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The Bible in Buffalo Country

Illustrations

Figure 1.1: Young men and boys at the top of Arguluk Hill looking down on the Oenpelli mission, 1930

Figure 1.2: Alfred and Mary Dyer, date unknown

Figure 2.1: Rock painting of Yingarna, Injalak Hill

Figure 2.2: Northern Running Figure rock art from Injalak Hill

Figure 2.3: Painting by Tony Bangalang (2003) that represents the key cultural sites around the Oenpelli township through their associated ancestral beings

Figure 2.4: Kinship subsections of western Arnhem Land

Figure 2.5: Men gathered for ceremony following a burial, c. 1926. Nipper Marakarra Gumurdul is pictured centre

Figure 3.1: Map showing location of Oenpelli

Figure 3.2: ‘Native Camp, Port Essington’, 1877

Figure 3.3: Reuben Cooper sitting on a wounded buffalo surrounded by the shooting and skinning team, c. 1914–17

Figure 3.4: Buffalo shooters ‘dining’ on the carcass of the buffalo with photographer Edward Frederick Reichenbach (Ted Ryko) pictured front right, c. 1914–17

Figure 3.5: Paddy Cahill and Quilp (on horses) with other buffalo shooters in the background near Oenpelli (Gunbalanya), c. 1901

Figure 3.6: Senior Traditional Owner for the Oenpelli area, Nipper Marakarra Gumurdul, photographed in 1948

Figure 3.7: Left to right: Ruby Mudford (Roney), Paddy Cahill, unidentified man, Maria Cahill and Quilp (possibly) (date unknown)

Figure 3.8: Paddy Cahill, his son Tom Cahill, Maria Cahill and Ruby Mudford (later Roney) with unidentified Aboriginal children, Oenpelli, c. 1912

Figure 3.9: The Cahill settlement at Oenpelli with Arrkuluk Hill in the background, c. 1912–14

Figure 3.10: Two unidentified Aboriginal men standing out the front of a house designed by Paddy Cahill and built by local Aboriginal people in Oenpelli (date unknown)

Figure 3.11: Women and children gathered at the Oenpelli settlement, c. 1917

Figure 3.12: Four Aboriginal men competing in local ‘games’ possibly on Christmas Day, c. 1922. Paddy Cahill is seen standing at the back and his wife Maria is seated with an umbrella

Figure 4.1: ‘Native Congregation, Oenpelli Mission’, 1928

Figure 4.2: Mary and Alf Dyer (date unknown)

Figure 4.3: ‘Mrs Dyer teaching in open air, Oenpelli’ (date unknown)

Figure 5.1: Loading buffalo hides on ship (date unknown)

Figure 5.2: ‘Buffalo shot for meat’ (date unknown)

Figure 5.3: Gurrwek (left) with baby Albert Balmana, and unidentified woman and baby (right) (date unknown)

Figure 5.4: View of the old Cahill buildings when the Dyers first arrived (date unknown)

Figure 5.5: Narma Ramagul and Naganiki, 1925

Figure 5.6: ‘Three young hopefuls’ (date unknown)

Figure 5.7: ‘Women pounding up antbed for flooring in place of cement’ (date unknown)

Figure 5.8: House and other buildings, c. 1926

Figure 5.9: View of the early buildings with Arrkuluk Hill in background (date unknown)

Figure 5.10: Frank ‘Naluwud’ with decaying leg, 1925

Figure 5.11: ‘Gaol for cattle killers Service 4 languages bark verandah Oenpelli 1925’. Paddy Cahill’s old gaol was used by Dyer as a girl’s dormitory

Figure 5.12: Young boys of the Oenpelli mission, most likely boys from the dormitory (date unknown)

Figure 5.13: ‘Cattle killers’ (date unknown)

Figure 5.14: Goats on the edge of the billabong (date unknown)

Figure 5.15: ‘Bringing in a letter Oenpelli Native and White one. Bodies sprayed with paint blowed on by mouth’ (date unknown)

Figure 5.16: Boys with their garden harvest (date unknown)

Figure 5.17: Babies in irrigation channel (date unknown)

Figure 5.18: Young girls at Oenpelli mission, c. 1929

Figure 5.19: Alf Dyer’s vision for Oenpelli, 1925

Figure 5.20: ‘Harry’ (date unknown)

Figure 5.21: Man with family being treated at the dispensary (date unknown)

Figure 5.22: Man with fish caught in nearby billabong (date unknown)

Figure 5.23: Fishing in the Oenpelli billabong. Elizabeth Garabbunba (‘Carabumba’) stands in the foreground possibly with her husband ‘Gamarad’ (date unknown)

Figure 5.24: Man making bush string while another holds a spear, bush camp near Oenpelli (date unknown)

Figure 5.25: Men and boys at Oenpelli, standing around large wagon (date unknown)

Figure 5.26: Raising the flag, Oenpelli mission (date unknown)

Figure 5.27: Pulling teeth (date unknown)

Figure 5.28: Stockman breaking in horse, Arrkuluk Hill in background (date unknown)

Figure 5.29: Two men examining a paw paw tree (date unknown)

Figure 5.30: Mrs Dyer, dormitory girls and Aboriginal women from mission. Elwyndiwyndi can be seen at back left (date unknown)

Figure 5.31: Building Aboriginal houses (date unknown)

Figure 5.32: Aboriginal stockmen preparing horses for cattle mustering (date unknown)

Figure 5.33: Planting rice, 1927

Figure 5.34: Tractor with dray (date unknown)

Figure 5.35: School class, 1927

Figure 5.36: ‘David’ Namilmil (date unknown)

Figure 5.37: Mission garden (date unknown)

Figure 5.38: Mission gardens/crops (date unknown)

Figure 5.39: Working in the mission gardens (date unknown)

Figure 5.40: A later photograph of Nangalbered (‘Narlbrett’), 1950

Figure 5.41: ‘Butter Factory, boys on Xmas day 1925’. The old Paddy Cahill–era butter factory is in the background. In the foreground, the children are playing with their Christmas presents

Figure 5.42: Child on edge of billabong (date unknown)

Figure 5.43: Young child at mission (date unknown)

Figure 5.44: Nagal and Narlim, c. 1926

Figure 5.45: ‘Narlim, stock-worker, about 1929’

Figure 5.46: Nipper Marakarra Gumurdul standing behind seated man. Frank ‘Naluwud’ Girrabul on crutches (date unknown)

Figure 5.47: Stockyards with Arrkuluk Hill visible in the background (date unknown)

Figure 5.48: Children at the Oenpelli mission, 1928

Figure 5.49: ‘Ship Mary on a reef’ (date unknown)

Figure 5.50: Frank Naluwad and Lazarus Arawingi (date unknown)

Figure 5.51: ‘Children Xmas receiving bags 1929’

Figure 5.52: Group photo outside the new church (date unknown)

Figure 5.53: Young girl (date unknown)

Figure 5.54: ‘Group at Oenpelli[,] Miss Sherren’s [Sherrin’s] room at the back 1929’. Rev. Dyer is standing at the back while his father is seated in the centre of the photo next to Mary Dyer. The other two balanda women are Miss Florence Sherrin and Mrs Thorne

Figure 5.55: The lugger Mary with ‘Ned Lilly’ looking through life buoy and unidentified Aboriginal crew member, c. 1929

Figure 5.56: Steam boiler near the edge of the billabong (date unknown)

Figure 5.57: Mrs Dyer handing out dresses to the women (date unknown)

Figure 5.58: Old woman living at the Oenpelli mission (date unknown)

Figure 5.59: Elderly couple living at Oenpelli mission, c. 1925

Figure 5.60: Group of children (with onlooker in the background) (date unknown)

Figure 5.61: Scene of activity, 1929

Figure 5.62: Two Aboriginal men from the Oenpelli mission (date unknown)

Figure 5.63: Stockyards (date unknown)

Figure 5.64: Oenpelli mission (date unknown)

Figure 5.65: Handing out bags or fabric (date unknown)

Figure 5.66: Oenpelli mission (date unknown)

Figure 5.67: Caryl/Karil (later Rachel) caring for young child, Injalak Hill in background (date unknown)

Figure 5.68: Buffalo hides (date unknown)

Figure 5.69: Worker on the mission (date unknown)

Figure 5.70: Aboriginal man at the mission (date unknown)

Figure 5.71: Group of children and men with Audrey Clymo seated in centre at front, 1930

Figure 5.72: Elizabeth Garabbunba (‘Carabumba’) (date unknown)

Figure 5.73: ‘Black Dr who threatened to kill me brings his 2 children in[.] Notice heathen faces’ (date unknown)

Figure 5.74: Elwyndiwyndi, 1926

Figure 5.75: Garijala one of the first pupils helping to teach a class (date unknown)

Figures 5.76a and 5.76b: Joseph and Elizabeth Garabbunba (‘Carabumba’) (date unknown)

Figure 5.77: Aboriginal man at mission (date unknown)

Figure 5.78: Aboriginal man from mission (date unknown)

Figure 5.79: Three young boys (date unknown)

Figure 5.80: Bark paintings at Oenpelli mission (date unknown)

Figure 5.81: Men dancing for ceremony (possibly as part of burial ceremony). Nipper Marakarra Gumurdul holding spearthrower (date unknown)

Figure 5.82: Women dancing for ceremony (date unknown)

Figure 5.83: Women dancing for ceremony (date unknown)

Figure 5.84: Men, women and children crowded around a tractor at Oenpelli mission (date unknown)

Figure 5.85: Sketch of proposed changes to home, from Mary C. Dyer’s letter to Mr J.W. Ferrier, dated 10 July 1930

Figure 5.86: Stockmen (date unknown)

Figure 5.87: Stockman and horse (date unknown)

Figure 5.88: ‘Launching the JW Ferrier’ (date unknown)

Figure 5.89: Group of girls (date unknown)

Figure 5.90: Boat moored on the East Alligator River (date unknown)

Figure 5.91: Elderly couple and their son (date unknown)

Figure 5.92: Group photo (date unknown)

Figure 5.93: Quilp, a head stockman at Oenpelli (date unknown)

Figure 5.94: ‘Dormitory girls outside new dormitory. Mt Agarluk [Arrkuluk] in background. Mrs Clymo’s daughter [Audrey] with hat and Hazel (halfcaste just in front of her)’ (date unknown)

Figure 5.95: Stockmen with sheds in the background (date unknown)

Figure 5.96: ‘Staff of Oenpelli Mission – 1931’

Figure 5.97: Visit to Red Lily (date unknown)

Figure 5.98: Christmas Day games (date unknown)

Figure 5.99: Keith Langford Smith, first flight to arrive in Oenpelli (heading to Roper River), 1931. Aboriginal housing can be seen in the background

Figure 5.100: ‘Keith Langford Smith’s plane in peanut patch’, chapel can be seen on the right-hand side (date unknown)

Figure 5.101: Keith Langford Smith lands in Oenpelli, 1931

Figure 6.1: Esther Manakgu, 2012

Figure 6.2: Girls outside dormitory (date unknown)

Figure 6.3: Esther Manakgu, 2012


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