Australia’s Fertility Transition
Thomas Cathcart Archer and Eleanor Harrop (1890 marriage cohort): Landowners, Woolmers Estate
Thomas Cathcart Archer married Eleanor May Harrop on 7 October 1890 in Launceston. They had one child, Thomas Edward Cathcart Archer, born on 24 November 1892. Thomas Cathcart Archer owned Woolmers Estate, a large farming estate near Longford that was founded in 1817 by his great-grandfather Thomas Archer, who was a free settler from England. The house and farm building were built by convict labour.
Thomas Cathcart Archer (1862–1934) inherited Woolmers on the death of his father, Thomas Chalmers in 1890. He had little interest in farming and chose to remain in Launceston where he could pursue his sporting interest. Thomas Cathcart represented Northern Tasmania in cricket and was patron and commodore of the Tamar Yacht Club and president of the Longford Regatta Association. He chose to live at Woolmers in the late 1890s where he built a nine-hole golf course near the house. This course became the home of the Longford Golf Club between 1902 and 1914. Thomas Cathcart was noted for his interest in public affairs, being a member of the Longford Council from 1902 to 1934. (Noticeboard, Woolmers Estate, near Longford, Tasmania. 9 December 2014)
Alfred Gale and Emma Wigg (1890 marriage cohort): Selector in Marrawah, remote north-western Tasmania
Alfred Herbert Gale married Emma Elizabeth Wigg in her father’s house in Duck River, Stanley, on 20 August 1890. They had nine children, born between 18 June 1891 and 21 June 1911. Their fifth child died in infancy. Alf Gale was a ‘selector’ who selected a large area of land at Green Point, near Marrawah, and made it into one of the most productive dairy farms in the district. They established a cheese factory, store and sawmill. For many years, Alf acted as a bush doctor and dentist to the residents of the isolated area.
Charles Fleming and Lavinia Rawsley (1870 cohort): ‘Modern’ occupations
Charles Fleming married Lavinia Jane Rawsley in Oatlands on 8 November 1870. They had eight children, born between April 1871 and January 1888. Charles was a labourer when he married and when the first four children were born, although he also did some farming. By the time the fifth child was born, in 1880, Charles was working as a railway porter. When his last child was born, in 1888, he was also a postmaster and remained in that position until he died in 1908. ‘The government has approved of the establishment of a post office at Anthill Ponds Railway Station and of the appointment of Mr Charles Fleming as Post Master’ (Tasmanian News, [Hobart], 20 September 1887).
Richard Fleming and Eliza Barwick (1860 marriage cohort): Emigration from and return to Tasmania
Richard Fleming married Eliza Barwick on 1 August 1860 in Oatlands. The couple had 13 children, born between May 1861 and April 1884. Their twelfth child died in infancy. They had two children in Oatlands, but in March 1863 they left Hobart aboard the vessel Hargreaves to travel to the goldfields at Wyndham, New Zealand. They had three children in New Zealand, but by 1869 had returned to Oatlands, where another eight children were born. Richard died in Oatlands and Eliza in Launceston. Richard was a farmer in Oatlands, but towards the end of his life was also running a hotel/public house in Antill Ponds, just outside Oatlands (Oatlands History Room).
John Walker and Amy Davenport (1870 marriage cohort): Amy Walker’s diaries (Walker 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1888, 1898)
John Fletcher Walker and Amy Clarisse Davenport married in Holy Trinity Church, Hobart, on 3 February 1870. They had one child, a daughter, Violet Hope, born on 6 August 1875.
Amy (1851–1940) was the daughter of the Reverend Arthur Davenport, who was rector of Holy Trinity Hobart for most of Amy’s childhood, became Canon of St David’s Cathedral, Hobart, in 1872 and then Archdeacon of Hobart. John Walker owned and ran a large number of properties near Gretna (south of Hamilton). Some of these estates were inherited from his father; others he purchased. The Walkers lived at ‘Clarendon’, which was a few miles from Gretna and about 35 miles (56 kilometres) from Hobart. John Walker was a Justice of the Peace, coroner and warden (that is, mayor) of Hamilton.
Amy was involved in many charitable activities and was very active in church affairs. She took a keen interest in farming during her husband’s life and, after his death in 1906, she ran the farming property with the assistance of her manager/overseer (The Mercury, [Hobart], 23 November 1906; The Examiner, [Launceston], 9 November 1940).
Tasmanian Archives holds diaries written by Amy from when she was a young girl to the month before she was married in 1870 and then annually from 1879 to 1900 inclusive.
Ida McAulay nee Butler (1858–1949): Ida McAulay’s diaries (McAulay 1889–90, 1890, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1903, 1904, 1905)
Ida Butler was the daughter of Charles Butler, who was a Hobart solicitor and member of a prominent family in Hobart society. Ida married Alexander McAulay, lecturer and then professor of mathematics and physics at the University of Tasmania, in February 1895. The couple had three children: a son born in November 1895 and twin girls born in September 1898.
Ida McAulay … was a feminist who rejected the argument of intrinsic differences in ‘the mind-stuff of the sexes’ and advocated higher education for girls, sex education and family planning. In 1899 she dismissed the claim that women would be drawn out of their sphere by the franchise: ‘a woman’s sphere is just that which she chooses to make it’. She was active in women’s clubs and was president (1903–05) of the Tasmanian Women’s Suffrage Association (later the Women’s Political Association), resigning after a controversy. (Scott 1986: 203)
Edward Sutton and Henrietta Lloyd (1860 marriage cohort): Upward social and economic mobility
Edward Henry Sutton, who was born in Launceston in 1838, was the second of 13 children. Edward worked as a baker in Launceston for several years. He married Henrietta Lloyd in Launceston on 15 November 1860 and they had three sons, in 1862, 1864 and 1870. The family moved to Longford in 1867, where Edward
identified himself with all local matters, taking special interest in the Poultry and Agricultural Societies and the Library, to the success of which he contributed largely. Mr Sutton had, early in life, a turn for political study, and always manifested a desire to enter Parliament. In the year 1886 he opposed Mr W. St Paul Gellibrand for the Cressy seat in the House of Assembly, and was elected for that constituency, which he represented until the time of his death … Though his oratory was not brilliant, he was practical, and did not throw away many words … Keeping himself closely in touch with passing events, his opinions were formed after due thought, and his expressions in the House were listened to with attention. (The Examiner, [Launceston], 25 April 1893)
One of Edward’s sons was supervisor of the Tasmanian International Exhibition of 1891–92, a highly prestigious event.
David Dally and Maria Cox (1870 marriage cohort): Upward social and economic mobility
David Dally married Maria Cox in Launceston on 14 May 1870. They had five children, born between June 1871 and June 1882. David was a lime dealer during the early years of his marriage; however, in 1877, he and his brother William Dally discovered a huge gold reef, the famous Tasmania Reef, at Beaconsfield. By October 1877, the Dally brothers had sold their claim on the reef to William Grubb and William Hart for £15,000 and a one-tenth share of the Tasmania Gold Mining and Quartz Crushing Company (Critchett 2012b). David Dally subsequently used his share of the money to acquire a large amount of property. At the time of his death, he owned a lime quarry near Beaconsfield and was a large property owner in Launceston (North Western Advocate and Emu Bay Times, [Devonport], 19 February 1913).
Michael Lyons and Ellen Carroll (1870 marriage cohort): Parents of a prime minister, Joseph Lyons
Michael Lyons and Ellen Carroll were married in Stanley on 7 September 1870. They had eight children, born between July 1871 and May 1887. Joseph Lyons, their fifth child, was born in Stanley on 15 September 1879. Michael was a farmer when he married, but later also ran a small store. Michael and Ellen had seven children while living in this small house.
The family moved to Ulverstone in late 1884, but in 1887 Michael lost all his money on a bet on the Melbourne Cup horse race and was forced to work as a labourer. Joseph had to attend school part-time so he could work to help the family survive. In 1892, his mother’s two sisters, Misses Letitia and Mary Carroll, invited Joseph to return to Stanley to live with them so he could attend school full-time. He attended the local school and eventually became a teacher with the Education Department. Joseph was Premier of Tasmania (1923–28) and later Prime Minister of Australia (1932–39) (Stanley Discovery Museum, 2014).