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Transforming Hawai‘i

Appendix 1: Hawaiian Military Activity 1778–97

Key for Table 1A.1

Key for Table 1A.1

Table 1A.1: Military activity by month and locality, 1778–97

Table 1A.1: Military activity by month and locality, 1778–97

Table 1A.2: Areas Experiencing Hostile Armies, 1778–96

Table 1A.2: Areas Experiencing Hostile Armies, 1778–96

References

  1. Kalani‘ōpu‘u raids Maui and Lāna‘i (Kamakau (1961, pp. 89–90); and Dibble (1909, p. 22). Cook, in Beaglehole (1967, 3:1, pp. 476 ff.) confirms Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s army was on east Maui Nov. 1778 to Jan./Feb. 1779).
  2. Kahekili versus Peleiohalani on Moloka‘i (King, in Beaglehole (1967), 3:1, pp. 584–85, 27 Feb. 1779).
  3. Kamakeheli defeats Kāneoneo on Kaua‘i (Clerke, in Beaglehole (1967), 3:1, p. 577, 28 Feb. 1779).
  4. Peleiohalani dies, is succeeded by Kumahama, who is deposed (peacefully?) (Fornander (1969), pp. 217–19, 290).
  5. Kalani‘ōpu‘u defeats rebellion of ‘Īmakakoloa in Puna, Hawai‘i (Fornander (1969), pp. 200–03. Kamakau (1961, p. 108) is uncertain if this was in 1780 or 1781).
  6. Kalani‘ōpu‘u dies, succeeded by Kamehameha after his slaying of Kīwala‘ō at Moku‘ōhai (Fornander (1969, p. 311) dates Moku‘ōhai to July. See also Fornander (1969), pp. 204, 299–11; Kamakau (1961), pp. 110, 118–21; and Dibble (1909), p. 43).
  7. Keawe and Keōua crush revolts (Fornander (1969), p. 316).
  8. Kamehameha versus Keawe and Kahahawai in Hilo (Fornander (1969), pp. 220–22, 311–12, 316–19; Kamakau (1961) 124–25; and Dibble (1909) 45–46).
  9. Kahekili retakes east Maui (Fornander (1969), pp. 215–17; Kamakau (1961) pp. 115–16; and Dibble (1909), p. 44. It is likely that the siege lasted from January to December 1782 as Kahekili attacked upon hearing of Kalani‘ōpu‘u’s death. The siege lasted one year, and Kahekili attacked O‘ahu in early 1783 – ‘some say’ Jan. 1783 (Kamakau, (1961), p. 136)).
  10. Kahekili conquers O‘ahu (Fornander (1969), pp. 220–27; Kamakau (1961), p. 136, ‘some say’ Jan. 1783).
  11. Kahekili consolidates O‘ahu and puts down rebellion sometime from 1783 to 1785 (Fornander (1969, pp. 225–27) claims the O‘ahu revolt occurred in 1785 and he states (p. 298) that Kāneoneo was killed on O‘ahu in 1785. Even if so, the suggestion remains that resistance was not broken until c. 1785?).
  12. Rebellion involving Kukeawe on Maui (Fornander (1969, pp. 227–28) is no more specific than to date this revolt to Kukeawe’s governorship while Kahekili was on O‘ahu).
  13. Kamehameha versus Keawe in Hilo (Fornander (1969, pp. 319–20) describes the conflict as a long and indecisive war).
  14. Kalanimalokuloku-i-Kapo‘okalani invades Maui and is repulsed by Kamohomoho (Fornander (1969), pp. 228–29, 320–22. Fornander (p. 320) states that there was a truce on Hawai‘i. Dixon (1968, p. 51) visited O‘ahu in May and was told that the local ali‘i were at war on another island).
  15. No sign of war from November 1786 to October 1787 (Portlock (1958) saw no signs of war during visits to Hawai‘i, Maui and O‘ahu, Nov. – 20 Dec. 1786 (pp. 149–53), Jan.–Mar. 1787 (pp. 167–73), Sep. – 8 Oct 1787 (pp. 298–308)).
  16. Ka‘eokulani challenged by a faction on Kaua‘i (Meares (1968, p. 335, 6 Dec.) was uncertain if the dispute came to blows, but Kahekili’s presence on Kaua‘i casts doubts over this possibility. Certainly by Jan. 1779, Meares (1968, pp. 350–51) found Kaua‘i at peace and Kahekili back on O‘ahu).
  17. Kamehameha versus Keōua in Ka‘ū? (Kamakau (1961, pp. 153–54), and Ellis (1969, pp. 209–10) suggest that Ka‘iana may have conducted operations against Keōua. In March, Meares (1968, p. 354) noted tensions between Kamehameha and a windward chief who was allied to Kahekili. Menzies (1920, p. 10) refers to fighting between Ka‘iana and Keōua in Ka‘ū in the recent past, but the two had fought there in 1790–91. Certainly when Menzies returned in July (1968, p. 369–72) there was no sign of war. Nor did the Felice (Meares (1968), pp. 272–80) detect signs of war on Hawai‘i during its reprovisioning between 17 Sep. and 27 Oct.).
  18. Kamehameha conquers Maui and Moloka‘i (Fornander (1969), pp. 235–40; and Kamakau (1961), pp. 147–49. The campaign must have occurred after the seizure of the Fair American in March 1790 (Kamakau (1961), p. 145; and Fornander (1969), p. 234) as one of its cannon was used at ‘Īao. After ‘Īao, the army remained mobilised on Maui and Moloka‘i for some time (Fornander (1969), pp. 238–40)).
  19. Keōua defeats and kills Keawe in Hilo, and invades Hāmākua and Kohala (Fornander (1969), p. 240; and Kamakau (1961), p. 151).
  20. Kamehameha versus Keōua in Hāmākua (Fornander (1969), pp. 323–24; and Kamakau (1961), pp. 151–52).
  21. Kamehameha renews attack on Keōua (Kamakau (1961), pp. 153–54. Fornander (1969, p. 326) writes that Keōua held his ground during the spring and summer).
  22. Ka‘eokulani and Kahekili attack Kamehameha and are defeated in a naval battle off Waipi‘o (Fornander (1969, p. 241) states that Ka‘eokulani and Kahekili mobilised and reoccupied Moloka‘i and Maui in the winter months of 1790–91. Fornander (1969, pp. 242–43), and Kamakau (1961, pp. 159–62) date the naval battle off Hāmākua to Spring 1791. Colnett (Howay (1940), p. 220) was told that the battle occurred in April or early May. However Ingraham (Kaplanoff (1971), pp. 85–86) witnessed a mobilisation at O‘ahu on 27 May and was informed that Kahekili’s fleet was then off Maui, while Kamehameha’s was in Kohala (Kaplanoff (1971), p. 71)).
  23. Kamehameha kills Keōua (Fornander (1969, pp. 244, 327–35) claims that the naval battle occurred before the sacrifice of Keōua, as does Kamaka (1961, pp. 155–58)).
  24. Ka‘eokulani and Kahekili remain mobilised on Maui during 1791 and 1792 (Fornander (1969), p. 244. Vancouver (1801, bk 1, p. 352 (Mar. 1792)) states that Ka‘eokulani and Kahekili met on Moloka‘i in preparation for an expected attack by Kamehameha. He also noted (p. 363) that they had been absent from Kaua‘i and O‘ahu respectively, for ‘several’ months now. Gooch (Dening (1988), p. 5) noted that Kahekili and his army were still on Maui in May 1792).
  25. Continued mobilisation on Maui (and Hawai‘i?) (Vancouver (1801, bk 3, p. 301) noted that Kamehameha’s enemies were still mobilised on Maui in March 1793 to guard against the possibility of attack by Kamehameha).
  26. Inamo crushes revolt on Kaua‘i (Vancouver (1801), bk 37, pp. 367–69, 375 (Mar. 1793)).
  27. Death of Namahana of Maui (Vancouver (1801, bk 5, p. 118, (Feb. 1794)) and Fornander (1969, p. 214) both agree that Namahana died as a result of the accidental detonation of gunpowder stores. This incident and statements in Menzies (1920, p. 85) imply that forces were still mobilised on Maui).
  28. Inamo asserts his autonomy from Ka‘eokulani on Kaua‘i (Vancouver (1801), bk 5, pp. 125–26 (Feb.–Mar.)).
  29. Kahekili dies on O‘ahu (Fornander (1969), p. 260).
  30. Ka‘eokulani versus Kalanikūpule with the latter emerging victorious (Fornander (1969), pp. 262–65. Kamakau (1961, p. 168–69) dates Ka‘eokulani’s landing at Waialua to 16 Nov., and his death in the battle of Aiea to 12 Dec.).
  31. Death of Ka‘eokulani and Inamo sees Kaumuali‘i become mō‘ī of Kaua‘i (Kamakau (1961), p. 169).
  32. Kalanikūpule’s seizure and loss of the Jackal and Prince Lee Boo (Kamakau (1961), pp. 170–71. The ships were seized in late Dec. and recaptured by the surviving crew members on 4 Jan.).
  33. Kamehameha conquers Maui, Moloka‘i, and O‘ahu. Kamehameha was on Maui in February. (Fornander (1969), p. 343; and Kamakau (1961), p. 171. From the narrative that follows in Fornander and Kamakau, he seems to have soon moved onto O‘ahu for the decisive showdown. Bishop (in Roe (1967), p. 142), claims that Kamehameha set out from Hawai‘i in June and landed on O‘ahu in mid-August – but it seems more likely that he would have responded more rapidly to Kalanikūpule’s misfortune of 4 Jan. Whatever the case, Kamehameha was in control of O‘ahu when Boit (Judd (1974), p. 8) arrived there on 16 Oct.).
  34. Kamehameha remains mobilised on O‘ahu until the failed attempt on Kaua‘i in mid-1796 (Kamakau (1961, p. 173) states that Kamehameha kept his army mobilised on O‘ahu until his fleet was built. The invasion fleet was destroyed by a storm in mid-1796. When Broughton (1967, pp. 70–71) arrived at O‘ahu on 25 Jul., the storm incident had already occurred).
  35. Civil war/rebellion on Kaua‘i (Broughton (1967), p. 44 (13 Feb. 1796); and Bishop, in Roe (1967), pp. 145–46. When Broughton returned to Kaua‘i in Jul., Keawe ruled and Kaumuali‘i was his ‘prisoner’ (Broughton (1967), p. 73)).
  36. Kamehameha crushes revolt of Namakeha on Hawai‘i (Kamakau (1961, pp. 173–74) dates Kamehameha’s campaign to Sep.–Nov. Broughton (1967, pp. 69–70) says the rebellion was in progress in Jul.; see also Bishop (in Roe (1967), p. 144). Kamakau (1961, p. 174) states that Namakeha was sacrificed in January 1797).
  37. Keawe, the victor of the 1796 rebellion on Kaua‘i, dies of natural causes. Kaumuali‘i becomes mō‘ī of Kaua‘i again (Broughton (1967), p. 73; Bishop in Roe (1967), p. 145 n. 1).

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