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Skin, Kin and Clan

List of Figures

Figure 1: Maris Pacifici showing Terra Australis by Abraham Ortelius (33 x 48 cm; scale: 1:40,000,000), Anvers: Imprimerie Plantinienne, 1589

Figure 2: Cette terre est dite la région Australe (This land that is called the Australian region) by Guillaume Le Testu, FO XXXV, Le Havre, 1556

Figure 3: The distribution of some system types in Australia following the AustKin database

Figure 4: Example of a section system (left) of the Ngaatjatjarra group and of a subsection system (right) of the Warlpiri language

Figure 5: Mathews’s Aboriginal nations according to similar or identical moiety, section or subsection names (thin lines and numbered areas) and identical system types (shaded lines and large areas)

Figure 6: Radcliffe-Brown’s vision of the ‘Kariera tribe’ showing ‘local groups’ (roman numbers) and associated section couples (letters)

Figure 7: Davidson’s and Radcliffe-Brown’s maps of the distribution of social organisation in Aboriginal Australia as summarised by Yengoyan

Figure 8: Berndt and Berndt’s map of the distribution and spread of social organisations

Figure 9: An approximate extension of the four-section system according to Mathews, Radcliffe-Brown, Berndt and Berndt and AustKin

Figure 10: One of Mulvaney’s maps showing ceremonial exchange, ceremonial centres and home localities of ceremonial participants

Figure 11: Peterson’s drainage basins

Figure 12: Formal representation of the section system

Figure 13: Map generated from the AustKin database of the distribution of section systems

Figure 14: Study area

Figure 15: Northern Kakadu – Gunbalanya—languages at time of colonisation

Figure 16: Gunmogurrgurr names in the northern Kakadu – Gunbalanya area

Figure 17: Matharri-Kararrhu moieties, plus Thura-Yura languages

Figure 18: Karnic languages; three moiety sets

Figure 19: Makwarra-Kilparra moieties; Paakantyi and Lower Murray languages

Figure 20: Bunjil-Waang moieties and Kulin languages

Figure 21: Howitt’s 1904 map of south-eastern Australia

Figure 22: Distribution and spread of moiety name sets

Figure 23: Map showing the locations of the Ashburton and Gascoyne rivers of Western Australia

Figure 24: Sets of section terms in Australia

Figure 25: Social category types in Cape York Peninsula

Figure 26: Map of the location of Kuku Yalanji and Guugu Yimidhirr

Figure 27: Clans of the Tjungundji

Figure 28: Maric languages with sound changes affecting section terms

Figure 29: Panoan sections

Figure 30: Map of distribution of sections and subsections

Figure 31: The first semantic map for {BREATHE}

Figure 32: Semantic network of {SUBSECTION} (generic term) for the Australian languages surveyed

Figure 33: Map of geographical distribution of subsection colexification

Figure 34: Position of ‘other social categories’ in the ‘subsection’ semantic network

Figure 35: Inadequate (top) and supported (bottom) representation of ‘subsection/distinctive aspect of the person/person’ colexifications

Figure 36: Conceptual explanation for ‘subsection/distinctive aspect of the person’ colexifications

Figure 37: The ‘dermis’ colexification cluster

Figure 38: The ‘smell/taste’ colexification cluster

Figure 39: The ‘body’ colexification cluster

Figure 40: The ‘head’ colexification cluster

Figure 41: The ‘name’ colexification cluster

Figure 42: The ‘country and times’ colexification cluster

Figure 43: Suggested chain of motivations for ‘at times/country’ colexifications

Figure 44: The historical spread of subsections and the generic terms

Figure 45: Languages of Central Australia

Figure 46: Waanyi ascending harmonic generation kin terms

Figure 47: Waanyi ascending and descending harmonic generation kin terms

Figure 48: Waanyi pattern of wife bestowal

Figure 49: Asymmetrical brother-in-law relationship

Figure 50: Pattern of wife exchange between cross-cousins

Figure 51: Waanyi and Warlpiri grandparent/child terms compared

Figure 52: Location of Garrwan languages and their immediate neighbours

Figure 53: The Murrinhpatha trirelational kinterm yilamarna

Figure 54: An ordinary Bininj Gunwok kinterm anchored to the addressee (left) and a trirelational kinterm anchored to both speaker and addressee (right). The term also encodes the relationship between speaker and addressee

Figure 55: Dual propositus trirelational kinterms

Figure 56: Trirelational dyadic terms

Figure 57: Kawumamnge—(literally) ‘the female person that he/she (ego’s child) refers to as MoMo’

Figure 58: The Murrinhpatha trirelational terms all contain an embedded kinterm that is presented as if being uttered by P2, the son/daughter of P1

Figure 59: The Murrinhpatha kinchart for a male ego (trirelational kinterms are not included)

Figure 60: The Murrinhpatha kinchart for a female ego (trirelational kinterms are not included)

Figure 61: Australian languages for which trirelational kinterms have been attested

Figure 62: A video still corresponding to Lily’s line 46 in Extract 2—Bere, kalemamnge tepala murriny nartwardangu, ‘Right, deaf-one “sister”, take it away!’

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