente. In R. Ciarla and M. Scarpari (eds), La Cina, vol. 1, Preistoriae Origini della Civilta Cinese, pp. 369–396. Roma: Einaudi.
- 2012. How and why did agriculture spread? In P. Gepts, R. Bettinger, S. Brush, T. Famula, P. McGuire, C. Qualset and A. Damania (eds), Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution, and Sustainability, pp. 160–189. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- 2013. Austronesian migration, 3500 BC to AD 1500. In C. de Monbrisson (ed.), Philippines: An Archipelago of Exchange, pp. 40–49. Paris: Coédition musée du quai Branly/Actes Sud.
- 2015. Prehistoric migration and the rise of humanity. In P. Bellwood (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, pp. 1–6. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell Publishers.
- 2015. Neolithic migrations: food production and population expansion. In P. Bellwood (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, pp. 79–86. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
- 2015. Human migrations and the histories of major language families. In P. Bellwood (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, pp. 87–95. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
- 2015. Southeast Asian islands: Archaeology. In P. Bellwood (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, pp. 284–292. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
- 2015. Migration and the origins of Homo sapiens. In Y. Kaifu, M. Izuho, T. Goebel, H.Sato and A. Ono (eds), Emergence and Diversity of Modern Human Behavior in Paleolithic Asia, pp. 51–58. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
- 2015. Vietnam’s place in the prehistory of Eastern Asia – a multidisciplinary perspective on the Neolithic / Vị trí của Việt Nam trong tiển sử Đông Á –một hướng tiếp cận đa ngành về thời kỷ đồ đá mới. In A. Reinecke (ed.), Perspectives on the Archaeology of Vietnam, pp. 47–70. Published in Bonn by the LWL-Museum for Archaeology, Herne, the Reiss-Engelhorn-Museums in Mannheim, the State Museum of Archaeology of Chemnitz, and the German Archaeological Institute (in English and Vietnamese).
- 2015. Language Families, Archaeology and History of. In J.D. Wright (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (2nd edition), vol. 13, pp. 337–343. Oxford: Elsevier.
- 2015. Cultural evolution: phylogeny versus reticulation. In J.D. Wright (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edition, vol. 13, pp. 394–400. Oxford: Elsevier.
E. Jointly written articles in journals and edited books
- 1970. Neolithic comments (with others). Antiquity XLIV: 105–114.
- 1972. Armitage, G.C., R.D. Reeves and P. Bellwood. Source identification of archaeological obsidians in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science 15: 408–420.
- 1980. Farrington, I.S. and P. Bellwood. Prehistoric irrigation hydrology of pondfield taro: Two case studies from Polynesia. Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania. 15: 120–127.
- 1980. Bellwood, P. and M.b. Omar. Trade patterns and political developments in Brunei and adjacent areas, A.D. 700–1500. Brunei Museum Journal 4/4: 155–179.
- 1981. Bellwood, P. and A.H. Taha. A home for ten thousand years. Hemisphere 25, no. 5: 310–313.
- 1987. Chinese translation of the above article published Yunnan Wenwu, 1986, pp. 201–209.
- 1984. Ghosh, A.K., R. Ray, P. Chatterjee, P. Nanda and P. Bellwood. Archaeological reconnaissance in the Sanjai Valley, Singhbhum District, Bihar. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 5: 24–28.
- 1989. Bellwood, P. and P. Koon. ‘Lapita colonists leave boats unburned!’ The question of Lapita links with Island Southeast Asia. Antiquity 63: 613–622.
- 1991. Ardika, I.W. and P. Bellwood. Sembiran: the beginnings of Indian contact with Bali. Antiquity 247: 221–232.
- 1991. Datan, I. and P. Bellwood. Recent research at Gua Sireh (Serian) and Lubang Angin (Gunung Mulu National Park), Sarawak. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Assn. 10: 386–405. This paper was later reprinted in Sarawak Museum Journal 44 (n.s. 65), pp. 93–111, 1993.
- 1991. Endicott, K. and P. Bellwood. The possibility of independent foraging in the rain forest of Peninsular Malaysia. Human Ecology 19: 151–186.
- 1992. Bellwood, P., R. Gillespie, G.B. Thompson, I.W. Ardika and Ipoi Datan. New dates for prehistoric Asian rice. Asian Perspectives 31/2: 161–170.
- 1993. Bellwood, P., A. Waluyo, Gunadi, Gunadi Nh. and G. Irwin. Archaeological research in the northern Moluccas; interim results, 1991 field season. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 13: 20–33.
- 1993. Bellwood, P. and G. Barnes. Stone age farmers in southern and eastern Asia. In G. Burenhult (ed.), People of the Stone Age (The Illustrated History of Humankind, vol. 2), pp. 123–127, 129–131, 138–139. San Francisco: Harper.
- 1993. Ardika, I.W., P. Bellwood, R. Eggleton and D. Ellis. A single source for South Asian export-quality Rouletted Ware? Man and Environment XVIII(1): 101–109. Pune.
- 1994. Bellwood, P. and Earl of Cranbrook. Human prehistory. In Earl of Cranbrook and D.S. Edwards (eds), Belalong: A Tropical Rainforest, pp. 336–337. London: Royal Geographical Society.
- 1995. Bellwood, P., J.J. Fox and D. Tryon. The Austronesians in history: Common origins and diverse transformations. In P. Bellwood, J. Fox and D. Tryon (eds), The Austronesian: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, pp. 1–16. Canberra, Dept. Anthropology RSPAS, ANU.
- 1995. Flannery, T., P. Bellwood, J.P. White, A. Moore, Boeadi and G. Nitihaminoto. Fossil marsupials (Macropodidae, Peroryctidae) and other mammals of Holocene age from Halmahera, North Moluccas, Indonesia. Alcheringa 19: 17–25.
- 1997. Ardika, I.W., P. Bellwood, I.M. Sutaba and C. Yuliathi. Sembiran and the first Indian contacts with Bali: An update. Antiquity 71: 193–195.
- 1998. Flannery, T., P. Bellwood, J.P. White, T. Ennis, G. Irwin, K. Schubert and S. Balasubramanian. Mammals from Holocene archaeological deposits on Gebe and Morotai Islands, Northern Moluccas, Indonesia. Australian Mammalogy 20/3: 391–400.
- 1998. Bellwood, P., G., Nitihaminoto, G., Irwin, Gunadi, A., Waluyo, D. Tanudirjo. 35,000 years of prehistory in the northern Moluccas. In G.-J. Bartstra (ed.), Bird’s Head Approaches, pp. 233–275. Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia 15. Rotterdam: Balkema.
- 1999. Irwin, G., P. Bellwood, Gunadi Nitihaminoto, Daud Tanudirjo and Joko Siswanto. Prehistoric relations between Island Southeast Asia and Oceania: recent archaeological investigations in the Northern Moluccas. In J-C. Galipaud and I. Lilley (eds), The Pacific from 5000 to 2000 BP, pp. 363–374. Paris: Institut de Recherche pour le Développement.
- 2000. Bellwood, P., Gunadi Nitihaminoto, Gunadi, Agus Waluyo and G. Irwin. The Northern Moluccas as a crossroads between Indonesia and the Pacific. In Sudaryanto and A.H. Rambadeta (eds), Antar Hubungan Bahasa dan Budaya di Kawasan Non-Austronesia, pp. 195–254. Yogyakarta: Pusat Studi Asia Pasifik.
- 2000. Bellwood, P. and T. Sayavongkhamdy. Recent archaeological research in Laos. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Assn 19: 101–110.
- 2001. Peregrine, P. and P. Bellwood. Southeast Asia Upper Palaeolithic. In P. Peregrine and M. Ember (eds), Encyclopaedia of Prehistory. Volume 3: East Asia and Oceania, pp. 307–309. New York: Kluwer/Plenum.
- 2003. Diamond, J. and P. Bellwood. Farmers and their languages: The first expansions. Science 300: 597–603.
- 2003. Bellwood, P., J. Stevenson, A. Anderson and E. Dizon. Archaeological and palaeoenvironmental resesarch in Batanes and Ilocos Norte Provinces, northern Philippines. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 23: 141–161.
- 2003. Szabo, K., H. Ramirez, A. Anderson and P. Bellwood. Prehistoric subsistence strategies on the Batanes Islands, northern Philippines. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 23: 163–171.
- 2004. Glover, I. and P. Bellwood. Introduction. In I. Glover and P. Bellwood (eds), Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History, pp. 1–3. London: RoutledgeCurzon.
- 2004. Bellwood, P. and I. Glover. Southeast Asia: Foundations for an archaeological history. In I. Glover and P. Bellwood (eds), Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History, pp. 4–20. London: RoutledgeCurzon.
- 2004. Glover, I. and P. Bellwood. Retrospect and prospect. In I. Glover and P. Bellwood (eds), Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History, pp. 337–345. London: RoutledgeCurzon.
- 2004. Pasveer, J. and P. Bellwood. Prehistoric bone artefacts from the northern Moluccas, Indonesia. Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia 18: 301–359.
- 2004. Mahirta, K. Aplin, D. Bulbeck, W. Boles and P. Bellwood. Pia Hudale Rockshelter: A terminal Pleistocene occupation site on Roti Island, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia. Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia 18: 361–394.
- 2005. Bellwood, P. and P. Hiscock. Australia and the Austronesians. In C. Scarre (ed.), The Human Past, pp. 264–305. London: Thames and Hudson.
- 2005. Bellwood, P. and A. Sanchez-Mazas. Human migrations in continental East Asia and Taiwan: Genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence. Current Anthropology 46: 480–484.
- 2005. Bellwood, P. and P. White. Domesticated pigs in eastern Indonesia (response to Larson et al.). Science 309: 381.
- 2005. Bellwood, P. and J. Diamond. On explicit ‘replacement’ models in island Southeast Asia – a reply to Stephen Oppenheimer. World Archaeology 37: 503–506.
- 2005. Bellwood, P. and E. Dizon. The Batanes Archaeological Project and the ‘Out of Taiwan’ hypothesis for Austronesian dispersal. Journal of Austronesian Studies (Taitung, Taiwan) 1: 1–33.
- 2005. Iizuka, Y., P. Bellwood, H.-c. Hung and E. Dizon. A non-destructive mineralogical study of nephritic artifacts from Itbayat Island, Batanes, northern Philippines. Journal of Austronesian Studies (Taitung, Taiwan) 1: 83–108.
- 2005. Iizuka, Y., P. Bellwood, I. Datan and H.-c. Hung. Mineralogical studies of the Niah West Mouth lingling-o. Sarawak Museum Journal 61 (n.s. 82): 19–29.
- 2006. Hung, H.-c., Y. Iizuka and P. Bellwood. Taiwan jade in the context of Southeast Asian archaeology. In E. Bacus, I. Glover and V. Pigott (eds), Uncovering Southeast Asia’s Past, pp. 203–215. London: British Museum.
- 2007. Bellwood, P., J. Cameron, V.V. Nguyen and V.L. Bui. Ancient boats, boat timbers, and locked mortise and tenon joints from Bronze Age northern Vietnam. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 36: 2–20.
- 2007. Iizuka, Y., H.-c. Hung and P. Bellwood. A noninvasive mineralogical study of nephritic artifacts from the Philippines and surroundings: the distribution of Taiwan nephrite and implications for Island Southeast Asian archaeology. In J. Douglas, P. Jett and J. Winter (eds), Scientific Research on the Sculptural Arts of Asia, pp. 12–19. Freer Gallery of Art/Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA.
- 2007. Szabo, K., A. Brumm and P. Bellwood. Shell artefact production at 32,000 BP in Island Southeast Asia: thinking across media? Current Anthropology 48: 701–724.
- 2007. Hung, H.-c., Y. Iizuka, P. Bellwood, K.D. Nguyen, B. Bellina, P. Silapanth, E. Dizon, R. Santiago, I. Datan and J. Manton. Ancient jades map 3000 years of prehistoric exchange in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 104: 19745–19750.
- 2008. Bellwood, P. and E. Dizon. Austronesian cultural origins: out of Taiwan, via the Batanes Islands, and onwards to western Polynesia. In A. Sanchez-Mazas, R. Blench, M.D. Ross, I. Peiros and M. Lin (eds), Past Human Migrations in East Asia: Matching Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics, pp. 23–39. London: Routledge.
- 2008. Bellwood, P. and M. Oxenham. The expansions of farming societies and the role of the Neolithic Demographic Transition. In J.-P. Bocquet-Appel and O. Bar-Yosef (eds), The Neolithic Demographic Transition and its Consequences, pp. 13–34. Dordrecht: Springer.
- 2008. Bellwood, P., J. Stevenson, E. Dizon, A. Mijares, G. Lacsina and E. Robles. Where are the Neolithic landscapes of Ilocos Norte? Hukay 13: 25–38. Manila.
- 2009. Bellwood, P. and P. Hiscock. Holocene Australia and the Pacific Basin. In C. Scarre (ed.), The Human Past. 2nd revised edition, pp. 264–305. London: Thames and Hudson.
- 2009. Cameron, J., P. Bellwood, V.L. Bui and V.V. Nguyen. (Study results of Dong Son cultural textiles from Dong Xa site (Hung Yen) in the first joint Australian Vietnamese Archaeology Project). Khao Co Hoc (Hanoi), no. 2 for 2009, pp. 20–25 (in Vietnamese with English abstract).
- 2009. Piper, P., H.-c. Hung, F. Campos, P. Bellwood and R. Santiago. A 4000 year-old introduction of domestic pigs into the Philippine Archipelago: Implications for understanding routes of human migration through Island Southeast Asia and Wallacea. Antiquity 83: 687–695.
- 2010. Mijares, A., F. Détroit, P. Piper, R. Grün, P. Bellwood, M. Aubert, G. Champion, N. Cuevas, A. De Leon, E. Dizon. New evidence for a 67,000-year-old human presence at Callao Cave, Luzon, Philippines. Journal of Human Evolution 59: 123–132.
- 2010. Hung, H.-c. and P. Bellwood. Movement of raw materials and manufactured goods across the South China Sea after 500 BCE: From Taiwan to Thailand, and back. In B. Bellina, L. Bacus, O. Pryce and J. Wisseman Christie (eds), 50 Years of Archaeology in Southeast Asia: Essays in Honour of Ian Glover, pp. 234–243. Bangkok: River Books.
- 2011. Bellwood, P. and Hung, H.-c. Professor Peter Bellwood’s reflections on archaeological research. Cultural Relics of South China (Nanfang Wenwu) 2011(3): 22–29 (in Chinese).
- 2011. Bellwood, P., H.-c. Hung and Y. Iizuka. Taiwan jade in the Philippines: 3000 years of trade and long-distance interaction. In P. Benitez-Johannot (ed.), Paths of Origins: Austronesia in the Collections of the National Museum of the Philippines, the Museum Nasional Indonesia, and the Netherlands Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, pp. 30–41. Manila: ArtPostAsia.
- 2011. Bellwood, P., G. Chambers, M. Ross and H.-c. Hung. Are ‘cultures’ inherited? Multidisciplinary perspectives on the origins and migrations of Austronesian-speaking peoples prior to 1000 BC. In B. Roberts and M. Van der Linden (eds), Investigating Archaeological Cultures: Material Culture, Variability and Transmission, pp. 321–354. Dordrecht: Springer.
- 2011. Nguyen, K.D., M. Yamagata, S. Watanabe and P. Bellwood. The Man Bac burial pottery – an illustrated corpus of the whole vessels from the burials in Cultural Unit III. In M. Oxenham, H. Matsumura and K.D. Nguyen (eds), Man Bac: The Excavation of a Late Neolithic Site in Northern Vietnam: Biological Research, pp. 169–85. Terra Australis 33. Canberra: ANU E Press.
- 2011. Hung H.-c., M.T. Carson, P. Bellwood, F. Campos, P. Piper, E. Dizon, M. Bolunia, M. Oxenham and C. Zhang. The first settlement of Remote Oceania: Luzon to the Marianas. Antiquity 85: 909–926.
- 2011. Bellwood, P., M. Oxenham, B.C. Hoang, K.D. Nguyen, A. Willis, C. Sarjeant, P. Piper, H. Matsumura, K. Tanaka, N. Beavan, T. Higham, Q.M. Nguyen, N.K. Dang, K.T.K. Nguyen, T.H. Vo, N.B. Van, T.K.Q. Tran, P.T. Nguyen, F. Campos, Y.-I. Sato, L.C. Nguyen and N. Amano. An Son and the Neolithic of southern Vietnam. Asian Perspectives 50: 144–175 (published in 2013).
- 2012. Hung, H.-c., M.T. Carson and P. Bellwood. Earliest settlement in the Marianas – a response. Antiquity 86: 910–914.
- 2013. Bellwood, P. and P. Hiscock. Australia and the Pacific Basin during the Holocene. In C. Scarre (ed.), The Human Past (third edition), pp. 264–305. London: Thames and Hudson.
- 2013. Carson, M.T., H.-c. Hung, G. Summerhayes and P. Bellwood. The pottery trail from Southeast Asia to Remote Oceania. Journal of Coastal and Island Archaeology 8: 17–36.
- 2013. Amano, N., P. Piper, H.-c. Hung and P. Bellwood. Introduced domestic animals in the Neolithic and Metal Age of the Philippines and evidence of human subsistence strategies and behavior at Nagsabaran, Northern Luzon. Journal of Coastal and Island Archaeology 8: 317–335.
- 2013. H.-c. Hung, K.D. Nguyen, P. Bellwood and M.T. Carson. Coastal connectivity: Long-term trading networks across the South China Sea. Journal of Coastal and Island Archaeology 8: 384–404.
- 2013. Bellwood, P. and H.-c. Hung. The dispersals of early food producers from Southern China into Southeast Asia. In Y. Yang (ed.), Hemudu Culture International Forum, pp. 160–175. Beijing: China Modern Economic Publishing House.
- 2014. T. Pryce, S. Baron, B.H.M. Bellina, P. Bellwood, N. Chang and 18 others. More questions than answers: The Southeast Asian Lead Isotope Project 2009–2012. Journal of Archaeological Science 42: 273–294.
- 2014. Piper, P., F. Campos, D.N. Kinh, M. Oxenham, B.C. Hoang, P. Bellwood and A. Willis. Early evidence for pig and dog husbandry from the site of An Son, Southern Vietnam. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 24: 68–78.
- 2014. Anggraeni, T. Simanjuntak, P. Bellwood and P. Piper. Neolithic foundations in the Karama valley, West Sulawesi, Indonesia. Antiquity 88: 740–756.
- 2015. Oxenham, M., P. Piper, P. Bellwood, C.H. Bui, K.T.K. Nguyen, Q.M. Nguyen, F. Campos, C. Castillo, R. Wood, C. Sarjeant, N. Amano, A. Willis and J. Ceron. Emergence and diversification of the Neolithic in southern Vietnam: insights from coastal Rach Nui. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 10(3): 309–338. DOI: 10.1080/15564894.2014.980473.
- 2015. Calo, A., B. Prasetyo, P. Bellwood, J.W. Lankton, B. Gratuze, T.O. Pryce, A. Reinecke, V. Leusch, H. Schenk, R. Wood, R.A. Bawono, I D.K. Gede, Ni L.K.C. Yuliati, J. Fenner, C. Reepmeyer, C. Castillo and A. Carter. Sembiran and Pacung on the north coast of Bali: a strategic crossroads in early trans-Asiatic exchange. Antiquity 89: 378–396.
F. Book reviews, letters to editors and other minor contributions
Anthropological Forum (Perth WA), vol. VIII, nos 1 and 2, pp. 97–100, 1998.
Anthropological Science (Japan), vol. 103–104, pp. 403–404, 1995.
Antiquity, vol. 51: 97–8 (1977); vol. 70: 999–1001 (1996); vol. 74: 968–969 (2000); vol. 89: 235–236 (2015).
ANU Reporter, vol. 14/8, 10 June 1983, p. 6; vol. 26/14, 16 August 1995, p. 6.
Archaeology in Oceania, vol. 21, no. 2, 1986, p. 154; vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 88–89, 1999.
Asian Perspectives, vol. 11, 1970, pp. 197–198; vol. 30/2, 1991, pp. 269–270; vol. 51, 2012, pp. 128–129.
Asian Studies Association of Australia Review, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 115–116, 1983.
Asian Studies Review, vol. 31, pp. 79–81, 2007.
Australian Academy of Science: Contributed text on Sumerian civilization for textbook Environmental Science, pp. 140–142, published 1994.
Borneo Research Bulletin vol. 27, p. 38, 1996.
Canberra Anthropology vol. 14, no. 2, p. 101, 1991; vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 115–116, 1998.
Environmental Archaeology vol. 16, no. 2, 171–172, 2011.
Hemisphere, book reviews in January and December 1974, January and March 1975, September–October 1981.
Institute of Archaeology Bulletin, vol. 18, 1981, pp. 298, 302–303.
Journal of Anthropological Research 70: 136–138, 2014; 70: 625–626, 2014.
Journal of Field Archaeology vol. 19, pp. 255–256, 1992.
Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 14, 1985, pp. 217–218.
Journal of Interdisciplinary History, vol. VI (1), 1975, pp. 154–157.
Journal of Pacific History, vol. 11, 1976, pp. 253–257; vol. 13, 1978, pp. 247–249; vol. 14, 1979, p. 120; vol. 20, 1985, p. 104; vol. 30, 1995, pp. 121–122.
Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol. 76, 1967, pp. 249–250; vol. 77, 1968, pp. 451–454; vol. 79, 1970, pp. 437–440; vol. 81, 1972, pp. 277–279; vol. 82, 1973, pp. 310–311; vol. 84, 1975, pp. 244–245; vol. 85, 1976, pp. 397–399; vol. 86, 1977, pp. 137–138, 421–423; vol. 88, 1979, pp. 22–23; vol. 92, 1983, pp. 417–418; vol. 95, 1986, pp. 131–134.
Man, vol. 25, no. 1, 1990, pp. 148–149.
Mankind, vol. 9/1, 1973, pp. 57–58; vol. 12/1, 1979, pp. 85–87; vol. 12/2, 1979, pp. 185–188; vol. 12/3, pp. 278–279, 1981.
New Zealand Archaeological Association Newsletter, vol. 10, 1967, pp. 143–150; vol. 11, 1968, pp. 88–92, 175–176; vol. 12, 1969, pp. 230–231; vol. 13, 1970, pp. 88, 92–96, 122; vol. 15, 1972, pp. 123–124; vol. 16, 1973, pp. 173–174; vol. 22, 1979, pp. 188–189.
Pacific Studies, vol. 4, no. 2, 1981, pp. 186–189; vol. 9, no. 3, 1986, pp. 182–184; vol. 11, no. 1. 1987, pp. 163–166.
Review of Archaeology 14/2, Fall 1993, pp. 33–35 (reply to Janice Stargardt).
Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 31/1: 294, 1997.
Scientific American, February 1992, p. 10.
The Chameleon (Centre for Research on Language Change, ANU), invited editorial, edition 7, July 2005.
The Times (London), ‘Pacific man: early cultural achievements,’ 17/8/73.
Conferences organised by Peter Bellwood (Peter retired from conference organisation in 2009)
1975 ANZAAS (Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science), Canberra. Secretary of Section 25A (Archaeology).
1978 10th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Poona, India. Publication editor. See V.N. Misra and P. Bellwood (eds), 1985, Recent Advances in Indo-Pacific Prehistory.
1980 3rd National Conference, Asian Studies Association of Australia, Brisbane. Panel organiser; Prehistory and Archaeology in Asia.
1985 12th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Penablanca, Luzon, Philippines (with Professor Jack Golson). See Asian Perspectives, vol. 26, no. 1 (issue dated 1984–1985).
1990 Conference entitled ‘The Austronesians in history: Common origins and diverse transformations’, held at ANU under the auspices of the Comparative Austronesian Project, November 1990. See Peter Bellwood, James Fox and Darrell Tryon (eds), 1995, The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives.
1990 14th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 200 delegates from around 20 countries. IPPA Bulletins 10–13, 1990–1993.
1994 15th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Chiang Mai, Thailand, around 200 delegates from 20 countries. IPPA Bulletins 14–16, 1995–1996.
1998 16th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Melaka, Malaysia, July 1–7, around 250 delegates from 35 countries. See IPPA Bulletins 17 to 22, 1997–2002, edited or co-edited by Bellwood.
2001 Conference on Origins and Dispersals of Agricultural Societies and Language Families, co-organised with Professor Colin Renfrew, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge, UK, 24–27 August 2002. See P. Bellwood and C. Renfrew (eds), 2002, Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis.
2002 17th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, 9–15 September 2002, 300 delegates from 35 countries. See IPPA Bulletins 23–27, 2003–2007.
2004 2-day workshop on The Asian Fore-Arc Project: Results and Prospects from the Philippines and Taiwan. Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, ANU, 5–6 August 2004.
2006 18th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Manila, 20–26 March, 350 delegates from 35 countries. See report in Science 312: 360–361, 21 April 2006, and IPPA Bulletins 26–29, 2006–2009.
2009 19th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences and Institute of Archaeology, Hanoi, Vietnam, 29 Nov to 5 Dec 2009, 600 delegates from about 30 countries world-wide.
MA, MPhil and PhD students supervised by Peter Bellwood (as chair of the supervisory panel) and their research topics
Matussin bin Omar (Brunei)
MA 1978, Archaeological Excavations in Protohistoric Brunei.
Adi bin Haji Taha (Malaysia)
MA 1981, The Re-excavation of the Rockshelter of Gua Cha, Ulu Kelantan, West Malaysia.
PhD 2000, Archaeological Investigations in Ulu Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia.
I. Wayan Ardika (Indonesia)
MA 1987, Bronze Artefacts and the Rise of Complex Society in Bali.
PhD 1991, Archaeological Research in Northeastern Bali, Indonesia.
Somsuda Rutnin (Thailand)
PhD 1988, The Prehistory of Western Udon Thani and Loei Provinces, Northeast Thailand.
Dianne Tillotson (Autralia)
MA 1989, The Graves of the Rice Ancestors: Changing Mortuary Patterning in Island Southeast Asia.
PhD 1994, Who Invented the Dayaks? Historical Case Studies in Art, Material Culture and Ethnic Identity from Borneo.
Ida Ayu Mediani (Indonesia)
MA 1989, Wet-Rice Cultivation in Bali: The Continuity of Technology and Social Organisation from the 9th Century to the Present.
Ipoi Datan (Malaysia)
MA 1990, Archaeological Excavations at Gua Sireh (Serian) and Lubang Angin (Gunung Mulu National Park), Sarawak, Malaysia.
Karina Arifin (Indonesia)
MA 1990, Social Aspects of Pottery Manufacture in Boera, Papua New Guinea.
PhD 2004, Early Human Occupation of the East Kalimantan Rainforest (the Upper Birang River Region, Berau).
Daud Tanudirjo (Indonesia)
MA 1991, Some Behavioural Aspects of the Bomo-Teleng Stone Adze Workshop Site in East Java (Indonesia).
PhD 2001, Islands in Between: Prehistory of the Northeastern Indonesian Archipelago.
Francis David Bulbeck (Autralia)
PhD 1992, A Tale of Two Kingdoms: The Historical Archaeology of Gowa and Tallok, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Widya Nayati (Indonesia)
MA 1994, The Archaeology of Trading Sites in the Indonesian Archipelago in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: Possibilities and Limitations of the Evidence.
Mark Hudson (UK)
PhD 1995, Ruins of Identity: Ethnogenesis in the Japanese Islands, 400 B.C. to A.D. 1400.
MA 1997, The Development of the Mare Pottery Tradition in the Northern Moluccas.
PhD 2005, Human Occupation on Rote and Sawu Island, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia.
Tracey Lie Dan Lu (China)
PhD 1998, The Transition from Foraging to Farming and the Origin of Agriculture in China.
MA 1999, The Introduction of Metallurgy into Indonesia: A Comparative Study with Special Reference to Gilimanuk.
PhD 2012, The Austronesian Migration Hypothesis as Seen from Prehistoric Settlements on the Karama River, Mamuju, West Sulawesi.
Djoko Nugroho Witjaksono (Indonesia)
MA1999, Study of Prehistoric Iron Objects in Western Indonesia in the Context of Contacts between India and the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago.
David G. Campbell (Australia)
MA 1999, Na Vu-ni-valu: ‘The Root of War’ in Fiji, Samoa & Tonga.
Judith Cameron (Australia)
PhD 2002, Textile Technology in the Prehistory of Southeast Asia.
Andrew Barram (Australia)
MA 2004, Dating ‘Dvaravati’.
Mimi Savitri (Indonesia)
MA 2005, The Spatial Organisation of the Kedhaton in Kraton Surakarta, from the Reigns of Paku Buwana X to Paku Buwana XII (1883–2004).
Shawna Yang (Taiwan)
MA 2006, Fishing Sinkers in the Batanes Islands (Philippines) and Taiwan, and Further Relationships with East Asia.
Armand Salvador B Mijares (Philippines)
PhD 2006, Unravelling Prehistory: The Archaeology of North-Eastern Luzon.
Michael Tracey (Australia)
PhD 2007, Wooden Ships, Iron Men and Stalwart Ladies: The TSS Douglas Mawson Saga.
Hsiao-chun Hung (Taiwan)
PhD 2008, Migration and Cultural Interaction in Southern Coastal China, Taiwan and the Northern Philippines, 3000 BC to AD 100: The Early History of the Austronesian-Speaking Populations.
Po-yi Chiang (Taiwan)
MPhil 2008, Han Cultural and Political Influences in the Transformation of the Shizhaishan Cultural Complex.
PhD 2015, Pottery Production and Social Complexity on the Chengdu Plain, Sichuan, China, 2500 to 800 BC.
Mandy Mottram (Australia)
PhD 2010, Continuity versus Cultural Markers: Results of the Controlled Surface Collection of Tell Halula, North Syria.
Carmen Sarjeant (New Zealand)
PhD 2012, The Role of Potters at Neolithic An Sỏn, Southern Vietnam.
Nicholas Skopal (Australia)
MA 2015, Explaining Harappan Fortifications (Pakistan and India).
Vida Pervaya Rusianti Kusmartono (Indonesia)
MA 2005, The Sandong of the Ngaju: Mortuary Variability in Southern Kalimantan.
Current PhD thesis title: Cave Archaeology and Rainforest Occupation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Chris Carter (Australia)
Current PhD thesis title: Prehistoric Maritime Societies in Northern Chile.
Source: Courtesy of Peter Bellwood.
Source: Courtesy of Peter Bellwood.
Source: Courtesy of Peter Bellwood.
Source: Courtesy of Peter Bellwood.
Source: Courtesy of Peter Bellwood.
Figure 1.15 Peter Bellwood (seated right) at Nagsabaran, northern Luzon, Philippines, in 2009; Standing (left to right) Jonathan de Asis, Marc Oxenham and Eusebio Dizon; Seated (left to right) Mary Jane Louise A. Bolunia (Owis), Tony Peñarosa, Yi-lin Elaine Chen, Philip Piper, Hirofumi Matsumura, Juliet Meyer, Anna Willis, Hsiao-chun Hung and Peter Bellwood.
Source: Courtesy of Hsiao-chun Hung.
Source: Courtesy of Truman Simanjuntak.
Figure 1.17 Siem Reap Cambodia IPPA (Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association) Congress Symposium ‘Human dispersals and interactions in Asia and Oceania’, 2014; front left to right: Emiri Miyama, Mariko Yamagata, Ian Glover, Peter Bellwood, Naruya Saitou; rear left to right: Ken-ichi Shinoda, Hirofumi Matsumura, Hsiao-chun Hung, Michiko Intoh, Sofwan Noerwidi.
Source: Courtesy of Hirofumi Matsumura.