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Australia’s Fertility Transition

Appendix A: Appendix tables

Table A.1 Mean children ever born to married women by birth cohort, Australian censuses, 1911 and 1921

Australia, 1911 census

Tasmania, 1911 census

Australia, 1921 census

Tasmania, 1921 census

Birth cohort

Children ever born (mean)

1832–36

6.98

7.48

..

..

1837–41

7.02

7.22

..

..

1842–46

7.03

7.15

6.77

6.49

1847–51

6.75

6.69

6.51

6.42

1852–56

6.44

6.64

6.25

6.32

1857–61

5.92

6.11

5.74

5.97

1862–66

5.25

5.67

5.11

5.48

1867–71

..

..

4.57

4.97

1872–76

..

..

4.19

4.56

.. not applicable

Sources: Commonwealth of Australia (1914c: 1143; 1921: 1926).

Table A.2 Number of children ever born by birth cohort of married women, Australian census, 1921

Birth cohort

1842–46

1847–51

1852–56

1857–61

1862–66

1867–71

1872–76

No. of children

Percentage

None

10.3

10.8

10.1

10.0

10.8

12.1

12.4

One

3.7

3.6

4.3

4.9

5.9

7.6

9.0

Two

3.8

4.9

5.2

6.2

8.3

10.2

12.4

Three

4.9

5.3

6.5

8.1

10.1

11.8

13.2

Four

6.0

6.9

7.4

9.4

11.1

12.0

12.3

Five

7.1

7.5

8.8

10.1

10.5

10.6

10.5

Six

9.1

8.8

9.0

9.6

9.9

9.1

8.3

Seven

8.6

9.1

9.5

9.4

8.5

7.4

6.6

Eight

9.9

9.8

9.0

8.4

7.2

5.9

5.0

Nine

9.2

8.5

8.5

7.4

5.8

4.6

3.8

Ten

9.3

8.4

7.3

6.1

4.4

3.4

2.7

Eleven

7.0

5.9

5.9

4.2

3.0

2.2

1.7

Twelve

4.7

4.8

4.1

2.8

1.0

1.4

1.1

Thirteen

3.4

2.8

2.3

1.7

1.1

0.8

0.6

Fourteen or more

2.9

2.8

2.2

1.6

1.2

0.8

0.3

Total (%)

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total (no.)

3,512

8,478

18,098

35,383

52,123

69,258

84,264

Source: Commonwealth of Australia (1921: 1926).

Table A.3 Number of children ever born by birth cohort of married women, Australian census, 1911

Birth cohort

1842–46

1847–51

1852–56

1857–61

1862–66

No. of children

Percentage

None

8.4

8.6

8.1

8.0

8.5

One

3.8

4.1

4.6

5.1

6.4

Two

4.1

4.7

5.3

6.4

8.5

Three

4.8

5.3

6.5

8.2

10.2

Four

5.7

6.8

7.7

9.4

11.3

Five

7.0

7.6

8.5

9.9

10.7

Six

8.5

8.6

8.9

9.7

10.2

Seven

9.2

9.1

9.3

9.5

8.7

Eight

10.0

9.6

9.4

8.8

7.4

Nine

9.3

9.1

8.6

7.7

6.0

Ten

9.5

8.6

7.9

6.4

4.7

Eleven

7.0

6.4

5.8

4.4

3.1

Twelve

5.7

5.1

4.2

3.1

2.0

Thirteen

3.3

2.9

2.5

1.8

1.1

Fourteen or more

1.8

1.6

1.3

0.9

0.6

Total (%)

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total (no.)

16,632

24,862

37,585

60,945

81,548

Source: Commonwealth of Australia (1914c: 1143).

Table A.4 Net migration, Tasmania, 1861–1900

Years

Net migration

1861–1865

–4,355

1866–1870

–813

1871–1875

–4,416

1876–1880

2,880

1881–1885

2,422

1886–1890

2,606

1891–1895

–4,562

1896–1900

4,914

Source: Borrie (1994: 123).

Table A.5 Female population aged 15–49 years, 1861, 1870, 1881 and 1891, Tasmania

Year

1861

1870

1881

1891

Age

Percentage

15–19 years

19.2

21.9

25.1

20.6

20–24 years

18.2

17.5

22.3

19.9

25–29 years

16.8

14.1

15.7

18.0

30–34 years

14.9

13.4

11.0

14.7

35–39 years

12.7

12.5

9.1

11.3

40–44 years

10.4

11.1

8.7

8.5

45–49 years

7.9

9.4

8.1

7.1

Total (%)

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total (no.)

20,454

20,799

26,602

33,136

Source: Kippen (2002b).

Table A.6 Male population aged 15–49 years, 1861, 1870, 1881 and 1891, Tasmania

Year

1861

1870

1881

1891

Age at marriage

Percentage

15–19 years

13.8

20.1

24.0

18.5

20–24 years

12.1

15.0

21.5

18.7

25–29 years

12.6

11.5

16.1

18.6

30–34 years

15.2

11.7

11.6

15.9

35–39 years

16.5

12.9

9.3

12.4

40–44 years

16.0

14.2

8.7

9.1

45–49 years

13.8

14.6

8.8

6.9

Total (%)

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total (no.)

24,505

21,330

27,900

38,229

Source: Kippen (2002b).

Table A.7 Population by occupation, 1842 and 1851, Tasmania

Year

1842

1851

1842

1851

Type of occupation

No.

Percentage

Occupation specified:

20,594

28,998

35.9

41.3

Landed proprietors, merchants, bankers and professional persons

1,846

1,577

9.0

5.4

Shopkeepers and other retail dealers

802

1,415

3.9

4.9

Mechanics and artificers

3,720

5,687

18.1

19.6

Shepherds and others caring for sheep

879

1,445

4.3

5.0

Gardeners, stockmen and persons employed in agriculture1

9,870

12,545

47.9

43.3

Domestic servants

3,477

5,600

16.9

19.3

Seamen, boatmen and whalers2

729

2.5

Convicts employed in public works3

9,759

953

17.0

1.4

Military, including wives and children

568

0.8

All other persons not included above

27,067

39,611

47.1

56.5

Total

57,420

70,130

100.0

100.0

– Not specified

1 In 1851, includes ‘Farmers’, ‘Market gardeners’ and ‘Gardeners, stockmen and farm servants’.

2 Includes ‘Licensed boatmen’, ‘Seamen employed in the coastal and river craft’ and ‘Whalers’.

3 In 1842, includes ‘Convicts employed on government vessels’, ‘Convicts employed in public works throughout the colony’, ‘Convicts at the penal settlements on Tasman’s Peninsula’ and ‘Female convicts in house of corrections, Hobart’. In 1851, includes only ‘Convicts employed in public works’.

Sources: TAS (1842, 1851).

Table A.8 Population by occupation, Tasmania, 1861 and 1870

Year

1861

1870

1861

1870

Type of occupation

No.

Percentage

Occupation specified:

27,655

32,398

30.7

32.6

Professionals1

1,908

1,725

6.9

5.3

Shopkeepers and other retail dealers2

1,267

1,152

4.6

3.6

Mechanics and artificers

5,978

4,473

21.6

13.8

Farmers, stockholders and farm labourers

13,647

15,741

49.3

48.6

Domestic servants

4,372

4,319

15.8

13.3

Licensed victuallers

483

408

1.7

1.3

Other labourers and seamen

4,580

14.1

All other persons not included above

62,322

66,930

69.3

67.4

Total

89,977

99,328

100.0

100.0

– Not specified

1 Includes ‘Merchants and bankers’, ‘Legal profession’, ‘Medical profession’, ‘Clergymen’, ‘Army or navy’, ‘Government employ’, ‘Schoolmasters’ and also, in 1870, ‘Schoolmistresses’.

2 In 1870, includes ‘Shopkeepers and other retail dealers’ and ‘Hawkers’.

Sources: TAS (1861, 1870).

Table A.9 Population by occupation, Tasmania, 1881 and 1891

Year

1881

1891

1881

1891

Type of occupation

No.

Percentage

Breadwinners

50,071

61,411

43.3

41.9

Professional1

2,546

3,918

5.1

6.4

Domestic2

4,856

7,180

9.7

11.7

Commercial: Mercantile, general dealers3

1,777

3,698

3.5

6.0

Commercial: Transport and communication3

2,241

3,267

4.5

5.3

Industrial4

14,996

18,644

29.9

30.4

Primary producers: Agricultural5

17,699

16,031

35.3

26.1

Primary producers: Pastoral5

860

2,447

1.7

4.0

Primary producers: Mineral5

3,164

3,988

6.3

6.5

Primary producers: Other5

462

1,102

0.9

1.8

Indefinite6

1,470

1,136

2.9

1.8

Dependants

65,634

85,256

56.7

58.1

Total

115,705

146,667

100.0

100.0

1 ‘Professional’ includes persons mainly ‘engaged in the government and defence of the country, and in satisfying the intellectual, moral, and social wants of its inhabitants’.

2 ‘Domestic’ includes ‘all persons engaged in the supply of board and lodging and in rendering personal services for which remuneration is usually paid’.

3 ‘Commercial’ includes ‘all persons directly connected with the hire, sale, transfer, distribution, storage, and security of property and materials, and with the transport of persons or goods, or engaged in effecting communication’.

4 ‘Industrial’ includes ‘all persons principally engaged in various works of utility, or in specialities connected with the manufacture, construction, modification, or alteration of materials so as to render them more available for the various uses of man, but excluding, as far as possible, all who are mainly or solely in the service of commercial interchange’.

5 ‘Agricultural, pastoral, mineral, and other primary producers’ includes ‘all persons mainly engaged in the cultivation or original acquisition of food products, and in obtaining other raw materials direct from natural sources’.

6 ‘Indefinite’ includes ‘all persons who derive incomes from services rendered, but the direction of which services cannot be exactly determined’.

Source: TAS (1891: 01_viii).

Table A.10 Population by occupation, Tasmania, 1891, 1901 and 1911

Year

1891

1901

1911

1891

1901

1911

Type of occupation

No.

Percentage

Breadwinners

60,946

72,586

75,969

41.6

42.1

39.7

Professional

3,918

4,997

5,481

6.4

6.9

7.2

Domestic

7,180

7,937

7,864

11.8

10.9

10.4

Commercial: Mercantile, general dealers

6,326

7,497

8,712

10.4

10.3

11.5

Commercial: Transport and communication

3,267

4,848

4,738

5.4

6.7

6.2

Industrial

16,016

18,750

17,268

26.3

25.8

22.7

Primary producers: Agricultural

16,031

19,422

20,168

26.3

26.8

26.5

Primary producers: Pastoral

2,447

1,881

2,635

4.0

2.6

3.5

Primary producers: Mineral

3,987

5,467

5,631

6.5

7.5

7.4

Primary producers: Other1

1,103

1,129

2,593

1.8

1.6

3.4

Independent

671

658

879

1.1

0.9

1.2

Dependants

85,256

98,981

112,801

58.1

57.4

59.0

Unspecified

465

908

2,441

0.3

0.5

1.3

Total

146,667

172,475

191,211

100.0

100.0

100.0

1 ‘Primary producers: Other’ includes capture of wild animals and their produce, fisheries, forestry and water conservation and supply.

Source: Commonwealth of Australia (1914d: 1291).

Table A.11 Males aged 20 years and older, occupation by class, Tasmania, 1881

Occupation

No.

Percentage

Professional1

1,377

4.3

Domestic2

996

3.1

Commercial3

2,968

9.3

Agricultural4

11,776

36.7

Industrial5

10,153

31.7

Indefinite and non-productive6

4,250

13.3

Not stated

544

1.7

Total

32,064

100.0

1 ‘Professional’ includes ‘Persons engaged in general or local government, or the defence or protection of the country’ and ‘Persons engaged in the learned professions, in literature, art, and science’.

2 ‘Domestic’ includes ‘Persons engaged in the domestic offices or duties of wives, mothers, mistresses of families, children, relatives and visitors’ and ‘Persons engaged in entertaining and performing personal offices for man’.

3 ‘Commercial’ includes ‘Persons who buy or sell, keep or lend money, houses, or goods of various kinds’ and ‘Persons engaged in the conveyance of men, animals, goods and messages’.

4 ‘Agricultural’ includes ‘Persons possessing, working or cultivating land, raising or dealing in animals’.

5 ‘Industrial’ includes ‘Persons engaged in working and dealing in art and mechanic productions’, ‘Persons working and dealing in textile fabrics, in dress, and in fibrous materials’, ‘Persons working and dealing in food and drinks’, ‘Persons working and dealing in animal and vegetable substances’ and ‘Persons dealing in minerals’.

6 ‘Indefinite and non-productive’ includes ‘Labourers and others’, ‘Persons of property or rank’ and ‘Persons supported by the community and of no specified occupation’.

Source: TAS (1881: 02_139).

Table A.12 Males aged 20 years and older, occupation by class, Tasmania, 1891

Occupation

No.

Percentage

Breadwinners

40,194

96.9

Professional1

2,408

6.0

Domestic2

1,158

2.9

Commercial3

6,979

17.4

Industrial4

11,664

29.0

Primary producers5

17,476

43.5

Indefinite6

509

1.3

Dependants7

1,290

3.1

Total

41,484

100.0

1 ‘Professional’ includes ‘Government, law, defence and protection’ and ‘Religion, charity, health, education, science and amusement’.

2 ‘Domestic’ includes ‘Board and lodging and personal service’.

3 ‘Commercial’ includes ‘Property and finance’, ‘Traders and dealers’ and ‘Storage, transport, and communication’.

4 ‘Industrial’ includes ‘Modifiers, manufacturers of materials’.

5 ‘Primary producers’ includes ‘Agricultural, pastoral, mineral and other primary producers’.

6 ‘Indefinite’ includes ‘Persons of independent means’ and ‘Undefined’.

7 ‘Dependants’ includes ‘Wives, children, and relatives dependent upon natural guardians’ and ‘Other dependants upon the State or upon public or private support’.

Source: TAS (1891: 04_175, 04_180–81).

Table A.13 Males aged 20 years and older, occupation by class, Tasmania, 1901

Occupation

No.

Percentage

Breadwinners

46,734

97.9

Professional1

2,793

6.0

Domestic2

1,153

2.5

Commercial3

4,912

10.5

Transportation and communication4

3,899

8.3

Industrial5

13,276

28.4

Primary producers6

20,200

43.2

Indefinite7

501

1.1

Dependants8

991

2.1

Total

47,725

100.0

1 ‘Professional’ includes ‘Government, law, defence and protection’ and ‘Religion, charity, health, education, science and amusement’.

2 ‘Domestic’ includes ‘Board and lodging and personal service’.

3 ‘Commercial’ includes ‘Property and finance’ and ‘Traders and dealers’.

4 ‘Transportation and communication’ includes ‘Carriers and messengers on railways, roads, seas and rivers’, ‘Postal service’ and ‘Telegraph and telephone service’.

5 ‘Industrial’ includes ‘Modifiers, manufacturers of materials’.

6 ‘Primary producers’ includes ‘Agricultural, pastoral, mineral and other producers’.

7 ‘Indefinite’ includes ‘Persons of independent means and undefined’.

8 ‘Dependants’ includes ‘Children and relatives dependent upon natural guardians’ and ‘Other dependants upon the State or upon public or private support’.

Source: TAS (1901: 05_261, 05_264–67).

Table A.14 Females by occupation and marital status, Tasmania, 1911

Marital status

Never married

Married

Widowed1

Not specified

Total

Type of occupation

Breadwinners

11,144

1,473

1,482

24

14,123

Professional

1,760

210

155

6

2,131

Domestic

5,318

552

494

11

6,375

Commercial

1,215

214

239

3

1,671

Transport and communication

168

122

41

0

331

Industrial

2,312

149

96

1

2,558

Primary producers

223

180

208

3

614

Independent

148

46

249

443

Dependants

45,437

30,016

3,612

106

79,171

Not specified

212

84

26

4

326

Total

56,793

31,573

5,120

134

93,620

1 The category ‘Widowed’ includes 34 divorced women, 20 of whom were breadwinners.

Source: Commonwealth of Australia (1914d: 1672).

Table A.15 Major towns in Tasmania, 1881, 1891 and 1901

Year

1881

1891

1901

Town

Pursuits connected with

Population (no.)

Beaconsfield

Mining

455

1,584

2,658

Bothwell

A. and P. farming

454

520

384

Burnie (Emu Bay)

A. farming, mining seaport

305

981

1,548

Campbell Town

P. farming

948

818

735

Carrick

A. farming

282

281

224

Colebrook (Jerusalem)

A. and P. farming, coalmining

194

189

147

Deloraine

A. and P. farming

836

895

949

Derby

Tin mining and agriculture

--

273

587

Devonport E. (Torquay)

Seaport/watering place, A. farming.

370

559

673

Devonport W. (Formby)

Seaport/watering place, A. farming

162

1,246

2,101

Evandale

Farming

564

540

617

Fingal

Dairy farming and coalmining

247

425

372

Franklin

Fruit growing and timber producing

457

506

765

George Town

Watering place

299

299

274

Glenorchy

Fruit and hop growing

--

588

578

Gormanston

Mining

--

--

1,760

Hamilton

P. farming

387

348

232

Hobart

Metropolis

21,118

24,905

24,654

Bellerive

Suburb of Hobart

--

625

653

Beltana

Suburb of Hobart

--

--

251

Glebeton

Suburb of Hobart

--

643

694

Moonah

Suburb of Hobart

--

--

732

Mt Stuart

Suburb of Hobart

--

--

523

New Town1

Suburb of Hobart

1,720

2,288

2,314

Queensborough (Sandy Bay)2

Suburb of Hobart

795

1,443

1,821

Wellington Hamlets

Suburb of Hobart

--

704

776

Kempton

A. and P. farming

434

426

288

Kingston

Fruit growing and dairying

171

249

219

Latrobe

A. farming

711

1,560

1,360

Launceston

City

12,752

17,208

18,022

Invermay

Suburb of Launceston

--

882

1,010

Trevallyn

Suburb of Launceston

--

256

529

Lefroy

Mining, gold

436

465

709

Longford

A. and P. farming

1,286

1,084

1,223

Mathinna

Goldmining

--

426

815

New Norfolk

Fruit and hop growing

1,036

1,072

1,151

Oatlands

A. and P. farming

673

731

618

Penguin

A. farming, mining seaport

--

396

540

Perth

A. and P. farming

478

517

442

Pillinger

Mining seaport

--

--

637

Pontville

A. and dairy farming

329

172

114

Queenstown

Mining

--

--

5,051

Richmond

A. and P. farming

448

536

395

Ross

P. farming

353

389

311

St Helens

Dairy and A. farming

257

363

410

Scottsdale

A. farming

--

--

636

Sheffield

A. farming

263

429

446

Sorell

A. and P. farming

267

282

245

Stanley

A. farming

332

400

484

Strahan

Mining seaport

--

561

1,504

Swansea

A. farming and fruit growing

244

295

213

Ulverstone

A. farming

--

1,129

1,164

Waratah

Tin mining

874

1,420

1,265

Westbury

A. farming

1,156

1,104

1,027

Wynyard

A. farming

168

621

526

Zeehan

Silver mining

--

1,965

5,014

-- Not included as a town in the 1881 and/or 1891 census tables.

A. farming = Agricultural farming

P. farming = Pastoral farming

1 New Town was a separate town from Hobart prior to 1891.

2 Sandy Bay was a separate town from Hobart prior to 1891.

Notes: Comprises the 36 largest of the 45 towns listed in the 1881 census table ‘Population of Towns’ and all towns of 500 or more people listed in the table ‘Population and Dwellings, 1901’. Town names as of 1901. Names in parentheses are the earlier names of these towns.

Sources: TAS (1887: 76; 1892: 90–1; 1902: 86–7); Tasmanian Family History Society (2014).

Table A.16 Marriage outcomes for incomplete group: 1860, 1870, 1880 and 1890 marriage cohorts, Tasmania

Marriage cohort

1860

1870

1880

1890

Marriage outcome

No.

Separated during wife’s childbearing years

14

4

10

9

Wife died during childbearing years

50

60

70

82

Husband died during wife’s childbearing years

57

58

76

71

Total

121

122

156

162

Percentage

Separated during wife’s childbearing years

11.6

3.3

6.4

5.6

Wife died during childbearing years

41.3

49.2

44.9

50.6

Husband died during wife’s childbearing years

47.1

47.5

48.7

43.8

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Table A.17 Proportion of families by number of children, complete group: 1860, 1870, 1880 and 1890 marriage cohorts, Tasmania

Marriage cohort

1860

1870

1880

1890

No. of children

Percentage

1–3

14.5

14.1

14.6

27.6

4–6

20.7

18.0

30.2

37.6

7–9

29.7

30.4

32.1

23.3

10+

35.2

37.5

23.0

11.5

Total (%)

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total (no.)

256

283

417

529

Table A.18 Infant and child mortality, incomplete group: 1860, 1870, 1880 and 1890 marriage cohorts, Tasmania

Marriage cohort

1860

1870

1880

1890

Infant/child deaths

Per 1,000

Infant deaths (< 1 year)

105

83

70

82

Child deaths (1–4 years)

42

47

30

36

Total births (no.)

640

651

762

672

Note: Rates for infant deaths calculated per 1,000 live births and for child deaths per 1,000 children reaching age one.

Table A.19 Infant and child mortality, unobserved group: 1860, 1870, 1880 and 1890 marriage cohorts, Tasmania

Marriage cohort

1860

1870

1880

1890

Infant/child deaths

Per 1,000

Infant deaths (< 1 year)

89

103

66

34

Child deaths (1–4 years)

55

50

53

35

Total births (no.)

259

156

244

149

Note: Rates for infant deaths calculated per 1,000 live births and for child deaths per 1,000 children reaching age one.

Table A.20 Age at last birth by age at marriage, complete group: 1860/70, 1880 and 1890 marriage cohorts, Tasmania

Marriage cohort

1860/70

1880

1890

Age at marriage/Age at last birth

Percentage

Under 20 years

< 30 years

11.1

18.9

27.4

30–34 years

9.6

15.4

11.5

35–39 years

23.2

28.3

25.7

40+ years

56.1

37.8

35.4

Total (%)

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total (no.)

198

127

113

20–24 years

< 30 years

8.6

13.6

23.0

30–34 years

11.9

15.4

18.9

35–39 years

31.3

31.7

30.9

40+ years

48.1

39.4

27.2

Total (%)

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total (no.)

243

221

265

25+ years

< 30 years

4.1

6.1

8.2

30–34 years

13.3

4.5

15.8

35–39 years

33.7

42.4

45.2

40+ years

49.0

47.0

30.8

Total (%)

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total (no.)

98

66

146

Note: There were three women in the 1880 cohort and five in the 1890 cohort for whom age was missing.

Table A.21 Mean birth interval by birth order, complete group: 1860/70, 1880 and 1890 marriage cohorts, Tasmania

Marriage cohort

1860/70

1880

1890

Birth order

Mean birth interval (months)

1–2

23.0

23.3

24.3

2–3

26.0

25.4

26.1

3–4

27.2

25.9

28.7

4–5

25.8

27.6

28.1

5–6

27.1

28.3

27.4

6–7

26.5

27.5

28.2

7–8

26.1

26.9

27.6

8–9

25.0

27.1

26.9

9–10

25.8

24.5

24.6

Note: Excludes last birth interval.

Table A.22 Distribution of covariates for logistic regression (Table 7.16)

Covariate

No. of births

Percentage

Mother’s age at the birth

< 25 years (ref.)

2,416

24.0

25 to < 30 years

2,663

26.4

30+ years

4,970

49.3

Missing

37

0.4

Mother’s age at marriage

< 20 years (ref.)

3,743

37.1

20 to < 25 years

4,834

47.9

25+ years

1,472

14.6

Missing

37

0.4

Age difference between couple

Same/Husband up to 5 years older (ref.)

4,432

43.9

Wife older

1,416

14.0

Husband 5+ years older

4,100

40.7

Missing

138

1.4

Marriage cohort

1860/70 cohort (ref.)

4,215

41.8

1880 cohort

2,921

29.0

1890 cohort

2,950

29.3

Socioeconomic status

White-collar (ref.)

1,862

18.5

Skilled

1,460

14.5

Farmers

2,861

28.4

Lower-skilled

1,068

10.6

Unskilled

2,806

27.8

Missing

29

0.3

Type of geographic location

Urban area in Tasmania (ref.)

2,773

27.5

Rural area in Tasmania

6,376

63.2

Another colony

937

9.3

Religion

Anglican (ref.)

3,634

36.0

Catholic

1,194

11.8

Presbyterian

1,381

13.7

Methodist

2,170

21.5

Other Nonconformist

1,701

16.9

Missing

6

0.1

Literacy status of husband and wife

Both literate (ref.)

8,483

84.1

Husband and/or wife illiterate

1,603

15.9

Twin birth

99

1.0

Child dies as infant before conception of another

620

6.2

Family composition

More girls than boys

3,917

38.8

More boys than girls

4,413

43.8

Equal numbers of boys and girls

1,756

17.4

Total births = 10,086

Table A.23 Predicted probability that a birth is the last by socioeconomic status, complete group: 1860/70, 1880 and 1890 marriage cohorts, Tasmania

Marriage cohort/Socioeconomic status

Predicted probability

Standard error

Significance

1860/70 cohort

White-collar

0.14

0.008

0.000

Skilled

0.12

0.009

0.000

Farmers

0.10

0.006

0.000

Lower-skilled

0.13

0.010

0.000

Unskilled

0.10

0.006

0.000

1880 cohort

White-collar

0.18

0.010

0.000

Skilled

0.16

0.011

0.000

Farmers

0.13

0.008

0.000

Lower-skilled

0.16

0.012

0.000

Unskilled

0.13

0.008

0.000

1890 cohort

White-collar

0.24

0.012

0.000

Skilled

0.21

0.013

0.000

Farmers

0.18

0.009

0.000

Lower-skilled

0.22

0.014

0.000

Unskilled

0.18

0.009

0.000

Table A.24 Predicted probability that a birth is the last by socioeconomic status for women who married at 20–24 years, gave birth at 30+ years with a husband the same age or 1–4 years older, complete group: 1860/70, 1880 and 1890 marriage cohorts, Tasmania

Marriage cohort/Socioeconomic status

Predicted probability

Standard error

Significance

1860/70 cohort

White-collar

0.19

0.013

0.000

Skilled

0.16

0.013

0.000

Farmers

0.13

0.010

0.000

Lower-skilled

0.17

0.015

0.000

Unskilled

0.14

0.010

0.000

1880 cohort

White-collar

0.24

0.016

0.000

Skilled

0.21

0.017

0.000

Farmers

0.17

0.013

0.000

Lower-skilled

0.22

0.018

0.000

Unskilled

0.18

0.013

0.000

1890 cohort

White-collar

0.32

0.020

0.000

Skilled

0.28

0.020

0.000

Farmers

0.24

0.015

0.000

Lower-skilled

0.30

0.021

0.000

Unskilled

0.24

0.015

0.000

Table A.25 Predicted probability that a birth is the last by urban/rural location, complete group: 1860/70, 1880 and 1890 marriage cohorts, Tasmania

Marriage cohort/Geographic location

Predicted probability

Standard error

Significance

1860/70 cohort

Urban

0.13

0.007

0.000

Rural

0.10

0.005

0.000

1880 cohort

Urban

0.17

0.009

0.000

Rural

0.13

0.006

0.000

1890 cohort

Urban

0.23

0.011

0.000

Rural

0.18

0.007

0.000

Table A.26 Predicted probability that a birth is the last by urban/rural location for women who married at 20–24 years, gave birth at 30+ years with a husband the same age or 1–4 years older, complete group: 1860/70, 1880 and 1890 marriage cohorts, Tasmania

Marriage cohort/Geographic location

Predicted probability

Standard error

Significance

1860/70 cohort

Urban

0.18

0.012

0.000

Rural

0.13

0.009

0.000

1880 cohort

Urban

0.23

0.015

0.000

Rural

0.18

0.010

0.000

1890 cohort

Urban

0.31

0.018

0.000

Rural

0.24

0.013

0.000

Table A.27 Proportion of women who have at least a specific number of surviving children, complete group: 1860/70, 1880 and 1890 marriage cohorts, Tasmania

Marriage cohort

1860/70

1880

1890

No. of surviving children

Percentage

One

100.0

100.0

100.0

Two

0.95

0.94

0.91

Three

0.90

0.86

0.80

Four

0.84

0.78

0.69

Five

0.76

0.69

0.58

Six

0.69

0.60

0.47

Seven

0.60

0.50

0.37

Eight

0.51

0.41

0.27

Nine

0.43

0.32

0.19

Ten

0.34

0.24

0.13

Eleven

0.26

0.17

0.08

Twelve

0.19

0.11

0.05

Table A.28 Distribution of covariates for survival analysis (Table 7.17)

Covariate

No. of births

Percentage

Mother’s age at the birth

< 25 years (ref.)

2,359

27.4

25 to < 30 years

2,511

29.2

30+ years

3,702

43.0

Missing

29

0.3

Mother’s age at marriage

< 20 years (ref.)

3,305

38.4

20 to < 25 years

4,105

47.7

25+ years

1,162

13.5

Missing

29

0.3

Age difference between couple

Same age/Husband up to 5 years older (ref.)

3,785

44.0

Wife older

1,174

13.7

Husband 5+ years older

3,529

41.0

Missing

113

1.3

Marriage cohort

1860/70 cohort (ref.)

3,676

42.7

1880 cohort

2,504

29.1

1890 cohort

2,421

28.2

Socioeconomic status

White-collar (ref.)

1,510

17.6

Skilled

1,235

14.4

Farmers

2,482

28.9

Lower-skilled

887

10.3

Unskilled

2,461

28.6

Missing

26

0.3

Type of geographic location

Urban area in Tasmania (ref.)

2,310

26.9

Rural area in Tasmania

5,537

64.4

Another colony

754

8.8

Religion

Anglican (ref.)

3,105

36.1

Catholic

1,032

12.0

Presbyterian

1,161

13.5

Methodist

1,867

21.7

Other Nonconformist

1,431

16.6

Missing

5

0.1

Literacy status of husband and wife

Both literate (ref.)

7,196

83.7

Husband and/or wife illiterate

1,405

16.3

Twin birth

72

0.8

Child dies as infant before conception of another

522

6.1

Family composition

More girls than boys

3,317

38.6

More boys than girls

3,760

43.7

Equal numbers of boys and girls

1,524

17.7

Total birth intervals = 8,601

Table A.29 Estimated effects (relative risks) of various characteristics on the time to the next birth (closed birth intervals), interaction model, complete group: 1860/70, 1880 and 1890 marriage cohorts, Tasmania

Covariate

Relative risk

Standard error

Significance (p)

Constant

0.08

0.006

0.000

**

Mother’s age at birth of a child

< 25 years (ref.)

1.00

--

--

25–29 years

0.74

0.025

0.000

**

30+ years

0.63

0.029

0.000

**

Mother’s age at marriage

< 20 years (ref.)

1.00

--

--

20–24 years

1.14

0.031

0.000

**

25+ years

1.56

0.075

0.000

**

Age difference between couple

Same age/Husband up to 5 years older (ref.)

1.00

--

--

Wife older

1.05

0.038

0.188

Husband 5+ years older

1.01

0.025

0.576

Marriage cohort

1860/70 cohort (ref.)

1.00

--

--

1880 cohort

0.94

0.075

0.406

1890 cohort

0.7

0.062

0.000

**

Socioeconomic status

White-collar (ref.)

1.00

--

--

Skilled

1.04

0.062

0.515

Farmers

1.02

0.053

0.649

Lower-skilled

1.00

0.075

0.985

Unskilled

0.98

0.051

0.696

Type of geographic location

Urban area in Tasmania (ref.)

1.00

--

--

Rural area in Tasmania

1.04

0.044

0.414

Another colony

1.03

0.062

0.571

Religion

Anglican (ref.)

1.00

--

--

Catholic

1.00

0.058

0.992

Presbyterian

1.001

0.053

0.967

Methodist

1.03

0.049

0.564

Other Nonconformist

0.91

0.046

0.053

Literacy status of husband and wife

Both literate (ref.)

1.00

--

--

Husband and/or wife illiterate

0.97

0.032

0.428

Twin birth

1.06

0.128

0.638

Number of children (crude parity)

1.05

0.018

0.007

**

Number of surviving children

0.99

0.018

0.707

Child dies as infant before conception of another

1.44

0.067

0.000

**

Ultimate birth interval

0.42

0.014

0.000

**

Sex composition of surviving children

More surviving girls than boys (ref.)

1.00

--

--

More surviving boys than girls

1.02

0.025

0.515

Equal numbers of surviving boys and girls

0.96

0.03

0.196

Interactions

Marriage cohort*Socioeconomic status

1880*Skilled Workers

0.87

0.820

0.143

1880*Farmers

0.95

0.810

0.556

1880*Lower-Skilled

0.98

0.103

0.870

1880*Unskilled

1.06

0.086

0.485

1890*Skilled workers

1.05

0.102

0.622

1890*Farmers

1.24

0.107

0.014

*

1890*Lower-skilled

1.03

0.113

0.789

1890*Unskilled

1.21

0.102

0.024

*

Marriage cohort*Geographic location

1880*Rural

0.98

0.066

0.762

1880*Outside Tasmania

0.83

0.092

0.098

1890*Rural

1.12

0.076

0.108

1890*Outside Tasmania

1.20

0.133

0.106

Marriage cohort*Socioeconomic status

1880*Catholic

1.13

0.098

0.177

1880*Presbyterian

0.94

0.084

0.458

1880*Methodist

1.17

0.086

0.028

*

1880*Other Nonconformist

1.07

0.086

0.405

1890*Catholic

1.01

0.092

0.926

1890*Presbyterian

1.04

0.088

0.610

1890*Methodist

0.93

0.068

0.318

1890*Other Nonconformist

1.03

0.084

0.721

Number of birth intervals = 8,466

* p < 0.05

** p < 0.01

-- not applicable for the reference category


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