Grappling with the Bomb


Operation Grapple

Arnold, Lorna: Britain and the H-Bomb (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2001).

Blakeway, Denys and Sue Lloyd Roberts: Fields of thunder—testing Britain’s bomb (George Allen and Unwin, London, 1985).

Crawford, John: The involvement of the Royal New Zealand Navy in the British nuclear testing programmes of 1957 and 1958, research paper for New Zealand Defence Force Headquarters, Wellington, New Zealand, 1989 (declassified 1996).

Hubbard, Kenneth and Michael Simmons: Operation Grapple (Ian Allen, London, 1985).

Hubbard, Kenneth and Michael Simmons: Dropping Britain’s First H-Bomb—the story of Operation Grapple, 1957–58 (Pen and Sword, Barnsley, 2008).

Humphrey, Trevor: A pixie in a mushroom patch (self-published, Wanganui, 1996).

McGinley, Ken and Eamonn P. O’Neill: No Risk Involved—the Ken McGinley story—survivor of a nuclear experiment (Mainstream Publishing, Edinburgh, 1991).

Oulton, Wilfred: Christmas Island Cracker—an account of the planning and execution of the British thermonuclear bomb tests 1957 (Thomas Harmsworth, London, 1987).

Priestley, Rebecca: Mad on radium—New Zealand in the atomic age (Auckland University Press, Auckland, 2013).

Rimmer, Alan: Between Heaven and Hell (E-book,, 2012).

Robinson, Derek: Just testing (Collins Harvill, London, 1985).

Salabula, Losena, Josua Namoce and Nic Maclellan: Kirisimasi—Na Sotia kei na Lewe ni Mataivalu e Wai ni Viti e na vakatovotovo iyaragi nei Peritania mai Kirisimasi [Fijian troops at Britain’s Christmas Island nuclear tests] (Pacific Concerns Resource Centre, Suva, 1999).

Smith, Joan: Clouds of Deceit—the deadly legacy of Britain’s bomb tests (Faber and Faber, London, 1985).

Trundle, Catherine: ‘Searching for Culpability in the Archives: Commonwealth Nuclear Test Veterans’ Claims for Compensation’, History and Anthropology, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2011, pp. 497–512.

Wright, Gerry: We Were There—Operation Grapple (Zenith Print, New Plymouth, n.d.).

Wynd, Michael: ‘From Participation to Protest: The Royal New Zealand Navy and Nuclear Testing 1957–1995’, presentation to the biennial Sea Power Conference, Sea Power Centre, Sydney, Australia.

British atomic testing in Australia

Arnold, Lorna: A Very Special Relationship—British Atomic Weapons Trials in Australia (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1987).

Attwood, Bain: Rights for Aborigines (Allen and Unwin, 2003).

Barwick, Garfield: ‘Statement in the House of Representatives on the ratification by the Australian government of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, by the Minister for External Affairs Sir Garfield Barwick on 15 August 1963’, in Nuclear Testing, Select Documents on International Affairs, No. 2 (Department of External Affairs, Canberra, 1963).

Carter, Barbara: ‘The peace movements in the 1950s’ in Ann Curthoys and John Merritt: Better Dead than Red—Australia’s first Cold War 1945–59 (Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1986).

Cross, Roger: Fallout—Hedley Marston and the British bomb tests in Australia (Wakefield Press, 2001).

Cross, Roger and Avon Hudson: Beyond Belief—the British bomb tests, Australia’s veterans speak out (Wakefield Press, Kent Town, 2005).

Curthoys, Anne and Joy Damousi (eds): What did you do in the Cold War, Daddy? Personal stories from a troubled time (NewSouth Publishing, Sydney, 2014).

Government of Australia: The Report of the Royal Commission into British Nuclear Tests in Australia (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1985).

Jordan, Doug: Conflict in the Unions—the Communist Party of Australia, politics and the trade union movement, 1945–60 (Resistance Books, Sydney, 2013).

Lester, Yami: Yami—the autobiography of Yami Lester (IAD Press, Alice Springs, 1993).

Mattingley, Christobel: Maralinga’s long shadow—Yvonne’s story (Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 2016).

Mattingley, Christobel with Yalata and Oak Valley communities: Maralinga—the Anangu story (Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 2009).

Milliken, Robert: No Conceivable Injury—the story of Britain and Australia’s atomic cover-up (Penguin, Ringwood, 1986).

Mittman, Jan Dirk (ed.): Black Mist, Black Country (Burrinja, Upwey, 2016).

Parkinson, Alan: Maralinga—Australia’s nuclear waste cover up (ABC Books, Sydney, 2007).

Penney, William: Statement to Royal Commission into the British Nuclear Tests, 1984. National Archives of Australia, NAA A6449.

Symonds, J.L.: A History of British Atomic Tests in Australia (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1985).

Tame, Adrian and Rob Robotham: Maralinga: British A-bomb, Australian Legacy (Fontana/Collins, Melbourne, 1982).

Tynan, Elizabeth: Atomic thunder—the Maralinga Story (NewSouth Publishing, Sydney, 2016).

Walker, Frank: Maralinga (Hachette, Sydney, 2014).

Watt, Alf: Rocket Range Threatens Australia (Australian Communist Party South Australian State Committee, Adelaide, 1947).

Wilson, Deborah: Different white people—radical activism for aboriginal rights 1946–72 (UWA Publishing, Perth, 2015).

British nuclear and strategic policy

Arnold, Lorna: Windscale 1957—Anatomy of a Nuclear Accident (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 1992).

Ashton, Nigel: Kennedy, Macmillan and the Cold War: The irony of interdependence (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2002).

Ball, S.J.: ‘Military Nuclear Relations between the United States and Great Britain under the Terms of the McMahon Act, 1946–1958’, The Historical Journal, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1995.

Baylis, John: Ambiguity and Deterrence—British Nuclear Strategy 1945–64 (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995).

Brixey-Williams, Sebastian: ‘UK revokes ICJ jurisdiction over its nuclear weapons’, BASIC (British American Security Information Council), 27 March 2017.

Brookes, Andrew: Valiant units of the Cold War, Osprey combat aircraft, No. 95 (Osprey, Oxford, 2012).

Colville, John: The Fringes of Power: 10 Downing Street Diaries 1939–1955 (W.W. Norton & Co, London, 1985).

Dombey, Norman and Eric Grove: ‘Britain’s thermonuclear bluff’, London Review of Books, 22 October 1992.

Farmelo, Graham: Churchill’s Bomb—a hidden history of science, war and politics (Faber and Faber, London, 2013).

Gilbert, Martin: Winston S. Churchill, Volume VIII: Never Despair 1945–6 (Heinemann, London, 1988).

Gowing, Margaret: Independence and deterrence, Volume 1 (Macmillan, London, 1974).

International Court of Justice: Declarations Recognising the Jurisdiction of the Court as Compulsory, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Island, 27 February 2017.

Macmillan, Harold: Riding the Storm 1956–1959 (Harper and Row, New York, 1971).

McCarthy, Helen: Women of the World—The Rise of the Female Diplomat (Bloomsbury, London, 2014).

McIntyre, Ben: A Spy Among Friends: Kim Philby and the Great Betrayal (Bloomsbury, London, 2014).

Rosenberg, Jonathan: ‘Before the bomb and after: Winston Churchill and the use of force’, in John Lewis Gaddis (ed.): Cold War statesman confront the bomb: nuclear diplomacy since 1945 (Oxford University Press, 1999).

Walker, John: British nuclear weapons and the Test Ban 1954–73: Britain, the United States, Weapons Policies and Nuclear Testing, Tensions and Contradictions (Ashgate, 2010).

Walker, John: ‘Potential Proliferation pointers from the past: Lessons from the British Nuclear Weapons Program, 1952–69’, The Nonproliferation Review, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2012, pp. 109–123.

Walton, Calder: Empire of secrets—British intelligence, the Cold War and the twilight of Empire (Harper Press, London, 2013).

Walton, Calder and Christopher Andrew: ‘Still the missing dimension: British intelligence and the historiography of British decolonisation’, in Patrick Major and Christopher Moran (eds): Spooked—Britain, Empire and intelligence since 1945 (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Cambridge, 2009).

White, Nick: ‘Macmillan, Kennedy and the Key West meeting: Its significance for the Laotian Civil War and Anglo‐American relations’, Civil Wars, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1999.

British peace movement

Anon.: ‘From Operation Gandhi to the Direct Action Committee Against Nuclear War (DAC)’, Non-Violent Resistance, 22 March 2015.

Bone, Andrew (ed.): Détente or destruction 1955–57, collected papers of Bertrand Russell, Volume 29 (Routledge, New York, 2005).

Brown, Michael and John May: The Greenpeace Story (Dorling Kindersley, London and New York, 1991).

Direct Action Committee (DAC): Policy Statement, 10 April 1958.

Olive, Win: Voyage of the Pacific Peacemaker (Wild & Woolley, Glebe, 1999).

Ricketts, Muriel: ‘Harold Steele’, obituary, The Friend, Vol. 137, 18 May 1979, p. 476.

Roberts, Adam: Nuclear Testing and the Arms Race (Peace News, Oxford, March 1962).

Taylor, Richard: Against the bomb—the British peace movement, 1958–1965 (Clarendon, Oxford, 1988).

Walter, Nicolas: ‘Direct action and the new pacifism’, Anarchy: A Journal of Anarchist Ideas, no. 13, Freedom Press, March 1962.

Wittner, Lawrence: Resisting the bomb—a history of the world disarmament movement, 1954–70, Volume 2 (Stanford University Press, 1997).

US nuclear testing in the Pacific

Barker, Holly: Bravo for the Marshallese—regaining control in a post-nuclear, post-colonial world (Wadsworth, Belmont, 2004).

Bigelow, Albert: The Voyage of the Golden Rule (Doubleday & Company, Garden City, NY, 1959).

Bordnera, Autumn, Danielle Crosswell, Ainsley Katz, Jill Shah, Catherine Zhang, Ivana Nikolic-Hughes, Emlyn Hughes and Malvin Ruderman: ‘Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), Vol. 113, No. 25, 2016, pp. 6833–6838.

Cronkite, E.P., Robert A. Conard and V.P. Bond: ‘Historical events associated with fallout from Bravo shot—Operation Castle and 25 years of medical findings’, Journal of Health Physics, Vol. 73, No. 1, 1997, pp. 176–186.

Georgescu Calin: Mission to the Marshall Islands (27–30 March 2012) and the United States of America (24–27 April 2012), UN Special Rapporteur on the implications for human rights of the environmentally sound management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, UN Human Rights Council, Twenty-first session, 3 September 2012, A/HRC/21/48/Add.1.

Johnson, Giff: Nuclear past, unclear future (Micronitor, Majuro, 2009).

Johnson, Giff: Don’t Ever Whisper—Darlene Keju: Pacific Health Pioneer, Champion for Nuclear Survivors (CreateSpace Independent Publishing, 2013).

Johnston, Barbara Rose and Holly Barker: Consequential Damages of Nuclear War—the Rongelap report (Left Coast Press, 2008).

Kunkle, Thomas and Byron Ristvet: Castle Bravo: Fifty years of legend and lore, US Defense Threat Reduction Agency, DSTRIAC SR-12-001, January 2013.

Niedenthal, Jack: For the good of mankind—a history of the people of Bikini and their islands (Micronitor, Majuro, 2001).

Petition from the Marshallese People Concerning the Pacific Islands: ‘Complaint regarding explosions of lethal weapons within our home islands to United Nations Trusteeship Council, 20 April 1954’, circulated as UN Trusteeship Council document T/PET.10/28, 6 May 1954.

‘Radioactive Debris from Operation Castle—islands of the mid-Pacific’, memorandum, US Atomic Energy Commission, 18 January 1955.

Reynolds, Earle: The Forbidden Voyage (David McKay Company, New York, 1961).

Robie, David: Eyes of Fire—the Last Voyage of the Rainbow Warrior (Little Island Books, Auckland, 2015).

Smith, Gary: Micronesia—decolonisation and US military interests in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Peace Research Centre, The Australian National University, 1991).

Weisgall, Jonathan: Operation Crossroads—the atomic tests at Bikini Atoll (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 1994).

US nuclear policy

Alperovitz, Gar: The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth (Vintage, 1996).

Chomsky, Noam: Rethinking Camelot—JFK, the Vietnam War and US political culture (Verso, London, 1993).

Goodman, Michael: Spying on the Nuclear Bear: Anglo-American Intelligence and the Soviet Bomb, Stanford Nuclear Age series (Stanford University Press, 2007).

Hacker, Barton: Elements of Controversy (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1994).

Kahn, Herman: The Nature and Feasibility of War and Deterrence (RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, 1960).

Kahn, Herman: Thinking about the unthinkable (Horizon Press, 1962).

Northrup, Doyle and Donald H. Rock: ‘The detection of Joe 1’, Studies in Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Vol. 10, Fall 1966 (declassified by the CIA in September 1995).

Rabbitt Roff, Sue: ‘Project sunshine and the slippery slope: The ethics of tissue sampling for strontium‐90’, Medicine, Conflict and Survival, Vol. 18, Issue 3, 2002, pp. 299–310.

Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr: A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House (Houghton-Mifflin, Boston, 2002 reprint).

French nuclear testing

Barrillot, Bruno: Les essais nucléaires français 1960–1996 [The French nuclear tests 1960–1996] (CDRPC, Lyon, 1996).

Barrillot, Bruno: L’héritage de la bombe: Polynésie—Sahara 1960–2002 [The legacy of the bomb: French Polynesia—Sahara 1960–2002] (CDRPC, Lyon, 2002).

Danielsson, Marie-Thérèse and Bengt: Moruroa mon amour [Moruroa, my love] (Stock, Paris, 1974).

Danielsson, Marie-Thérèse and Bengt: Poisoned reign (Penguin, Ringwood, 1986).

Maclellan, Nic (ed.): No Te Parau Tia, No Te Parau Mau, No Te Tiamaraa—for justice, truth and independence (Pacific Concerns Resource Centre, Suva, 1999).

Maclellan, Nic and Jean Chesneaux: After Moruroa—France in the South Pacific (Ocean Press, New York and Melbourne, 1998).

Stone, David: ‘The awesome glow in the sky: the Cook Islands and the French nuclear tests’, Journal of Pacific History, Vol. 2, Issue 1, 1967, pp. 154–155.

Van der Vlies, Pieter and Han Seur: Moruroa and Us (CDRPC, Lyon, 1997).

Wright, Gerry: Mururoa Protest (Zenith Print, New Plymouth, n.d.).

Soviet nuclear testing

Kabdrakhmanov, Kanat: Odinochestvo—dom bez sten, dusha bez doma—Transtsedentalnoe kocheve, konets puti; 470 bomb v serdtse Kazakhstana [470 Bombs in the Heart of Kazakhstan], (Kazakhstan, Almaty, 1994).

Kassenova, Togzhan: ‘Banning nuclear testing: Lessons from the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site’, The Nonproliferation Review, Vol. 23, no. 3–4, 2016, pp. 329–344.

Lebedev, J.A.: ‘Colonialism and the National Liberation Movement in Oceania’, The Peoples of Asia and Africa, No. 5 (translated in ‘Translations from the Soviet press’, Colonial Office digest no. 399, p. 3).

Maclellan, Nic: ‘Tikhookeanisky region v yaderny vek: istoriya, problemy, perspective’ [The nuclear age in the Pacific: history, problems, perspectives], Yaderny Kontrol, Moscow, Vol. 8, No. 1, January–February 2002.

Shilkov, A.M.: ‘The National Liberation Movements in Oceania’, pamphlet from All-Union Society for the Dissemination of Political and Scientific Knowledge (translated in ‘Translations from the Soviet press’, Colonial Office digest no. 365, p. 10).

Japan and nuclear testing

Dower, John: Embracing defeat—Japan in the wake of World War Two (W.W. Norton, New York, 1999).

Gensuikyo: No More Hiroshimas, the news of the Japan Council against A and H-bombs, Vol. 4, No. 9, 30 May 1957.

Kodama, Mitsuo: Hibakusha—A-Bomb survivor (Shift Project, Tokyo, 2014).

McCormack, Gavan and Hank Nelson: The Burma-Thailand Railway (Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1993).

Oishi, Matashichi: The day the sun rose in the west—Bikini, the Lucky Dragon and I (University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 2011), translated from Japanese by Richard H. Minear.

Tanaka, Yuki: Hidden Horrors—Japanese war crimes in World War II (Westview Press, Colorado, 1996).

Tanaka, Yuki: Japan’s comfort women—Sexual slavery and prostitution during World War Two and the US Occupation (Routledge, London, 2002).

Health impacts of nuclear testing

Anon.: ‘Nuclear test veterans’ survey prompts official inquiry’, The Lancet, Vol. 353, 23 January 1998.

Busby, Christopher and Mireille Escande de Messieres: ‘Miscarriages and Congenital Conditions in Offspring of Veterans of the British Nuclear Atmospheric Test Programme’, Epidemiology, Vol. 4, no. 4, 2014.

Carter, Michael et al.: Australian participants in British nuclear tests in Australia, Vol. 1: Dosimetry (Department of Veterans’ Affairs, Canberra, May 2006).

Committee to Assess Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII (BEIR VII) (National Academies Press, Washington, 2006).

Conard, Robert et al.: March 1957 medical survey of Rongelap and Utirik people three years after exposure to radioactive fallout (Brookhaven National Laboratories, Upton New York, 1958).

Conard, Robert, V.P. Bond, J.S. Robertson and E.A. Weden: Operation Castle Project 4.1a, medical examination of Rongelap people six months after exposure to fallout (Department of Energy, Washington, March 1954).

Darby, S.C. et al.: ‘A summary of mortality and incidence of cancer in men from the United Kingdom who participated in the United Kingdom’s atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes’, British Medical Journal, No. 296, 1988, pp. 332–338.

Darby, S.C. et al.: Mortality and cancer incidence in UK participants in UK atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes. NRPB-R214. (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1988).

Darby, S.C. et al.: ‘Further follow-up of mortality and incidence of cancer in men from the United Kingdom who participated in the United Kingdom’s atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes’, British Medical Journal, No. 307, 1993, pp. 1530–1535.

Darby, S.C. et al.: Mortality and cancer incidence 1952–1990 in UK participants in the UK atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes. NRPB-R 266 (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1993).

Eisenbud, Merril: ‘Human radiation studies, remembering the early years’, United States Department of Energy, Office of Human Radiation Experiments, DOE/EH-0456, May 1995.

Gun, Richard et al.: Australian participants in British nuclear tests in Australia, Vol. 2: Mortality and cancer incidence (Department of Veterans’ Affairs, Canberra, May 2006).

Humphreys, Trevor: ‘Why RIMPAC have been so scathing on the Pearce reports 1990–1996’, Prickley Heat, November 1997.

Lonergan, Jack: An analysis of the studies conducted to assess the impact of the British Nuclear Tests at Monte Bello, Emu Field and Maralinga on Australian participants (copy in author’s files).

Lonergan, Jack: Submission to the Senate Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade: Inquiry into the Provisions of the Australian Participants in British Nuclear Tests (Treatment) Bill, 27 October 2006.

Miles, Rebecca et al.: British Nuclear Test Veterans Health Needs Audit Commissioned by the UK Ministry of Defence (Miles and Green Associates, October 2011).

Muirhead C.R. et al.: ‘Follow up of mortality and incidence of cancer 1952-1998 in men from the United Kingdom who participated in the United Kingdom’s atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes’, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, No. 60, 2003, pp. 165–172.

Muirhead C.R. et al.: Mortality and cancer incidence 1952–1998 in UK participants in the UK atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and experimental programmes, NRPB-W27 (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 2003).

Pearce, Neal et al.: Mortality and cancer incidence in New Zealand participants in United Kingdom nuclear weapons tests in the Pacific, Department of Community Health, Wellington School of Medicine, 7 March 1990.

Pearce, Neal: Mortality and cancer incidence in New Zealand participants in United Kingdom nuclear weapons tests in the Pacific: supplementary report, Department of Medicine, Wellington School of Medicine, June 1996.

Rabbitt Roff, Sue: ‘Mortality and morbidity among children and grandchildren of members of the British Nuclear Tests Veterans Association and the New Zealand Nuclear Tests Veterans Association and their children’, Medicine, Conflict and Survival, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1999, pp. 1–51.

RAND Corporation: Project Sunshine—worldwide effects of Atomic Weapons (RAND, Santa Monica, 6 August 1953).

Ruff, Tilman: ‘The humanitarian impact and implications of nuclear test explosions in the Pacific region’, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 97, No. 899, 2015, pp. 775–813.

Ruff, Tilman: ‘Health implications of ionising radiation’, in Peter van Ness and Mel Gurtov (eds): Learning from Fukushima: Nuclear power in East Asia (ANU Press, Canberra, 2017).

Sidal, Morvan (ed.): The Legacy of Nuclear Testing—report of a Pacific Conference of Churches (PCC) workshop, Kiribati, 7–9 February 2005.

Smith, Ron: ‘The ill children of nuclear test veterans—victims of just unlucky?’, NZ International Review, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1999.

Trundle, Catherine: ‘Biopolitical endpoints: Diagnosing a deserving British nuclear test veteran’, Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 73, Issue 6, September 2011, pp. 882–888.

Trundle, Catherine and Brydie Isobel Scott: ‘Elusive Genes: Nuclear Test Veterans’ Experiences of Genetic Citizenship and Biomedical Refusal’, Medical Anthropology: Cross Cultural Studies in Health and Illness, Vol. 32, No. 6, 2013.

Wahab, M.A., F.M. Nickless, M. Najar, R. Kacher, C. Parmentier, J.V. Podd, R.E. Rowland: ‘Elevated chromosome translocation frequencies in New Zealand nuclear test veterans’, Cytogenetic and Genome Research, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2008, pp. 79–87.

Environmental impacts of nuclear testing

Firth, Stewart: Nuclear Playground (Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1987).

Maclellan, Nic: ‘Radiation on Johnston Atoll—cleaning up the Cold War’, Pacific News Bulletin, August 2000.

Medford, D: Illustrative calculations on the radiological surveillance of Christmas Island, Centre for Applied Studies in Development (University of the South Pacific, Suva, 1978).

Steadman, J.P.: ‘From a mere clean-up contract to changing lives—engaging the local stakeholders during the remediation of Christmas Island, Pacific Ocean’, Safety and Ecology Corporation Ltd, presentation to WM 2006 conference, 26 February–2 March 2006, Tucson Arizona.

Thaman, Randy and Uentabo Neemia-Mackenzie: Kiribati country report for United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), South Pacific Regional Environment Program (SPREP), Apia, June 1992.

Cultural responses to nuclear testing

Barrell, Tony and Rick Tanaka: Higher then Heaven—Japan, war and everything (Private Guy International, 1995).

Broderick, Michael (ed.): Hibakusha Cinema: Hiroshima, Nagasaki and the Nuclear Image in Japanese Film (2nd printing Routledge, London, 2014; Japanese language edition: Gendai Shokan, Tokyo, 1999).

DeLoughrey, Elizabeth: ‘Solar Metaphors: “No Ordinary Sun”’, Ka mate ka ora: A New Zealand journal of poetry and poetics, Issue 6, September 2008.

Haigh, Gideon: ‘Shute the messenger—How the end of the world came to Melbourne’, The Monthly, June 2007.

Jetnil-Kijiner, Kathy: Iep Jaltok—Poems from a Marshallese Daughter (University of Arizona Press, Phoenix, 2017).

Maclellan, Nic: ‘Young Pacific islanders are not climate change victims—they’re fighting’, The Guardian, 22 September 2014.

Shute, Nevil: On the Beach (Heinemman, Sydney, 1957).

Teaiwa, Teresia: ‘Bad coconuts’ (featuring Teresia Teaiwa, H. Doug Matsuoka and Richard Hamasaki) in Terenesia, spoken word recording by Teresia Teaiwa and Sia Fiegel.

Teaiwa, Teresia: ‘bikinis and other s/pacific n/oceans’, The Contemporary Pacific, Vol. 6, no. 1, 1994.

Tuwhare, Hone: No Ordinary Sun (Blackwood and Janet Paul, Auckland, 1964).

Fiji military, governance and politics

Dean, Eddie and Stan Ritova: Rabuka—no other way (Marketing team international, Suva, 1988).

Fraenkel, Jon and Stewart Firth: From election to coup—the 2006 campaign and its aftermath (ANU E Press, Canberra, 2007).

Fraenkel, Jon, Stewart Firth and Brij V. Lal: The 2006 military takeover in Fiji—a coup to end all coups? (ANU E Press, Canberra, 2009).

Halapua, Winston: Tradition, lotu and militarism in Fiji (Fiji Institute of Applied Studies, Lautoka, 2003).

Korovulavula, Manunivavalagi: Vala Mai Malaya (self-published, 2013).

Lal, Brij V.: Broken waves—a history of the Fiji islands in the 20th century, Pacific Islands Monograph Series, No. 11 (University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1992).

Lal, Brij V.: Islands of turmoil—Elections and politics in Fiji (ANU E Press, Canberra, 2006).

Lal, Brij V. and Michael Pretes (eds): Coup—reflections on political crisis in Fiji (Pandanus Books, Canberra, 2001).

Maclellan, Nic: ‘From Fiji to Fallujah: the war in Iraq and the privatisation of Pacific security’, Pacific Journalism Review, Vol. 12, No. 2, September 2006.

Robertson, Robbie and William Sutherland: Government by the gun—the unfinished business of Fiji’s 2000 coup (Pluto Press, Annandale, 2001).

Tarte, Daryl: Turaga—the Life and Times and Chiefly Authority of Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau (GCMG, KCVO, KBE, DSO, K St. J, ED) (Fiji Times, Suva, 1993).

Tarte, Daryl: ‘Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau’, in Stewart Firth and Daryl Tarte (eds): 20th Century Fiji—people who shaped the nation (University of the South Pacific, Suva, 2001).

Teaiwa, Teresia: ‘Articulated Cultures: Militarism and Masculinities in Fiji during the mid-1990s’, Fijian Studies: A Journal of Contemporary Fiji, Vol. 3, Issue 2, 2005.

Teaiwa, Teresia: ‘What Makes Fiji Women Soldiers? Context, Context, Context’, Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific, Issue 37, March 2015.

Thomson, Peter: Kava in the blood—a personal and political memoir from the heart of Fiji (Tandem Press, Auckland, 1999).

Pacific islands governance and politics

Bailey, Eric: The Christmas Island Story (Stacey International, London, 1977).

Buckley, Ken: ‘Burns, James (1881–1969)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol. 13 (Melbourne University Press, 1993).

Buckley, Ken and Kris Klugman: The Australian presence in the Pacific—Burns Philp 1914–1946 (George Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1983).

Gustafson, Barry: Kiwi Keith—a biography of Keith Holyoake (Auckland University Press, Auckland, 2007).

Hager, Nicky: Secret Power—New Zealand’s Role in the International Spy Network (Craig Potton Publishing, Nelson, 1996).

Kinnersley, Des: ‘Life on a remote Telegraph Cable Station in the early 1960s’, Overseas Telecommunications Veterans Association newsletter, Vol. 7, Issue 1, June 2002, pp. 93–95.

Lange, David: Nuclear Free: The New Zealand Way (Penguin, Wellington, 1991).

Laracy, Hugh (ed.): Tuvalu—a history (Institute of Pacific Studies, Suva, 1983).

McIntyre, W. David: ‘The Partition of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands’, Island Studies Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2012, pp. 135–146.

McIntyre, W. David: Winding up the British Empire in the Pacific Islands, Oxford History of the British Empire Companion Series (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014).

Richelson, Jeffrey and Desmond Ball: The Ties That Bind—Intelligence Cooperation Between the UKUSA Countries—the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand (George Allen and Unwin, Sydney, London and Boston, 1985).

Teaiwa, Katerina: Consuming Ocean Island—stories of people and phosphate from Banaba (Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 2015).

Van Trease, Howard (ed.): Atoll politics—the Republic of Kiribati (Institute of Pacific Studies, Suva, 1993).

Newspaper and magazine articles

Anon.: ‘Air Marshal Sir Geoffrey Dhenin’, obituary, Daily Telegraph, 11 May 2011.

Anon.: ‘Bill for former soldiers passed’, Fiji Times, 14 December 1999.

Anon.: ‘Bill to benefit ex-servicemen’, Daily Post, 14 December 1999.

Anon.: ‘Blast from the past—lest we forget’, Fiji Daily Post, 26 June 1999.

Anon.: ‘Bomb gone! H-Bomb puts Britain on level terms’, The Mid-Pacific News, special souvenir edition, 15 May 1957.

Anon.: ‘Bomb tests’, Fiji Times, 4 April 1957.

Anon.: ‘Bon voyage!’, Mid-Pacific News, Vol. 3, No. 33, Thursday, 13 November 1958.

Anon.: ‘Boost for N-test veterans’ case’, BBC News Online, 15 May 2007.

Anon.: ‘Britain continues nuclear tests—Hat trick’, Mid-Pacific News, June 1957, p. 1.

Anon.: ‘Britain explodes Third H-Bomb in Pacific Tests’, Fiji Times, 22 June 1957, p. 1.

Anon.: ‘British nuclear test veterans take cancer claims to supreme court’, Guardian (UK), 29 July 2011.

Anon.: ‘Cancer check on Kiwi sailors at nuclear tests’, Evening Post, 20 August 1987.

Anon.: ‘Does anyone know what happened to Mary and Billy?’, Fissionline, No. 2, April 2013.

Anon.: ‘Fiji soldiers guinea pigs in nuclear testing’, Fiji Sun, 14 December 1999.

Anon.: ‘H-bomb tests alarm Japan’, Birmingham Post, 9 May 1957.

Anon.: ‘H-bomb tests—North, South, East or West of Christmas Island?’, Pacific Islands Monthly, Volume XXVII, No. 5, December 1956, p. 55.

Anon.: ‘H-Bomb witnesses sought’, Dominion, 21 July 1987.

Anon.: ‘House passes bill to cater for Christmas Island veterans’, Fiji Sun, 14 December 1999.

Anon.: ‘Hydrogen bomb “was a beaut”’, Auckland Herald, 17 July 1957.

Anon.: ‘Malvern couple refused visas for “suicide” plan’, Birmingham Post, 27 March 1957.

Anon.: ‘Maralinga’s afterlife’, The Age, 11 May 2003.

Anon.: ‘Marshall Islanders urgent pleas—end A-bomb tests’, The Times (London), 15 May 1954.

Anon.: ‘Nuclear blast veterans have genetic damage—Massey study’, Radio New Zealand, 15 May 2007.

Anon.: ‘Nuclear test study could help sailors’ lawsuit—lawyer’, NZ Herald, 15 May 2007.

Anon.: ‘Nuclear test veteran gets U.S. payout’, Daily Mail, 25 July 2006.

Anon.: ‘Nuclear test veterans to push for legal action’, ABC News Online, 15 May 2007.

Anon.: ‘Nuke tests caused NZ genetic damage: report’, ABC News Online, 14 May 2007.

Anon.: ‘NZRSA offers minister support with A-Test survey’, NZRSA Review, Vol. 58, No. 5, October 1987.

Anon.: ‘Our H-bomb tests will be “so small”’, News Chronicle, 28 March 1957.

Anon.: ‘Pacifist seeks to demonstrate against H-tests’, Florence Times (US), 16 May 1957.

Anon.: ‘Penaia Ganilau, 75, Fiji Leader Who Became the First President’, Obituary, New York Times, 17 December 1993.

Anon.: ‘Prepared to die on a Pacific atoll—pacifist’s H-bomb protest’, The Scotsman, 9 May 1957.

Anon.: ‘Preparing for H-blast’, Daily Telegraph, 20 December 1956.

Anon.: ‘Round the clock work building “Boffin Town”’, Dundee Evening Telegraph, June 1957.

Anon.: ‘Sailor rubbishes Navy’s claim of bomb test checks’, Evening Post, 1 August 1987.

Anon.: ‘Tavo na italanoa ni vakalutu gasaukuro’, Nai Lalakai, 24 June 1999.

Anon.: ‘Tokyo H-bomb protest’, Fiji Times, 31 May 1957, p. 1.

Anon.: ‘UN will not stop Pacific H-bomb test’, Fiji Times, 23 July 1956, p. 1.

Anon.: ‘We will risk our lives to prove the bomb is evil’, Sunday Pictorial, 24 March 1957.

Anon.: ‘Will sail to H-test area’, Daily Worker, 19 March 1957.

Bell, Cathy: ‘H-bomb tests crews win pension’, Dominion, 31 March 1998.

Bird, Kai and Martin J. Sherwin: ‘The Myths of Hiroshima’, LA Times, 5 August 2005.

Boniface, Susie: ‘Babies were exposed to lethal radiation after being sent to nuke-blasted Christmas Island’, Sunday Mirror (UK), 9 March 2008.

Boniface, Susie: ‘My wife visited and later had 6 miscarriages & died of cancer’, Sunday Mirror (UK), 9 March 2008.

Boniface, Susie: ‘Nuclear test veteran dies after years of suffering as MoD throw out his court claim’, Daily Mirror, 12 March 2012.

Cava, Litia: ‘Veterans Salute Govt’, Fiji Sun, 1 February 2015.

Dearnaley, Matthew: ‘Nuclear veterans target Britain—claim for children’s birth defects’, New Zealand Herald, 9 April 1998.

Delailomaloma, Frederica: ‘Bill for former soldiers passed’, Fiji Times, 14 December 1999.

Dutt, Reggie: ‘Fiji soldiers guinea pigs in nuclear testing’, Fiji Sun, 14 December 1999.

Edwards, Rob: ‘Plane deceit’, New Scientist, 8 May 1999.

Evans, Rob: ‘US compensation for British nuclear test veteran’, The Guardian, 26 July 2006.

Evans, Rob: ‘Widow of British nuclear test veteran awarded $75,000 by US’, Observer, 21 October 2010.

Higgins, Ean: ‘Nuclear veterans plan class action’, The Australian, 15 May 2007.

Hill, Ruth: ‘Study backs nuclear test veterans’ claims’, The Dominion Post (NZ), 16 June 2008.

Laing, Iain: ‘Green team booked to clean up island’, The Journal, 22 March 2005.

Leigh, David and Paul Lashmar: ‘Revealed at last: the deadly secrets of Britain’s A-Bombs’, The Observer, 24 March 1985.

Naleba, Mere: ‘Payout for nuclear veterans’, Fiji Times, 30 January 2015.

Narsey, Wadan: ‘Raw deal for nuke test Guinea Pigs’, Sunday Times (Fiji), 13 June 1999.

Rimmer, Alan: ‘Charity bosses cash in’, Fissionline, No. 44, May 2016.

Schreiber, Mark: ‘Lucky Dragon’s lethal catch’, The Japan Times, 18 March 2012.

Sefton, Roy: ‘NZNTV Association’, Navy Times, September 2002, p. 11.

Sheers, Owen: ‘Bomb Gone’, Granta, No. 101, 1 August 2008.

Stuart, Hamish: ‘Study finds nuclear veterans suffered genetic damage’, New Zealand Herald, 14 May 2007.

Tetsuya Okahata: ‘Protests against nuclear tests’, Chugoku Shimbun (Hiroshima), 25 June 1995.

Vuibau, Tevita: ‘Joy for war veteran exposed to nuke test’, Fiji Times, 22 February 2015.

Waugh, Bill: ‘Creation of the N-petition’, Associated Press, 29 May 1954.

Government reports and factsheets

Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency: Australian Strontium-90 Testing program 1957–78 (ARPANSA, Sydney, n.d.).

Brigadier General J.W. White and Rear Admiral G.S. Patrick: Report of United States observers of a nuclear test, Atomic Energy Commission, AEC 663/13, 10 December 1957.

Proceedings of the Legislative Council of the Cook Islands, paper number 3, 1956.

Redfern Inquiry into human tissue analysis in UK nuclear facilities (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 10 November 2010), Vol. 1.

Richards, Patsy: ‘Nuclear Test Veterans—compensation’, House of Commons Library, standard note SNSC-05145, 31 January 2013.

UK Colonial Office: Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony and the Central and Southern Line Islands—Report for the Years 1956 and 1957 (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1959).

UK Colonial Office: Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony and the Central and Southern Line Islands—Report for the Years 1958 and 1959 (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1961).

UK Ministry of Defence: ‘UK atmospheric nuclear weapons tests: UK programme’, Factsheet 5, June 2008.

UK Ministry of Defence: Operation Grapple 1956–57, Handbook for UK personnel, 1957.

UNESCO: Bikini Atoll Nuclear Test Site, World Heritage List.

US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC): Minutes of the Advisory Committee on Biology and Medicine, 13–14 January 1956 (AEC, New York, 1956).

US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (USDTRA): ‘Operation Castle’, Fact Sheet, May 2015.

US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (USDTRA): ‘Operation Hardtack’, Fact Sheet, May 2015.

US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (USDTRA): ‘Operation Ivy’, Fact Sheet, May 2015.

US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (USDTRA): ‘Operation Dominic 1’, Fact Sheet, May 2015.

US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (USDTRA): Johnston Atoll Radiological Survey (JARS), 6 January 2000.

Hansard reports, United Kingdom

‘Hydrogen bomb tests Pacific (representation)’, Hansard, UK House of Commons, 20 May 1954.

‘Christmas Island Nuclear Tests’, statement by John Spellar, Secretary of State for Defence, UK House of Commons, Hansard Written Answers for 20 January 1999, col. 462.

‘Christmas Island: Radioactive Waste’, Under Secretary of State for Defence Andrew Robathan, UK House of Commons, Hansard Written Answers for 17 February 2011.

‘Nuclear Test Veterans’, Mr Llew Smith MP, UK House of Commons, Hansard official report, 4 February 1998, col. 1006.

‘Nuclear Test Veterans’, Statement by Secretary of Defence John Spellar MP, UK House of Commons, Hansard official report, 4 February 1998, col. 1009.

Question to Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, UK House of Commons, Hansard official report, 16 April 1957.

Speech by Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, UK House of Commons, Hansard official report, 1 March 1955.

Statement by Dr Ian Gibson MP, UK House of Commons, Hansard official report, 22 October 2008, col. 419.

Statement by John Baron MP, UK House of Commons, Hansard official report, 29 October 2013, col. 233WH.

Statement by Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Defence Dr Lewis Moonie, UK House of Commons, Hansard, 4 December 2002, col. 262WH.

Statement by Prime Minister Harold Macmillan UK House of Commons Hansard official report, 5 March 1957, Vol. 566, col. 178.

Statement by Siobhan McDonagh MP, UK House of Commons, Hansard official report, 4 December 2002, col. 251WH.

Statement by Under-Secretary for the Ministry of Defence Derek Twigg, UK House of Commons Hansard official report, 29 October 2007, col. 979W.

UK Select Committee on Defence: Legacy Issues for the Armed Forces Pension Scheme: Compensation for nuclear test veterans, March 2003.

Hansard reports, Fiji

Debate over Fiji Servicemen’s After-Care Fund (Amendment) Bill 1999, Daily Hansard, House of Representatives, Parliament of Fiji, Wednesday, 1 December 1999.

Debate over Fiji Servicemen’s After-Care Fund (Amendment) Bill 1999, Daily Hansard, Senate, Parliament of Fiji, Wednesday, 1 December 1999.

Court cases

AB and Others versus Ministry of Defence [2009] EWHC 1225 (QB).

Abdale and Others versus Secretary of State, War Pensions and Armed Forces Compensation Chamber, Royal Courts of Justice, London, 16 December 2016.

Case of McGinley and Egan v. the United Kingdom, European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg, France, 9 June 1998. § 68, Reports of Judgments and Decisions 1998-III (10/1997/794/995-996).

Jean Ethel Sinfield and Others against the United Kingdom, European Court of Human Rights (Fourth Section), Application no. 61332/12, 18 February 2014.

L.C.B. v. the United Kingdom, 9 June 1998, European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg, France, § 35, Reports of Judgments and Decisions 1998-III.

Ministry of Defence versus AB and Others [2012] UK Supreme Court, UKSC 9.

Ministry of Defence versus AB and Others, UK Court of Appeal (Civil division) [2010] EWCA Civ 1317, Case No: B3/2009/2205.

Pearce v. Secretary of State for Defence [1988] AC 755.

Suitupe Kiritome v. United Kingdom, European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg, France, (49753/99), 1999.

Archives and databases

AA: Atomic Atolls

EISEN: Eisenhower Presidential Library

NAID  #12082706: ‘Sputnik, Missiles and Related Matters’ Box 35, Special Projects.

MINDD: Marshall Islands Nuclear Documentation Database

PAMBU: Pacific Manuscripts Bureau

AU PMB Doc 493. Office of the Resident Commissioner Headquarters Information Note, Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony. Series 1956–60.

SIHE: Solomon Islands Historical Encyclopaedia 1893–1978

UK National Archives

CO1035: Colonial Office Intelligence and Security Department (ISD):

  • CO1035/48: ‘Organisation of Intelligence Services in the Colonies: Fiji’, 1 January 1956–31 December 1957.
  • CO1035/107: ‘Report on organisation of intelligence in Fiji’, reports by Security Intelligence Advisers, January–December 1956.
  • CO1035/113: ‘Deportation of UK subjects or protected persons from colonial territories’.

    CO1036: Pacific and Indian Ocean Department of the Colonial Office and Commonwealth Office (PAC Series):

  • CO1036/236: ‘US Hydrogen Bomb experiments—West Pacific’.
  • CO1036/237: ‘US Hydrogen Bomb experiments—West Pacific (Part II)’.
  • CO1036/238: ‘Financial arrangements Operation Grapple’.
  • CO1036/280: ‘Nuclear tests in the Pacific—Operation Grapple’.
  • CO1036/281: ‘Nuclear test in the Pacific (1)’.
  • CO1036/282: ‘Nuclear test in the Pacific (II)’.
  • CO1036/283: ‘Nuclear test in the Pacific’.
  • CO1036/284: ‘Nuclear test in the Pacific’.
  • CO1036/513: ‘Protests against the H-bomb tests in the Pacific’.
  • C01036/514: ‘Proposal to Use Fijian Military Forces on Christmas Island’.
  • CO1036/859: ‘Communism—Pacific’.
  • CO1036/860: ‘Australian and New Zealand interest in communism in the Pacific’.

    DEF: Ministry of Defence Registered Files (General Series):

  • DEFE 13/1012 Atomic weapons trials 1955–1957: ‘Atomic weapons trials and training—Joint Operations’, memorandum by Group Captain S.W.B. Menault, Royal Air Force, 29 November 1955. CMS.2680/55/DD Ops.
  • DEF 37/15/6 Part A: ‘Atomic tests on Christmas Island: Brigadoon 1961–1962’.

    DEFE 5, COS Committee, Memoranda 1947–1970

  • ‘Chief of Staff Committee—Atomic Weapons Trials: Reports by the Defence Research Policy Committee’, memorandum, 20 May 1953, UK National Archives CO53/257.

Unpublished documents, letters and reports

‘British hydrogen and atomic bomb tests—Christmas Island 1958’, letter from J.N. Ramacake, Nausori, Fiji to UK Ministry of Defence, 20 December 1989.

‘Gilbertese children’s party’, typed report to Women’s Voluntary Service, December 1958.

‘Irati Wanti’, Statement by the women of Kupa Piti Kungka Tjuta, South Australia, n.d.

‘Rosenblatt Secures Victory for Nuclear Veterans’, media release, Rosenblatt Solicitors, 5 June 2009.

‘With the WVS in Korea’, letter to Women’s Voluntary Service Headquarters in London, 31 August 1956.

‘WVS report for January and February 1959, Junior Ranks Club, Christmas Island’, Report to Women’s Voluntary Service Headquarters, February 1959.

‘WVS report for March and April 1959, Junior Ranks Club, Christmas Island’, Report to Women’s Voluntary Service Headquarters, 1 May 1959.

Al Rowland: ‘British atomic bomb testing: An unintended legacy’, December 2014.

Billie Burgess: WVS Club Christmas Island newsletter, January 1957.

Letter from Peter Smart, UK ambassador to Fiji, to Sailosi Kepa, Minister for Justice and Attorney General, 5 February 1990.

Letter from S. McIntosh, Ministry of Defence, London to J.N. Ramacake, Nausori, 11 January 1990.

Ministry of Fijian Affairs: ‘Names of naval personnel of the Fiji Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve who served ashore at Christmas Island from 23/12/57 to 23/2/58 before being transferred to Singapore to take MV Ramarama back to Fiji’, Appendix 2, 23 March 1990.

Ministry of Fijian Affairs: ‘Names of Fiji naval personnel who took part in the British nuclear testing at Christmas Island, in 1957 aboard HMS Warrior’, 23 March 1990.

Minutes of the founding meeting of the New Zealand Nuclear Test Veterans Association (NZNTVA), signed by Roy Sefton and Tere Tahi.

Prime Minister Voreqe Bainimarama: ‘Speech at the first pay out to veterans of Operation Grapple’, media release, Office of the Prime Minister, Suva, Fiji, 30 January 2015.

Speech by Ambassador Makurita Baaro, Informal Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly to mark the 2015 Observance of the International Day against Nuclear Tests, UN Headquarters, New York, 10 September 2015.

Speech by Paul Ah Poy, UK House of Commons, London, 20 October 1999.

Speech by Tekoti Rotan to International Meeting, World Conference on A and H Bombs, Tokyo, August 2002.