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Australian Dictionary of Biography Volume 19: 1991–1995 (A–Z)

C

CAIGER, GEORGE (1903–1991), teacher, author, broadcaster, and army officer, was born on 9 January 1903 in Brisbane, only surviving child of English-born parents Jasper Stoneman Caiger, Anglican priest, and his wife Edith Maud Mary, née Godwin, a former nurse. George’s twin brother, Harry, died in infancy. In 1908 the family returned to Britain. George was educated at Denstone College (1914–22), Staffordshire, and St John’s College, Oxford, where he completed a second-class honours degree in English (1925). He played rugby for St John’s and the university and served as a lieutenant in the East Lancashire Regiment of the Territorial Army.

In 1925 Caiger joined the teaching staff of Sedbergh School in Yorkshire. Three years later he took leave of absence to teach English, French, and economics at The Armidale School, New South Wales, Australia. There he met Nancy Roberta Constance Rendle, who was working at the New England Girls’ School. On 26 June 1929 the couple married at the Anglican Church of St Margaret’s, Sandgate, Brisbane. They travelled to England and George resumed at Sedbergh. He would later claim that Yorkshire’s poor weather prompted him to accept a position to teach English at Musashi Koto Gakko, a private high school in Tokyo. By September 1930 he and Nancy had arrived in Japan. He obtained further work lecturing at Peers’ School. Immersing himself in Japanese language, history, and culture, he wrote and edited several books, including English language textbooks, guide books, and pictorial volumes. From 1938 to 1939 he was president of the Association of Foreign Teachers in Japan.

Following the outbreak of World War II, the family returned to Australia. By June, Caiger was working as a censor for the army in Sydney. On 10 April 1941 he joined the Citizen Military Forces and, having risen to captain in the Intelligence Corps, transferred to the Australian Imperial Force in September 1942. From March 1943 he was assigned to the Allied Translator and Interpreter Section, located in Brisbane. Placed in charge of the information section, he was given the task of extracting and indexing data derived from captured documents and interrogation reports. He was promoted to major in December 1943. In June 1945 he relocated with ATIS to Manila, Philippines. A skilled linguist, he was one of a small group entrusted to translate documents and accompany Japanese emissaries during surrender negotiations commencing on 19 August. Later that month he was part of the advance party to enter Japan. The American head of ATIS, Colonel Sidney Mashbir, commended his abilities, noting that General Douglas MacArthur [q.v.15] had made ‘important decisions’ based on Caiger’s ‘extensive knowledge and understanding of Japan and the Japanese people’ (NAA B883).

Returning to Sydney in late 1945, Caiger transferred to the Reserve of Officers on 18 December. Hoping that his wartime experience would lead to a diplomatic career, he applied to the Department of External Affairs, but without success. He then freelanced as a journalist and gave numerous public lectures, before being engaged to organise the Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC) radio program ‘The Nation’s Forum of the Air’. Seeking to enhance Australians’ knowledge of the region, he compiled (1946–48) the East Asia Newsletter. In 1948 he was appointed general secretary of the Australian Institute of International Affairs and undertook (1949) an international tour of similar organisations in Canada, the United States of America, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and South Africa with the support of a Carnegie Foundation grant.

After Caiger’s younger son, Michael, was diagnosed with Down syndrome, he and Nancy sought alternatives to institutional care. In March 1951 they became founding members of the Mosman District Auxiliary of the Subnormal Children’s Welfare Association. Over the years that followed, they helped to establish schools and supported accommodation for children with disabilities. George was also employed briefly as secretary of the association before returning (1952) to the ABC, attached to the talks department. In 1955 he was appointed public relations officer at the New South Wales University of Technology, a position that afforded him ‘a real measure of stability for the next decade’ (Caiger MS Acc08/124). Describing himself as an ‘opsimath’ (mature student) he relished the opportunity to learn about the research undertaken at the university and to promote it within and beyond the campus.

Caiger retired in late 1966. By then grey haired, bespectacled, and sporting a trim moustache, he judged it better to leave while in good health. Soon after, he and Nancy returned to Tokyo for a year. While there he renewed the acquaintance of several of his former students and taught part time in the Department of English and American Literature at Rikkyo University. Nancy, a founding member of the Sydney chapter of Ikebana International, undertook further training and later became a director of the association. An engaging speaker and prodigious writer, he continued to pen radio scripts and articles on a range of subjects including Japanese life and psychology, the Australian way of life, and the English language in Australia. After Nancy’s death in 1987, he went to Canberra where his son, John, was a lecturer in Asian studies at The Australian National University. Survived by his two sons, he died on 6 May 1991 in Canberra.

ABC Weekly. ‘A.B.C. Man Tutored Emperor’s Brother.’ 9 November 1946, 13; General Headquarters Far East Command, Military Intelligence Section. Operations of the Allied Translator and Interpreter Section GHQ, SWPA. Intelligence Series, vol. 5. [Tokyo]: The Command, [c. 1948]; Mashbir, Sidney Forrester. I Was an American Spy. New York: Vantage Press, 1953; National Archives of Australia. B883, NX123363, SP368/1, 7/13/15; National Library of Australia. MS Acc06/75, Papers of George Caiger, c. 1920–1991, MS Acc08/124, Papers of George Caiger, c. 1920–1991; Redman, Sir Vere. ‘Foreign Teachers in Japan. G. Caiger: Undying Love Affair.’ Asahi Evening News, 30 November 1967, 6.

N. T. McLennan

CALDWELL, AMY GWENDOLINE (GWEN) (1910–1994), pilot and air force officer, was born on 3 April 1910 in Sydney, the youngest of six daughters of Scottish-born William Stark, commercial traveller, and his English-born wife Amy Louise, née Clarke. Gwen attended school in Sydney, attaining her Intermediate certificate before undertaking kindergarten teacher training at Waverley. She was involved in the Girl Guides Association and, after seven years training, achieved the rank of warrant captain. Prominent in a number of sports—including tennis, hockey, swimming, and riding—she was also a champion golfer and was awarded a silver medallion for life saving.

In 1930 Stark was one of many young women inspired by the visit to Australia of British aviatrix Amy Johnson. Eight years later she began taking flying lessons at Mascot airport where she gained her ‘A’ pilot’s licence on 10 July 1939. At about the same time she joined the newly formed Australian Women’s Flying Club, becoming assistant State commandant (1940). Among the types of aircraft she flew were four in the de Havilland Moth series. She gained a comprehensive knowledge of aeromechanics and navigation.

On 10 March 1941 Stark became one of five women appointed as assistant section officers in the Women’s Auxiliary Australian Air Force (WAAAF) and the first officer selected in New South Wales. Posted initially to Sydney, she performed the immediate task of selecting recruits. Between 1942 and 1943 she served with headquarters staff at Townsville, Queensland. Following Japanese air raids in July 1942, she expressed her pride in the behaviour of her charges during the attacks. In 1944 and 1945 she was based at Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, where she was responsible for the discipline and welfare of airwomen employed in the North-Eastern Area and with No. 2 Training Group.

Stark’s appointment with the WAAAF ended on 8 August 1946 and she moved to a property at Bowral, New South Wales. Her postwar work included spending a few months of 1948 in West Germany where, with Lady Tedder (wife of Baron Tedder, chief of the air staff), she helped establish Malcolm Clubs that provided welfare for British airmen involved in the Berlin airlift. She also travelled throughout Britain investigating farming and animal-breeding practices that might be useful on her farm and, as the Girl Guides district commissioner for Bowral, gave talks on girl guiding in Australia. She returned home in January 1949 and on 23 July at St Philip’s Anglican Church, Sydney, married William (Bill) Caldwell, a retired bank manager whom she had met in Britain.

Caldwell remained deeply involved with aviation. In 1946 she helped to establish the WAAAF branch of the New South Wales division of the Royal Australian Air Force Association, becoming its first president. She was active in the Australian Women Pilots’ Association for forty years, serving as federal president (1964–65). She was patron for the WAAAF silver anniversary reunion (1965), and in 1968 was appointed OBE for her services to aviation. A popular leader with a ready smile, Caldwell rated her fellow WAAAFs and their wartime service highly, and for many years she led the WAAAF contingent in Sydney’s Anzac Day march. Predeceased by her husband and survived by her daughter, she died at Mona Vale Hospital on 28 November 1994 and was cremated at Northern Suburbs cemetery, North Ryde.

Caldwell, Mrs Gwen. Interview by Joyce Thomson, 9 January 1984. Australian War Memorial; National Archives of Australia. A9300, Stark A G; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘F/O Gwen Stark’s New Appointment.’ 13 February 1942, 3, ‘Pioneer in WAAAF.’ 30 November 1994, 25; Thomson, Joyce. The WAAAF in Wartime Australia. Carlton: Melbourne University Press, 1991.

Elizabeth Stewart

CALDWELL, CLIVE ROBERTSON (1910–1994), air force officer and businessman, was born on 28 July 1910 at Petersham, Sydney, only child of New South Wales–born parents John Caldwell, banker, and his wife Annie Selina, née Smiles. Clive was educated at Balmain Public School and at Trinity and Sydney Grammar schools before entering the Bank of New South Wales in 1928. Resigning in 1931, he worked as a jackeroo for two years then operated a garage at Darlinghurst with a friend. In 1937 he joined the Mutual Life & Citizens Assurance Co. Ltd and on 13 April 1940 he married Jean McIver Main, a nurse who had trained at Wootton private hospital, Kings Cross. The ceremony took place at a small chapel located on the Main family’s grazing property, ‘Retreat’, close to Cootamundra.

Caldwell learned to fly with the Aero Club of New South Wales, before enlisting in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) on 27 May 1940. Mistakenly believing he was too old to be a fighter pilot, he understated his age. He trained in Australia under the Empire Air Training Scheme (EATS). Commissioned in January 1941, Caldwell embarked for the Middle East on 3 February. After a brief attachment to 73 Squadron, Royal Air Force, he transferred to 250 Squadron, RAF, flying P-40 Tomahawk fighters.

Lean, broad-shouldered, and just over 6 feet 2.5 inches (190 cm) tall, Caldwell was a snug fit in the cockpit. Based in Libya, he gained much success in strafing enemy land forces but was not a natural fighter pilot; it was some weeks before he scored his first combat victory. Eventually, by firing at the shadows of his comrades’ planes and observing where the bullets struck the desert sand, he learned how far ahead of an enemy aircraft to aim in order to hit it. His technique, known as ‘shadow shooting’, proved so effective that all desert fighter squadrons were required to adopt it. His fighting philosophy was: ‘Always attack. Always be aggressive and determined. Never relax that attitude. Be decisive and quick’ (Waters 1945, 22).

In July 1941 Caldwell was promoted to flying officer and two months later to acting flight lieutenant. His score of destroyed enemy planes mounted and he acquired the sobriquet ‘Killer’, which he despised. After five aerial victories he became an ace and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his ‘splendid work in the Middle East operations’ (London Gazette, 26 December 1941, 7298). On 5 December he accounted for five Junkers Ju 87 dive bombers in a matter of minutes, for which he was awarded a bar to his DFC. Although his fellow pilots disapproved of his ‘lone wolf’ attacks on the enemy, he demonstrated leadership potential and, on 21 December, was appointed commanding officer of No. 112 Squadron, RAF. Flying P-40 Kittyhawks, he was promoted to acting squadron leader in January 1942. His aggressive leadership resulted in personal and squadron success, and he left the Middle East in May as the top-scoring desert fighter pilot and leading Kittyhawk ace. He was later awarded the Krzyz Waleoznych (Polish Cross of Valour) in recognition of his ‘buoyant co-operation’ with the Polish pilots of No. 112 Squadron (London Gazette, 4 August 1942, 3410).

After publicity tours in America and experience flying Spitfires with 127 Wing at Kenley, Surrey, England, Caldwell returned to Australia. Promoted to temporary flight lieutenant on 1 October 1942, he spent some time as an instructor before taking command of 1 Fighter Wing in November. He was promoted to acting wing commander in January 1943 and led the wing to the Northern Territory for the defence of Darwin. In action against the Japanese, he added to his score of victories. Although he directed his wing with dynamism and skill, Air Vice Marshal (Sir) George Jones [q.v.] found fault with his tactics in a major engagement on 2 May in which the RAAF suffered heavy losses. Air Commodore Francis Bladin [q.v.13], air officer commanding North-Western Area was critical of his commitment to ineffective ‘big wing’ formation attacks.

Caldwell could be dogmatic. He held strong opinions and was not averse to stating them to senior officers. Consequently, notwithstanding a brilliant war record, he did not always find favour with them. Despite some negative evaluations, however, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for leadership; his citation noted his ‘inspiration to his wing’ and that he was ‘worthy of the highest praise’ (London Gazette, 19 October 1943, 4621).

After a posting to 2 Operational Training Unit, Mildura, Victoria, where he was appointed chief instructor, Caldwell returned to Darwin in May 1944 to command 80 Fighter Wing, equipped with Spitfires. On 1 August he was promoted to acting group captain. In December, as part of the First Tactical Air Force, 80 Wing deployed to Morotai Island, Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia), for night-fighter defence. RAAF infrastructure was at first wanting and Caldwell used his personal liquor store to trade goods and services with the Americans who were based nearby. This contravened Air Board orders and, in April 1945 under section 40 of the Air Force Act, he faced court-martial. Simultaneously, he and seven other RAAF officers who were critical of the futile operations they had been required to carry out attempted to resign from their commissions. As a consequence of the so-called ‘Morotai Mutiny’ (Sir) John Barry [q.v.13], KC, was appointed to inquire into liquor trading, the resignations of the officers, and First TAF operations.

In his report of 14 September Barry found that a state of discontent existed in the South-West Pacific Area; some senior officers had failed in their command; and seven of the eight officers had resigned because of dissatisfaction with RAAF actions and leadership. As a result, three senior officers were relieved of their commands. Caldwell and his fellow officers claimed their actions had been vindicated. In Barry’s opinion, however, Caldwell had been more concerned with his own prospects, and alleged that Caldwell’s request to terminate his commission related to his impending court-martial. At the hearing in January 1946 Caldwell did not deny trading but maintained it was to obtain American equipment needed by his wing, which the RAAF could not supply. He was found guilty and demoted to flight lieutenant. His appointment was terminated on 5 March. Despite his career’s ignominious end, his popularity was unaffected.

Returning to civilian life Caldwell engaged in a number of enterprises, including importing surplus aircraft and other military equipment. He joined a cloth import/export company in Sydney eventually becoming its managing director. Later he became a partner and in 1957 established Clive Caldwell (Sales) Pty Ltd, a successful enterprise specialising in fabrics. Shunning publicity, he disliked being photographed, refused to participate in marches, and did not want his biography written. A keen golfer, he was a member of the Royal Sydney Golf Club. He died on 5 August 1994 at Darlinghurst and was cremated. His wife survived him; the couple had no children.

Acknowledged as Australia’s highest-scoring fighter pilot of World War II, with an official tally of 27½ destroyed enemy aircraft, Caldwell received many public tributes. The Australian War Memorial, Canberra, holds his medals and a portrait by Harold Freedman, while his medal miniatures and a portrait by John Baird are in the Darwin Aviation Museum’s collection.

Alexander, Kristen. Clive Caldwell: Air Ace. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2006; Australian War Memorial. PR00514, Pilot’s Flying Log Book Caldwell, C. R.; Caldwell, Jean. Personal communication; Cooper, Anthony. Darwin Spitfires: The Real Battle for Australia. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2011; London Gazette, 23 December 1941, 4 August 1942, 19 October 1943; National Archives of Australia. A9300, CALDWELL C. R., A471, 79104, CALDWELL, CLIVE ROBERTSON; Odgers, George. Air War Against Japan 1943–1945. Vol. II of Series 3 (Air) of Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1957; Waters, John Carl. Valiant Youth: The Men of the RAAF. Sydney: F.H. Johnston. 1945; Williams, Reginald Ross. Personal communication.

Kristen Alexander

CALLAGHAN, Sir ALLAN ROBERT (1903–1993), agricultural scientist and public servant, was born on 24 November 1903 at Perthville, New South Wales, eighth of nine children of Phillip George Callaghan, butcher and farmer, and his wife Jane, née Peacock, both New South Wales–born. Allan attended Perthville Public and Bathurst High schools. After completing his Leaving certificate, he secured a cadetship with the New South Wales Department of Agriculture and commenced studies at the University of Sydney (BScAgr, 1925). A resident at St Paul’s College, he represented his college and the university in athletics (Blue, 1924) and rugby union, and became involved in student politics.

In 1924 Callaghan was selected for a Rhodes scholarship. His failure to undertake compulsory military training, however, almost derailed the offer. In March 1925 the committee was persuaded that the lapse was not deliberate, but largely the result of the university’s requirement that he obtain practical experience in agriculture during vacations. Departing for England in July, he entered St John’s College, Oxford (BSc, 1926; DPhil, 1928), and conducted postgraduate research on the oat plant under Professor John Percival of the University of Reading. On 27 October 1928, soon after returning to Sydney, he married Zillah May Sampson (d. 1964), his long-time sweetheart, at St Paul’s College chapel.

Fulfilling the terms of his cadetship, Callaghan worked as an assistant plant breeder at the department’s research stations at Cowra and Wagga Wagga. By the end of 1931, dissatisfied with his conditions of employment and the attitude of his administrative superiors, he sought and gained appointment as principal of Roseworthy Agricultural College, South Australia. When he arrived in mid-1932, the college was in disarray, with tensions between students and staff, and financial difficulties, prompting the State government to review the future of the institution. He responded by raising entry standards, removing oppressive regulations relating to student behaviour, making judicious staff changes, and revising the curriculum to place academic and practical farm management on a firm scientific basis. Over the next decade ‘The Doc’, as his students affectionately called him, introduced initiatives in dairying, plant breeding, oenology, and agricultural economics. He also established teaching, research, and administrative collaborations with the University of Adelaide.

At the end of 1942 he was seconded to the Commonwealth Department of War Organisation of Industry as assistant director for rural industry, with the task of determining the goals, and necessary resource requirements, for food production. Coordination of these activities with the Ministry of Supply and the Ministry of Commerce and Agriculture to provide overall control of production and distribution of foodstuffs proved difficult. Frustrated, he returned to Roseworthy by February 1944. From February 1942 Callaghan had also chaired the crown lands development committee charged with devising a scheme to resettle returned service personnel on farms. The scheme provided training for settlers and created holdings of adequate size with pasture, water, fencing, and housing. In all 973 farms, totalling some 744,000 acres (301,000 ha) of previously underdeveloped land, would be taken up by 1959.

In May 1949 Callaghan was appointed director of agriculture, in charge of the South Australian Department of Agriculture. He faced an organisation in flux as it responded to the needs of a rapidly expanding postwar population at the same time as many senior staff were due to retire. To meet these challenges, he restructured the department to focus on its core responsibilities; make selective external appointments; make better use of the skills of his staff; and take advantage of Commonwealth, industry, and private funding sources. His achievements included establishing effective relationships with the Waite Agricultural Research Institute and with the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation. He adopted a whole of farm approach to extension services, expanding them to encompass a women’s agricultural bureau, rural youth movement, and young farmers’ clubs.

Although Callaghan maintained good relationships with ministers of agriculture for most of his career, his association with (Sir) Glen Pearson (minister 1956–58) was fraught. Pearson, backed by Premier Sir Thomas Playford [q.v.18], refused to approve a number of his initiatives such as the construction of a woolshed at Minnipa to cater for experimental wool clips. Callaghan’s health deteriorated and he retired on medical grounds. In February 1959 he took up a position within the Commonwealth Department of Trade as commercial counsellor at the Australian embassy in Washington, DC. In this advisory role he had no executive responsibilities and his health improved. He concentrated on gathering information, developing personal relationships, and lobbying to improve access to world markets for Australian agricultural products.

In October 1965 Callaghan was appointed chairman of the Australian Wheat Board. Arriving in Melbourne, he married Doreen Winifred Rhys Draper, his former secretary, on 12 November that year at the Methodist Ladies’ College chapel, Melbourne. As chairman, he used his industry knowledge, personal contacts, and diplomatic skills, to achieve significantly increased sales of grain at a time of world surpluses. He also negotiated a change in how wheat was classified, which gave growers a fair price and assisted in the establishment of markets for special grades of grain. A competent scientist, respected manager, and gifted diplomat, he understood the need for both decisive action and masterful inaction to achieve his aims. After retiring in 1971 he was in demand as a consultant. He conducted an examination of the wheat industry’s stabilisation arrangements (1972) and reviewed the functions of the South Australian Department of Agriculture (1973).

Callaghan returned to Adelaide in 1977. He settled at Clapham and worshipped at St Michael’s Anglican Church, Mitcham, where he was rector’s warden. In 1991 he moved to a retirement home at Wattle Park. Among many honours, he had been appointed CMG in 1945 and knighted in 1972. He was president of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science in 1953 (fellow, 1958), and the recipient of the Farrer memorial medal in 1954, and the Roseworthy Old Collegians Association award of merit in 1966. Sir Allan died at home on 18 July 1993 and was cremated. He was survived by Doreen, and the daughter and two of the three sons from his first marriage.

Advertiser (Adelaide). ‘Agricultural Dynamo and Fine Diplomat.’ 20 July 1993, 7; Callaghan, Allan. Interview by Suzanne Lunney, 5 June 1974, 30 June 1975, 13 September 1976. Transcript. National Library of Australia; Callaghan, Allen [sic] Robert. Interview by Lynne Arnold, 16 December 1973. Transcript. J. M. Somerville Oral History collection. State Library of South Australia; Humphreys, L. R. Allan Callaghan, A Life. Carlton South, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 2002; National Library of Australia. MS 4850, Papers of Allan Robert Callaghan, 1923–1974; Roseworthy Old Collegians Association Inc. ‘ROCA Award of Merit 1966 – Sir Allan Callaghan.’ Fact sheet, November 2006. Copy held on ADB file; Trumble, Peter. ‘Allan Robert Callaghan.’ History of Agriculture in SA. Department of Primary Industries and Regions, South Australia, 2017. Accessed 18 July 2019. www.pir.sa.gov.au/aghistory/dept_of_agriculture_as_an_organisation/structures/callaghan. Copy held on ADB file.

H. M. P. Stock

CALLAGHAN, Sir BEDE BERTRAND (1912–1993), banker and university chancellor, was born on 16 March 1912 at Newcastle, New South Wales, second son of four children of New South Wales–born parents Stanislaus Kostka Callaghan, teacher, and his wife Amy Mabel, née Ryan. As his father moved schools, Bede was educated at various primary schools and then at Newcastle High School. He gained his Intermediate certificate in 1926 and began work in the office of a mining company. The manager told his father that Bede was bright and there was not much room for progression in the company, but he knew of an opening at the Newcastle branch of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CBA). In September 1927 Bede started there as a junior, ‘changing the blotting paper and filling inkwells each day’ (Hastings, pers. comm.).

From Newcastle, Callaghan moved to Cootamundra in 1934, and then to Sydney in 1935, where he was on the relieving staff before being appointed accountant (and assistant manager) at the new Double Bay branch in July 1936. In March 1938 he began his career at head office, first in the inspector’s department, and then during World War II in exchange control. His poor eyesight precluded active service in the armed forces. On 31 August 1940 he married Mary (Mollie) Theresa Brewer, a typist, at St Brigid’s Catholic Church, Coogee. In 1945 he was transferred to the secretary’s department as second assistant chief clerk. Over the next six years he rose to become first assistant secretary.

In 1952 Callaghan and his family moved to England, after he was appointed assistant manager in the CBA’s London office. From London he travelled in 1954 to Washington, DC, where he was the alternate executive director to Leslie Bury [q.v.17] on the boards of the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (also known as the World Bank). He took over as an executive director in 1956, when Bury returned to Canberra. When the Reserve Bank of Australia was created in 1960 and took over the central banking functions, the CBA was reorganised into three principal arms—the Trading Bank, the Savings Bank, and the Commonwealth Development Bank—collectively known as the Commonwealth Banking Corporation (CBC). Callaghan was appointed the CDB’s first general manager, and returned to Australia. His experience at the IBRD was no doubt a factor in his promotion. The IBRD provided long-term unsecured loans to developing countries for projects based not on security, which these countries could not offer, but rather on their assessed potential to boost growth. Under its charter the CDB was charged with providing long-term loans to businesses or persons in agriculture and manufacturing, with security less a consideration than, as with the IBRD, potential for success.

Following the death of E. B. Richardson [q.v.16], in May 1965 Callaghan was appointed managing director of the CBC. His tenure covered the period of Australia’s first postwar resources boom, which in 1967 saw the CBC and its private trading bank competitors establish the Australian Resources Development Bank Ltd to finance major resource projects beyond the scope of any individual bank. In partial response to government controls over banking, the CBC joined the private lenders in forming non-bank subsidiaries. With four partner European banks, the CBC set up the merchant bank Australian European Finance Corporation Ltd in 1970. The Commonwealth Bank Finance Corporation Ltd, its wholly owned finance company, was established in 1975.

Retiring in 1976, Callaghan was knighted for his services to banking; he had been appointed CBE in 1968. A member of the council of the Bankers’ Institute of Australasia (1965–76), he served as its president from 1972 to 1974. The Australian Institute of Management awarded him the 1974 John Storey [q.v.16] medal, and in 1977 he received the Sydney Rotary Club’s vocational service award.

During his time as managing director, Callaghan had given several speeches on the related issues of foreign investment and the need for capital to finance the exploitation of Australia’s natural resources. He observed in 1967 that the mineral discoveries of the past few years were only the beginning of Australia’s ‘development renaissance’ (Sydney Morning Herald 1967, 12). Foreign capital was needed to finance this expansion, but its availability should not mean Australians diminished their investment: ‘for Australia’s entrepreneurs, the chance to think big and act big has come’ (Sydney Morning Herald 1967, 12). In 1976 the Federal government established the Foreign Investment Review Board and appointed Callaghan its first chairman, a position he held until early 1993.

The Federal government asked Callaghan in 1976 to conduct an inquiry into the structure of industry and the employment situation in Tasmania. Released in 1977, his report looked into the economic problems facing Tasmania as a small, island State, and the difficult choices the Tasmanian community faced between commercial development and conservation of the environment. The report is long forgotten but its insights remained relevant in later decades.

The Callaghan name left a more lasting imprint in the field of education. Callaghan had left school at fourteen, as was usual for people who later pursued careers in banking. It was not until the 1990s that a university degree became the route to a banking career in Australia. As managing director of the CBC, he had advocated lifting the educational qualifications of the banking workforce. Of management he argued that ‘we need, above all, a new breed of broadly educated managers, who recognise that their most important raw material is not machinery … but people’ (Sydney Morning Herald 1968, 8). His bank colleagues later remembered his commitment to education, creating skills, and staff development. In 1970 the CBC named their staff training college at St Ives after him.

Callaghan’s strong interest in education came from his family of teachers, some prominent in the profession. His grandfather James Callaghan [q.v.7] had headed the New South Wales Public School Teachers’ Association; his father had been principal of a number of schools; his mother had been a teacher; and his elder sister Gertrude (later Sister Imelda Mary) followed her parents’ occupation, as did his elder brother Murray, who became principal of Sydney Boys’ High School.

Reflecting both his personal connection with the town of his birth and his interests in education, in 1966 Callaghan was appointed to the council of the newly established University of Newcastle. In 1973 the university awarded him an honorary doctorate of science, and he became deputy chancellor. He was chancellor from 1977 to 1988. The suburb in Newcastle on which the main campus is situated was renamed Callaghan in his honour. In 2000, the New South Wales government would establish Callaghan College, a multi-campus secondary college.

Described as ‘a modest man, but with a touch of extroversion’, (National Times 1972, 36) Sir Bede had ‘humour, warmth and understanding, plus a beguiling, silver-haired charm’ (Bank Notes 1968, 3). A fellow of the Australian Institute of Management since 1960, he was a member of the council of the New South Wales division (1966–76) and chairman of the Australian Administrative Staff College (1969–76). In retirement he was chairman of the advisory board of Lewisham Hospital (1976–88) and president of Warrawee Bowling Club (1982–84). He was awarded a papal knighthood, the knight grand cross of the Order of Saint Sylvester, in 1992 for services to the Catholic Church. Survived by his wife and three daughters, he died on 19 September 1993 at Wahroonga, and was buried in Northern Suburbs lawn cemetery, North Ryde. The Commonwealth Bank and the University of Newcastle hold portraits.

Bank Notes (Commonwealth Banking Corporation). ‘C.B.E. to Managing Director.’ 9, no. 7 (July 1968): 3; Hastings, Mary. Personal communication; Matthews, John E. The Commonwealth Banking Corporation: Its Background, History and Present Operations. Sydney: Commonwealth Banking Corporation, 1980; National Times, 3–8 July 1972, 36; Sydney Morning Herald, ‘Bank Director with Foresight.’ 21 September 1993, 6; Sydney Morning Herald, ‘Banker Urges “New Breed”.’ 16 July 1968, 8, ‘Mr B. B. Callaghan: Australia’s Mineral Renaissance.’ 27 October 1967, 12; Van Gogh’s Ear: Organum Deconstructum. ‘Sir Bede Callaghan (1912–1993).’ 8th edition (October 1993): 2.

Nigel Stapledon

CALLINAN, Sir BERNARD JAMES (1913–1995), army officer and civil engineer, was born on 2 February 1913 at Moonee Ponds, Victoria, second son of locally born parents, Michael Joseph Callinan, commercial traveller, and his wife Mary Catherine, née Prendergast. Bernard began his education at Christian Brothers’ College, East Melbourne, before moving to St Kevin’s College, East Melbourne (later located in Toorak), where he gained the Leaving certificate (1929). Matriculating in 1930, he studied civil engineering at the University of Melbourne (BCE, 1935).

In 1934 Callinan joined a civil engineering firm as an engineering assistant. Operated by Alan Gordon Gutteridge, the firm later became Gutteridge Haskins and Davey [q.v.13] (GHD). Although young, Callinan supervised large sewerage and water projects in country areas. Following the outbreak of World War II, he was appointed on 5 July 1940 as a lieutenant in the Reserve of Officers (R of O), Royal Australian Engineers. He completed courses in military engineering in New South Wales and Victoria and, transferring to the Australian Imperial Force on 3 March 1941, joined the 7th Infantry Training Centre, Wilsons Promontory, which instructed personnel in irregular warfare. In July he was promoted to captain and appointed second-in-command of the 2nd (later restyled 2/2nd) Independent Company. As part of Sparrow Force, the unit was deployed in December, first to Koepang (Kupang), Netherlands Timor (Indonesia), then to Dili, Portuguese Timor (Timor-Leste). After the Japanese invaded the island in February 1942 and rapidly overwhelmed the Allied defenders, the 2/2nd escaped to the mountains. From there, with other survivors of Sparrow Force, the unit mounted a guerrilla campaign, collecting intelligence and harassing the enemy.

On 20 May Callinan was placed in command of the company and in July was promoted to temporary major (substantive in September). The 2/4th Independent Company arrived in September and on 19 November he assumed command of the enlarged Sparrow Force (renamed Lancer Force in December). Under increasing Japanese pressure, all Allied troops, apart from a small intelligence-gathering party, were withdrawn from Timor by January 1943. ‘Always cheerful, cool and clear-thinking’ (NAA B2458), the ‘tireless and brave’ (McCarthy 1962, 599) Callinan had skilfully handled his commands, inspiring his men to inflict severe casualties on the enemy with minimal losses to themselves. He was awarded the Military Cross and mentioned in despatches for his leadership on Timor. Returning to Australia in January, he married Naomi Miriam Cullinan, a signals officer in the Australian Women’s Army Service, on 6 February at St James’s Catholic Church, Gardenvale, Victoria.

In March Callinan was posted as a staff officer at First Army headquarters, Toowoomba, Queensland, then in November as second-in-command of the combined 31st-51st Battalion, stationed at Merauke, Netherlands New Guinea. The unit returned to Australia in August 1944 and in December moved to Bougainville. On 8 February 1945 Callinan was promoted to lieutenant colonel and appointed to command the 26th Battalion, which was ordered to clear the Japanese from the north-west coast of the island. His troops carried out ‘a brilliant series of manoeuvres’ (Long 1963, 175) that liberated the Soraken Peninsula and neighbouring islands in March. For his conduct of the operation, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order. The 26th was relieved at the end of June. Relinquishing his command in December, he returned to Victoria and transferred to the R of O on 6 January 1946. From April 1948 to June 1951 he was active in the Citizen Military Forces, commanding the 58th-32nd Battalion, and between 1972 and 1978 he was honorary colonel of the 4th-19th Prince of Wales’s Light Horse Regiment. He wrote Independent Company: The 2/2 and 2/4 Australian Independent Companies in Portuguese Timor 1941–1943 (1954).

Callinan returned to GHD in 1946, managing the firm’s Victorian and Tasmanian branches. Rising in the company, he became chairman and managing director in 1971. That year he was also appointed CBE. He was a councillor (1958–77) and president (1971) of the Victorian division of the Institution of Engineers, Australia. In the following year, the IEA awarded him the Peter Nicol Russell [q.v.6] memorial medal for notable contribution to the science and practice of engineering in Australia. He was knighted in 1977 and retired from GHD in 1978.

Sir Bernard continued to serve in a variety of roles after retirement. He was chairman of the Parliament House Construction Authority (1979–85). A leading Catholic layman, he was a member of the Pontifical Commission for Justice and Peace (1977–84) and chairman of the National Catholic Education Commission (1985). Having been a member of the West Gate Bridge Authority since 1965, he became chairman (1981–82). In 1982 the University of Melbourne awarded him the Kernot [q.v.5] memorial medal for distinguished engineering achievement. Callinan was a commissioner of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (1976–83), the Australian Broadcasting Commission (1977–83), the State Electricity Commission of Victoria (1963–83), and the Australian Post Office Commission of Inquiry (1973–74). He served the Royal Humane Society of Australasia as president (1986–92). Companies of which he was a director included British Petroleum Company of Australia Ltd (1969–85) and CSR Ltd (1978–85). He was a deputy chancellor of La Trobe University (1967–69), a councillor of the University of Melbourne (1976–81), and a member of its faculty of engineering (1965–81). Honorary doctorates of engineering and laws were conferred on him by Monash University and the University of Melbourne, respectively. In 1986 he was appointed AC.

Although not an active sportsman, Callinan was a keen follower of cricket and, like his father, supported Carlton in Australian Rules football. A member of the Melbourne Cricket Club committee from 1966, he served as president (1980–85). In that role he oversaw the erection of lighting towers and an electronic scoreboard, and ensured retention of the Victorian Football League grand final at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. A ‘quiet, unassuming man’ (Lloyd 1995, 14), who displayed both charm and firmness, for relaxation he enjoyed reading, especially biographies and history. Although he displayed great skill as a leader, he had never become politically involved with his friend B. A. Santamaria [q.v.], whom he had known from his school days. Callinan died at Kew on 20 July 1995, survived by his wife and their five sons, and was buried in Springvale cemetery.

Arneil, Stan Foch. A Firm Foundation: The Story of Gutteridge Haskins and Davey, Consulting Engineers 1928–1988. Railway Square, NSW: Gutteridge Haskins & Davey, 1988; Callinan, Nicholas. Personal communication; Canberra Times. ‘War-Time Leader and Parliament Builder.’ 22 July 1995, 4; Lloyd, Brian. ‘Life of Leadership Touches Many.’ Age (Melbourne), 27 July 1995, 14; Long, Gavin. The Final Campaigns. Vol. VII of Series 1 (Army) of Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1963; McCarthy, Dudley. South-West Pacific Area – First Year. Vol. V of Series 1 (Army) of Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1962; National Archives of Australia. B2458, 3/82001.

Christopher Wray

CAMPBELL, ALISON ANNE (ALIMAC) (1903–1995), physiotherapist, was born on 25 September 1903 at Geelong, Victoria, third child and elder of twin daughters of locally born Neil Campbell, auctioneer, and his Tasmanian-born wife Elizabeth Margaret, née Simson. Later that year her father was elected mayor of Geelong. Alison began her schooling at the local Church of England Girls’ Grammar School (the Hermitage). In June 1914 she travelled with her mother and two sisters to Europe. Stranded by the outbreak of World War I, they resided in Switzerland before relocating to Britain, where Alison attended Bedford High School. Returning to Australia in November 1919, she resumed at CEGGS. She then studied (1923–24) at the school of massage, affiliated with the University of Melbourne.

After graduation Campbell became an honorary masseuse at the Melbourne and Children’s hospitals. In 1926 she travelled to London where she studied at the Swedish Institute (a physical therapy school) and, on passing its exams, was accepted as a member of the Chartered Society of Massage and Medical Gymnastics (CSMMG). She worked with the renowned orthopaedic surgeon Dr James Mennell, before returning to Australia in 1927. In Melbourne she established a private practice in Spring Street and lectured in remedial gymnastics at the school of massage (1928–39).

On 23 October 1940 Campbell was appointed as a staff masseuse in the Australian Imperial Force (lieutenant, Australian Army Medical Corps, from April 1942). She served in military general hospitals in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine from February 1941 to January 1943, before returning to Australia. The physiotherapists were transferred to the Australian Army Medical Women’s Service in June 1943, the resulting reduction in pay and status causing controversy. After lobbying by the Australian Physiotherapy Association for the appointment of a chief physiotherapist, Campbell was posted to the Directorate of Medical Services, Melbourne, in February 1944; her position was formalised as senior physiotherapist the next month and she was promoted to captain in April. She reorganised the physiotherapy service, compiling a seniority list and implementing a more effective distribution of staff. In September she and her colleagues were returned to the AAMC. On 18 January 1946 she transferred to the Reserve of Officers.

Back in private practice, Campbell specialised in the treatment of juvenile scoliosis. She began writing a thesis on the subject while travelling to England by freighter in late 1948. Two years later her thesis was accepted for a fellowship of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy (formerly CSMMG). Her theory, innovative for the time, was that scoliosis was containable through the application of a rigid exercise regime. While abroad she lectured on the subject in the United Kingdom and United States of America. Her principles became standard practice.

Campbell’s interests had led to her involvement in a number of organisations for children with disabilities. She was a member of the Victorian Society for Crippled Children and Adults (from 1936), chairing its production division that oversaw the creation of a work centre. In 1927 she founded an extension branch for members with disabilities of the Girl Guides’ Association of Victoria, of which she was commissioner (1927–40). She was also a supporter of Riding for the Disabled. An active member of the Australian Massage (later Physiotherapy) Association, she served on the Victorian branch executive committee (1930–35 and 1949–51) and as vice-president (1967–69). In 1970 she was made a life member. She also lectured in kinesiology at the Occupational Therapy School of Victoria (1958–62, 1964–66), and was a member of its board (1954–55, 1957–67).

Variously described as ‘jolly, optimistic’ and ‘a great raconteur’ (Bone 1994), Campbell was also known for her determination and forthright opinions, and for having ‘a tremendous empathy for her fellows, particularly those physically disadvantaged’ (Herald Sun 1995, 69). For much of her life she used the surname McArthur Campbell, but among her friends, colleagues, and patients she was known as ‘Alimac’. She identified strongly with her Scottish heritage. In 1938 she had helped to found the Victorian branch of the Clan Campbell and she was a long-time member of the Presbyterian Scots Church in Collins Street, Melbourne. Having suffered from Alzheimer’s in the last decade of her life, she died on 7 August 1995 at Malvern, Victoria, and was cremated.

Australian Physiotherapy Association. Citation for Life Membership: Miss Alison Anne McArthur Campbell. Minutes of the Australian Physiotherapy Association National Executive, 7 May 1970. Copy held on ADB file; Australian War Memorial. PR90/022, McArthur-Campbell, Alison (Captain); Bentley, Philip, with David Dunstan. The Path to Professionalism: Physiotherapy in Australia to the 1980s. Melbourne: Australian Physiotherapy Association, 2006; Bone, Betty M. Miss Alison Macarthur Campbell, Physiotherapist, Oral History File, 20 December 1994. Australian Physiotherapy Association National Executive Archives. Copy held on ADB file; Herald Sun (Melbourne). ‘A Champion for Children.’ 25 September 1995, 69; National Archives of Australia. B883, VX17193; Spratling, Doris. Extension Echoes: The Story of Girl Guiding for the Disabled in Victoria, 1927–1987. Melbourne: Girl Guides’ Association of Victoria, 1987; Walker, Allan S. The Medical Services of the R.A.N. and R.A.A.F. with a Section on Women in the Army Medical Services. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1961.

Philip Bentley

CAMPBELL, FREDERICK ALEXANDER (FRED) (1911–1995), poultry farmer, political party organiser, and politician, was born on 17 January 1911 in Brisbane, fourth of five children of English-born Matthew Hale Campbell, farmer, and his New Zealand–born wife Annie Jessie, née Jullyan. The Campbells owned the Mahaca Poultry Farm and Hatchery at Albany Creek, north of the city. Fred attended Albany Creek State School. Riding his horse to Zillmere station and taking the train, he spent one year (1924) at Brisbane State High School. His first employment was with a fire and general insurance company.

On 14 May 1936 at St George’s Church of England, Windsor, Campbell married Ellen (‘Mac’) McConachie. By this time he and his younger brother, Matthew, were managing the family business. In January 1939 Fred enlisted in the Citizen Military Forces but it was Matt who later served full time in World War II, Fred reluctantly obtaining exemption in order to keep the farm in production. He followed in his father’s footsteps as an office-holder in the Queensland branch of the National Utility Poultry Breeders’ Association, as a member of the World’s Poultry Science Association, and as an industry representative on the South Queensland Egg Marketing Board.

Following some ten years in the Australian Country Party–Queensland, Campbell switched to the Liberal Party of Australia soon after its Queensland division formed in 1949. As a member (1953–67) of the State executive, including a period as president (1957–60), he played a leading part in negotiating the agreement with the Country Party not to stand candidates against each other and to campaign jointly for the 1957 Queensland general election. This pact, together with the split in the Australian Labor Party, ensured victory for the conservative coalition for the first time since 1929. He won the Legislative Assembly seat of Aspley in May 1960 and would retain it at the next six general elections. On entering parliament, he gave up the farm; Matt managed it until it closed in 1964.

In 1967 Campbell was promoted to the ministry and from 1976 to 1980 he was deputy leader of the parliamentary Liberal Party. He held the portfolios of industrial development (1967–72); development and industrial affairs (1972–74); industrial development, labour relations, and consumer affairs (1974–77); transport (1977); and labour relations (1977–80). Believing that a balanced and stable State economy depended on an expanded and decentralised manufacturing sector, he established regional industrial estates and promoted investment. Queensland’s traditional reliance on rural production, he argued, left its economy vulnerable to the vagaries of the weather and fluctuations in world commodity prices. A stream of newspaper articles in his name and regular public addresses spread his message widely. His introduction in 1979 of the Industry and Commerce Training Bill, which overhauled the apprenticeship system, gave him immense satisfaction. The legislation was the culmination of a long crusade to improve apprentices’ conditions and to train the skilled tradesmen required for his industrialising mission.

Moderate and fair minded, Campbell did all he could to foster social harmony. Business and labour leaders alike applauded his conciliatory and even-handed approach to industrial relations. Disgusted by Premier (Sir) Joh Bjelke-Petersen’s strike-breaking Essential Services Act 1979, he declared that strikes resulted from failures in communication and that attempts to outlaw them inevitably failed. Yet he remained firmly on the side of free enterprise. He rebuked Prime Minister Gough Whitlam’s Labor government for its socialistic policies. When Comalco Ltd had been floated in 1970, he was one of the ministers who controversially bought shares that the company offered to politicians, public servants, and journalists. To him, the purchase was simply another investment, one that placed him under no obligation to the company and did not compromise his integrity.

The gentlemanly and convivial ‘Chooky’ Campbell had friends in all parties. On 29 November 1980 he retired from parliament. Public spirit, as much as political expediency, underpinned his commitment to numerous middle-class community organisations, especially the Rotary Club of Aspley, which awarded him a Paul Harris fellowship (1981) for his service. His wife supported him in these activities and also held committee positions in the Queensland Country Women’s Association and the Australian Red Cross Society. From early adulthood he had been a leader of the Young Men’s Christian Association. He played lawn bowls and he and his wife enjoyed travel. Survived by her, and by their son and two daughters, he died on 10 September 1995 at Sandgate and, following an Anglican service, was cremated. By then, market fundamentalism was dominating politics, sweeping aside the interventionist and progressive strand of liberalism that had shaped his career.

Allen, Ric. ‘Parliament’s Quiet Man Speaks His Mind.’ Sunday Mail (Brisbane), 16 November 1980, 16; Campbell, Barbara. Personal communication; Dempster, Quentin. ‘Campbell Slams Joh Conduct.’ Telegraph (Brisbane), 21 August 1980, 3; Harris, Brian. ‘Poultryman to Minister.’ Telegraph (Brisbane), 1 July 1967, 2; National Archives of Australia. B4747, Campbell, Frederick Alexander; Queensland Liberal. ‘A Lifetime of Service.’ November 1962, 2; Queensland. Parliament. Votes and Proceedings, 14 September 1995, 187–192, 25 September 1980, 821–822; Queensland Times (Ipswich). ‘State’s Future Lies in Secondary Industry: Minister’s Address.’ 19 March 1969, 2; State Library of Queensland. OM91-61, Fred A. Campbell Clippings 1957, 1967–1980; Van Os, John. ‘Further Honours for Campbell.’ Northern Times (Margate, Qld), 12 December 1980, 10.

Darryl Bennet

CAMPBELL JNR, ROBERT (1944–1993), artist, was born on 15 August 1944 at Kempsey, New South Wales, fourth surviving child of New South Wales–born parents Thomas William Campbell and his wife Lottie Ivy, née Sherry. Named after his uncle, Robert belonged to the Ngaku clan of the Dunghutti nation. As a child he drew images of birds and animals, and his father used a hot wire to burn these images onto hand-carved boomerangs that he sold to tourists. He attended the Burnt Bridge Aboriginal mission school until the age of fourteen.

Following his schooling, Campbell held a variety of jobs, including bricklaying, pea picking, and factory work, and relocated to Sydney. These physically demanding manual occupations enabled his financial survival, though one cost him part of a finger. He maintained an interest in art throughout the 1960s and 1970s, often using found materials—such as cardboard, plywood, and leftover paint in tins sourced from the tip—to create artworks. In the early 1980s he returned to live at Kempsey. The Sydney artist Tony Coleing noticed his work in an exhibition in 1982 at the town’s Returned Services League club. Through Coleing, Campbell received greater access to art supplies and was introduced to members of the art community; his reputation grew throughout the decade.

Campbell became known principally for his brightly coloured acrylic paintings. These depicted a wide range of subjects, particularly relating to the historical and contemporary experiences of Indigenous Australians, including early contact with white colonists, massacres, the stolen generations, deaths in custody, and racial segregation at cinemas and swimming pools. According to Campbell, through his art he was ‘telling the stories, the struggle of Aboriginal people’ (Tyerabarrbowaryaou 1992, 14). He also painted contemporary Australian events and people, such as the disappearance of baby Azaria Chamberlain [q.v.13], Australia II’s victory in the 1983 America’s Cup, the racehorse trainer Bart Cummings, the boxer Jeff Fenech, and Senator Neville Bonner. He had no formal artistic training, but his work drew on wide influences, including traditional south-eastern styles, Central Desert dot painting, and Arnhem Land X-ray style. In the late 1980s he visited the Ramingining community in the Northern Territory where he met Aboriginal artists such as David Malangi, Paddy Dhatangu, and Jimmy Wululu, from whom he took inspiration and acquired some new artistic techniques, including incorporating ochres into his work. Seamlessly, he integrated traditional Aboriginal artistic techniques with a contemporary graphic style. This, in combination with the political content of much of his art, appealed to the Roslyn Oxley9 Gallery of contemporary art in Sydney, which holds one of the largest collections of his work.

In 1987 Campbell was awarded a printmaking residency at the University of Sydney’s Tin Sheds centre. The same year, with other local artists, he formed the Kempsey Koori Artists collective. He was twice a finalist in the Archibald [q.v.3] prize: in 1989 for My Brother Mac Silva and in 1990 for Sammy Alfie Drew, Local Macleay Aboriginal Sporting Identity (Football and Cricket). During his lifetime, his work was exhibited in many Australian cities, as well as in England, Scotland, and the United States of America, including in solo exhibitions at the Roslyn Oxley9 Gallery; the Christine Abrahams Gallery, Melbourne; and the Rebecca Hossack Gallery, London.

Campbell died of heart failure on 14 July 1993 at Kempsey and, after a funeral at All Saints Catholic Church, was buried in the lawn cemetery, East Kempsey. His de facto wife Eileen Button, and their two sons and two daughters, survived him. He is remembered as ‘a quiet, gentle man’ (McLean 2015, 37), with a keen wit. His self-portrait (1988) is held by the National Gallery of Australia, and his work is represented in national, State, and regional galleries, as well as private collections.

Coleing, Tony. ‘Robert Campbell Jnr.’ Art and Australia 31, no. 3 (1994): 380–81; Howie-Willis, Ian. ‘Campbell (Jr), R.’ In The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander History, Society and Culture, vol. 1, A–L, edited by David Horton, 178. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, 1994; Lendon, Nigel. ‘Overlapping Territories in the Collaborative Work of Tony Coleing and Robert Campbell Jr.’ In Synergies, edited by Howard Morphy and Nigel Lendon, 35–42. Canberra: Australian National University Drill Hall Gallery, 2003; McLean, Ian. ‘The Politics of Australian Indigenous Contemporary Art.’ In Robert Campbell Jnr: History Painter, 36–46. Waterloo, NSW: Artbank, 2015; Mundine, Djon. ‘Common Koori/Goori.’ In Robert Campbell Jnr: History Painter, 10–27. Waterloo, NSW: Artbank, 2015, Personal communication; Robert Campbell Jr Ngaku. Curated by Roslyn Oxley. Paddington: Roslyn Oxley9 Gallery, 1997. Exhibition pamphlet; Tyerabarrbowaryaou: I Shall Never Become a White Man. Curated by Djon Mundine and Fiona Foley. Sydney: Museum of Contemporary Art, 1992. Exhibition catalogue.

Jayne Regan

CARLISLE, ROBERT MAXWELL (BOB) (1936–1994), solicitor, was born on 20 July 1936 at Caulfield, Melbourne, younger child of New South Wales–born Hazen Pingree Carlisle, cleaner and later printer, and his wife Ruby May, née Glew, a Victorian-born clerk. Bob’s parents separated when he was four. His mother raised the children alone on her small wage as a legal secretary. From Caulfield South State School, Carlisle entered Caulfield Grammar School (1948–53), where he was a sound student, a member of the school magazine committee, and a sergeant in cadets. As vice-captain of the second XVIII football team, small, redheaded ‘Bluey’ Carlisle proved a tenacious and effective rover. In 1954 he enrolled in law at the University of Melbourne (LLB, 1961) but failed and repeated nearly half the prescribed subjects before finishing his degree.

After completing articles with Freeman & Pitts, Carlisle was admitted to practise in Victoria on 1 March 1962. Employed as a solicitor in the busy Geelong office of the labour law firm Holding Ryan & Redlich from 1964, he represented workers tirelessly, specialising in workplace injury cases. After several years he was made a partner, transferring in 1974 to the Melbourne office. The firm experienced a painful split in 1975. He emerged as a founding partner of a new labour law firm, Ryan Carlisle Needham Thomas (Ryan Carlisle Thomas from 1983), committed ‘to social justice and the objectives of the organised labour movement’ (Ryan Carlisle Thomas n.d.).

On 20 March 1970 at the Melbourne Unitarian Peace Memorial Church, East Melbourne, Carlisle had married Anne Naylor, a private secretary. Early in life Carlisle rejected all forms of religious practice and ceremony, but he agreed with Anne that a church setting for their formal wedding was preferable to a registry office. They lived at Torquay until 1974, then Elwood, and, from 1984, Kooyong. A socialist, he was dedicated to supporting the voiceless and underprivileged, and to using his legal skills to help right wrongs and remedy social inequality. He built up a large practice acting for plaintiffs claiming workers’ compensation, or damages at common law for personal injuries. His successes included cases establishing the liability of employers for asbestos exposure, and of medical practitioners for professional negligence.

Carlisle and his firm acted for many trade unions, drafting rules, advising on disputes within and between them, representing them in disputes with employers, and helping to establish award-based industry superannuation funds. Despite his heavy workload, he was noted for giving every client his full attention. He knew the relevant law and kept his knowledge current, preparing each case meticulously and delivering detailed instructions to the barristers he briefed. He expected equivalent effort from them, not the ‘once over lightly’ (Ashley et al. 1994) approach many counsel took at that time.

Though undemonstrative, Carlisle had the gift of making and keeping friends. In professional life he treated everyone alike, whether clients from the factory floor; senior union or corporate leaders; legal colleagues or opponents; and arbitrators or judges. He managed his many commitments skilfully and in negotiations he was hard but scrupulously fair. His manner was measured, patient, calm and (sometimes infuriatingly) even-handed, and reasonable. In private, however, when barracking for his beloved South Melbourne (later Sydney Swans) football team, he was occasionally heard shouting in rage at the match replay on television.

Early in life Carlisle had restored meticulously a classic MG, and he later owned several stylish sports cars. At forty he learned to ski, joining his wife, a keen skier, and their children on alpine holidays. In 1982 a skin lesion on his back was diagnosed as a melanoma, with a poor prognosis. Realistic about the possibility of death, he continued working. He endured severe treatment with courage and dignity, suffered painful recurrences of illness, and survived for twelve years. In 1993 he resigned his partnership in the firm, but continued as a consultant. He worked on an urgent union rules amendment during his short final stay in hospital. Survived by his wife and their daughter and son, he died on 8 December 1994 in hospital at Malvern and was cremated.

Ashley, David, Sarah Carlisle, Robin Harrison, and Orm Thomas. Tributes at Robert Carlisle’s funeral. Unpublished audio recording, 1994. Private collection; Carlisle, Anne. Personal communication; Caulfield Grammar School Archives. Academic Card of R. M. Carlisle; Dyett, Frank. Personal communication; Herald Sun (Melbourne). ‘Leading Counsel in Fight on Work-Related Cancers.’ 19 December 1994, 62; Ryan Carlisle Thomas Lawyers. ‘Our History.’ n.d. Accessed 26 June 2018. rctlaw.com.au/our-firm/our-history. Copy held on ADB file; Thomas, Orm. Personal communication; University of Melbourne Archives. Student Card for R. M. Carlisle.

Renn Wortley

CARR, NINA LIVINGSTONE (1907–1992), teacher and school principal, was born on 19 July 1907 at Geelong, Victoria, eighth of nine children of locally born parents Walter Livingstone Carr, auctioneer, and his wife Eliza Jane, née Tulloch. Nina was educated (1918–25) at Geelong Church of England Girls’ Grammar School (The Hermitage), winning prizes in divinity, French, and German in her final year. Awarded a non-resident exhibition at Trinity College, she enrolled at the University of Melbourne (BA, 1938; DipEd, 1944).

With her studies incomplete, Carr commenced a teaching career in 1930. At elementary schools in Maffra, Clunes, and Traralgon, she demonstrated skill in teaching English and French. She completed the final subject of her arts degree in 1937 and finalised her teaching qualification in 1944. Meanwhile, her appointment (1937–39) at Mac.Robertson Girls’ High School proved a turning point. She later recalled the challenge of teaching large classes and the influx of girls from migrant families fleeing from Eastern Europe and Nazi Germany before the outbreak of World War II. The director of secondary education, T. J. Ford, described her subsequent advancement as ‘meteoric’ (Ford 1983). She taught at country high schools in Bairnsdale and Warrnambool and in 1945 was promoted to senior mistress in charge of girls at Echuca. In 1950 an inspector described her as ‘a scholarly teacher … doing excellent work’ in both the classroom and school management (PROV 13579). She spent the next year on exchange to a grammar school in England.

On her return to Australia, Carr was senior mistress at Colac, before her appointment as foundation principal of Mentone Girls’ School, which opened in 1955. She spent a decade establishing the school’s infrastructure and educational foundations, and forging her reputation as a pioneer in girls’ secondary education. Living in a flat at the school, she tended the front garden and coordinated volunteer parents’ working parties to improve the grounds. In 1965 she was offered the most senior position available to a woman in the teaching service: principal of Mac.Robertson Girls’ High School (known affectionately as Mac.Rob). She was ranked number one when the common roll of teachers was created in 1969, ‘a fact which Nina made well known to the predominantly male Association of Principals of High Schools’ (Ford 1983), of which she was vice president.

Carr’s appointment (1966–71) marked the culmination of her career. Her predecessor, Daphne Barrett, though a strong advocate of educational opportunity and excellence, was distant and impersonal, and held traditionalist attitudes to authority and about appropriate behaviour for girls. Carr’s arrival signalled a change in Mac.Rob’s educational philosophy and practice and marked a transition to a more democratic model of leadership, and an emphasis on direct communication with staff and students. She led the school during an era of rapid social, political, and moral change, as ‘baby boomers’ entered secondary schools, teachers engaged in protracted strikes over conditions, protests against the Vietnam War mobilised youth, and young women began to challenge traditional sexual mores and codes of conduct. According to Ford, Carr knew that Mac.Rob ‘must remake its reputation in the new society’ (Ford 1983). She also knew that the opportunities opening to young women were unprecedented. Carr overcame resistance to change from a cohort of teachers loyal to Barrett’s style. Steering a careful path between some students’ radical demands and the maintenance of traditions that she judged worthwhile, she sought to inculcate in students a sense of personal responsibility, and to retain public esteem for the school. She listened seriously and respectfully to students, and was prepared to negotiate with them about such issues of school governance as the prefect system, compulsory school uniform and class attendance, and the right to attend demonstrations, to publish a newspaper, and to suggest speakers at school assemblies. Her forceful but clear and consultative style, leavened by humour and warmth, laid the groundwork for her successors to take the school into a new era for young women in terms of academic achievement, self-determination, confidence, and initiative.

Retiring in 1971, Carr served on the council of the graduate organisation of the University of Melbourne (known as Convocation from 1986), including a term as president (1983–86). She was also a driving force behind a bursary scheme of the Association of Civilian Widows, which enabled the children of widows and deserted wives to continue at school. She died in East Melbourne on 24 April 1992 and was cremated. The Barrett–Carr Library at Mac.Rob and the Nina Carr Hall at Mentone Girls’ Secondary College honour her contribution to girls’ secondary education, and both schools hold portraits of her. In her will she provided for trusts to be established at them so long as they remained girls’ high schools.

Age (Melbourne), 30 April 1992, 22; Blood, Gabrielle. ‘Vale Nina Carr.’ Pallas (Mac.Robertson Girls’ High School, Melbourne, Vic.), 1992; Carr, N. L. ‘Recollections of Miss Carr.’ Unpublished manuscript, n.d. Mac.Robertson Girls’ High School Archives; Ford, T. J. ‘Written Recollection of Nina Carr.’ 13 October 1983. Unit 23, Mac.Roberson Girls’ High School Archive; Mentone Girls’ Secondary College. ‘History.’ Accessed 26 September 2018. mgsc.vic.edu.au/our-college/history/. Copy held on ADB file; Parker, Pauline. The Making of Women: A History of Mac.Robertson Girls’ High School. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing, 2006; Public Record Office Victoria. 13579, Teacher Record Books. Carr, Nina Livingstone, 28670; Personal knowledge of ADB subject.

Judith Smart

CARRODUS, PETER RUTHERFORD (1929–1994), radio station manager and classical music enthusiast, was born on 10 November 1929 at Elsternwick, Melbourne, younger child of Victorian-born Joseph Aloysius Carrodus, public servant, and his Tasmanian-born wife Mabel Florence Maud, née Waters. Before her marriage, his mother had been a Tivoli showgirl and had toured with J. C. Williamson’s [q.v.6] company. During Peter’s childhood, most of which was spent in Canberra, the family lived for six months in Darwin where his father was acting administrator of the Northern Territory, before being appointed secretary of the Department of Interior in 1935.

Educated at Telopea Park Primary and Canberra Grammar schools, Carrodus completed the Leaving certificate in 1947. He joined 2CA, Canberra’s sole commercial radio station, in the following year as an announcer, a job suited to his mellifluous voice. After short periods at New South Wales stations, 2LF Young and 2MG Mudgee, he returned to 2CA and by 1953 was assistant manager. On 28 November 1953, at St John the Baptist Church, Reid, he married Rosalind (Roni) Evatt, only daughter of H. V. Evatt [q.v.14] and his wife, Mary Alice [q.v.14], in a Church of England ceremony. Appointed manager in 1961, Carrodus led 2CA during a time when it made an important contribution to community life. While maintaining its coverage of local sport and promoting afternoon singalongs at the Canberra Theatre, he arranged national radio shows featuring well-known personalities to be broadcast from the city’s Albert Hall. He also introduced listeners to classical music in late-night sessions. When the American president, Lyndon Johnson, visited Canberra in 1966, 2CA made a studio available for the American CBS news service. In December 1967 the station resumed broadcasting twenty-four hours a day for the first time since 1939.

Carrodus had become president (1964) of the Canberra Orchestral Society, the registered name of the amateur Canberra Symphony Orchestra, during a time when it was struggling to survive and made a ‘very significant and sustained contribution’ (Canberra Times 1994, 4). His wife played the bassoon in the orchestra. In 1966 he invited Ernest Llewellyn [q.v.18], who had been appointed foundation director of the Canberra School of Music the previous year, to become the orchestra’s musical director and conductor. Between 1968 and 1969 the number of subscribers increased to over 2,000, while casual ticket sales amounted to another 300. The ‘continued steady improvement in the standard of performances’ (CSO and COS 1968–69, 1) was attributed to the influence of the School of Music and the effectiveness of its tuition. In 1971, Carrodus became orchestral manager while continuing on the committee.

From the early 1970s, 2CA had failed to gauge changes in listening patterns including the impact of television on listener numbers. When its first commercial competition, 2CC, opened in 1975, followed later that year by the ABC’s FM station and in July 1976 by community-based station 2XX, its ratings slumped by half. Carrodus revamped the station’s format, concentrating on the over-25s market to attract an older, music-loving, audience. In 1978 he was appointed to the position of manager, interstate services, at the Macquarie Broadcasting Network head office in Sydney. He left there in 1980 and joined 2MBS-FM, the first stereo FM station of the Music Broadcasting Society of New South Wales, as its professional manager. Responsible for organising 500 volunteers, he kept the station on air around the clock broadcasting fine classical music recordings but including some jazz, which Carrodus regarded as the next most important form of music.

In early 1985, not long before Carrodus and his wife retired to an 11-acre farm at Mullumbimby, their third child, Rebekah, aged nineteen, died of a drug overdose. Her death affected the family deeply and Carrodus left 2MBS-FM in April. In 1990 he and Roni moved to Leura. A kind and considerate man, he was described as having a ‘Midas touch’ (Canberra Times 1994, 4) in the music industry. He died suddenly of a cerebral haemorrhage at Blue Mountains District Anzac Memorial Hospital, Katoomba, on 21 June 1994 and was cremated. His wife, and their son and elder daughter survived him.

Canberra Symphony Orchestra and Canberra Orchestral Society Inc. Annual Report. Canberra: Canberra Symphony Orchestra, 1968–69, 1971, 1972; Canberra Times. ‘Keeping 2CA on the Air.’ 1 December 1967, 15, ‘A Man with the Midas Touch in Music Scene.’ 24 June 1994, 4; Castle, Philip. ‘2CA. Growing and Surviving with the Capital.’ Canberra Times, 13 November 1981, 10; Carrodus, Rosalind. Personal communication; Greenland, Rohan. ‘2CC Celebrates Ten Years’ Success.’ Canberra Times, 28 October 1985, 28; Wardle, Pat. ‘Carrodus, Mabel Florence.’ Canberra & District Historical Society Newsletter 247 (September 1983): 13.

Patricia Clarke

CARROLL, JAMES PATRICK (1908–1995), Catholic archbishop, was born on 3 December 1908 at Newtown, Sydney, second of five children of New South Wales–born parents Edward Carroll, boot clicker, and his wife Agnes Catherine, née O’Connell. James was educated at St Pius’ School, Enmore, followed by St Joseph’s (Christian Brothers) School, Newtown, and Christian Brothers’ High School, Lewisham. His priestly formation was at St Columba’s Seminary, Springwood, and St Patrick’s College, Manly. In 1930 he was sent to the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he resided at the Irish College. He was ordained at the Basilica of St John Lateran on 30 May 1931, before undertaking a doctorate in canon law at the Pontifical Gregorian University, with a thesis on Mass stipends (March 1935). In Rome and Naples, in his spare time, he discovered his lifetime passion for opera.

Returning to Sydney with both an internationalist and a Roman outlook—uncommon for a Sydney priest at that time—Carroll was appointed assistant priest at Balmain, Erskineville, and Darlinghurst (1935–37); taught seminarians as professor of philosophy at St Columba’s and St Patrick’s (1937–42); spent a year as assistant priest at Chatswood (1943); and then became parish priest of Enmore (1944–58) and then Woollahra (1959–91). In 1945 he became the spiritual director of the St Thomas More Society for Catholic lawyers, and in 1947 chief judge of the matrimonial tribunal in the archdiocese of Sydney. He was named a domestic prelate and honoured with the title Right Reverend Monsignor by Pope Pius XII in 1949. As canonical adviser to the archbishop of Sydney, Cardinal (Sir) Norman Gilroy [q.v.14], he accompanied him on visits to Japan in 1949, India in 1950 and 1952, and the Philippines in 1953. He was consecrated auxiliary bishop of Sydney and titular bishop of Atenia on 24 February 1954. Pope Paul VI elevated him to titular archbishop of Amaseia and auxiliary archbishop of Sydney on 15 October 1965.

On his elevation as an auxiliary bishop, the Catholic Weekly described Carroll as ‘probably Australia’s leading authority on Canon Law’, and as the originator, at Enmore, of ‘one of the most modern kindergartens in the State’ (1954, 5). Gilroy immediately appointed him to the Archdiocesan Education Board and entrusted him with securing the future of Catholic schooling at a time of rapid population growth and unprecedented financial pressure. Carroll quickly realised this required a reorganisation of Catholic schools in Sydney, with religious orders committing to lifting the standard of their work, and some form of government assistance, especially towards the payment of salaries for increasing numbers of lay teachers. Most of the rest of his working life was devoted to these two tasks.

At the same time, Gilroy had Carroll replace the auxiliary Bishop Patrick Lyons [q.v.15] as episcopal leader in Sydney of the Catholic Social Studies Movement (the ‘Movement’), formed to counter communist influence in the Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the unions. Unlike in Melbourne, where exposure of the Movement’s activities was a major cause of a split in the ALP and the formation of a new Democratic Labor Party, Gilroy and Carroll took the position that members should stay in the New South Wales Labor Party and fight from within. They felt the Movement’s time had passed, with its essential aim already achieved. Carroll was especially clear that the Movement must be under episcopal direction if it were to remain a Catholic organisation. The bishops enjoyed good relations with the Catholics who dominated the ALP State cabinet and caucus, and Carroll feared that one likely consequence of the split in the party outside New South Wales would be to put at risk its then permissive state aid policy.

In 1957 the Federal ALP conference amended the party platform to disallow aid to non-government schools, requiring Carroll and the New South Wales government to tread more warily. In 1957 and 1958 he began informal discussions with the attorney-general, Reg Downing [q.v.], and the education minister, Bob Heffron [q.v.14], who both supported state aid. With the approval of both Gilroy and Premier Joe Cahill [q.v.13], Carroll’s meetings expanded to include the ministers Jack Renshaw [q.v.18] and Pat Hills [q.v.], and the secretary of the State ALP, Bill Colbourne [q.v.Supp]. Carroll developed an approach of building bipartisan political support and avoiding public agitation.

With Gilroy, Carroll worked to reorganise Catholic secondary schools in Sydney. Their 1962 report demonstrated their intention to make Catholic schooling more rational, higher in quality, and more cost-efficient. In negotiations with the State government they had been developing both a systematic program for political support and a coherent philosophical position to underpin their case. The latter was articulated in Carroll’s Independent Schools in a Free Society: The Contemporary Pattern of Education in Australia ([1962]). On 10 September he and Gilroy presented a five-point plan for financial aid to Heffron, by then the premier.

It was agreed to begin small with scholarships and grants for science laboratories. The decision was made for the 1963–64 State budget, only to be blocked by the ALP’s Federal executive. These two planks of the Gilroy-Carroll platform were more or less implemented nationally by Prime Minister Sir Robert Menzies [q.v.15] in 1964. In May 1965 the Liberal (Sir) Robert Askin [q.v.17] was elected premier with a positive aid policy, beginning with payment of interest subsidy on loans for school buildings. The relationship that developed between Askin and Carroll proved very beneficial for Catholic schools, with the first recurrent grants from 1968.

In 1967 the Australian bishops established the Federal Catholic Schools Committee to oversee the campaign for improved aid and appointed Carroll chairman; he also chaired the parallel State Catholic Schools Committee. From 1967 to 1970 he, increasingly in conjunction with Fr Frank Martin (from 1970 the director of the Catholic Education Office in Melbourne), met regularly with the Commonwealth minister of education and science, Malcolm Fraser, and the leader of the Opposition, Gough Whitlam. A Federal system of recurrent grants was implemented in 1969, to commence in 1970.

Carroll was always concerned that public demonstrations of Catholic muscle, as advocated by the Australian Parents Council, might provoke hostile responses and prejudice the cause he had been advancing. After rowdy protests outside Sydney Town Hall in June 1969, he considered it time to change tactics. When he announced on 12 November 1972 that the policies of both parties were acceptable to Catholic schools and parents he was quickly contradicted by the APC and some fellow bishops. However, he had helped shape the policy of both parties, and he was aware that a Labor victory was likely in the forthcoming Federal election, meaning he would shortly have to work with a Whitlam government.

Following the 1972 election, Whitlam established the Australian Schools Commission, providing Commonwealth support for all schools based on their assessed needs. Each State formed a Catholic Education Commission to receive, spend, and account for the substantial funding now being paid. The New South Wales bishops made Carroll chairman of the Catholic Education Commission, New South Wales (CECNSW), a position he occupied from 1975 to 1985. Meanwhile, the quickly escalating financial aid was threatened by a protracted case in the High Court of Australia challenging the constitutionality of Commonwealth grants. Carroll joined with Martin as the fulcrum of the defence for the churches. During the term of the Fraser government (1975–83) he liaised with the successive ministers for education (Sir) John Carrick and Wal Fife on policy development. In 1977 he was appointed CMG. Following the election of another ALP government in 1983, he met with the new minister of education, Susan Ryan, several times.

Carroll’s other preoccupation from the 1960s to the 1980s, which he saw as integral to the development of Catholic schooling, was teacher education. By October 1968 he had developed a proposal to build a new Catholic Teachers College in Sydney. This soon became an idea for a single Catholic College of Advanced Education for the eastern States, intended to incorporate theological and religious education as well as teacher education. He was closely involved in the 1982 amalgamation of colleges in Sydney to form the Catholic College of Education Sydney, which was followed in 1991 by the establishment of the Australian Catholic University (ACU).

Quietly spoken and naturally gentle, Carroll avoided publicity. Even his ideological and political adversaries acknowledged his intellect, grace, and humility. He rarely took any form of holiday, but every year scheduled time to watch football and cricket matches at the Sydney Cricket Ground, and to attend performances of opera and ballet. He also liked to swim, preferably at Nielsen Park when least crowded. Often considered a loner, he was in reality a consummate networker, with a much-remarked memory for people and their names and a sincere approach to those who dealt with him. He inspired great loyalty in those with whom he worked. Proud of his Irish descent, he enjoyed reconnecting with friends and family in Ireland.

Carroll retired from his role as auxiliary archbishop of Sydney and archdiocesan vicar for education on 23 July 1984. He remained chair of the CECNSW until June 1985, and chair of the Sydney Archdiocesan Catholic Schools Board until 1986, and he continued as parish priest at Woollahra until 1991. After collapsing in his Woollahra presbytery from a stroke, he died on 14 January 1995 at Darlinghurst. His requiem Mass at St Mary’s Cathedral, Sydney, was attended by the governor-general, current and former prime ministers and premiers, ministers for education, and other community leaders, as well as by lay teachers and students from the Sydney Catholic schools whose future he had done so much to secure. He was buried in Botany cemetery, Matraville. His memory lives on in ACU’s James Carroll Building at North Sydney (opened in 1988), and the James Carroll scholarships from the Catholic Education Office, Sydney.

Catholic Weekly. ‘New Bishop Elect Is Distinguished Canonist.’ 5 February 1954, 5; Catholic Schools NSW Ltd. Minutes and papers, Catholic Education Commission NSW; Catholic Schools NSW Ltd. NSW and Federal Catholic Schools Committee; Catholic Schools NSW Ltd. Catholic Education Board; Croke, Brian. ‘Archbishop James Carroll and Australian Education.’ Victor J. Couch lecture, Australian Catholic University, Sydney, 1997, ‘Prelates and Politics: The Carroll Style.’ Journal of the Australian Catholic Historical Society 22 (2001): 31–45; Hogan, Michael Charles. The Catholic Campaign for State Aid: A Study of a Pressure Group Campaign in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, 1950–1972. Sydney: Catholic Theological Faculty, 1978; Luttrell, John. Norman Thomas Gilroy: An Obedient Life. Strathfield, NSW: St Pauls Publications, 2017; Personal knowledge of ADB subject; St Mary’s Cathedral Archives, Sydney. Carroll Papers; Wilkinson, Ian R., Brian J. Caldwell, R. J. W. Selleck, Jessica Harris, and Pam Dettman. A History of State Aid to Non-government Schools in Australia. Canberra: Department of Education, Science and Training, 2007.

Brian Croke

CASELY, ELMA GERTRUDE (1904–1995), physiotherapist, was born on 28 October 1904 at Petersburg (Peterborough), South Australia, youngest of three daughters of Tasmanian-born William Arthur Linthorne Casely, draper, and his South Australian–born wife Adeline Mary, née Trudgen. Elma was educated at the Methodist Ladies’ College, Adelaide, where she was a school prefect and captain of its first hockey and tennis teams. In 1923 she began studies towards the diploma of the South Australian branch of the Australasian Massage Association (SAAMA). Trained at the Adelaide Hospital and University of Adelaide, she was active in the Student Christian Federation and played hockey for the university and in State representative teams. She completed the academic requirements of the course in 1924 but her youth prevented the granting of the diploma until 1926.

After working in private practice, Casely travelled to London in 1928 to undertake the teaching certificate of the Chartered Society of Massage and Medical Gymnastics (later the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy). On her return to Adelaide in 1930, she was the first physiotherapist in Australia to hold this qualification. She helped to pioneer the use of graduated exercise for heart patients and led the way in establishing classes for postnatal women. While the SAAMA engaged her as lecturer in Swedish remedial exercises, it proved to be ‘a very part time appointment’ (Ganne c. 1996, 1:29). Her colleague Renée Swan later reflected that the ‘minimal use of her services’ by the branch was ‘hard to comprehend’ (Ganne c. 1996, 1:29).

In 1940 the University of Queensland appointed Casely as senior demonstrator and specialist lecturer, to establish the final clinical year of its new diploma in physiotherapy. She oversaw its implementation before returning to Adelaide two years later. By 1944 she was a part-time instructor in physical education at the University of Adelaide. In late 1945, when the university took over running the diploma in physiotherapy, she was appointed lecturer-in-charge (senior lecturer from 1961). The accommodation provided was primitive—a desk in a passageway was her office for ten years. Modest funds allocated for clinical teaching were directed elsewhere, and overall, her relationship with the university was not an easy one. Nonetheless, she established a course of high standing that was enhanced by her reputation as a trained teacher. Its graduates became the first in Australia to enjoy full reciprocity with the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy in Britain. She was to head the department until her retirement in 1964, training over 250 physiotherapists, 150 of whom attended her farewell.

Casely was a leader in the profession. The inaugural national physiotherapy congress, held in Adelaide in 1936, was a direct result of her vision and determination. She was the inaugural (1958) president of the Physiotherapy Society of South Australia (precursor to the Australian College of Physiotherapists), established to encourage research. In 1965 she was appointed MBE and the next year she was one of three physiotherapists selected as consultant editors to the Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. Her knowledge, wisdom, generosity, encouragement, and delightful sense of humour endeared her to, and inspired, many of those who worked with her. In 1981 former students and colleagues established an academic prize in her name at the South Australian Institute of Technology. In 1984 she was made an honoured member of the Australian Physiotherapy Association.

Marie Hammond, who succeeded Casely as head of the physiotherapy department, recalled that while ‘[d]eafness overtook her in her twenties’ (1995) Elma did not let it become a barrier to effective communication with her patients, students, and friends. She remained ‘young at heart and optimistic’, and maintained an active concern ‘for the lonely, the neglected, and the rejected’ (Hammond 1995) that reflected her deep Christian faith. She never married and for most of her adult years lived with her unmarried sisters. They too were active in community and charitable organisations. Gladys, a former headmistress (1950–53) of the Girls’ Central Art School, worked with the Prisoners’ Aid Association of South Australia; and Edith was secretary of the League of Women Voters of South Australia and of the South Australian Council of Social Service. Predeceased by them, Elma died in Adelaide on 30 March 1995 and was buried in Mitcham General Cemetery. Her portrait, painted by Robert Hannaford in 1977, is held by the Anne and Gordon Samstag Museum of Art at the University of South Australia.

Bentley, Philip, and David Dunstan. The Path to Professionalism: Physiotherapy in Australia to the 1980s. Victoria: Australian Physiotherapy Association, 2006; Casely, Elma. ‘Physiotherapy in South Australia.’ Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 1, no. 4 (1955): 165; Casely, Elma. Taped interview by Renee Swan, 13 November 1985, Oral History Project, History Cabinet, South Australian branch, Australian Physiotherapy Association, Adelaide; Ganne, Jeanne-Marie. ‘History of the Physiotherapy Profession in South Australia.’ Parts 1, 11, VIII, and XI. Unpublished manuscript, 1992–93. South Australian branch, Australian Physiotherapy Association, Adelaide; Ganne, Jeanne-Marie. ‘History of the School of Physiotherapy, South Australia.’ 4 vols. Unpublished manuscript, c. 1996. South Australian branch, Australian Physiotherapy Association, Adelaide; Hammond, Marie. ‘Tribute to Elma Gertrude Casely.’ Eulogy given at Casely’s funeral. Unpublished manuscript, 3 April 1995. Copy held on ADB file; Hammond, Marie, Jeanne-Marie Ganne, and Alison Kinsman. ‘Physiotherapist Devoted to Community.’ Australian, 10 May 1995, 14; Hill, Dorothy. ‘Physiotherapy as a University Subject in Queensland.’ Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 20, no. 3 (September 1974): 119–28; Phillips, Zoe. ‘The Development of the Physiotherapy Association in South Australia.’ Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 1, no. 1 (1954): 39–40.

Ruth Grant

CATCHESIDE, DAVID GUTHRIE (1907–1994), geneticist, was born on 31 May 1907 at Streatham, London, elder child of British-born parents David Guthrie Catcheside, drapery warehouse assistant, and his wife Florence Susanna, née Boxwell, teacher. David junior won a scholarship to Strand School, Brixton Hill (1918–24), where an enthusiastic schoolmaster, S. T. S. Dark, encouraged his interest in natural history, especially mosses, through the natural history society’s program and bryological field trips. This led to his study of botany at King’s College, London (BSc Hons, 1928).

Catcheside did not undertake a doctorate of philosophy, mostly for financial reasons; nevertheless in 1931 he became an assistant lecturer (lecturer from 1933) in botany at King’s College. On 19 December 1931, at Hanover Chapel, Camberwell, he married Kathleen Mary Whiteman. She was an elementary schoolteacher who had been a fellow science student and honours graduate at King’s. In 1936 he was awarded a doctorate of science from the University of London for his research on plant (Oenothera) chromosomes. That year he won a Rockefeller International fellowship to work in the biology division of the California Institute of Technology. In 1937, at the University of Cambridge, he became a lecturer (reader from 1950) in cytogenetics; in 1944 he was elected a fellow of Trinity College. Aided by his wife as part-time research assistant, he undertook research on chromosome breakage and developed an interest in microbial genetics. His first book, Genetics of Microorganisms, was published in 1951.

In 1952 Catcheside moved to Australia to take up the new chair in genetics at the Waite [q.v.6] Agricultural Research Institute, University of Adelaide. Disappointed with the facilities he was offered, he soon moved to the main campus at North Terrace to focus on fundamental genetics. In less than four years he established a strong department that continued long after his departure. He accepted the chair of microbiology at the University of Birmingham, England, in 1956. With several research students, he worked on gene action and genetic recombination using the red bread mould, Neurospora crassa, as a model. He was elected (1959) a fellow of King’s College, London.

Appointed to the chair of genetics at the John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, Catcheside returned to Australia in 1964. He was attracted by the prospect of creating a research school of biological sciences (RSBS). With its establishment in 1966, he became director. While he envisaged an integrated community of biologists without divisive specialisms, the school quickly reverted to the traditional structure of independent departments. Although ‘some regarded his work as a little old-fashioned’, he was certainly increasingly engaged on administration rather than ‘directly engaged in DNA research’ (Foster and Varghese 1996, 235).

Catcheside retired at the end of 1972. The new RSBS building that he had helped plan opened in 1973, and was perhaps a consolation for his failure to implement his collaborative vision. Comprising six wings, it was unified by a central refreshment area named Catcheside Court. In 1976 he returned to Adelaide to be closer to his children, where he became an honorary research associate at the Waite Institute. He published The Genetics of Recombination (1977) and The Mosses of South Australia (1980).

Scientific recognition came to Catcheside through his election to learned societies, a distinction he preferred over prizes. He had been elected (1951) to the Royal Society of London and served (1959–61) on its council. A foundation fellow (1954) of the Australian Academy of Science, he also became a foreign associate (1974) of the United States of America’s National Academy of Sciences. Always prepared to contribute to the scientific community, he had been vice-president (1966–69) of the Australian Academy of Science; secretary (1935–41) and president (1961–64) of the Genetical Society, Britain; and president (1973–74) of the Genetics Society of Australia (GSA).

Although holding firm opinions and prepared to fight for them, Catcheside was by nature reserved. Remembered as being totally without ostentation, he ‘spoke to everyone, colleagues and students alike, in the same quiet, straightforward and often humorous manner’ (Fincham and John 1995, 404). His legacy continued through many former graduate students, including ten professors and a number of senior scientists at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, who had been attracted to genetics by his vision, intellectual integrity, and by his nurturing of their research ideas. A devoted family man, natural history and bushwalking were his main pastimes. Survived by his wife, and their son and daughter, he died in Adelaide on 1 June 1994 and was cremated. The D. G. Catcheside prize was established by the GSA to honour his memory. His son, David, became professor of biological sciences at Flinders University, Adelaide.

Australasian Bryological Newsletter. ‘Recollections and a Tribute to Professor David Guthrie Catchside, 31 May 1907–1 June 1994.’ 31 (December 1994): 7–11; Catcheside, David Guthrie. Interview by Stephen Foster, 8 August 1991. Transcript. ANU Oral History Project. Australian National University Archive; Fincham, John R. S., and Bernard John. ‘David Guthrie Catcheside 1907–1994.’ Historical Records of Australian Science 10 (1995): 393–407; Foster, Stephen G., and Margaret M. Varghese. The Making of the Australian National University. Canberra: Allen & Unwin, 1996; McCann, Douglas A., and Philip Batterham. ‘Australian Genetics: A Brief History.’ Genetica 90 (1993): 81–114.

David R. Smyth

CAUGHLEY, GRAEME JAMES (1937–1994), animal ecologist and conservation biologist, was born on 28 September 1937 at Wanganui (Whanganui), New Zealand, second of three children and only son of New Zealand–born parents John Norman Caughley, bank manager, and his wife Thelma, née Keltie. Graeme attended Palmerston North Boys’ High School. In 1955 he joined the Department of Internal Affairs as a government hunter of deer, pigs, and goats at Rotorua. There he met Thane Riney, an American ecologist working on deer for the New Zealand Forest Service, who became an important mentor.

After gaining his first degree at Victoria University of Wellington (BSc, 1960), Caughley moved to Australia for further study. At the University of Sydney (MSc, 1963) he gained skills as a mammalian population analyst through research on kangaroos. Returning to New Zealand, at the University of Canterbury (PhD, 1967) he studied the spread of the Himalayan tahr following its release in New Zealand in the 1910s. His publications announced the arrival of a brilliant mind in wildlife science. One paper, published in 1970, showed that the growth, decline, and eventual stabilisation in feral populations of tahr were demographically identical to natural populations of mammalian herbivores fluctuating in response to variations in plant production. His interpretations contradicted conclusions from a study of deer populations on the Kaibab Plateau of Arizona popularised by Aldo Leopold, the doyen of American wildlife management. Leopold’s story disappeared from textbooks and Caughley’s career took flight.

Caughley’s burgeoning reputation led to a series of consultancies for the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, including in Nepal (1968), Kenya (1969), and Afghanistan (1969). In 1969, as a research fellow at the University of Sydney, he prepared an influential paper that identified previous inaccurate calculations of the rate of increase of mammalian populations and presented a better methodology. On 30 December 1970 at Wesley College Chapel, University of Sydney, he married Judith Ada Badham, a divorcee and a doctoral student in the faculty of science.

While in Zambia in 1971, Caughley described a 200-year-long process in which elephants reduce forests by stripping trees and then decline through starvation to such low densities that forests recover, thereby allowing elephants to flourish again. This ‘stable limit cycle’ (Caughley 1976, 265) greatly influenced wildlife managers. After rejoining the University of Sydney as a lecturer in the school of biological sciences in 1973, he published Analysis of Vertebrate Populations (1977), cementing his reputation globally. In 1979 the university awarded him a DSc. That year, he moved to Canberra as senior principal research scientist in the division of wildlife research (later the division of wildlife and ecology) at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). He developed methods for repeated estimation of kangaroo numbers across the Australian inland and collaborated with the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service in a unique field-study linking weather, plant growth, rate of increase of kangaroos, and sustainable harvesting. In 1989 he was appointed special commissioner with the Resource Assessment Commission’s inquiry into forests and timber resources. Judging that his advice was being censored for political purposes, he resigned in 1990. He was elected a fellow of the Australian Academy of Science in 1992, and received CSIRO’s highest honour, the chairman’s medal, the following year.

Although widely liked for his bursts of boyish enthusiasm and acuity, Caughley had a rapier wit that was feared by some. He was a wiry man, whose thin frame supported a formidable intelligence dedicated to the search for scientific truth. Despite his professional travels, he never lost sight of home; his book The Deer Wars: The Story of Deer in New Zealand (1983) was a song of praise to New Zealand as much as a vigorous account of human environmental perceptions.

A long-term smoker, Caughley died of cancer on 16 February 1994 at Macquarie, Canberra. That year, he was posthumously awarded the Species Survival Commission’s Sir Peter Scott award for conservation merit. His second partner, Anne Gunn, completed a partially finished book on conservation biology in 1996. The Australian Academy of Science’s Graeme Caughley Travelling Fellowship commemorates his work.

Canberra Times. ‘International Reputation in Large-Mammal Ecology.’ 20 February 1994, 4; ‘Tough Guy in a Trendy Discipline.’ 12 December 1993, 21; Caughley, Graeme. ‘The Elephant Problem – An Alternative Hypothesis.’ East African Wildlife Journal 14 (1976): 265–83; Caughley, Graeme. ‘Eruption of Ungulate Populations with Emphasis on Himalayan Thar in New Zealand.’ Ecology 51 (1970): 53–72; Tyndale-Biscoe, C. H. ‘Graeme James Caughley 1937–1994.’ Historical Records of Australian Science 12 (1999): 363–81.

S. R. Morton

CAULFIELD, HAROLD WILLIAM (1918–1994), horticulturist and curator of botanic gardens, was born on 18 July 1918 at Cheltenham, Melbourne, son of Victorian-born parents George Harold Caulfield, gas works employee, and his wife Lucy Vera, née Upston. Educated at Mordialloc-Chelsea High School, Harold worked in a plant nursery before moving to Melbourne’s Botanic Gardens as an assistant propagator. On 5 June 1940 he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force for service in World War II. The army recorded that he was 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) tall and had blue eyes and fair hair. He served with the 2/11th Field Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery, in the Middle East (1941–42)—where the unit saw action (June–July 1941) in the Syrian campaign—the Northern Territory (1943–44), and New Guinea (1944–45). Back in Australia, on 17 May 1945 at St Matthew’s Church of England, Marryatville, Adelaide, he married Pauline Rackett. In November 1944 he had been promoted to sergeant and on 11 December 1945 he was discharged from the AIF in Melbourne, where he resumed his civilian position.

While on military service, Caulfield had occupied his spare time studying in their natural habitats plants used in horticulture. In 1950 Noel Lothian, the director of the Adelaide Botanic Garden, engaged him as propagator. Caulfield made extensive tours of South Australia and the Northern Territory, collecting plant specimens and seeds and producing a supply of new plants for the garden’s collection of Australian flora.

On 15 October 1956 the Brisbane City Council (BCC) appointed Caulfield curator of the Brisbane (later Brisbane City) Botanic Gardens; a residence on the site came with the job. Under his leadership, the small zoo in the grounds was demolished and the animals dispersed (1958); a native flora section was planted under the riverside avenue of Bunya pines (1960); demonstration plots of lawn grasses and hedges suitable for growing in south-east Queensland were established in the centre garden (1963); and a major landscape development, designed by Harry Oakman and featuring a lake, waterfall, and associated plantings, continued during the 1960s.

In 1969 the BCC began planning for the establishment of new botanic gardens at a site that was larger and not subject to flooding. The next year Caulfield was awarded a Churchill fellowship to study botanic gardens in the United States of America, Britain, and Singapore. His analysis of overseas trends together with his local knowledge assisted the management team in the council’s parks department to develop a plan that made provision for an administration building, library, technical office, auditorium, and large depot with space for offices and machinery. The Brisbane Botanic Gardens Mt Coot-tha opened in 1976 and he became its second curator in 1980.

One of Caulfield’s responsibilities was for the BCC’s horticultural display at the Royal National Show, Brisbane (the ‘Ekka’), at which he was often on hand to offer information and encouragement to participants and the public. A fellow (1982) of the Royal Australian Institute of Parks and Recreation and a foundation member (1968) of its Queensland branch, he helped organise and run several State and national conferences and also presented a number of papers devoted to the management of botanic gardens. He was active in the Queensland Council of Garden Clubs (QCGC), which endowed a pergola at Mt Coot-tha in his honour (1983) and made him a life member (1987).

Acknowledged as the authority on gardening for Brisbane and surrounding districts, Caulfield freely advised householders, nurserypersons, and local governments. His example inspired a large increase in the number of specialty horticultural associations, including the Society for Growing Australian Plants, Queensland region, of which he was first president (1957–62). He wrote (1976–90) a regular column for the Brisbane Courier Mail, gave radio talks on Australian Broadcasting Commission stations and station 4BH, lectured to and corresponded with garden clubs, and served as a judge of the annual garden competitions run by the Courier Mail and the Toowoomba Chronicle.

Caulfield was a serious man who believed that, if children were taught to cultivate and study plants, they would grow up to be less aggressive and to have a better appreciation of nature. Having been in poor health for some years, on 28 October 1982 he retired to Runcorn, where he and his wife set up a fine suburban garden, and from where he continued his community work. In 1992 he was appointed AM. He died on 30 August 1994 at Greenslopes and, following a Uniting Church funeral, was cremated. His wife and their son and daughter survived him. The QCGC published a selection of his talks, What Is a Garden? (1995), and a collection of his newspaper articles, Clippings & Leaves (1996).

Brisbane City Archives. BOTANIC GARDENS. City Botanic Gardens and Brisbane Botanic Gardens Mt Coot-tha. Curators’ Files Relating to 1895–2014, Box 1; Courier Mail (Brisbane). ‘Botanic Gardens Founder.’ 31 August 1994, 11; Guerassimoff, Judithann. ‘Out to Lunch: Harold Caulfield.’ Courier Mail (Brisbane), 26 December 1990, 33; McKinnon, Ross, comp. An Historic Overview of the Brisbane Botanic Gardens 1828–2014. Toowong, Qld: Brisbane Botanic Gardens Mt Coot-tha, 2014; Steward, Ray. ‘Botanic Gardens Blossomed under Curator.’ Australian, 12 September 1994, 12; Wintringham, Barbara, and Ray Steward. ‘Beginnings of Brisbane Botanic Gardens Mt Coot-tha.’ Unpublished typescript, 2017. Mt Coot-tha Botanic Gardens Library.

Ray Steward

CHALK, Sir GORDON WILLIAM (CHALKIE) (1913–1991), politician, was born on 16 May 1913 at Rosewood, Queensland, only child of Queensland-born parents Samuel Chalk, butcher, and his wife Sarah Elizabeth, née Wesley. He was baptised in the Church of Christ but as an adult gave his religion as Methodist. Educated at Rosewood State, Marburg Rural, and Lockyer State High schools, at age fourteen Gordon commenced work as a general assistant, printer, and reporter for the Rosewood Register and Marburg Mail. Meanwhile, he studied accountancy at Ipswich Technical College. Introduced to the sport of horse racing in Rosewood, where he pencilled for an illegal bookmaker operating from behind the town’s barbershop, he remained a racing enthusiast all his life.

Chalk’s first direct connection with politics came in 1929 when he assisted a Country and Progressive National Party candidate, Edmund Bede Maher, in his successful campaign for the State seat of Rosewood. In 1932 he was elected to a part-time position as secretary of the local agricultural and horticultural association; he acquired a similar position at Marburg in 1934. He also found employment as an assistant to a local tax agent. Moving farther afield, in 1935 he commenced work in the sales department of the Toowoomba Foundry, the city’s largest employer. On 22 May 1937 at the Central Methodist Church, Ipswich, he married Ellen Clare Grant.

In 1938 Chalk was promoted to manage the Toowoomba Foundry’s Townsville branch. Declared unfit for army service due to high blood sugar levels, he remained in Townsville during World War II. He contributed to the business and civic life of the town, and was secretary of the local Rotary Club. Returning to Toowoomba after the war, he was appointed sales manager at the foundry’s headquarters. For a time he was affiliated with the Queensland Country Party before accepting a nomination by the Queensland People’s Party (QPP) for the seat of East Toowoomba, which he won at the 1947 State election. In his inaugural speech on 20 August he acknowledged that it was ‘a momentous occasion for any young man to enter this Legislative Assembly’ and went on to address housing, transport, education facilities, and the continuation of wartime price controls (Qld Parliament 1947, 106).

Although Chalk proved adept at debating, it was difficult for an Opposition member to make an impact in circumstances which seemed to require, as the Country Party leader (Sir) Frank Nicklin [q.v.15] described it, an ‘electoral earthquake’ to unseat the firmly entrenched Hanlon [q.v.14] Labor government (Murphy et al. 1990, 478). In July 1949 the QPP became a division of the Liberal Party of Australia and Chalk was elevated to the shadow ministry. The following year, after an electoral redistribution, he was elected to the seat of Lockyer. By the middle of the decade he was beginning to contemplate a career outside politics, but when the Labor Party’s Queensland split of 1957 propelled the Country–Liberal coalition into office, Chalk became the transport minister in the Nicklin government.

Transport proved a difficult portfolio due to unprofitable rail services and intense competition between the railways and the road haulage companies—which engaged in ‘border hopping’ to avoid paying licence fees. Yet despite years of litigation from road hauliers and calls for a royal commission on the transport industry and the operation of the Transport Department, Chalk’s reputation and influence grew. In 1965 he was elevated to the deputy leadership of the parliamentary Liberal Party. Later that year, following the retirement of (Sir) Thomas Hiley [q.v.17], he was elected party leader, and became deputy premier and treasurer. Some of Chalk’s colleagues were dismayed by his closeness to the Country Party and his refusal to support the formation of Liberal branches in rural areas. In January 1968 he opposed a plan by dissident Liberals to nominate a candidate for the by-election in the seat of Landsborough following Nicklin’s retirement. Significant support for the Country Party in his own seat of Lockyer might explain his opposition to three-cornered contests.

When Nicklin’s successor, Jack Pizzey [q.v.16], suffered a fatal heart attack on 31 July 1968, Chalk assumed the premiership, but not without resistance from the Country Party deputy, (Sir) Johannes Bjelke-Petersen, who argued that, as the new leader of the majority coalition partner, he should have been appointed instead. Chalk had reservations about Bjelke-Petersen’s suitability for the position, and hoped to retain the premiership until the next election. Bjelke-Petersen prevailed and Chalk was premier only for the period 1–8 August. Their relationship was tense as each jockeyed to dominate the other. In 1973 Bjelke-Petersen refused Chalk’s proposal that Treasury investigate the licensing of a privately owned casino. Unlike Bjelke-Petersen, Chalk was prepared to cooperate with the Whitlam government in the introduction of the Medibank scheme in 1974. Chalk had success with proposals for the Cultural Centre complex at Brisbane’s South Bank and changes to the mechanism for determining mining royalties, which significantly increased state revenue.

The State election held in 1974 was as much a contest between the coalition partners as it was a fight against Labor. Chalk had hopes that he would become premier. Although the Liberals won thirty seats with a primary vote of 31.09 per cent, the Nationals claimed thirty-nine seats with 27.88 per cent of first-preference votes. From this point, Chalk’s enthusiasm waned. Relations with Bjelke-Petersen deteriorated, especially over the premier’s breach of convention in 1975, when he filled a Labor Senate vacancy with his own appointment rather than the Labor Party’s nominee. Chalk’s decision to vote against Bjelke-Petersen’s strategy in the parliament separated him from many of his party colleagues and eroded his authority. In 1976 Bjelke-Petersen announced the abolition of death duties, against Chalk’s opposition. Chalk retired on 12 August and was succeeded as Liberal leader by (Sir) William Knox. He accepted directorships with Clyde Industries Ltd, Concrete Constructions (Queensland) Pty Ltd, and Birch, Carroll & Coyle Ltd, and was also involved in educational and charitable causes.

‘Chalkie’ had a reputation as a capable and hardworking if somewhat blunt minister, with a cheerful demeanour. He had a stocky build, and wore heavy black-rimmed glasses. Appointed KBE in 1971, he was awarded an honorary LLD by the University of Queensland in 1974. Survived by his wife and daughter, Sir Gordon died on 26 April 1991 in Melbourne and was cremated after a state funeral at the Albert Street Uniting Church, Brisbane, on 1 May. A son predeceased him (1980). The Queensland Liberal National Party subsequently named its networking arm ‘The Gordon Chalk Society’ in his memory.

Fitzgerald, Ross. A History of Queensland from 1915 to the 1980s. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland Press, 1985; Hazlehurst, Cameron. Gordon Chalk: A Political Life. Toowoomba, Qld: Darling Downs Institute Press, 1987; Hughes, Colin A. The Government of Queensland. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland Press, 1980; Murphy, Denis, Roger Joyce, and Margaret Cribb, eds. The Premiers of Queensland. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland Press, 1990; Queensland. Legislative Assembly. Parliamentary Debates, vol. 190, 20 August 1947, 106–10; Wanna, John, and Tracey Arklay. The Ayes Have It: The History of the Queensland Parliament 1957–89. Canberra: ANU E Press, 2010; Waterson, D. B., and John Arnold. Biographical Register of the Queensland Parliament 1930–1980. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1982.

Rae Wear

CHALLENDER, STUART DAVID (1947–1991), conductor, was born on 19 February 1947 in Hobart, elder child of Tasmanian-born parents David Wilson Challender, draughtsman, engineer, and Australian Rules footballer, and his wife Thelma June, née Driscoll. Stuart’s father took him to his first symphony concert in 1961. His mother was an amateur pianist, and he was inspired by his maternal grandmother, Thelma Driscoll, who was an accomplished soprano. Tall, like his father, but with no aptitude for sport, the boy threw himself into music with an early ambition to become a conductor. He began learning the piano when aged five, later took up the clarinet, and borrowed musical scores and records from the local library.

At New Town (1959–62) and Hobart (1963) high schools Challender joined, and occasionally conducted, the school orchestras. He won a University of Tasmania scholarship to study at the Conservatorium of Music, University of Melbourne (BMus, 1968). With no conducting course available, he studied music theory, clarinet, and piano, later learning composition privately with the pianist and composer Keith Humble [q.v.]. He also worked with the amateur Victorian Opera Company; in 1968 he was briefly the company’s musical director and principal conductor.

Later that year, Challender travelled to Europe and began attending Hamburg’s Hochschule für Musik, which he chose for the reputation of its conducting course taught by Wilhelm Brückner-Rüggeberg. Following his studies—in which he was assisted by German scholarships—he was a repetiteur (playing piano for rehearsals) successively at opera houses at Detmold, Düsseldorf and Nuremberg, and at Zürich, Switzerland. He joined conducting summer programs at Siena, Italy, under Franco Ferrara, and at Munich with Sergiu Celibidache, who made a deep impression. His first conducting post was in Switzerland at Lucerne, where he made his European opera conducting debut in Verdi’s La Traviata in 1974, as well as his symphonic concert conducting debut.

In 1976 Challender was appointed resident conductor and principal repetiteur at the Basel Opera. Before long he judged he was ready to conduct opening nights, but he did not get this opportunity. This, together with the end of a romantic relationship with the American soprano Marilyn Zschau, the death of his father in 1980, and his attraction to men, contributed to a crisis in confidence. Returning to Australia as repetiteur and staff conductor for the Australian Opera in Sydney, he made his debut with the company in October 1980 in Rossini’s The Barber of Seville. The remainder of his career would be based in his native country, where the breadth and depth of his European experience made him stand out among his Australian predecessors and contemporaries.

As well as his work with the Australian Opera, Challender was musical director (1981–83) of the contemporary ensemble the Seymour Group, programming and conducting the new Australian music it fostered. Becoming musical director from 1984 to 1987 of the Sydney Youth Orchestra, he expanded his repertoire of symphonic music. Yet, although the Australian Broadcasting Commission engaged him to conduct its Sydney and Tasmanian orchestras, such opportunities were sporadic, while his opera career prospered. In 1985, for example, he conducted Tchaikovsky’s Eugene Onegin at the San Diego Opera. Two Australian opera projects highlighted his commitment to local music theatre: he conducted Brian Howard’s Metamorphosis (1985) and the premiere of Richard Meale’s Voss (1986). A recording of the latter was to win the 1988 Australian Recording Industry Association award for best classical album. Meanwhile, in 1983, he learned he had tested positive to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), information held in confidence with his doctor.

Early in 1986 Challender became the principal guest conductor of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra (SSO). When the chief conductor, Zdeněk Mácal, quit his post suddenly, the management decided—with some boldness, given Challender’s small symphonic repertoire—to appoint him to the post from the beginning of 1988. In late 1987 he appeared as guest conductor with three orchestras in Britain: the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic, the Royal Philharmonic, and the BBC Scottish Symphony. A 1988 tour of the United States of America by the SSO was planned around an invitation to perform for the General Assembly of the United Nations. At this time Challender began to fear he had developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a diagnosis confirmed in 1988. In agreement with the orchestra management he decided to keep his condition from the public until circumstances made concealment impossible.

Only an inner circle of colleagues and friends knew how short Challender’s career would now be, at the very time it seemed so promising. His presence in Hong Kong in 1989 led to a last-minute invitation to replace an indisposed Seiji Ozawa, conducting the Boston Symphony Orchestra there in Mahler’s Symphony No. 2 (Resurrection), which in 1987 had given Challender one of his most-admired early performances with the SSO. In 1990 he was engaged to conduct the Chicago Symphony in its home town. His last overseas appearance was the English National Opera’s David Pountney production of Dvořák’s Rusalka, which his health forced him to abandon in London after six performances. With a newspaper threatening to break the news that he had AIDS, he acted first, giving an interview to the arts editors Maria Prerauer and Michael Shmith. In the words of his biographer Richard Davis, he became ‘the first Australian celebrity to go public about his condition’ (2017, 149). He himself regarded what happened as ‘a forced “outing”’ of his homosexuality (Davis 2017, 147). A Christian believer by upbringing, he also found solace in Zen Buddhism and meditation.

In June 1991 Challender returned to Hobart to conduct his last concert, with the first orchestra he ever heard, the Tasmanian Symphony. He later had to abandon his final opera for the Australian Opera, Strauss’s Der Rosenkavalier, after four performances. His determination and fortitude in defying his condition won admiration, and the depth of his music interpretations increased, but the end was near, and a move to the Sacred Heart Hospice in Darlinghurst, Sydney, inevitable as palliative care became necessary. Appointed AO in 1991, that year he was awarded honorary doctorates of music and letters respectively by the universities of Sydney and Tasmania, neither of which he was well enough to accept in person.

Challender died on 13 December 1991 at the hospice, and was cremated. A memorial event took place at the Sydney Town Hall on 20 December. At his request, his ashes were scattered by his sister at Storm Bay on the Derwent. The Stuart Challender Trust—initiated by him and overseen by the SSO—was set up to aid young Australian conductors, and a lecture established in his honour. Challender had developed into a compelling conductor, especially of Romantic and contemporary music, to which he brought the insight of an erstwhile student of composition. His conducting was marked by his imposing physical presence: he was 6 feet 4 inches (193 cm) in height and long-limbed, with a shock of dark hair that later greyed impressively. In his last years the gestural exuberance of his conducting was refocused in a more restrained and subtle baton technique. The long singing line and a grasp of structure giving maximum effect to the emotional character of the music marked his conducting at its best.

Davis, Richard. Close to the Flame: The Life of Stuart Challender. Mile End, SA: Wakefield Press, 2017; Marr, David. ‘Stuart Challender: He Had Everything but Time.’ ABC Radio 24 Hours, February 1992, 34–37; Pos, Margaretta. ‘Farewell to a Music Master.’ Saturday Mercury (Hobart), 14 December 1991, 9; Prerauer, Maria. ‘Challender: The Man Behind the Baton.’ Australian Magazine, 1–2 July 1989, 22–26; Shmith, Michael. ‘AIDS, But Challender Won’t Quit.’ Sydney Morning Herald, 9 March 1991, 1, 20; Shmith, Michael. ‘Music Poorer for Challender’s Death.’ Age (Melbourne), 14 December 1991, 16.

David Garrett

CHANG, VICTOR PETER (1936–1991), cardiac and transplantation surgeon, was born Chang Yam Him on 21 November 1936 at Shanghai, China, eldest of three children of New South Wales–born parents Aubrey Chung Fung (later Aubrey Chang), merchant, and his wife May, née Lee. On their marriage May and Aubrey, who was a partner in a thermos-flask factory in China, settled in Shanghai. With the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War, Aubrey evacuated his family to Hong Kong, then Burma before settling in the Sichuan province of China, where Victor’s primary school education commenced. After full-scale civil war resumed in 1945, the family returned to Hong Kong. He attended the Kowloon Tong Primary School and St Paul’s College until 1950. He was very close to his mother, who died of metastatic breast cancer in 1948.

With his sister, Chang moved to Sydney in 1951. His Aunty Fung and her husband acted as guardians, while his father continued travelling for business. He attended Belmore Boys’ High School and Christian Brothers’ High School, Lewisham, before enrolling to study medicine at the University of Sydney in 1956. He won a Commonwealth scholarship and spent a year doing research, graduating with first-class honours (BSc (Med), 1961; MB, BS, 1963). After a residency at St Vincent’s Hospital, Darlinghurst, he was cardiothoracic surgical registrar in 1965. Travelling to England later that year, he worked at St Anthony’s Hospital and St Helier Hospital, both in Surrey, under Aubrey York Mason, and qualified as a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (1966). He was appointed registrar in cardiothoracic surgery at the Royal Brompton Hospital in 1968. On 20 April that year at the register office, Sutton, London, he married Ann Lois Simmons, a hair stylist.

Following training at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America, with Dwight McGoon in 1970, Chang was appointed chief resident in 1971. On returning to Australia in 1972 as staff cardiothoracic surgeon at St Vincent’s Hospital, he joined Harry Windsor [q.v.18], who had performed Australia’s first heart transplant in 1968, and Mark Shanahan, his mentor and later surgical partner. He obtained his fellowship of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (1973) and of the American College of Surgeons (1974).

The National Heart Transplant Program was awarded to St Vincent’s Hospital under the direction of Chang in 1984. At the time of his death, the unit had performed 266 heart and twenty-two heart-lung transplants with a success rate the equal of any unit internationally (92 per cent one-year and 85 per cent five-years survival). He arranged medical and nursing staff exchanges between St Vincent’s and hospitals in South East Asia. Having developed St Vincent’s Heart Valves, the low cost of which made them available for use in Asia and the Pacific, he began work on an artificial heart. He was appointed honorary professor of surgery to the Chinese Academy of Medical Science in Beijing and at the Shanghai Medical School, and was an official advisor on cardiac surgery in Indonesia and Japan. In 1982 he was appointed to the Australia-China Council. His medical diplomacy favourably influenced relations between Australia and Asian countries; for this work and for his contributions to medical science he was appointed AC in 1986. The University of New South Wales conferred a doctorate of medicine honoris causa on him in 1988, for his academic and humanitarian achievement. He was to be voted Australian of the Century at the People’s Choice awards in 1999.

Five feet eight inches (173 cm) tall, Chang had ‘jet-black hair, [a] button nose and bushy brows, [and] gold-rimmed glasses’ (Chang 2001, xii). He was impeccably neat in his dress. A gifted technician with sound clinical judgement, he inspired confidence with his engaging smile and obvious compassion. He had a sense of humour and was a good networker, yet was also humble, shy, and very private. His interests aside from surgery were his family, cars, model making, and Chinese action movies.

Survived by his wife, a daughter and two sons, Chang died on 4 July 1991 at Mosman following two gunshot wounds to the head in a failed extortion attempt; he was cremated. The killing of a surgeon who was widely respected for his talent, kindness, and dedication prompted a national outpouring of shock and grief. Two Malaysian-born Chinese men, Chiew Seng Liew and Phillip Choon Tee Lim, were sentenced to a minimum of twenty years and eighteen years in gaol respectively. A memorial mass was held at Sacred Heart Catholic Church, Darlinghurst, and a state funeral service at St Mary’s Cathedral, Sydney. He is remembered through the Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute at St Vincent’s Hospital, the Dr Victor Chang Science Building at Christian Brothers’ High School, Lewisham, and the Victor Chang Heart Institute and Research Centre, Hyderabad, India.

Canberra Times. ‘Obituary: Dr Victor Chang.’ 5 July 1991, 2; Chang, Vanessa. Victor Chang: A Tribute to My Father. Sydney: Pan, 2001.

Maxwell J. Coleman

CHAPMAN, DORA CECIL (1911–1995), artist, was born on 24 March 1911 at Mount Barker, South Australia, fourth child of South Australian–born parents Henry Bruce Chapman, licensed land broker, and his wife Ida Florence Pearl, née Jackson. Educated at Mount Barker Primary and High schools, Dora won studentships (1928–31) to study at the South Australian School of Arts and Crafts. A ‘spirited girl’, she had a ‘lively mind that made her an avid student’ (Campbell 1995, 12).

In 1935 Chapman was awarded the John Cresswell scholarship to continue her tuition at the school. Taught by the European-trained Marie Tuck [q.v.12] and the virtuosic figure painter (Sir) Ivor Hele [q.v.], she was particularly inspired by Hele’s technical approach. She won the Clarkson prize for modelling in 1935 and, demonstrating an early talent for draughtsmanship, the John Christie Wright memorial prize in 1935, 1936, and 1937. In the next year she was awarded the Royal South Australian Society of Arts prize for her portrait of a fellow art student, John Dowie. By 1938 she was working as an art teacher at the Stawell School for Girls, Mount Lofty, and had set up a studio in Mount Barker. She was elected a fellow of RSASA (1939) and in 1940 won the society’s prestigious Melrose prize for a portrait, thought to be Self Portrait (c. 1940). Her early work demonstrated a forthright realism that later ebbed and flowed between abstraction and expressionism, but she remained consistently preoccupied with portraiture.

Following the recommendations of Hele and Dorrit Black [q.v.7], Chapman was appointed to a teaching position at the South Australian School of Art (SASA) in 1941. On 9 February the following year she began full-time duty with the Australian Women’s Army Service and served in Adelaide as a clerk in the 4th Military District’s stationery section. Transferred to the Army Education Service in August and promoted to acting sergeant in September, she attended courses, lectured, and organised exhibitions. From 1944 until her discharge on 6 April 1945 she was stationed in Sydney. There she met a fellow artist, James Montgomery Cant [q.v.17] and, after his divorce, they married on 30 June 1945 at St James’s Church of England, Sydney; they had no children. Dora adopted her husband’s surname, but continued to exhibit under her maiden name.

Around this time the Cants joined the Australian Communist Party (Communist Party of Australia) and, with other artists, established the Studio of Realist Art. As a paid employee and talented administrator of the studio, Dora played a significant role in the delivery of its artistic activities as a centre for the promotion, exchange, and implementation of avant-garde ideas in postwar Sydney. Notably, she privately executed a series of small-scale abstract paintings that were in opposition to the philosophies of SORA. In 1949 the couple went to London where she supported James’s studio practice by working as a clerk. They returned to Australia on 19 May 1955, settling in Adelaide two years later. Resuming teaching at SASA, Dora was well regarded and considered a ‘great teacher’ by the artist Ann Newmarch (Campbell 1995, 81).

On 16 May 1969 Cant retired from SASA and, with her husband’s encouragement, began exploring silkscreen printmaking. Although a bequest from her mother’s estate meant that she was free from financial responsibilities and able to recommence full-time artistic practice, she juggled her creative output with caring for James, who was progressively debilitated by multiple sclerosis. Nevertheless, she produced an unrivalled series of delicately coloured semi-abstract prints (The Kiln, 1973) as well as modest scaled expressive paintings that revealed her profound connection with nature. She also explored ceramics and photography.

Following James’s death in 1982, Dora realised that her artistic career had languished and a period of productivity followed. A retrospective at the Bonython Meadmore Gallery in 1987 restated her importance and she was included in major group exhibitions at the Art Gallery of South Australia: Adelaide Angries (1989–90); South Australian Women Artists (1994); and Modern Australian Women (2000–01). She held five solo exhibitions and two jointly with James, and exhibited in group shows throughout her career. AGSA staged a retrospective exhibition of her art and that of James in 1995. Plagued by intermittent health problems since 1943, she succumbed to dementia late in life and died on 15 May 1995. She was buried in Willunga Uniting Church cemetery alongside her husband. In 2009 local residents commissioned a headstone funded by the artist, Jeffrey Smart. Her work is well represented in the National Gallery of Australia and the Art Gallery of South Australia.

Art Gallery of South Australia Research Library. Artist file: Dora Chapman; Campbell, Jean. ‘Artist Embraced Education Role.’ Australian, 13 July 1995, 12; Campbell, Jean. James Cant & Dora Chapman. Sydney: The Beagle Press, 1995; Chapman, Dora. Interview by Hazel de Berg, 10 August 1962. Transcript. Hazel de Berg collection. National Library of Australia; Dutkiewicz, Adam, ed. A Visual History: The Royal South Australian Society of Arts, 1856–2016. Vol. 2, Other Significant Artists. Adelaide: Royal South Australian Society of Arts Inc., [2017]; Jew, Betty. ‘Meet the Artist: Dora Chapman.’ Kalori: Royal South Australian Society of Arts Journal 7, no. 3 (September 1969): 7; National Archives of Australia. B884, SF64725.

Tracey Lock

CHAPMAN, IVAN DOUGLAS (1919–1994), prisoner of war, journalist, and writer, was born on 14 February 1919 at Werris Creek, New South Wales, sixth child of New South Wales–born parents Henry Harold Chapman, storekeeper, and his wife Beryl Hilda, née Myers. Ivan was educated at the Werris Creek Public and Tamworth High schools and studied medicine for two years at the University of Sydney from 1937. Having trained with the Sydney University Regiment, he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 18 March 1940 and was allocated to the 2/1st Machine Gun Battalion in the 6th Division. He served in the United Kingdom (1940) and the Middle East (1940–41) and took part in the Greek campaign of April 1941. Separated from his unit in the rushed evacuation, and betrayed to the Germans by a Greek national, he was captured on 22 April and interned in three successive camps in Germany; during this time he worked as a medical orderly. Following his release and repatriation in 1945, he was awarded a commander-in-chief’s card for ‘meritorious services’ from 1941 to 1944 (NAA B883). He was discharged from the AIF on 29 August in Sydney.

Chapman’s first book, Details Enclosed (1958), framed as a novel, gave an accurate and moving account of his experiences as a prisoner of war. He described his protagonist as a ‘medical student who had failed in every examination he sat for’ (Chapman 1958, 18), and who had served for thirteen months before captivity. He wrote about the importance of news in the lives of the prisoners and his main character became the camp ‘newsman’ (Chapman 1958, 186).

Almost certainly it was this experience that convinced Chapman to become a journalist on liberation from captivity. He gained employment in 1947 with the Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC) as a cadet journalist, just as the organisation was establishing its first independent news service. He served the ABC first in Newcastle and then, with ‘vague but nagging ideas about Television’ (Radio-Active 1957, 7), he joined the ABC’s London office, where he worked as a sub-editor.

Moving to the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in 1952, Chapman was part of a small team involved with the first broadcast of BBC television news. He wrote of the ‘gloomy corridors and warrens of London’s Alexandra Palace’ where ‘journalists and film editors … blend their skills to turn out the B.B.C. Television News and Newsreel’ (Chapman 1958, 233). On 12 September 1953 he married Moira Helen Menzies, a stenographer, at the Oxendon Presbyterian Church, Hampstead, London. He resigned from the BBC in 1956 to take up an ABC offer to assist in the creation of its television news. He had invented a method of enabling spoken word commentary, live to air, to link with film footage, which was difficult to achieve with the state of early television technology.

Returning to Australia, Chapman trained ‘literally hundreds of journalists and cadets’ (McDonald 1994, 13) in the techniques he had developed at the BBC. For nine years he produced the popular ABC TV Weekend Magazine that went to air each Sunday after the seven o’clock evening news broadcast. He was also, briefly, executive producer of Four Corners, the ABC’s flagship program.

In 1967 Chapman was awarded an Australian War Memorial research grant and took leave from the ABC to research and write a biography of Lieutenant General Sir Iven Mackay [q.v.15]. As Mackay’s service in both world wars was wide-ranging, Chapman was required to master extensive military records and to understand numerous campaigns, from Gallipoli to New Guinea. Mackay had commanded the 6th Division in Greece. Iven G. Mackay: Citizen and Soldier (1975) was well received by military historians and general readers alike. The Sydney writer, publisher, and former army officer A. W. Sheppard described Chapman’s work as ‘by far the best military biography I have read during the past 20 years … the writing is vivid. Images leap from the page’ (1976, 18).

Resigning in 1976 from the ABC, Chapman dedicated himself to writing full time. He produced two further books. Private Eddie Leonski: The Brownout Strangler (1982) concerned the case of an American serviceman charged with the murder of three Melbourne women in 1942, while Tokyo Calling: The Charles Cousens Case (1990) dealt with complex issues arising from allegations that the radio broadcaster, soldier, and prisoner of war Charles Cousens [q.v.13] should be tried for treason on his return to Australia.

Described as ‘a delightful companion with his shy smile, dancing eyes and deliberately outrageous puns’ (McDonald 1994, 13), and as ‘quiet and courteous’ (Hale, pers. comm.), Chapman did not push himself forward for recognition or celebration. His role as a pioneer of television news broadcasting in Britain and Australia quickly passed from view. Survived by his wife and three daughters, he died on 3 July 1994 at Katoomba, and was cremated.

Chapman, Ivan. Details Enclosed. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1958; Hale, Sylvia. Personal communication; McDonald, Neil. ‘Writer Set Standard For TV News.’ Australian, 14 July 1994, 13; National Archives of Australia. B883, NX11358; Radio-Active. ‘The Men Behind the News on Channel 2.’ 11, no. 3 (15 April 1957): 6–7; Sheppard, A. W. Review of Iven G. Mackay: Citizen and Soldier, by Ivan Chapman. Sydney Morning Herald, 7 February 1976, 18.

Michael McKernan

CHISHOLM, KEITH BRUCE (1918–1991), air force officer, was born on 22 December 1918 at Petersham, Sydney, son of Australian-born parents Kenneth Bruce Chisholm, dentist, and his wife Marion Wilson, née Whitford. Keith attended Newington College and was studying dentistry at the University of Sydney when World War II broke out. On 24 June 1940 he joined the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). He trained as a pilot in Australia and Canada before being promoted to sergeant and posted in March 1941 to Britain where he joined No. 452 (Spitfire) Squadron. In August and September, during offensive patrols over France, he destroyed six German aircraft for which he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Medal. On 12 October, however, Chisholm was shot down. Parachuting into the sea near Berck-sur-Mer, France, he was rescued by the Germans and sent to Stalag VIIIB, Lamsdorf, Silesia, Germany (Łambinowice, Poland). He was promoted to pilot officer on 1 May 1942.

Prisoner working parties offered the best chance of escape but airmen were excluded from them. Chisholm, however, swapped identities with an Australian soldier and joined one. In June he absconded and reached Brno, Czechoslovakia, before being recaptured and returned to Lamsdorf.

Chisholm prepared for his next escape by exchanging identities with a New Zealand soldier. With four others, among them Wing Commander Douglas Bader, Royal Air Force, he joined a working party destined for a camp near Gleiwitz (Gliwice) airfield. The plan was to steal an aircraft but it failed when Bader and another pilot were identified and sent back to Lamsdorf. Nevertheless, on 11 August 1942 a group of four, including Chisholm, escaped into Poland and met sympathetic locals near Oswiecim. They arrived in Warsaw in October but the failure of successive travel plans delayed Chisholm’s departure for eighteen months.

Disguised as a Belgian in the German army and given money and false papers by the Polish resistance, Chisholm left Warsaw on 23 March 1944 aboard a military train for Brussels. During a fifteen-hour stopover at Berlin he spent time at the cinema, in restaurants, and viewing bomb damage. He reached Venlo, the Netherlands, but had to return to Aachen, Germany, to obtain a frontier pass before continuing to Brussels and then to Paris, arriving on 10 May. There he joined the French Forces of the Interior and engaged in the street fighting that preceded the city’s liberation.

Chisholm was back in Australia by February 1945 and was awarded the Military Cross for ‘his dogged persistence and careful planning’ (NAA 9300) in successfully escaping from the enemy. From December he flew with No. 38 Squadron, RAAF. They were based at Archerfield in 1945–46 and flew throughout the South-West Pacific. He was demobilised on 5 March 1946 with the rank of flight lieutenant.

After the war, Chisholm became a wool buyer with a French company and in 1952 married Eliane Defferriere in Paris. The marriage did not last and Chisholm subsequently married Marie-France Baudry. In 1957 he moved to New York and joined J. P. Stevens & Co. Inc., one of the world’s biggest textile firms, rising to executive vice president and becoming an American citizen. Survived by his wife, he died there of liver disease on 23 August 1991. His ashes were re-interred at Sydney’s Rookwood Cemetery in 1993.

Daily Mirror (Sydney). ‘German Prison Could Not Hold RAAF Captive.’ 7 November 1977, 20; Herington, J. Air War against Germany and Italy 1939–1943. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1962; National Archives of Australia. A9300, CHISHOLM, K. B; National Archives (UK). WO/208/3322; People. ‘The Wartime Adventures of Keith Chisholm Rank with the World’s Greatest. He was a “dark horse”!’ 3 June 1953, 28.

Anthony Staunton

CHRISTIE, Sir VERNON HOWARD (1909–1994), businessman and politician, was born on 17 December 1909 at Manly, New South Wales, second child of locally born parents Charles James Colville Christie, accountant, and his wife Ilma Marion, née Allen. He was the grandnephew of the New South Wales politician Sir Arthur Renwick [q.v.6]. In 1914 the family moved to Mount Morgan, Queensland, where Vernon attended the local primary school. The family relocated to Tasmania in 1922 and he enrolled at Hobart High School. By 1924 they had returned to Sydney where he completed his secondary education at North Sydney Boys’ High School. At night school he qualified as an accountant and a company secretary while holding clerical jobs in the pastoral and freight industries, including with Burns, Philp & Co. Ltd, and Austral Estates Ltd. He then worked as freight and passenger agent based in the Sydney office of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. before establishing his own accountancy practice.

On 24 October 1936 at St Mark’s Anglican Church, Northbridge, Christie married his ‘first and only girlfriend’ (Foster 1969, 17), Joyce Crozet Hamlin, a stenographer. Earlier that year he had failed to win a seat on the Manly Municipal Council. In 1939 the Christies moved to Melbourne. During World War II he was executive assistant to (Sir) John Storey [q.v.16], a director in the Department of Aircraft Production. He remained in the manufacturing industry, later working as managing director of several prominent firms including Webb Industries Pty Ltd and Winchester Western Australia Pty Ltd.

In 1955 Christie won the metropolitan State seat of Ivanhoe for the Liberal and Country Party. It was fortuitous timing; he entered the Victorian Legislative Assembly just as the split tore the Australian Labor Party (ALP) apart, allowing the Liberals nearly three decades of uninterrupted rule. During his eighteen years in parliament he served on several committees, including those overseeing public accounts, library, printing, standing orders, and house. He was chairman of committees from 1956 to 1961 and again from 1965 to 1967. ‘Because of his rebellious attitude within the party room’ (Muir 1973, 96), he fell foul of Premier (Sir) Henry Bolte [q.v.17], and was excluded from the ministry.

After the 1967 election Bolte decided to move (Sir) John Bloomfield—who had not been a success in the education portfolio—to the Speakership but, in a rare rebellion, the party room chose Christie as its nominee. He was duly elected by the Legislative Assembly and served in the role until 1973. A decisive Speaker, he had ‘a great deal of personal confidence in his own judgment’ (Vic. LA 1994, 1472). A strong believer in the Westminster tradition, he earned the respect of both sides of politics for his impartiality and independence. He frequently reprimanded ministers as well as members of the Opposition. On one occasion he sent a message to Bolte, who had enjoyed a long dinner, to ‘watch his ebullience or he would be “named”’ (Murray 1994, 10).

Outside parliament Christie was a keen bushwalker, yachtsman, and fisherman, and an enthusiastic conservationist. In 1958 he established the Save the Yarra Valley League, putting him at odds with government policy. He persistently lobbied to have the Yarra Valley protected from the government’s freeway developments. Eventually he obtained concessions from the Hamer government that safeguarded the valley. His extra-parliamentary activities extended to philanthropy and patronage of the arts. He was vice-president of the Ivanhoe branch of the Helping Hand Association for Mentally Retarded Children, president of the Heidelberg Choral Society and the Queensland Ballet Company (1976), and a director of the Australian Elizabethan Theatre Trust (1969–78) and the Australian Ballet Foundation (1971–83).

Christie was knighted in 1972 and the next year he relinquished his seat and retired to the outer Brisbane suburb of Redland Bay. He remained politically involved and became a critic of what he saw as the excesses of the National Party government of Sir Joh Bjelke-Petersen, telling voters that if they ‘wanted to “cleanse the place”’ to vote for the ALP (Bowers 1986, 3).

Sir Vernon was a handsome man. Robert Murray observed that, ‘dark-haired when younger and silvery as a politician’, Christie was ‘big and burly—“built like a Sydney life-safer,” which he had once been’ (1994, 10). Although a Queensland resident, he died at Heidelberg, Victoria, on 4 November 1994. Predeceased by his wife in 1993, he was survived by their son and one of their two daughters. He was cremated following a state funeral at St John’s Anglican Church, Heidelberg.

Bowers, Peter. ‘The Pollster’s Lot Is Not an Easy One.’ Sydney Morning Herald, 22 October 1986, 3; Foster, Dorothy. ‘Mr Speaker.’ Herald (Melbourne), 29 January 1969, 17; Herald Sun (Melbourne). ‘Speaker Known for Stirring and Remaining Independent.’ 9 November 1994, 64; Muir, Barry. Bolte From Bamganie, Melbourne: Hill of Content, 1973; Murray, Robert. ‘Speaker a Stickler for Rights.’ Australian, 17 November 1994, 10; Victoria. Legislative Assembly. Parliamentary Debates vol. 420, 1994, 1471–74.

B. J. Costar

CHU, VAN HOP (1946–1995), newspaper proprietor and businessman, was born on 18 July 1947 at Hai Phong in Vietnam’s north, son of Chu Van Hoa and Nguyen Thi Vy, but migrated with his family to the south when he was a young boy. He went to primary and high school in Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City), before moving to Philadelphia, United States of America, to study chemical engineering at Drexel Institute of Technology. Back in Saigon in 1973, he became an executive for Shell Vietnam. After Saigon fell to the northern troops in 1975, he was among many sent to labour in an agricultural re-education centre. On 10 April 1976 at Saigon he married Le Thi Kiem. Some time later the couple, with their baby son, boarded a boat fleeing from Vietnam, and reached Darwin as refugees in May 1978. They lived for a while in Perth, and then moved to Sydney to explore business opportunities.

Before 1975 there were fewer than 700 Vietnamese-born people in Australia; many of those had come to study, as orphans, or as wives of Australian servicemen who served in the Vietnam War. The refugee resettlement programs established by the Fraser government brought the Vietnamese population in Australia up to more than 50,000. Within the Vietnamese diaspora across Australia there was a strong need for Vietnamese-language print media. In 1978 several bulletins, magazines, and newsletters were published, including Quê Hương, Quê M, and Đt M. However, these publications were aimed only at satisfying aspirations for cultural maintenance, and did not fill the needs of the Vietnamese community as it grew, with a mixture of arrivals from different backgrounds. In response to the desire for information, Chu decided to publish Australia’s first Vietnamese-language newspaper.

With a good mind for business, Chu could imagine what a newspaper should look like. As a careful and thoughtful man, he met and discussed his plans with different people to understand the actual needs of readers. A title of significance not only for the newspaper but also for the Vietnamese community was also canvassed. Finally Chu and his team chose Chuông Sài Gòn (Bell of Saigon). This name had two significant elements: Chuông, or Bell, aimed to declare support for freedom of belief for Vietnamese of different religious backgrounds, Christian or Buddhist, while Saigon had been Vietnam’s capital from 1949, as well as of South Vietnam between 1954 and 1975. Begun in 1979, the newspaper was initially published every two weeks, but then became weekly.

The Bell carried creative contents, such as short stories and poetry, as well as news. Chu and his team also made the newspaper a forum for people from different backgrounds to share their life stories. The newspaper was warmly welcomed by readers from its first edition, even though its appearance and design did not look professional because none of the editorial board members—including Chu as the editor-in-chief—had training in journalism. However, the Bell was just Chu’s first business venture. In 1982 he sold the newspaper, which was never financially successful. He and his wife had become Australian citizens in 1981.

In 1982 Chu became a clerk in the New South Wales regional office of the Federal Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs. Three years later he was promoted to director of the office’s ethnic affairs section, becoming responsible for a number of programs for migrants. In 1987 he became special adviser on community affairs to the premier of New South Wales, Barrie Unsworth. The following year he re-entered business, embarking on several other ventures, including a remittance business for Vietnamese people in Australia and the United States who wanted to send money to families in Vietnam. In 1989 he was appointed to the National Consultative Council for the International Literacy Year. He also ran Vietnam Business Specialists, a consultancy focusing on investment in his homeland, and in 1991 he published a Guide to Doing Business in Vietnam. Together with his son, he died in a canoeing accident on 5 June 1995 in Oklahoma, United States; his wife and their daughter survived him. He was buried in the Catholic section of Rookwood cemetery.

Colleagues, friends, and business partners recalled Chu as a talented man, a good listener, an excellent communicator, a dynamic businessman, a dedicated public servant, and a knowledgeable adviser. In an obituary, he was described as ‘a great Australian’, and a ‘champion of the boat people’ (Easson 1995, 15). He is best remembered for Chuông Sài Gòn/The Bell of Saigon, which was ‘an incubator’ (Quang 2015) for the Vietnamese press in Australia. By 1994 ten Vietnamese newspapers were being published in Sydney.

Commonwealth of Australia. Department of Immigration and Citizenship. ‘Community Information Summary: Vietnam-born.’ Accessed 20 July 2019. www.homeaffairs.gov.au/mca/files/2016-cis-vietnam.PDF. Copy held on ADB file; Easson, Michael. ‘Refugee Became Champion of the Boat People.’ Australian, 14 August 1995, 15; Herald Sun (Melbourne). ‘Champion of Vietnamese Boat People.’ 15 August 1995, 55; Jacklin, Michael. ‘Vietnamese-Australian Life Writing and Integration: The Magazine for Multicultural and Vietnamese Issues.’ In Migrant Nation: Australian Culture, Society and Identity, edited by Paul Longley Arthur, 200–214. London and New York: Anthem Press, 2018; National Archives of Australia. C321, N1979/207803; Nguyen, Huu. ‘Tương lai báo chí Việt Ngữ tại Úc (The Future of Vietnamese Language Media in Australia).’ Saigon Times, 29 July 2016. Accessed 21 July 2019. saigontimes.org/2016/07/29/1161/. Copy held on ADB file; Noel Butlin Archives Centre, Australian National University. Z514, Michael Easson collection; Quang, Luu Tuong. ‘Kỷ niệm 40 năm định cư người Việt Truyền thông Việt ngữ tại Úc Châu.’ [‘40th Anniversary of Vietnamese Settlement: Vietnamese Language Media in Australia.’] In VCA/NSW, 40th Anniversary of the Resettlement of the Vietnamese Community in Australia 1975–2015, 7 October 2015, Sydney. Accessed 27 July 2018. quangduc.com/a58056/ky-niem-40-nam-dinh-cu-nguoi-viet-truyen-thong-viet-ngu-tai-uc-chau. Copy held on ADB file; Sutton, Candace. ‘Shy Refugee Is Voice of the Immigrants.’ Sunday Telegraph (Sydney), 25 January 1987, 28–29.

Hai Hong Nguyen

CINDRIC, JOSEPH (1906/08–1994), displaced person, labourer, and homeless person, was born on 9 June 1906 or 1908 at Sastavol in the region of the Austro-Hungarian Empire that later became the state of Yugoslavia. Also known as Josef, Joe, or Joso, he was a forced evacuee to Germany from Yugoslavia in June 1941. He had worked on his father’s farm since childhood, and had no formal schooling; he could not read, could write only his name, and spoke no English. His Australian immigration papers later recorded that he spoke German and Yugoslavian (probably Croatian).

In Germany Cindric became part of the Nazi forced labour program, spending four years in a coal mine, followed by six months in a gas factory and then over a year polishing lenses. Frustrated and bored with life in the Ansbach Displaced Persons Camp at the end of the war, he sought to emigrate to Australia to work as a coalminer.

Cindric arrived in Sydney from Bremerhaven aboard the Charlton Sovereign on 29 October 1948. By then he was a widower and his two children had predeceased him. The following month he was in Nyngan, central New South Wales, working for the State railways. It was here that he began to identify what he believed to be threats by other immigrants against his life. He left the railways and in July 1949 applied for employment at Dubbo. His work on a Coonamble property lasted but a few days before he left without notice.

It is likely that an obsession with walking also began at this time. When Cindric left his job, he simply walked to the next town. By the following month he had made his way to Sydney, where the Toric Lens Manufacturing Co. Pty Ltd in Sussex Street engaged him. This lasted only weeks—even though his employers found him satisfactory—before he asked the Commonwealth Employment Service to find him work with a brick company at Rosebery. It is not known if this occurred, because in June 1950 he was employed in central western New South Wales, this time at the Electricity Meter Manufacturing Co. Pty Ltd (EMMCO) at Orange. EMMCO had taken over the Orange Small Arms factory after World War II to make household appliances and employed many newly arrived immigrants.

Cindric lived in a workers’ camp on the outskirts of Orange while engaged as a labourer at EMMCO. Immigration authorities took out a deportation order, which was later deferred on the condition that his work and personal behaviour would remain acceptable. It is clear that he was beginning to experience significant problems in both his employment and his personal life. In May 1951 police at Orange charged him with carrying a home-made unlicensed pistol crafted from pipe and a cutting instrument. He had made several pistols and a dagger because he said some Ukrainians at the EMMCO camp had threatened to kill him. He was sentenced to six months gaol on each charge, served concurrently, with the magistrate recommending that he be deported.

Less than two years later Cindric was before the courts again, this time for vagrancy. In April 1953 the Dubbo court sentenced him to one month’s gaol. When he applied for a new certificate of registration under the Aliens Act 1947–1952 in February 1955, he was living at Leichhardt, Sydney. In May 1956 the Glebe court sentenced him to six months gaol each for vagrancy and for being in possession of house-breaking equipment. Less than three weeks after his release from Parramatta Gaol in March 1957, he was arrested, charged, convicted, and sentenced again on the same charges. He was released in early August.

In November 1959, when Cindric was issued with a new certificate of registration, he had moved from private accommodation to the Salvation Army Hostel at Surry Hills. His requests for new certificates and his appearances before courts revealed more than his indiscretions: his ability to speak English was limited, he could still barely sign his name, and despite his reputation as a good worker before he arrived in Australia, he was drifting from job to job. Moreover, he was homeless. He did not attract the attention of the law for another seven years, when in February 1964 he was arrested again for vagrancy. Receiving a six months sentence, which he served at Parramatta Gaol, he was released in June 1964.

After this final release from prison, Cindric began to garner new recognition. He built the first of several trolleys and began pushing it around inner Sydney. His possessions were accommodated in a suitcase on top and, wearing a white or red plastic helmet, or occasionally a soft felt hat, he wheeled his trolley around Sydney streets. Seemingly without an identity, he began to be defined by his trolleys. He became known as the Trolley Man, a confronting muse who inspired the sculptor Richard Goodwin. With John Drews and Peter Dallow, Goodwin also made a short film about him in 1980. Cindric never remarried and died on 2 November 1994 in the Bennelong Nursing Home at Ashfield; he was buried in the Catholic section of Rookwood cemetery. His trolley was acquired by the Powerhouse Museum.

Central Western Daily. ‘Migrant Made Own Guns, “Feared Murder Threat.”’ 17 May 1951, 1; Falconer, Delia. Sydney. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2010; Goodwin, Richard. Richard Goodwin: Performance to Porosity. Fishermans Bend, Vic.: Thames & Hudson, 2006; National Archives of Australia. A11927, 51, SP908/1, YUGOSLAVIAN/CINDRIC JOSEF; Pickett, Charles. ‘The Trolley Man Immortalised.’ Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences. 24 May 2010. Accessed 1 May 2019. maas.museum/inside-the-collection/2010/05/24/the-trolley-man-immortalised/. Copy held on ADB file; Pickett, Charles. ‘The Trolley Man Part 2.’ Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences. 9 March 2011. Accessed 1 May 2019. maas.museum/inside-the-collection/2011/03/09/the-trolley-man-part-2/. Copy held on ADB file.

Glenn Mitchell

CLARK, CHARLES MANNING (1915–1991), historian, was born on 3 March 1915 at Burwood, Sydney, second of three children of English-born Charles Hervey William Clark, Anglican clergyman, and his New Zealand–born wife Catherine Amelia Stuart, née Hope. Manning’s early years were spent in New South Wales and Victoria, moving with his father’s shifting ministries, the family finally settling in 1934 at Mentone, Victoria. After completing his early education at state schools in Cowes, Belgrave, and Mont Albert, Clark attended Melbourne Church of England Grammar School, where he was equal dux (1933). For the rest of his life, especially when reminiscing in public as an older man, he spoke of his childhood as a fusion of the bucolic idyll of Phillip Island—where he played cricket, fished, and went rabbit-shooting with his father, and the misery of the institutionalised culture of bullying he experienced at school. Underlying these experiences was the schism between the established pastoral background of his pious, Protestant mother, a descendant of Samuel Marsden [q.v.5], and the working-class origins of his Anglo-Catholic father, a division which he later dramatised, portraying the religious and class divisions of his family as Australia’s writ large.

After winning a scholarship to Trinity College, University of Melbourne, Clark studied history and political science (BA, 1938), graduating with first-class honours and securing a scholarship to Balliol College, Oxford. In August 1938 he sailed for England with his fiancée, Hilma Dymphna Lodewyckx, who had received a scholarship to study German language and culture in Bonn. They were married on 31 January 1939 at the parish church of St Michael at the North Gate, Oxford. At Oxford Clark experienced the customary English condescension toward ‘colonials’, displayed his batting prowess for the Oxford XI, read history, and began work on what would later become his MA thesis, ‘The Ideal of Alexis de Tocqueville.’ Declared unfit for military service because of his slight epilepsy, he taught history at secondary schools in England and Australia. They included Blundell’s School, Tiverton, Devonshire, and Geelong Grammar School, Victoria. He was appointed lecturer in political science at the University of Melbourne in 1944.

Clark’s interest in history, the lasting passion of his life, was evident from his early teenage years. In 1945 he transferred to the university’s history department. Under the guidance of the head of department, Max Crawford [q.v.], he taught the university’s undergraduate course in Australian history. As he reflected later, ‘In the late forties and early 50s, the historical map of Australia was almost a blank: I had to set out on a journey without maps’ (McKenna 2011, 250). Although the statement is an exaggeration, he quickly gained recognition as an outstanding teacher. A born entertainer, he delivered lectures in a hushed, self-conscious voice and read as dramatic script. His talent was for self-dramatising, and this drew his audiences to him as much as it drew them to his subject. Before giving his first lectures he wrote in his diary, as if issuing himself an edict, ‘[If Australian] history is not interesting [then] make the events romantic’ (Clark c. 1964).

In 1949 Clark was appointed professor of history at Canberra University College, which in 1960 became The Australian National University’s (ANU) school of general studies. The inspiration for much of his historical writing was found not in Australia but in his travels to South-East Asia (1955), Britain and Ireland (1956), and the Soviet Union (1958).

Clark’s time in Canberra was the most productive and creative period of his life. Under his guidance, the history department, in line with those at other universities in the 1950s, expanded rapidly. Clark displayed an astute eye for recruiting staff, which included Ken Inglis, John Molony, and Humphrey McQueen. His appointments were sometimes made according to personal preferences rather than qualifications and experience. With a secure and prestigious academic position, his personal and professional life blossomed and he produced an exceptional volume of work. It included his two volume Select Documents in Australian History (1950 and 1955), which became the bedrock of university courses in Australian history for more than two decades; Meeting Soviet Man (1960), a controversial book on his visit to the Soviet Union; A Short History of Australia (1963); The Discovery of Australia (1976), the Australian Broadcasting Commission’s Boyer lectures; In Search of Henry Lawson (1978); a collection of essays; two volumes of short stories; hundreds of articles and reviews; two volumes of autobiography; and the work for which he is best known, his six-volume History of Australia (1962–87). Four further volumes of speeches, letters, history, and autobiographical writings were published posthumously. From 1938 until his death, Clark kept personal diaries, documenting his inner life, often with fierce and uncompromising honesty and describing the personal lives of many of his friends and colleagues. In addition, he kept copious notebooks in which he recorded his reading and the conceptual development of his work.

Clark’s idiosyncratic, sprawling ode to Australian character and place in A History of Australia not only romanticised Australia’s past, for the first time it gave it an epic dimension. The scale of his undertaking was itself an attempt to see Australia as a unique site for the transplanting of European civilisation. Clark’s grand narrative—with its now familiar, but at the time quite revolutionary schema of seeing Australia’s past through the prism of three great belief systems (Protestantism, Catholicism, and the Enlightenment)—lurches from the inspired to the droll; finding tragedy, pathos, and existential crisis on every stump and street corner. Part Gibbon, Macaulay, and Carlyle, and steeped in the language of the Old Testament, it is entirely character driven, mostly by a succession of flawed, tormented males, who walk on stage at the allotted time to play out the drama of their biographical roles.

Clark was probably the first historian in Australia to write at length about the inner life of his characters. But his feeling was not only for character, it was also for place. Until his six volumes, historical melancholy was something that Australians imagined residing only in the layered, built environment of Europe. He found it in the landscape itself, a despondency born not only of exile, but of the continent’s antiquity and Aboriginal dispossession, the latter recurring as an underlying tragic refrain. Nevertheless, Clark later admitted that he had not paid enough attention to Aboriginal history. At regular intervals, the ghosts of Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Chekhov, and Henry James provided guiding aphorisms. His writing, which included fictional elements, was peppered with biblical quotations, the Book of Ecclesiastes being among his favourite sources of inspiration. Given the melodramatic nature of his historical writing, it seems entirely appropriate that A History of Australia was made into a musical in 1988, Australia’s bicentennial year (Manning Clark: the Musical). A History of Australia attracted considerable criticism, not least from reviewers, fellow historians and friends including Malcolm Ellis [q.v.14] and A. G. L Shaw.

Despite Clark’s frequent criticisms of ‘academia’, his persona as a public intellectual traded in large part on the authority of his university position. In 1971 he was appointed professor of Australian history. It was the first time the title was used in Australia, and he wore it as a badge of honour until 1974 when he retired in order to devote more time to research and writing. At the ANU, from 1975 to 1981, he held the positions of emeritus professor and library fellow. Honorary degrees of D. Litt. were conferred on him by the University of Melbourne (1974), the University of Newcastle (1980), and the University of Sydney (1988). A fellow of the Social Science Research Council of Australia (later the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia) from 1952, he was a foundation fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities (1981). In 1988 he was elected a foreign honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

His post-teaching life was dominated initially by a public alliance with the Australian Labor Party (ALP) government of Gough Whitlam. After its dismissal in November 1975, he and other prominent writers such as Donald Horne and Patrick White [q.v.18] led a republican campaign against the actions of the governor-general, Sir John Kerr [q.v.], and the Liberal prime minister, Malcolm Fraser, and demanded a new Australian constitution. His partisan role and dire public statements earned him the contempt of many conservatives.

After his retirement Clark, lean, grave, and goatee-bearded, wearing his trademark dress slightly tattered, black three-piece suit; watch chain dangling from the fob pocket; paddock-bashing boots and crumpled weather-beaten Akubra hat was renowned across Australia as an historical oracle. He addressed Australia Day events and citizenship ceremonies; launched books; opened art exhibitions, fetes, music festivals, opera and theatre productions; and endorsed rock bands. He also spoke at school speech nights, ALP campaign rallies, anti-woodchip meetings and church services. Clark appeared in every possible media site, including midday television and house and garden programs, and even managed a cameo role as the preacher in the 1985 film production of Peter Carey’s novel, Bliss. Appointed AC in 1975, he was named Australian of the Year in 1980. In Australia’s bicentenary year (1988), he wrote major critical essays for the popular press interpreting its historical significance.

The frantic pace of Clark’s public life had begun to take a toll on his health. He underwent open-heart surgery in 1983 and battled several emotional ailments, including rampant hypochondria and depression. As a younger man he had struggled with alcoholism, which he managed, by and large, to conquer in later life. His extra-marital affairs and attempted seductions resulted in Dymphna leaving him briefly in 1972. His diaries overflowed with criticisms of her and gloomy reflections on his mortality. Survived by his wife, five sons, and one daughter, he died in Canberra on 23 May 1991. Although he had never publicly professed his Catholic faith, to the surprise of many of his former colleagues and friends, his funeral was held at St Christopher’s Catholic Cathedral, Manuka.

Within two years of Clark’s death, a succession of controversies engulfed his name. His work was defended vigorously by the Labor Prime Minister Paul Keating; attacked for rejecting British heritage by the Liberal parliamentarian David Kemp; and identified by his erstwhile student, the historian Geoffrey Blainey, as being the chief exemplar of ‘black armband history’ (Blainey 1993). His former publisher at Melbourne University Press, Peter Ryan, publicly disowned his work, claiming that he was ashamed to have published history of such poor quality. Ryan accused him of being a fraud. Three years later, in 1996, based on claims that quickly evaporated under scrutiny, Brisbane’s Courier Mail (Crozier 5) alleged that Clark had acted as a covert ‘agent of influence’ on behalf of the Soviet Union. There was no evidence that he had been a member of the Communist Party, let alone a spy. In March 2007, Clark’s oft-told story about arriving in Bonn on 10 November 1938, the morning after Kristallnacht, was exposed as fabrication, a revelation that saw the Sydney Morning Herald (5 March 2007, 1) repeat Ryan’s allegation. Despite the criticism that his writings and behaviour attracted, Clark made a significant and lasting contribution to Australia’s intellectual life and much of his work will stand the test of time. Paul Keating said of him, ‘More than any other Australian writer, he elevated Australian history to the point where all of us could say that the story of Australia was part of the universal story—uniquely Australian, but at every stage connected to the world beyond’ (Keating 52).

Clark’s life was framed by the ideological struggle that began with the Russian revolution in 1917 and ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. He also witnessed the gradual waning of the British connection in postwar Australia. Yet for all the controversies that have surrounded discussion of his legacy, his political allegiances have been largely misremembered. At various times throughout his life, he was embraced and reviled by both the left and right, and he frequently felt disillusioned with political systems of all kinds. He sat on the editorial board of Quadrant in the early 1960s and, for a short time, was the great new hope of conservative intellectuals in Australia. Like virtually every aspect of Clark’s life, his politics were ambiguous. He espoused radical positions but eschewed radical politics; he dressed like a rural parson but embraced modish political causes. Throughout all of these stances, the one consistent and lasting theme of his life, both as historian and public intellectual, was his passion for Australia. As the person so often credited with first arousing public interest in Australian history and giving the nation an epic past, his life story, probably more than that of any other intellectual in the twentieth century, is inextricably linked with Australia’s history. He is memorialised in several ways, including portraits of him by Arthur Boyd [q.v.7] (in the family’s possession) and Rick Amor (National Portrait Gallery), the Manning Clark Chair of History and Manning Clark Centre at the ANU, and a Canberra street that bears his name. Manning Clark House, his former Canberra home designed by Robin Boyd [q.v.13], became a place for the encouragement of ideas and intellectual enterprise, and a place for visiting scholars to experience the house as Manning and Dymphna left it, including his loft study adorned with books, and mementos of his beloved Carlton Football Club. In 1999 Manning Clark House inaugurated an annual Manning Clark Lecture, which is given each year by a distinguished Australian.

Australian National University Archives. ANU 19, Manning Clark Staff Files; Blainey, Geoffrey. Sir John Latham Memorial Lecture, 1993; Bridge, Carl (ed.). Manning Clark: Essays on his Place in History. Carlton: Melbourne University Press, 1994; Clark, Manning. Diary c. 1964. Papers of Manning Clark, MS 7550. National Library of Australia; Clark, Manning. Interview by Hazel de Berg, 25 May 1967. Transcript. Hazel de Berg collection. National Library of Australia; Crozier, Brian. ‘The Agents of Influence’. Courier Mail (Brisbane), Weekend, 24 August 1996, 5; Holt, Stephen. Manning Clark and Australian History, 1915–1963. St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 1982; Keating, Paul J. ‘The Story of Australia’ in Advancing Australia. The Speeches of Paul Keating, Prime Minister, edited by Mark Ryan. Sydney: Big Picture Publications, 1995; Macintyre, Stuart and Sheila Fitzpatrick (eds), Against the Grain: Brian Fitzpatrick and Manning Clark in Australian History and Politics. Carlton: Melbourne University Press, 2007; Marr, David. ‘The Man Who Wasn’t There: Manning Clark’s Fraud Exposed’. Sydney Morning Herald, 5 March 2007, 1; McKenna, Mark. An Eye for Eternity: the life of Manning Clark. Carlton: Melbourne University Publishing (Miegunyah Press), 2011; McQueen, Humphrey. Suspect History: Manning Clark and the Future of Australia’s Past. Kent Town: Wakefield Press, 1997; Matthews, Brian. Manning Clark: A Life. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin, 2008.

Mark McKenna

CLARKE, ALEXANDER HOWARD (ALEX) (1923–1994), radiologist, and Burnett Leslie Woodburn Clarke (1897–1974), radiologist and army medical officer, were father and son. Clarke senior was born on 18 January 1897 at Linton Grange, the residence on his parents’ property near Hazel Glen (Doreen), Victoria, eldest of three sons of Leslie Woodburn Clarke, a Victorian-born merchant and grazier, and his Brisbane-born wife Emma Isabella Mary, née Moore; her family were pastoralists from Queensland’s Burnett region. Boarding (1911–14) at Trinity Grammar School, Melbourne, Burnett was a prefect and the recipient of the 1914 honour prize. He played football and cricket and, noted for his rifle shooting, held the rank of lance corporal in the cadets.

Graduating from the University of Melbourne (MB, BS, 1920), Clarke moved to Queensland, where he took up a residency at the Mater Misericordiae Public Hospital, Brisbane. The hospital’s honorary röntgenologist, Dr Tom Nisbet [q.v.Supp], interested him in the specialty. On 28 June 1922 at Holy Trinity Church of England, East Melbourne, Clarke married Esme Lucy Macfarlane, whose parents were graziers at Arthurs Creek, near Yan Yean. Later that year the couple sailed to England so Clarke could study at the University of Cambridge (diploma of medical radiology and electrology, 1923) under Ernest (Baron) Rutherford. A stint followed at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America.

In 1923 Clarke returned to Queensland and established a joint practice with Nisbet in Brisbane and at Ipswich. Clarke served as honorary assistant röntgenologist and later as honorary senior radiologist at the Mater Hospital. He was also an honorary radiologist (1924–57) at the Ipswich General Hospital (IGH). A member from 1929 of the Queensland Cancer Trust (Queensland Radium Institute from 1944), he was radium registrar at its clinic, housed at the Mater. After Nisbet departed for Sydney in 1929, Clarke practised alone. In April 1938 he was one of many senior honorary staff who resigned from the Mater, following disputes over their appointments.

While a medical student, Clarke had enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) in June 1918 but was not called up for duty and was demobilised in December. In 1921 he was commissioned in the Australian Army Medical Corps, Citizen Military Forces. Following the outbreak of World War II, in July and August 1940 he was in charge of a unit that toured country centres by train, carrying out chest X-rays of recruits. Appointed as a major in the AIF on 1 August 1941, he embarked for Malaya with the 2/13th Australian General Hospital. On the fall of Singapore in February 1942, he became a prisoner of war at Changi. Behind the Wire, the clinical diary he kept in 1944 and 1945 as ‘an attempt to describe skin lesions under my care’ (Clarke 1989, xxiv), documented the all-too-common skin disorders suffered by inmates.

Liberated and repatriated in 1945, Clarke transferred to the Reserve of Officers on 19 December in Brisbane. He continued his army service part time (in the honorary rank of lieutenant colonel from 1951) as a visiting radiologist in Northern Command. After a short period of locum work at Springsure and in Brisbane at Cleveland, he returned to his private practice. He resumed his posts as a visiting radiologist to the Ipswich and Mater hospitals and undertook the same function at the Repatriation General Hospital (RGH), Greenslopes.

Clarke was a foundation member (1935), councillor (1935–40, 1947–48, 1954–56, and 1963–64), and president (1955) of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Radiology (Royal Australasian College of Radiologists), and a foundation fellow (1938) of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians. He lectured in radiology at the University of Queensland (1940–41), and was a member (from 1946) of the Medical Assessment Tribunal and chairman (1949–73) of the welfare service of the Australian Red Cross Society, Queensland division. Having joined (1920) the British (Australian from 1961) Medical Association (BMA, later AMA), he presided (1949) over the Queensland branch and sat on many of its committees; he was appointed a fellow of the AMA in 1973, a rare honour recognising his outstanding contribution to the association and to medicine.

Like many early radiologists, Clarke performed both diagnostic and therapeutic work. Constant use of radium and radon needles and moulds caused dermatitis and skin cancers on his hands and necessitated the amputation of several fingers in later life. Still active in medical practice, he died at Greenslopes on 9 March 1974 and, following an Anglican funeral, was cremated. His wife and their two sons and one daughter survived him. The Uhr-Clarke bursary awarded by the Queensland branch of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) was endowed by the two families in 2000 to commemorate the contribution of Burnett Clarke and his fellow Changi inmate Sir Clive Uhr [q.v.16].

Alexander Clarke was born on 27 May 1923 in London and arrived in Australia aged three months. As a child he is said to have frequently accompanied his father on his visits to Ipswich hospital. Alex attended Toowoomba Church of England Preparatory School (1935–37) and Geelong Grammar School, Victoria (1938–40), where he served in the cadets. In 1941 he enrolled in medicine at the University of Queensland (MB, BS, 1949) but interrupted his course to enlist in the AIF on 11 June 1942. He served with the 113th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment in Brisbane (1942–43) and the 56th Composite Anti-Aircraft Regiment at Higgins field, near Bamaga, on Cape York Peninsula (1943–44), before being discharged from the AIF on 29 March 1945 and resuming his studies. On 18 December 1948 at St John’s Church, Mundoolun, near Brisbane, he married Anne Dorothea, daughter of Douglas Martin Fraser [q.v.14].

From 1951 Clarke conducted a general practice at Ipswich. In 1956 and 1957 he trained in radiology at the Royal Melbourne Hospital (member, College of Radiologists of Australasia, 1957). Returning to Ipswich, he provided private and public radiology services and took over from his father as honorary (paid from 1961) visiting radiologist at the IGH. He also worked part time in Clarke senior’s Wickham Terrace practice, and as a visiting radiologist at the RGH, Greenslopes, and the Goodna Mental (Wolston Park) Hospital (1959–94). As his practice grew, partners—beginning with Ian Robertson—joined him. In 1984, however, Clarke gave up private practice and thereafter concentrated on his hospital work. His knowledge, drive, and experience were crucial in planning for the relocating and equipping of the IGH’s radiology department, which began functioning in renovated quarters in 1984.

While a medical student, Clarke had joined the Queensland branch of the BMA (AMA) as an honorary associate in 1946; a full member from 1950, he served on the State council between 1962 and 1966. He lectured in diagnostic radiology at the University of Queensland; sat on the electrical apparatus committee of the Queensland Radium Institute; and served part time as a medical officer in the Royal Australian Air Force Reserve—mostly at the RAAF Base, Amberley—rising to wing commander (1970). A founder (1960) of the Ipswich Hospital Staff Association, he was its first secretary. In 1965 he was appointed corps surgeon, Ipswich Corps, St John Ambulance Association. An active member of St Paul’s Anglican Church, Ipswich, he served on the parish council for many years and, as well, was a church warden, lay preacher, liturgical assistant, and synod representative.

Clarke died at his Karana Downs, Brisbane, home on 14 August 1994 and was cremated. His wife and their son and three daughters survived him. The room holding the Ipswich hospital’s first computed-tomography equipment was named in his honour.

Members of the Clarke family described Burnett as calm, patient, and sociable; and Alex as a quiet man, who delighted in meeting as adults people whom he had delivered as babies. A strong sense of duty had been the motivation for the extensive service father and son rendered to professional and community bodies. Their zealous involvement in the AMA, and Burnett’s in the RANZCR, reflected their determination to preserve the integrity and independence of the medical profession.

Clarke, Burnett. Behind the Wire: The Clinical War Diary of Major Burnett Clarke AAMC. Edited by John Pearn. Brisbane: Department of Child Health Publishing Unit, University of Queensland, Royal Children’s Hospital, 1989; Carey, Judith. Personal communication; Clarke, Burnett. Personal communication; Coates, Alexandra. Personal communication; National Archives of Australia. B883, QX22806, B883, QX32693, B2455, CLARKE B L W; Patrick, Ross. Ipswich Hospital 1860–1991. Bowen Hills, Brisbane: Boolarong Publications, 1993; Pearn, John, Alexander Burnett Clarke, and Barton Burnett Clarke. ‘Dr Burnett Clarke: A Short Biography.’ In Burnett Clarke. Behind the Wire: The Clinical War Diary of Major Burnett Clarke AAMC. Edited by John Pearn, xii–xxii. Brisbane: Department of Child Health Publishing Unit, University of Queensland, Royal Children’s Hospital, 1989; Peterson, Meredith. Personal communication; Peterson, Roy. Personal communication; Schubert, F. ‘Alexander Howard Burnett Clarke.’ Australasian Radiology 39 (1995): 102–3; Smith, Susan. Personal communication.

Judith A. Nissen

CLEMENTS, FREDERICK WILLIAM (FRED) (1904–1995), public health physician, researcher, and educator, was born on 18 September 1904 at Young, New South Wales, son of William Ernest Clements, railway clerk (later superintendent), and his wife Ida Ruth, née Brown, both New South Wales–born. Educated at Sydney Boys’ High School, Fred studied medicine at the University of Sydney (MB, BS, 1928), winning the Hinder memorial prize in 1928. Between 1928 and 1930 he was a resident medical officer at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital. After a brief attempt at medical practice in Queensland, destroyed by the Great Depression, he returned to Sydney. On 12 December 1931 at Lugar Brae Methodist Church, Waverley, he married Muriel Ellen Willis, a nurse. He completed diplomas of tropical medicine (1933) and public health (1934), and then a thesis on tropical ulcers (MD, 1937).

Appointed in 1931 as a medical officer at the new School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine—part of the Commonwealth Department of Health—at the University of Sydney, Clements spent some months in the Mandated Territory of New Guinea the following year before returning to Sydney. Teaching in the school’s diploma courses, he acted as a personal tutor to Papuan students. He pioneered the use of survey methods in Australian public health. His first work was on leprosy, in Penang, the Philippines, and New Guinea. In 1935 he led a medical survey of Papua.

Clements’s main interest shifted to Australian population health, particularly nutrition. A colleague, Jean McNaughton, recalled that he brought to his work ‘a fervent belief in the importance of adequate nutrition in achieving community health’ (Rogers 1995, 163). In 1936 Australia joined an international survey of household nutrition, led by the League of Nations Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Clements directed the 5,000-mile (8,000 km) trip through remote areas of New South Wales, South Australia, and Queensland, driving a converted Ford truck fitted with a mobile radiology laboratory and equipment for dental examinations and biochemical testing.

Between 1938 and 1949 Clements was director of the Australian Institute of Anatomy, Canberra, and from 1938 to 1969 he was chair of the nutrition committee of the National Health and Medical Research Council. During World War II he worked on the Australian Food Council’s food rationing standards. The institute set new standards in training survey researchers, leading to a major national study of diet in 1944. His research group built tables of the composition of foods. Students in the institute’s nutrition diploma staffed expeditions to the Territory of Papua-New Guinea (1947) and northern Australia (1947), and a nutrition unit from the institute joined the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land in 1948. Against opposition, he successfully argued for the inclusion of women on the research teams for each of the three expeditions.

From May 1949 to July 1951 Clements was foundation chief of the World Health Organization’s nutrition division in Geneva. He steered WHO towards his interests in the health effects of micronutritional deficiencies, such as goitre and kwashiorkor. Returning to the public service, he was a lecturer at the Institute of Child Health in the School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine at the University of Sydney. He was made a fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians in 1960 and appointed OBE in 1967, recognising his role as the pioneer of research and academic training in nutritional science in Australia.

Alongside his numerous academic publications, Clements had a long-standing commitment to popular education in nutrition: You and Your Food (1967), co-authored with the dietitian Josephine Rogers, ran to six editions. His research focused on Aboriginal nutrition, especially of children, and on goitre in Tasmania. Contemporaries recalled a quietly efficient scientist, but passionate about the cause of improved nutrition and ‘a great social campaigner’ (Ash 2008, 298). One of his final ventures in academic life was with the Australian Government Commission of Inquiry into Poverty (the Henderson inquiry, 1972–75), investigating food consumption patterns in low-income families, using his students as interviewers.

Following his retirement in 1969, Clements continued to be active in his field. He remained honorary paediatrician at Karitane in Sydney—a position he had held since 1956—until 1974, and he supervised the University of Sydney’s postgraduate nutrition diploma from 1967 until 1975. That year he became a fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences. From 1975 to 1976 he was the inaugural president of the Nutrition Society of Australia. In 1986 he published A History of Human Nutrition in Australia. Survived by his wife and their two daughters, he died on 22 May 1995 at Nerang, Queensland, and was cremated.

‘Our Elders, Our Stories, Our Culture.’ Nutrition and Dietetics 65, no. 4 (December 2008): 297–99; Gillespie, James. ‘The “Marriage of Agriculture and Health” in Australia: The Advisory Council on Nutrition and Nutrition Policy in the 1930s.’ In From Migration to Mining: Medicine and Health in Australian History, edited by Suzanne Parry, 44–54. Casuarina, NT: Historical Society of the Northern Territory, 1998; Rogers, Josephine. ‘Frederick William Clements 1904–1995.’ Australian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 52, no. 3 (September 1995): 163–64; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘Expert on Nutrition, Child Health.’ 17 June 1995, 10; Truswell, A. Stewart, Ian Darnton-Hill, and Beverley Wood. ‘NSA Lecture in Honour of Dr Frederick (Fred) WA Clements (1904–1995).’ Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16, suppl. 3 (2007): S4–S7; Truswell, Stewart. Personal communication.

James Gillespie

CLEMENTS, KENNETH JOHN (1905–1992), Anglican bishop, was born on 21 December 1905 at Southgate, London, son of John Edwin Clements, land agent’s clerk, and his wife Ethel Evelyn, née Clark. In 1922 the family migrated to Australia, settling first in Melbourne, where Kenneth worked as an office boy with The Broken Hill Proprietary Co. Ltd. They then moved to Sydney in 1927 and he began studies at St John’s Theological College, Morpeth. In 1930 he entered St Paul’s College, University of Sydney (BA, 1933). He became a deacon in November and in 1934 was ordained priest in the diocese of Riverina, where he served as registrar (1933–37) and as curate of St Paul’s Pro-Cathedral, Hay. On 31 December 1935 at St Jude’s Church of England, Randwick, he married Rosalind Elizabeth Cakebread. After serving as priest-in-charge, Narrandera (1937–39), he continued his rural ministry within the diocese of Canberra and Goulburn, as rector of Tumbarumbah (1939–43) and Gunning (1943–44) parishes.

Pastoral administration predominated when Clements was diocesan registrar and archdeacon of Goulburn (1946–50), and examining chaplain to his bishop. On 29 June 1949 he was made coadjutor bishop of Goulburn (Canberra and Goulburn from 1950), and vicar-general of that diocese. Awarded a doctorate (1955) by the Australian College of Theology, in 1956 he was elected bishop of Grafton, where his energy and wide experience working in country districts enabled that rural diocese to steadily develop. His understanding of Anglicanism was enhanced when he attended the Lambeth Conference in London in 1958.

Returning to the national capital as bishop of Canberra and Goulburn in 1961, he faced the challenge of a rapidly growing city in the midst of a largely rural diocese. He continued the traditions of freedom, broadmindedness, and openness to learning that he had first imbibed from his predecessor, Bishop Ernest Burgmann [q.v.13], under whom he had studied at Morpeth. His concern for people, and his ability to work with them, imbued his administration with wisdom and sensitivity. He supported his laity, and deflated the presbyterial pomposity and isolating caste-consciousness of some of his clergy. Senior contemporaries considered him ‘a first class administrator’ (Canberra Times 1961, 3).

Clements showed empathy with youth within and beyond his diocese, being elected president of the national Young Anglican Fellowship in 1961. He chaired the Council of St Mark’s Library and Institute of Theology (1961–71). At The Australian National University he led Burgmann College council’s work (1963–71), and in 1966 he was appointed to the council of the university. He favoured Christian schools, believing that Sunday schools provided insufficient religious education for the few who attended them. Concerned by the rapid growth of Canberra’s suburbs, from 1966 he chaired the Joint Commission for Church Development in its efforts to persuade churches to negotiate with the National Capital Development Commission and the Department of the Interior. He worked boldly for ecumenical cooperation, even sanctioning jointly managed parishes. ‘We come at truth differently,’ he said, ‘we cannot have complete uniformity’ (Canberra Times 1971, 2). His stance on social issues chafed some people; he supported the remarriage of divorced persons, agreed that early term abortion was sometimes justifiable, and respected ethnic diversity.

Retiring on 30 September 1971, he settled eventually in Buderim, Queensland. Survived by his wife, son, and two daughters, he died on 8 January 1992 and was buried in the graveyard of St John the Baptist Church, Reid, Canberra. His portrait by Patricia Moyle Blake-Lane is held by the National Library of Australia, Canberra.

Clements, Bishop Kenneth John. Interview by Vivienne Rae Ellis, 25 March to 1 April 1981. Transcript. National Library of Australia; Crockford’s Clerical Directory, 1969–1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971; Canberra Times, 23 February 1961, 3; 7 October 1966, 13; 30 September 1971, 2; 16 January 1992, 12; Warren, Cecil A. A Little Foolishness: An Autobiographical History. Virginia, Qld: Church Archivist’s Press, 1993.

Robert Withycombe

CLOSE, ROBERT SHAW (BOB) (1903–1995), writer, was born on 15 July 1903 at Canterbury, Melbourne, eldest child of Henry Osborne Close, railway clerk, and his wife Julia Louise, née Tutles, both Victorian-born. Robert was educated at Camberwell State School and Swinburne Technical College. In 1918 he was apprenticed aboard the Shandon, a three-masted barque with the Commonwealth Government Line. After about five years training, he sat for the second mate’s certificate in England, but failed the eyesight test. He later published his experiences at sea as Morn of Youth (1948).

Back in Australia in 1923, Close worked for a few years as a telegraph linesman and labourer for the Victorian Railways, then for five years as shipping foreman with the Ford Motor Co. of Australia Pty Ltd at Geelong. On 14 April 1927 he married Hilda Maud Harvey, a clerk, at the Malvern Presbyterian Church. During the Depression he worked in numerous jobs including as a vacuum cleaner salesman in Melbourne. He also trained as a singer but, when diagnosed with tuberculosis, spent time in Gresswell Sanatorium in 1936. Back working the next year, he was a circulation canvasser for the Argus, before being employed as a debt collector and later a journalist for the Melbourne Truth.

Earlier in the 1930s Close had started writing sea stories and articles. He joined the Victorian Writers’ League and met another aspirant author, Alan Marshall [q.v.18], who became a long-time correspondent. In 1938 Close published his first literary short story, ‘Sputum Sam’, in the league’s journal, Point. He won short story competitions held by the Fellowship of Australian Writers (1941) and Damon Runyon Universal Films (1942). In 1942 he published The Dope Pedlars, a now rare pulp.

Close’s next novel, Love Me Sailor, was set on board a windjammer and explored the turmoil caused by the presence of a female passenger in the midst of a male crew. It was rejected by Doubleday, Doran and Co. as ‘sensational but trite’ (Close 1944–47) before being published in Melbourne by Ted Harris’s [q.v.14] firm Georgian House Pty Ltd in 1945. Close received legal advice that the novel ‘would be well scuttled on the grounds of obscenity’ (1946). Although he hoped it would avoid scrutiny, in July 1946 three Adelaide booksellers were prosecuted for selling it as an indecent publication. A total of about 6,000 copies, including a corrected issue, were sold before the novel was suppressed. A French edition, Prends-Moi Matelot!, appeared in 1947. By now a full-time author, he wrote The Dupe, a novel also set at sea, which was published in America by Vanguard Press in the same year.

On 10 January 1947 Close was committed for trial in Melbourne on the charge of obscene libel for publishing indecent and corrupting material in Love Me Sailor. In March the following year, the trial was abandoned after an indiscretion by the foreman of the jury. At the retrial in April, he was found guilty and spent eight days (of a three-month term) in gaol before being released on bail. The verdict was widely condemned by authors and in the literary press. In June 1948 the conviction was upheld on appeal, but the penalty was altered: the gaol sentence was remitted and the fine increased from £100 to £150.

After briefly relocating to Sydney, Close left Australia in October 1950, bitter, but buoyed by an advance from Frederick Fell for an American edition of the novel (published in 1950). During his ‘self-imposed exile’ (Close 1977, 249), he lived in France, mostly in Paris. In 1951 Hilda divorced him on the ground of desertion; three years later he remarried. He went on to publish four more novels: Eliza Callaghan (1957), With Hooves of Brass (1961), She’s My Lovely (1962), and The Voyage Continues (1969), written variously in France, Italy, Spain, and Britain. Three had Australian settings, but his literary life would continue to be dominated by Love Me Sailor, ‘my old albatross’, as he called it (Close August 1976).

Overseas editions of the book were prohibited in Australia between October 1951 and June 1960. Horwitz Publications subsequently issued an expurgated edition in 1962, but the original text was not republished in the country again until 1969. Short of funds, in the early 1970s he sold the manuscript to the University of Sydney for $1,000. In 1975 he returned to Australia to write Of Salt and Earth (1977), an autobiography dealing with his life up until the Love Me Sailor case. He was awarded (1975/76 and 1976/77) grants by the Australia Council’s literature board for the purpose. After two years he left again to live in Spain.

Described as ‘vigorously good-looking’ (Porter 1966, 99), Close was of short stature with black hair, brown eyes, and a moustache. The journalist Phillip Knightley recalled that he had a ‘brash and forceful personality, a rough charm that women found attractive, and a capacity for drink and yarn-spinning that his male friends admired’ (1995, 21). Close died on 17 July 1995 at Palma, Majorca, and was cremated. He was predeceased by his second wife and survived by the two sons from his first marriage.

Argus. ‘A Siren Goes to Sea.’ 23 March 1946, 10; Close, Robert S. Correspondence with US Agent Paul Reynolds, 1944–47. Robert Shaw Close Personal Papers, box 1. Rare Book and Special Collections Library, Fisher Library, University of Sydney; Close, Robert S. Interview by Hazel de Berg, 9 November 1976. Transcript. Hazel de Berg collection. National Library of Australia; Close, Robert S. Letter to Alan Marshall, 21 March 1946. Papers of Alan Marshall, 1930–1970, MS 2741, box 9, folder 2. National Library of Australia; Close, Robert S. Letter to Alan Marshall, 5 August 1976. Papers of Alan Marshall, 1903–1982, MS 3992, box 21, folder 144. National Library of Australia; Close, Robert. Of Salt and Earth: An Autobiography. West Melbourne: Thomas Nelson (Australia) Limited, 1977; Hetherington, John. Forty-Two Faces. Melbourne: F. W. Cheshire, 1962; Knightley, Phillip. ‘Writer Rocked Boat.’ Australian, 21 July 1995, 21; Moore, Nicole. The Censor’s Library. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland Press, 2012; Porter, Hal. The Paper Chase. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1966.

Gavin De Lacy

COATE, EDWARD ERNEST (ERN) (1908–1995), air force officer and garage proprietor, was born on 13 August 1908 at Cunningham, Victoria, elder son of Victorian-born parents David Coate, contractor, and his wife Rubeena Ellen, née Peterson. Registered at birth as Ernest Edward, he preferred to be known as Edward Ernest. He was educated at Bairnsdale School of Mines where he received a Diploma of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering.

At the time he enlisted in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) on 13 October 1940, Coate owned a garage at Bairnsdale. He was recorded as being 5 feet 7 inches (170 cm) tall, weighing 155 pounds (70 kg), and having grey eyes and a fresh complexion. After training as a pilot in Australia and Canada, he was commissioned in May 1941 and sent to Britain two months later. His entire operational service would be in the Mediterranean theatre where, from March 1942 to March 1943, he flew long-range Beaufighters on air-combat and ground-attack missions with Royal Air Force squadrons, 252, 227, and 272. He was based in Egypt until November 1942, when his unit moved to Malta.

Between September 1942 and January 1943 Coate became one of the eighty Australian air aces of World War II: fighter pilots who destroyed five or more enemy aircraft in the air. He shot down eight planes by himself while he and another pilot shared the credit for a ninth. Additionally, he damaged fifteen aircraft and destroyed one on the ground. On 24 November he downed a German BV 222 flying boat and severely damaged a Dornier 24, despite being attacked by three enemy fighters. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his ‘courage, fearlessness and determination’ (NAA A9300). Promoted to acting flight lieutenant in December (substantive, May 1945), he was made a flight commander. In March 1943 he earned commendation for his part in strikes against enemy ground forces in Tunisia. In one raid he set three tanks on fire at Ksar Rhilane (Ghilane). ‘Some days later he pressed home an attack’ at El Hamma (Al-Hammah), in the face of anti-aircraft fire that seriously damaged his plane (NAA A9300). He was awarded a Bar to his DFC.

Returning to Australia in June 1943, Coate was posted as an instructor at No. 5 Operational Training Unit, Wagga Wagga (later Tocumwal), New South Wales. From July 1944 he was a staff officer at RAAF Headquarters, Melbourne, completing a short course at the RAAF Staff School later in the year. His superiors praised his efficiency and his pleasant personality. On 16 May 1945 his appointment was terminated on compassionate grounds.

At St John’s Church of England, Toorak, on 18 October he married Dianna Errol Forster Woods. The couple moved to Bairnsdale where he was employed as a manager and transport operator until the late 1960s. They then resided in Melbourne where he worked as an engineer. He was an enthusiastic golfer, having been a member of the Lakes Entrance and Bairnsdale golf clubs. Survived by his wife and two daughters he died on 18 March 1995 at East St Kilda and was cremated.

Garrison, A. D. Australian Fighter Aces 1914–1953. Fairbairn, ACT: Air Power Studies Centre, 1999; Herington, J. Air War against Germany and Italy 1939–1943, Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Vol. III of Series 3, (Air) III. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1962; London Gazette. 5 February 1943, Supplement 653; 20 April 1943, Supplement 1855; Maton, M. The Distinguished Flying Cross to Australians. St Ives, NSW: privately published, 2000; Newton, Dennis. Australian Air Aces. Canberra: Aerospace Publications, 1996; National Archives of Australia. A9300, COATE, EDWARD ERNEST AWM65; COATE, EDWARD ERNEST 400695; RAAF Historical Section, comp. Units of the Royal Australian Air Force. A Concise History. Vol. 8 Training Units. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1995.

David Wilson

COATES, Sir ERNEST WILLIAM (1916–1994), public servant, was born on 30 November 1916 at Ballarat, Victoria, third of four surviving children of locally born parents Thomas Atlee Coates, grocer, and his wife Emma Jane, née Jones. His cousin was (Sir) Albert Coates [q.v.13] who would become a distinguished surgeon. Ernest attended Humffray Street State School and worked as a grocer’s boy, helping to keep the family business going after his father died in 1925. Proceeding to Ballarat High School (1928–33), he was a diligent student who did not record outstanding academic or sporting results. Nevertheless, towards the end of his career he reflected that his time at secondary school was the most influential period in his life.

In December 1933 Coates sat the clerical division examination to qualify for appointment to the Victorian Public Service. On 31 May the following year he started work in the accounts branch of the Department of Treasurer as junior fifth-class clerk, one of the two employees in an early intake after the worst of the Depression. Within a year he enrolled through a public service scholarship at the University of Melbourne (BCom, 1942). The part-time study required attendance five nights a week for lectures and practical work. He also found time to play hockey and cricket for the university. On 4 September 1943 he married Phylis Eva Morris, a social worker, at the Church of Christ, Brighton.

During World War II Coates moved from accounting and bookkeeping to involvement in uniform tax work, and it was then he began to be seen by his peers as a man on his way up. He worked under (Sir) Arthur Smithers [q.v.16], the director of finance, from the end of the Depression, through wartime austerity, and into postwar recovery. Coates, then in his early thirties, gained experience at Commonwealth and State finance conferences. In 1948 he was appointed economics research officer, and later economic adviser to the State government. Employing an efficient and courteous, yet forceful, style, he oversaw government spending on schools, water storages, electrification, hospitals, transport, housing, and the Melbourne Olympic Games. In 1952 he began improving the budget process ‘so governments would know where they were going, not just where they had been’ (Coates Papers). Public borrowings increased and revenue was carefully garnered.

Coates not only had financial acumen but also recognised the indispensability of the ‘oil can in public administration, knowing where and when to apply a little lubrication to make things work’ (Coates Papers). In 1959 he succeeded Smithers as director of finance. He was well known to the premier and treasurer, (Sir) Henry Bolte [q.v.17], whom he had accompanied overseas in 1956 on a campaign to attract foreign investment. Throughout Bolte’s seventeen-year premiership, Coates became recognised as his right-hand man. Coates maintained a careful scrutiny of Victoria’s finances, monitoring borrowings by the State and local governments and many statutory bodies. He was a member of the National Art Gallery and Cultural Centre building committee. Early in the gallery’s construction, there was a shortfall between the budget of $11.8 million and an estimated cost of $27.5 million. He successfully trimmed the cost to $24.3 million, enough to persuade the government to approve the higher outlay.

From the 1960s Coates held many additional positions, including as a commissioner of the State Savings Bank of Victoria (1960–77), and as a member of the National Debt Commission (1963–77), the Australian Universities Commission (1968–77), and the Commonwealth Administrative Appeals Tribunal (1977–86). He also served as a trustee of Melbourne’s Shrine of Remembrance, vice president of the Melbourne Cricket Club, and president of the Economic Society of Australia and New Zealand. After the death of his wife in 1971, on 11 July 1974 at the parish church of St Bartholomew the Great, London, he married Patricia Ann Fisher, a secretary. He kept up his interest in golf, cricket, and music and was a regular worshipper at St Paul’s Cathedral, Melbourne. Awarded an honorary doctorate of laws by his alma mater in 1979, he had been appointed CMG in 1970 and knighted in 1973.

Sir Ernest retired in 1977. His advice had been sought and accepted by local government and statutory bodies, often on the basis of ‘checking with Ernie’ (his workplace name since the 1930s). He had a clear and traditional view of the civil servant under the Westminster system; his touchstone was the ability to ‘distinguish the honest from the dishonest, the true from the false’ (Ballarat Courier 1975, 2). A job well done outranked personal ambition. He also recognised the formative influence of his mother and brother Tom, headmaster of Wesley College (1957–71).

In 1987 Coates joined the appeal committee for the restoration of the organ at St Paul’s Cathedral. Its work took four years and he was enlisted to approach important benefactors. He personally contributed $100,000 for its refurbishment and upkeep, and donated a new Contra Posaune 32-foot pedal stop in memory of his second wife (d. 1986). Survived by three daughters and a son of his marriage to Phylis, he died on 10 February 1994 at Kew. His ashes were interred in Springvale cemetery and a memorial service was held at St Paul’s Cathedral.

Age (Melbourne). ‘New Director of State Finance.’ 9 September 1959, 1; ‘Top Treasury Job Changes Hands.’ 28 September 1977, 10; Ballarat Courier. ‘Wisdom Needed to Save World.’ 12 June 1975, 2; Ballarat High School. Arch. Ballarat, Vic.: The school, 1933; Coates Papers. Private collection; Fairfax, Vicki. A Place across the River: They Aspired to Create the Victorian Arts Centre. South Yarra, Vic.: Macmillan, 2002; Hamer, Sir Rupert. ‘Head of Treasury a Model Adviser.’ Australian, 17 February 1994, 13; Speagle, Henry. Editor’s Odyssey. A Reminiscence of Civil Service: 1945 to 1985. South Yarra, Vic.: Haddington Press, 2005; St Paul’s Cathedral Archives. 20/2/1, Bequests and Benefactors: Coates bequest file, 6/2, Memorials – Correspondence: Organ Appeal, 1988/1990 plaque, 10/8/2/1, Restoration of the Organ 1988/1990: Minutes of meetings.

John Young

COE, KELVIN (1946–1992), ballet dancer and teacher, was born on 18 September 1946 in North Melbourne, son of George Henry Aloysius Coe and second son of his wife Margaret (Peggy) Christie, formerly Collard, née Carson, both Victorian born. His parents had difficult childhoods: George was raised in an orphanage, while Peggy was a victim of polio. She had longed to dance but instead became a champion cyclist. Having been widowed in 1938, when her elder son was four years old, Peggy took factory work, then opened a sandwich shop, where George joined her after they married in 1945. Educated at North Melbourne State School and Princes Hill High School, Kelvin studied piano and tap-dancing and dreamed of dancing like the Hollywood star Fred Astaire. He appeared in pantomime at the Tivoli and Princess theatres, and excelled at the Royal South Street Eisteddfod, Ballarat, where the local newspaper described him as a ‘Cheery Tapper’ (Courier 1956, 2).

Leaving school at fifteen to study intensively with the dancer-choreographer Rex Reid, Coe secured his first paid work in May 1962, as an uncredited dancer in the Australian Broadcasting Commission television production of the musical Lola Montez. It was at Reid’s studio that (Dame) Peggy van Praagh [q.v.18], the founding director of the Australian Ballet, first saw Coe dance. When he turned sixteen, she recruited him as an apprentice for the company’s debut season at Her Majesty’s Theatre, Sydney, in November 1962. He danced in Swan Lake and was inspired by the handsome, Danish guest artist Erik Bruhn, the era’s iconic danseur noble. Humble corps de ballet parts led to small ensemble work for Coe as he grew in stature in the company.

Coe’s progress was influenced by the Russian dancer Rudolf Nureyev, who was a guest artist during the Australian Ballet’s British debut in 1965. Nureyev gave Coe his first soloist role in a production of Marius Petipa’s Raymonda and told van Praagh that she should nurture Coe’s talent. At the Adelaide Festival in March 1970 Coe alternated with Nureyev in the leading role of Basilio, the larrikin barber in Petipa’s Don Quixote; he also followed him in the lead role of Sir Robert Helpmann’s [q.v.17] condensed psychodrama Hamlet. Coe later described Nureyev as a ‘flamboyant personality’ and ‘a kind of divine bastard’ who had ‘completely revolutionised’ the role of the male dancer (Coe 1992).

Debonair but self-effacing, Coe was the first man in the Australian Ballet to rise from apprentice to principal artist (1969). He danced scores of ballets, including the Tchaikovsky classics, Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, and The Nutcracker; but he was drawn more to the Romantic repertoire such as Giselle and Coppélia. He took challenging roles in two classics by the Englishman Sir Frederick Ashton: Colas in La Fille mal gardée (1967, 1978), and Oberon in The Dream (1969). Several roles were created for his talent and distinctive nobility: in Helpmann’s Sun Music (1968) and The Merry Widow (1975), and in Graeme Murphy’s Beyond Twelve (1980) and Homelands (1982).

Coe performed with the leading Australian ballerinas of his generation—Lucette Aldous, Kathleen Geldard, Marilyn Jones, Marilyn Rowe, and Christine Walsh—and danced with several international artists, including (Dame) Margot Fonteyn, Carla Fracci, Galina Samsova, and Maina Gielgud. In 1973 he and Rowe won silver medals at the Moscow International Ballet Competition, stirring audiences to cheer ‘Rowe-Coe’ repeatedly and to shower them with flowers. The pair were later (1978) guest artists in Don Quixote with the Bolshoi Ballet. In 1974 Coe joined the London Festival Ballet, forging rewarding partnerships with Elisabetta Terabust and Eva Evdokimova, and dancing Albrecht in Giselle, his favourite role. While he was in England a critic remarked that his ‘cheerful, open Australian face is hardly suitable for the Prince in Swan Lake’. Coe later recalled: ‘What critics say never worries me. I just laugh all over my cheerful, open Australian face’ (Shmith 1992, 11).

Plagued by homesickness, Coe returned to Melbourne and the Australian Ballet in November, dancing leading roles in Romeo and Juliet (1974–75) and Onegin (1976), both productions created by John Cranko with the Stuttgart Ballet, and in Swan Lake (1977), produced by the company’s new artistic director Anne Woolliams. Despite the Australian Ballet’s growth under Woolliams’s direction, tensions between her and the company’s management led to her resignation in 1978, ushering in a period of artistic and industrial unrest. Coe freelanced with the Chicago Ballet and American Ballet Theatre, then toured Australia with the promoter Michael Edgley’s ‘Stars of World Ballet’. Rejoining the Australian Ballet, he danced Vronksy in the world premiere of André Prokovsky’s Anna Karenina (1979) with Samsova. He was appointed OBE in 1980.

In 1979 Marilyn Jones had been appointed artistic director of the Australian Ballet, and the company’s general manager, Peter Bahen, began to pursue a more commercial repertoire. The dancers soon expressed concerns about the artistic value of new productions and by 1981 Jones was unable to stem their dissatisfaction. With the dancers’ contracts and salaries also under review, industrial action followed in October and Coe, reluctantly, became the artists’ spokesperson during a twenty-six-day strike. He believed the settlement offered to the dancers was poor and resigned in December.

Moving to Sydney, Coe performed with Murphy’s Sydney Dance Company and in Opera Australia’s Die Fledermaus and Alcina, both starring Dame Joan Sutherland. To the public’s delight, Maina Gielgud, who had replaced Jones as artistic director, invited Coe and Rowe to perform in the Australian Ballet’s first national live telecast, of Woolliams’s version of Swan Lake (1983), and later in other performances. His last season of Giselle, in 1986 with Christine Walsh, was nationally televised and commercially released.

After a short-lived investment in a Sydney dance studio, Coe returned to Melbourne and became a teacher (1985–92) at the Australian Ballet School. Increasingly debilitated by the symptoms of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and furious that the Herald-Sun had exposed his status as a sufferer of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) the day his father died, he retired in 1991. His partner Stuart Robertson sought revenge by pouring red paint over the responsible journalist. An artist to the end, in a very weak state and in severe pain, Coe gave his last performance in December 1991 as Clothilde, one of the comic stepsisters, in the Australian Ballet School’s Cinderella. He died on 9 July 1992 at home in Carlton and was cremated. He was remembered for a dancing style that was ‘graceful, elegant, relaxed and poised … [but] never showy or vulgar’ (Shoubridge 1992, 3). The next year the Friends of the Australian Ballet created the Kelvin Coe memorial scholarship for young dancers.

Christofis, Lee, ed. ‘Just a Tap Dancing Kid: An Interview with Kelvin Coe Recorded by Michelle Potter in 1992.’ Brolga: An Australian Journal about Dance 2 (June 1995): 30–53; Coe, Kelvin. Interview by Michelle Potter, 1 May 1992. Esso Performing Arts collection. National Library of Australia; Coe, Kelvin. Interview by the author, 1990; Coe, Peggy. Interview by the author, 1994; Collard, Noel Jeffrey. Interview by the author, 13 March 1994; Courier (Ballarat). ‘Cheery Tapper.’ 13 September 1956, 2; Pask, Edward H. Ballet in Australia: The Second Act 1940–1980. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1983; Scott, Kate Rachelle, ed. Luminous: Celebrating 50 Years of the Australian Ballet. Southbank, Vic.: The Australian Ballet, 2011; Shmith, Michael. ‘A Star of Australian Ballet.’ Age (Melbourne), 10 July 1992, 11; Shoubridge, William. ‘A Dancer’s Dancer and a Great Teacher.’ Australian, 10 July 1992, 3.

Lee Christofis

COLE, THOMAS ERNEST (TOM) (1906–1995), author, buffalo shooter, and crocodile hunter, was born on 28 February 1906 at Brockley, London, eldest of eight children of locally born parents Reece Ernest Cole, cooper, and his wife Adelina Helen, née Arundell. Educated at Steyning Grammar School, West Sussex, Tom recalled that his school career was undistinguished. At seventeen, seeking a warmer climate and wanting to escape a difficult relationship with his father, he migrated to Australia.

Arriving in Brisbane in October 1923 Cole found employment on a fruit farm at Cleveland. Within six months he had moved to a dairy farm at Maleny, and by April 1925 was a stockman at Rutherglen station in the St George district. He later became skilled at horse-breaking, a high-paying job in the bush. Having worked at a succession of stations in Queensland, the Northern Territory, and the Kimberley, Western Australia, he recalled that he was ‘never out of work’ and ‘never got the sack’ (1993).

By the early 1930s Cole had been introduced to buffalo shooting. Keen to enter that lucrative industry, in 1933 he leased 100 square miles (259 km2) between the West and South Alligator Rivers in the Northern Territory, and subsequently six more grazing properties. Over the next nine years he built a reputation across northern Australia as an outstanding bushman, with additional interests in mining and crocodile hunting. Aboriginal people who attended his camp received rations in return for their services. On the outbreak of World War II, he was engaged by the intelligence section of the 7th Military District as a military reporting officer. Having disposed of his properties, he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force in Melbourne on 26 May 1943. Two weeks later he was arrested by the Victoria Police and charged with having stolen sixty-five head of cattle from Newcastle Waters station, Northern Territory, between December 1942 and January 1943. Having avoided imprisonment, he returned to the army but was diagnosed with leprosy and on 12 August in Brisbane was discharged as medically unfit. He moved to Sydney, where he worked as a crocodile skin agent and purchased a dry-cleaning business; he also wrote articles for metropolitan newspapers about the skin industry. On 14 August 1947 at the Church of Our Lady of the Rosary, Kensington, he married Kathleen Mary Callen, a clerk. They were to have two daughters: Cole already had a daughter from a relationship with an Aboriginal woman known as Djilu.

In 1950, while his family remained in Sydney, Cole moved his business to the Territory of Papua and New Guinea where he spent long periods hunting crocodiles and purchasing skins, frequently returning home to arrange processing and sales. With his interest in crocodile shooting starting to wane, in 1955 he acquired land at Banz in the Western Highlands, and established a coffee plantation; he also moved into timber milling, and a hotel venture, and was prominent in the settler community at Mount Hagen. In 1968, foreseeing increases in plantation expenses, he sold his plantation, moved to the Sepik River area, and set up a coffee trading business and a scheme to buy and sell artefacts. He left Papua New Guinea in 1978, and retired to Sydney.

Cole took up writing because he wanted to ‘put the record straight’ (Cole 1993) about cattle stations, buffalo shooting, and the outback, and document a way of life that he worried might be forgotten in an era when roads, transport, and communications had ‘abolished isolation and dependence on the horse’ (Inder 1995, 7). Spears and Smoke Signals (1982) was a collection of yarns illustrated by his close friend, the cartoonist Eric Joliffe, and the Indigenous illustrator Ero Jakku. Hell West and Crooked (1988) was an autobiographical account of Cole’s years in the outback; it sold over 100,000 copies. Other books followed: The Last Paradise (1990), about his experiences in Papua and New Guinea in the 1950s; Riding the Wildman Plains (1992), a selection of his letters and diary entries; and Crocodiles and Other Characters (1992), another collection of yarns. In 1985 he had documented the lives of buffalo shooters in the film Something of the Times, in which he reunited with some of the Aboriginal people who had frequented his camps and worksites, reconstructed his camp, and demonstrated the preparation of hides for sale and distribution. He was awarded the OAM in 1994.

Described as ‘outgoing and generous’, with ‘a witty regard for the preposterous’ (Inder 1995, 7), Cole exhibited ‘overtones of immoderation in almost everything’ (Hollinshed 1978, 22), including his business pursuits and his consumption of strong liquor. He advocated taking life ‘as it comes’ (1993). Predeceased by his wife (d. 1987), and survived by his daughters, he died on 9 December 1995 at Lady Gowrie Nursing Home, Gordon, and was cremated.

Cole, T. ‘Man Turns on the Crocodile.’ Sydney Morning Herald, 23 July 1949, 5; Cole, Tom. ‘Crocodile Hunting Is New Industry.’ Smith’s Weekly, 6 August 1949, 6; Cole, Tom. Interview by Heather Rusden, 5–8 July 1993. National Library of Australia; Hollinshed, Judith. ‘28 Years in PNG.’ Papua New Guinea Post-Courier, 14 December 1978, 22; Inder, Stuart. ‘Stockman’s Feats Led to Classic Yarns.’ Australian, 28 December 1995, 7; National Library of Australia. MS 8721, Papers of Tom Cole, 1923–93; Smith’s Weekly. ‘Buffalo-Hunter and Dry-Cleaner.’ 8 November 1947, 15; ‘They Make £50 a Week as Crocodile Hunters.’ 8 January 1949, 4; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘Buffalo Hunter’s Fortitude. Three Accidents in Three Days.’ 22 January 1938, 17.

Robin Trotter

COLLIER, HARRY (1907–1994), Australian Rules footballer, was born on 1 October 1907 at Collingwood, Melbourne, the sixth of ten children of Albert Augustus Collier, signwriter, and his wife Hannah Josephine, née Binks, both Victorian born. Harry’s early years were spent at 13 Turner Street opposite Victoria Park, the home ground of the Collingwood Football Club. He was educated at the nearby Victoria Park State School. Harry and his brother Albert ‘Leeter’ Collier (1909–1998) developed an interest in the local football team. They watched the team train and sold Football Record match guides before games. They were also schoolboy athletes, representing the State in football. In 1924 the brothers played for the Melbourne district club Ivanhoe. That year Harry won its best and fairest award and was invited to try out for Collingwood. An injured knee delayed his debut until 1926; Leeter had appeared in his first games in 1925.

The Collier brothers joined Collingwood when it was on the brink of success. Under the coaching of James ‘Jock’ McHale [q.v.10] the team functioned as a machine in which every member had a clearly defined role, willing to sacrifice individual glory for the success of the club. Harry was small and of medium build, measuring 5 feet 8 inches (173 cm) and weighing 10 stone 7 pounds (66.5 kg). As a rover he had good ball skills, could kick well with either foot, had superb anticipation, and, though not fast, was elusive, with blind turning and twisting. He won the club’s award for the most consistent player in 1927, 1928, and 1930, and the E. W. Copeland best and fairest trophy in 1928 and 1930. Collingwood won a record four successive premierships from 1927 to 1930.

In 1929 Leeter won the Brownlow medal for the best and fairest player in the Victorian Football League. The following year Harry tied with Footscray’s Allan Hopkins and Richmond’s Stan Judkins. After a countback, the Brownlow was awarded to Judkins, as he had won his votes over fewer games. It later emerged that Harry should have won outright, as one umpire had written ‘Collier’ on his voting slip without specifying which brother. The vote was declared invalid but the umpire later claimed that he was referring to ‘the little one’ (Collins 2003, 52). Harry was almost 3 inches (7 cm) shorter than Leeter. In 1980 the VFL abandoned the countback system and began presenting medals to joint winners. Harry was finally awarded his medal—together with Hopkins and four other players who had lost countbacks—at a ceremony in 1989. He and Leeter thus became the only brothers to each win a Brownlow.

During his sporting career Harry had worked as a cellarman for Carlton & United Breweries Ltd. On 20 October 1934 at St Andrew’s Anglican Church, Clifton Hill, he married Verna Florence May Hyde, a tobacco worker. From 1935 to 1939 he captained the Collingwood side, with Leeter as his deputy. In each of those years the ‘Magpies’ contested the grand final, winning two premierships (1935 and 1936). In 1938 Harry was charged with striking a Carlton footballer in round five. He admitted his guilt, expecting that his unblemished record would result in a light sentence, but was suspended for the remainder of the year. Before the 1940 season the club committee forced the brothers into a reluctant retirement. Harry was allowed to appear in one game that year to complete fifteen years service. He had played 255 games and kicked 299 goals.

Collier subsequently captain-coached the Essendon reserve team to a premiership in 1941. During World War II he served in Victoria with the Citizen Military Forces (December 1942 – August 1943) before rejoining Essendon from 1944 to 1946. From the late 1940s he was a popular football commentator, first on radio and later on television. Returning to Collingwood, he served on the committee (1964–75), as chairman of the selection committee (1964–70), and as a recruiter and talent scout. In 1988 the trophy for the club’s best first-year player was renamed in his honour. Predeceased by his wife and survived by his two daughters, he died on 16 August 1994 at Prahran and was cremated. At his funeral—held on the oval at Victoria Park—he was described as ‘hard but fair’ and was said to have loved ‘a bet, a song, and a good drink too’ (Collins 2003, 56).

Browne, Ashley. ‘Harry Collier, 1908 [sic] – 1994.’ Age (Melbourne), 19 August 1994, 16; Collins, Ben. ‘1930: Harry Collier, Collingwood.’ In The Brownlow: A Tribute to the Greats of Australian Football, edited by Geoff Slattery, 52–56. Port Melbourne, Vic.: Lothian, 2003; Frost, Lionel. Immortals: Football People and the Evolution of Australian Rules. Milton, Qld: John Wiley & Sons, 2005; Holmesby, Russell, and Jim Main. Encyclopedia of AFL Footballers: Every AFL/VFL Player since 1897. 10th ed. Seaford, Vic.: Bas Publishing, 2014; Roberts, Michael. A Century of the Best: The Stories of Collingwood’s Favourite Sons. Abbotsford, Vic.: Collingwood Football Club, 1991; Stremski, Richard. Kill for Collingwood. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1986.

Dave Nadel

COLLINS, STANLEY JOHN (1911–1992), grazier, businessman, and local government representative, was born on 6 March 1911 in South Brisbane, third of five children of Queensland-born parents Noble Victor Collins, grazier, and his wife Mary Isobel, née Fulford. In 1863 Stan’s grandfather Thomas Collins and his brother Charles had settled at Spring Creek station, near Mount Surprise in Far North Queensland. The property remained in the family and from a young age Stan took an active interest in its day-to-day running. He received his early education from his parents and a governess before attending Kuranda State School (1920), the Church of England Grammar School, Brisbane (1921–22), and Thornburgh College, Charters Towers (1923–28). Securing a scholarship to study at Queensland Agricultural College, Gatton, he completed a two-year diploma in stock in 1930.

Returning to Spring Creek, Collins worked as a jackaroo. His father adopted farming practices that Stan had learned at Gatton, including a more efficient hay-cutting program, and appointed him head stockman in 1935. On 23 June 1936 he married Nancy Atkinson at her family’s Gunnawarra homestead, near Mount Garnet. They were to have four sons and two daughters; one son died in 1945 aged eight.

When Victor Collins died in 1940, his half share of the family company, Collins Bros, was divided between Stan and his brother Eric. Stan took over the management of Spring Creek, to which he added nearby Rosella Plains in 1950, when his uncle Bramwell Collins retired. His reserved occupation had prevented him from joining the Australian Imperial Force in World War II. From 1942 to 1945 he served part time in the 23rd Queensland Regiment, Volunteer Defence Corps, rising to captain (1944). A Voluntary Air Observers’ Corps post was established on Spring Creek during the war.

Spring Creek was a property of more than 360 square miles (93,240 ha) comprising a mix of volcanic black soils and sandy ridges. It received an average of 28 inches (711 mm) of rain a year, but droughts in the 1940s and 1950s sorely tested the operation. Collins modernised stock management practices, transforming the station from an open-range system to one with a higher level of animal control. He fenced paddocks, sunk new bores, and from the 1960s used aircraft to coordinate management and mustering. From the late 1950s he gradually upgraded his herd from the British Shorthorn breed to the hardier Brahman-Shorthorn cross; later the tick-resistant Droughtmaster became the dominant breed.

In 1946 Collins was elected a divisional councillor on Etheridge Shire Council, which was based in Georgetown. He served on the council intermittently until 1982, including eighteen years as chairman. One of his early achievements was to purchase the shire’s first grader to maintain the road network. When the postmaster-general could not employ a mail contractor for the Mount Surprise-Greenvale run, Collins took over the contract and employed a local person himself. He had joined the Central and Northern Graziers’ Association in 1932 and in 1951 became a member of the State executive of the United Graziers’ Association of Queensland, which entailed regular drives to Brisbane. An aviation enthusiast, he was a founding director (1951) and later chairman of Bush Pilots Airways Pty Ltd, based at Cairns and delivering mail and medical services through the Gulf region and Cape York Peninsula.

Known affectionately to his family as ‘S.J.’, Collins had a reputation as a fair employer, who preferred to work alongside his staff and create a family atmosphere on the station. This approach extended to his Aboriginal workers, many of whom had grown up with Collins. In 1967 he formed a partnership with his three surviving sons. He left Spring Creek in 1972 to live with his wife in Atherton, but remained a senior partner in the business and regularly undertook the four-hour drive to Georgetown for council duties. He served as chairman (1972–82) of the Cairns Regional Electricity Board (from 1974 the Far North Queensland Electricity Board), and as a government representative (1971–82) on the Cairns Harbour Board. Appointed OBE in June 1977 for service to local government, he also received the Queen’s Silver Jubilee medal.

In 1983 Collins retired from the partnership and transferred his share to his sons. The Collinses sold Rosella Plains in 1988, except for a portion containing a spectacular system of lava tubes and caves. They negotiated with the State government to reserve the region as Undara Volcanic National Park (gazetted 1989–94) in exchange for a special business lease to operate an associated tourist resort they named ‘Undara Experience’. Although initially sceptical, Stan later endorsed the plan. Predeceased by his wife (1988) and survived by five of their six children, Collins died on 11 September 1992 at Atherton, and was buried with Anglican rites in the local cemetery.

Collins, Gerry. Personal communication; National Archives of Australia. B884, Q230004; Smith, Anne. Cattle in the Blood: The Collins Family in North Queensland. [Kinwan, Qld]: Collins Management Services Pty Ltd, 2004.

David Anthony

COLLIVER, FREDERICK STANLEY (STAN) (1908–1991), fitter and turner, field naturalist, and curator, was born on 22 August 1908 at Ballarat East, Victoria, eldest child of locally born parents Frederick William Colliver, warehouseman, and his wife Edith Florence, née Furlong. Stan attended state and technical schools, and then worked for the chemical and scientific apparatus manufacturers H. B. Selby & Co. in Melbourne for three years before joining the Victorian Railways. Training as a fitter and turner, he later worked as a toolmaker at the railway workshops at Newport.

During his early working years Colliver attended evening classes in chemistry, geology, and palaeontology; he later studied zoology, chemistry, and botany at the University of Queensland. An untiring student of natural history, he travelled widely throughout eastern Australia, South Australia, and Tasmania collecting geological and other specimens. In 1938 he travelled with Charles Barrett [q.v.7] to Central Australia, collecting for the Commonwealth Northern Territory exhibition.

In 1931 Colliver had joined the Field Naturalists’ Club of Victoria, serving as honorary secretary (1931–46) and president (1946–47). On a trip to Geelong with FNCV members in 1939, he discovered the lower jaw of a Tertiary toothed whale, subsequently named Mammalodon colliveri; Cralopa colliveri, a species of endemic minute land snails, was also named after him. The following year, on 21 December, he and a fellow club member, Scottish-born Mary Wilson Ferguson, were married by a Methodist minister at Essendon North. In 1948, after a warm recommendation from F. W. Whitehouse [q.v.16], Colliver became museum curator at the University of Queensland’s department of geology.

The Collivers were members of the Queensland Naturalists’ Club for over forty years, with Stan serving as president (1951–52), councillor, and librarian. He was also librarian of the Royal Society of Queensland and of the Great Barrier Reef Committee. From 1963 to 1975 he was a member of the advisory board of the John Oxley Library within the State Library of Queensland, and vice-chairman (1975–84). He was section secretary for anthropology at the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science conferences held in Brisbane in 1961 and 1971. From 1971 his great love was the Museum Society of Queensland, for which he organised excursions, became president, and headed and inspired a team of volunteers.

A foundation member of both the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies in Canberra and the Anthropological Society of Queensland, following his retirement from the University of Queensland in 1973 Colliver researched and published on Aboriginal prehistory. He was a member of the Queensland place names committee (1956–81) and served on the State’s place names board (1975–85), offering insights into the origins of Aboriginal place names. Appointed OBE in 1985, he received the Queensland Museum medal in 1988.

Colliver’s capacity to arrange and catalogue became evident during his years of service to the University of Queensland as well as through his stewardship of the libraries and collections of his favoured societies. In 1989 his extensive collection (which he had commenced at the age of ten) of over 400,000 Mollusca and some 5,000 geological specimens, along with anthropological artefacts, was transferred to the Queensland Museum. Many items had been in the possession of earlier experts who shared their rare bounty and knowledge with the eager curator who wrote and inspired articles based on these treasures. Colliver’s encompassing reference library and extensive collection of cutting books and society papers were donated to the museum after his death.

The Collivers regularly entertained friends and colleagues at their Red Hill home, occasions at which Stan’s gentle sense of humour and talented piano playing emerged. Survived by his wife and childless, Colliver died on 25 September 1991 in Royal Brisbane Hospital and was cremated. For some years after his death the Royal Society of Queensland honoured his memory with the Stan Colliver memorial lecture (later memorial meeting).

Cairns Post. ‘Current Nature Topics.’ 23 August 1946, 6; Hegarty, E., B. R. Jahnke, E. E. McKenzie, and E. N. Marks. ‘Obituary. Frederick Stanley Colliver.’ Queensland Naturalist 31, nos. 3–4 (1992): 49–53; John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland. M 662 and M 878, Stan Colliver Papers; Stanisic, John. ‘The Colliver Shell Collection.’ Queensland Naturalist 31, nos. 3–4 (1992): 54–57.

Jennifer Harrison

CONNOR, MARJORIE (1906–1991), nursing administrator and educator, was born on 25 August 1906 at Cororooke, Victoria, elder of two children of Victorian-born parents William Connor, grazier, and his wife Hilda Row, née Thomas. Educated at home by a governess and then at Lauriston Girls’ School (1919–22), Marjorie trained (1925–28) as a nurse at the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, and was registered as a general nurse in July 1928. She disliked most aspects of her apprenticeship and never wished to work in a hospital again. Working as a private nurse, in about 1929 her son Bruce James Connor was born. Between 1930 and 1945 she worked for a dermatologist in Collins Street, Melbourne. Here she sustained radium burns to her hands, a not infrequent injury in such clinics at the time.

In 1945 Connor became executive secretary of the Royal Victorian College of Nursing (RVCN). She was to hold this position, which also involved editing the Victorian nursing journal, UNA, until her retirement in December 1972. The position called on her formidable administrative skills, which included mastery of detail and the ability to sustain long campaigns. The Victorian nurses’ organisation was proudly independent from branches of the Australian Nursing Federation in other states, a precedent Connor was happy to follow. She was a foundation member of the Nurses Memorial Centre in Melbourne and was the recipient in 1958 of both the Jane Bell scholarship and the RVCN Jubilee scholarship, which she used to study professional nursing and organisations overseas.

A fixed point in the complex world of Australian nursing politics, Connor played a major role in several of the key changes in nursing practice and education. One of the most significant was the introduction of a 1,600-hour curriculum, which was gazetted just before her retirement and after seven years of hard work from the RVCN. This meant that a minimum of 1,600 hours in a nurse’s three-year training had to be devoted to lectures, testing, and formal instruction. Connor saw this achievement as one of the highlights of her career and a decisive step away from the old hospital apprenticeship system. Eventually it helped to propel nurse training into the university sphere.

Connor was dedicated to establishing—or confirming—the professional status of nursing. She distrusted the idea of the RVCN becoming solely an industrial organisation, which she felt would be detrimental to the professional ideal. Nevertheless, she assumed several employee advocacy positions as the college fought off interlopers such as the Hospital Employees Federation, which sought coverage of nurses in public institutions. She was secretary of the Australian Nursing Federation, Employees Section, Victorian Branch, the industrial wing of the nursing movement. Between 1945 and 1963 she was a member of the Hospital Nurses Wages Board in Victoria. Towards the end of her career she was out of step with the forces that saw the RVCN become a more purely industrial body. In 1975 the RVCN merged with the Victorian branch of the ANF, a change she lamented.

In January 1973 Connor was appointed MBE, which later gave her great satisfaction as she valued imperial honours more than the Australian system introduced in 1975. In retirement she was honorary secretary and treasurer (1973–88) of the Florence Nightingale Committee of Australia, Victorian branch. She promoted the completion of a history of the nursing profession in Victoria, the first volume of which was published in 1987. The second volume appeared shortly after Connor’s death and brought the story up to the great Victorian nursing strikes of 1985–86.

Connor lived a disciplined life with regular, often unvarying, domestic routines. Survived by her son, she died of cardiac arrest on 7 May 1991 at North Balwyn, Melbourne, and was cremated.

Bennett, Margaret. ‘A Tribute to Marjorie Connor.’ Australian Nurses’ Journal 21, no. 1 (July 1991): 37; Bessant, Judith, and Bob Bessant. The Growth of a Profession: Nursing in Victoria: 1930s–1980s. Bundoora, Vic.: La Trobe University Press, 1991; Connor, Marjorie. Papers (1920–1990). University of Melbourne Archives; Moore, Gloria. I Was a Stranger. Burwood, Vic.: Chandos Publishing, 1994; Personal knowledge of ADB subject; Trembath, Richard, and Donna Hellier. All Care and Responsibility: A History of Nursing in Victoria 1850–1934. Melbourne: Florence Nightingale Committee, Australia, Victorian Branch, 1987; UNA: Nursing Journal (Melbourne). ‘New Year Honours for Nurses.’ January–February 1973, 11.

Richard Trembath

COOPER, JESSIE MARY (1914–1993), politician, was born on 29 June 1914 at Rockdale, Sydney, younger of two children of Scottish-born James McAndrew, retired grocer, and his New South Wales–born second wife Janet Annie, née Darling. Jessie grew up at Bexley, excelling academically at St George Girls High School. She studied piano at the New South Wales State Conservatorium of Music (AMusA, 1933), and French, psychology, and economics at the University of Sydney (BA, 1936). In the same year she gained a certificate in shorthand from the Metropolitan Girls’ Secretarial Institute.

Becoming secretary at Presbyterian Ladies’ College, Pymble, in 1936, Jessie worked closely for eight years with its dynamic principal, Dorothy Knox [q.v.17]; the two remained firm friends for life. On 2 April 1940 at St Stephen’s Presbyterian Church, Sydney, she married Geoffrey Day Thomas Cooper, of the prominent Adelaide brewing family. After three years of overseas service with the Australian Imperial Force, he was appointed an instructor at the senior wing of the Staff School (Australia), Duntroon, where Jessie joined him. In Canberra she developed an interest in national politics, becoming a frequent visitor to Parliament House. After her father-in-law’s death in 1944, the couple moved to Adelaide where Geoffrey became a director of Cooper & Sons Ltd.

In Adelaide’s respectable eastern suburbs, Jessie became active in Musica Viva, the Queen Adelaide Club, the Liberal Women’s Educational Association (president 1951–53), the Lyceum Club (president 1953–54), and the Adelaide (later South Australian) University Women Graduates’ Association (president 1968–69). She joined the Liberal and Country League (LCL), and by 1948 was a member of the State executive council. Inspired by Senator (Dame) Annabelle Rankin [q.v.18] and encouraged by a network of women friends, she sought preselection in 1952 for the Legislative Council but was unsuccessful. Six years later, supported by a team headed by the retired politician Sir Shirley Jeffries [q.v.14], she won first position on her party’s ticket for a safe LCL seat representing Central No. 2. A disgruntled LCL member took legal action, claiming that Cooper and her Australian Labor Party (ALP) rival, Margaret Scott, were not ‘persons’ under the 1934 Constitution Act. After a hearing that attracted great public interest, in late February 1959 the Supreme Court of South Australia returned the decision to the parliament, which confirmed the eligibility of women to seek election.

On 7 March, nearly sixty-five years after women gained the right to vote in South Australia, Cooper and her LCL colleague Joyce Steele [q.v.] became the first women elected to the State parliament. Asked how she would combine home and political life, she replied that ‘she would fit in her housework in the same way as a male member fitted in the running of an orchard or an accountant’s office’ (Jenkins 2002, 13). For sixteen of her twenty years in parliament, she would be the only woman in the Legislative Council.

Fervently royalist, pro-business, anti-socialist, and socially conservative, Cooper voted predictably with her party to water down or defeat attempts by the ALP to introduce social and electoral reforms. Although never a supporter of women’s liberation, she advocated measures to remove legal limitations and discrimination against women, and believed in the principle of equal pay for work of equal value. As a housewife herself, a term she never disowned, she spoke on matters of concern to women in the home. Among the wider issues she championed were the need for a women’s prison (opened at Northfield in 1969); allowing women to be summoned for jury service; improving women’s access to third party damages; and equalising superannuation entitlements for women parliamentarians. Education was another interest, including the funding of private schools, and the establishment of the State’s second tertiary institution: she served on the inaugural board of Flinders University (1966–70). She urged greater parliamentary interest in less developed countries. In 1962 she travelled to the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association’s meeting in Lagos, Nigeria, and next year in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, where she also attended the opening of the new country’s parliament.

Although she was easily returned in 1965, reformist elements in her party had Cooper relegated to second position on the ticket for the 1973 election. By 1979 electoral reform had so eroded Liberal dominance of the Legislative Council that her decision to cross the floor with two others was sufficient to enable the ALP government to block the businessman Alan Bond’s move to obtain control of South Australia’s flagship resources company, Santos.

Under pressure from party power-brokers, in July that year Cooper abruptly retired. Her colleagues praised her as a courageous, courteous, intelligent, and fair representative. Frank Blevins, an ALP parliamentarian, noted that ‘her contributions to debates were concise, relevant and stylish’ (SA Parliament 1979, 371). Relinquishing most of her public positions, she devoted herself to her garden, family, and travel. After a year of ill-health, she died on 28 December 1993 in Adelaide, her husband and son surviving her; she was buried in Centennial Park cemetery. The Jessie Cooper Study Grants for Mature Entry Women scheme was established in 1994 by Flinders University.

Cashmore, Jennifer. ‘Liberal Trailblazer Wedded to Principle.’ Australian, 19 January 1994, 13; Cooper, Jessie. Interview by Amy McGrath, 1 May 1980. National Library of Australia; Craig, Ailsa. ‘The Suffragette Fight of 1959.’ Woman’s Day, 21 March 1959, 13; Jenkins, Cathy. ‘The More Things Change: Women, Politics and the Press.’ Ejournalist 2, no. 1 (2002). ejournalist.com.au/v2n1/cathy.pdf. Copy held on ADB file; Jones, Helen. In Her Own Name: A History of Women in South Australia from 1836. Rev. ed. Adelaide: Wakefield Press, 1994; News (Adelaide). ‘Woman LCL Nominee Always Keen on Politics.’ 11 November 1952, 9; South Australia. Parliament. Parliamentary Debates. 7 August 1979, 371.

Jenny Tilby Stock

CORMACK, Sir MAGNUS CAMERON (1906−1994), grazier and politician, was born on 12 February 1906 at Wick, Caithness, Scotland, eldest of five children of William Petrie Cormack, doctor, and his wife Violet Macdonald, née Cameron. The family migrated to South Australia in 1912, a decision influenced by William’s health. Educated in Scotland, then at Tumby Bay Public School and the Collegiate School of St Peter, Adelaide (1917–23), Magnus worked for Dalgety & Co. Ltd and, from 1926 to 1931, as production manager for Holden Motor Body Builders (from 1931 General Motors-Holden’s Ltd). He also grew potatoes with his two brothers in the early Depression years, and tried dairying before buying into a grazing property, Koijak, at Apsley in Victoria’s west Wimmera region. On 22 November 1935 he married Mary Isabell (Mavis) Gordon Mcmeikan, a divorcee, at the Registrar-General’s Office in Melbourne.

Having completed his universal training, Cormack continued in the Citizen Military Forces, serving in the 18th Light Horse Regiment (1924–29) and rising to lieutenant in 1926. After World War II broke out, he spent three months (July–October 1940) in the Australian Imperial Force in Victoria, before being categorised as having a reserved occupation and discharged. On 12 June 1941 he resumed full-time duty, on this occasion in the CMF as a lieutenant, Australian Army Service Corps. He was promoted to temporary major in December (substantive 1944) and transferred to the AIF in August 1942, while occupying staff posts in Australia. From July 1943 to May 1944 he was deputy assistant quartermaster-general (air) on New Guinea Force headquarters, responsible for supplying troops where there were no roads. His experience with General Motors enabled him to bypass habitual methods and improve efficiency; he was mentioned in despatches for his work. Back in Victoria, he transferred to the Reserve of Officers on 17 November 1944.

Although his maternal grandfather, John MacDonald Cameron, had sat in the House of Commons, and Sir Josiah Symon [q.v.12], a prominent South Australian politician, was a kinsman, Cormack had no interest in politics until after the war. Influenced by the Depression years and his army experience, he joined the Liberal Party of Australia in 1946. By 1948, after his success in organising the party’s 1947 State election campaign and his appointment to the Federal policy committee, he became State president. He ‘stood in no awe of politicians’ (Aimer 1974, 166). Having persuaded his friend, (Sir) John Gorton, to leave the Country Party for the Liberals, Cormack convinced the Liberal leader (Sir) Robert Menzies [q.v.15] to accept Gorton for a winning position on the Senate ticket for the same 1949 Federal election in which Cormack just failed to win the House of Representatives seat of Fawkner.

Elected to the Senate in 1951, Cormack lost his seat in the 1953 electoral swing against the Menzies government. After several preselection setbacks, he returned full time to sheep and cattle production and to the countryside he loved. He won the top spot on the Liberal and Country parties’ coalition Senate ticket for the 1961 election. Sir William Anderson [q.v.13], a long-standing friend and former Federal president of the Liberal Party, had encouraged him to nominate after earlier making him promise never to become a minister—because ‘ambition erodes integrity’—and to endeavour to ‘drag the Senate out of its lethargy as a constitutional part of the Australian Parliament’ (Cormack 1987, 2:30).

Cormack cited the first promise, and his strong−minded independence, for declining Gorton’s offer of a ministry in 1968. Although the Labor senator Lionel Murphy [q.v.18] is credited with introducing the Senate committee system, Cormack claimed ownership of the idea and that he had influenced Murphy. He made his public name as the first chairman of the select committee on securities and exchange which was one of the best known of the early select committees and, within parliament, his reputation as a fierce champion of the Senate’s role as a check on the power of executive government. In 1970 he was appointed KBE. Although still a Gorton loyalist, he won the Liberal Party’s nomination for the Senate presidency in August 1971 after Prime Minister (Sir) William McMahon [q.v.18] had sacked Gorton from cabinet. Admired for his non−partisan approach, a deeply hurt Cormack surprisingly lost his position in the Senate by one vote when senators elected a new president after the 1974 double dissolution election.

Stocky, silver−haired, and with a weathered face, Cormack combined the manners of a gentleman farmer with the scheming of a politician. Although he admired Menzies for his advocacy and ‘statecraft’, the two had a ‘vehement argument’ in 1951 over Menzies’s attempt to proscribe the Communist Party, with Cormack telling the prime minister ‘you can’t exterminate an idea by Draconian law’ (Cormack 1987, 3:2–3). ‘There was always an edge in our relationship’ (Cormack 1987, 3:27), he acknowledged. He had less time for Malcolm Fraser (who had beaten him for preselection for Wannon in the 1954 Federal election), resenting his ‘bulldust’ (Cormack 1987, 6:9) and likening his approach in the party room to that of ‘head boy of Melbourne Grammar School’ (Cormack 1987, 6:14).

Sir Magnus retired from the Senate in 1978. He had sold his farm and, after a long illness that prevented him from indulging his passion for sailing, died at Kew on 26 November 1994 and was cremated. Predeceased by his wife (d. 1986), he was survived by his three daughters and a son, he had requested that ’no market place post-mortem panegyrics’ be delivered in the Senate. Instead of condolence motions in the parliament, there was a memorial service at Old Parliament House. A portrait by Bryan Westwood, painted in 1973, is held in the Australian Parliament House Art Collection.

Aimer, Peter. Politics, Power and Persuasion: The Liberals in Victoria. East Hawthorn, Vic.: James Bennett, 1974; Browne, Geoffrey. ‘Cormack, Sir Magnus Cameron (1906−1994).’ In The Biographical Dictionary of the Australian Senate. Vol. 3, 1962−1983, edited by Ann Millar and Geoffrey Browne, 33–40. Sydney: UNSW Press Ltd, 2010; Cormack, Sir Magnus. Interview by Allan Fleming, 13–14 September 1989. Transcript. Parliament’s Oral History Project. National Library of Australia; Cormack, Sir Magnus. Interview by Tony Hannan, 24 September–10 November 1987. Transcript. Parliament’s Oral History Project. National Library of Australia; Hancock, Ian. John Gorton: He Did It His Way. Sydney: Hodder Headline, 2002; National Archives of Australia. B883, VX108016.

I. R. Hancock

COSTANZO, EVASIO (1921–1993), journalist, editor, and community leader, was born on 4 September 1921 at Casale Monferrato, Piedmont, Italy, son of Giuseppe Costanzo, farmer, and his wife Pierina, née Farello. Evasio graduated in law at the University of Turin in 1947 and the following year enrolled to practise as an attorney but was not interested in the legal profession. During the years of his tertiary education he had worked as an intern for the important Italian newspaper La Stampa—first at the age of seventeen in 1938, and then again at different times during and after World War II, becoming a journalist with the paper.

In 1950, having already considered migrating to Australia, Costanzo met Father Anastasio (Alfredo Paoletti), an Italian-American Capuchin friar who was the superior of the Australian Province of Capuchins in Sydney, and the editor of the weekly religious bulletin La Fiamma (The Flame). According to Costanzo, the publication at the time had a circulation via individual subscriptions and parish distribution of around 5,000 copies. Fr Anastasio convinced Costanzo to migrate to Sydney in order to become its first professional editor and transform it into a general newspaper for the Italian migrant community. Costanzo arrived in Melbourne in January 1951. He had not signed any contract, and in the first seven months of his life in Australia, had to work in factories and transport to sustain himself. Finally in August 1951 he began working at La Fiamma. On 29 December that year he married German-born Hildegarde Maria Muhlenhoff, a hairdresser, at St Fiacre’s Catholic Church, Leichhardt; they had no children.

Over the next two decades Costanzo transformed La Fiamma into an important and influential Italian-language newspaper with a circulation of around 40,000 copies. Issued twice weekly by 1958, it became an essential point of reference for the community of Italian migrants, especially in New South Wales. A committed anti-fascist, who had taken part in the Resistance, Costanzo had centre-left political views. The paper’s editorial aims were to develop a lay and objective newspaper, representative of the broad Italian community in Australia, and to increase sales and distribution. He also wanted to present a contrast with the rhetoric about Italian civilisation, which had been strongly influenced by fascism and was still prevalent among migrants. Instead, he intended to show migrants how to integrate—rather than assimilate—into Australian society, as well as to provide information about the new Italy gradually emerging from the tragedy of the war and through the economic miracle of the postwar period. In the 1950s and early 1960s the newspaper also maintained a strong Catholic character in some of its columns, including those written by Fr Anastasio and the advice columnist Lena Gustin. It also took an anti-communist stance.

During the early years of his editorship, Costanzo faced many challenges, including the initial disorganisation and lack of resources of the newspaper; the resentment of the Capuchin friars, who, for the most part, wanted La Fiamma to remain a religious bulletin; the interference from the Apostolic delegation; and the hostility of mainstream Australian media towards La Fiamma. In the first decade of his editorship, he supported Italian immigrants protesting in 1952 at Bonegilla, a migrant reception centre in Victoria, against the lack of jobs. Many Italian migrants began recognising that La Fiamma was no longer solely a religious bulletin and could express and effectively represent their wider views.

Throughout the 1960s and early 1970s the newspaper increased its political influence, and lobbied for a number of migrants’ requests, including the portability of the Australian pension to Italy. A significant example of Costanzo’s moral and professional rectitude was the admission in the columns of La Fiamma in 1964 that it was likely that Italian criminal organisations were active in Australia. Over the years, he and his newspaper also addressed the issue of racism towards Italian migrants. From the late 1960s the newspaper openly supported the Australian Labor Party. When the newspaper was sold in 1968, Costanzo bought it, but it struggled financially and he sold it in 1975. He resigned as the editor that month, due to the new owners’ decision to adopt a neutral stand towards political parties after the Australian constitutional crisis.

Costanzo was described in 1974 as ‘a tall, sun-burned, ex-skier turned swimmer’ with ‘a thatch of grey hair’ (Herald, 6). He played a role in the development of radio programs for the Italian community (through the Catholic radio station 2SM), as well as in the creation of APIA (the Associazione Polisportiva Italo Australiana) and its popular and successful soccer team. From 1966 to 1988 he also worked as Australian correspondent for the Italian Associated Press (ANSA). His contribution to the Italian migrant community, and to Australian society more broadly, is demonstrated by his appointment as a member of the Immigration and Publicity Council, the Australian Council for the Arts (Australia Council), and the Library Council of New South Wales; he was also appointed a commander of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic. Survived by his wife, he died in October 1993 in Milan, while on holiday in Italy, and was buried in a provincial cemetery; a memorial service was held for him at St Fiacre’s.

Cresciani, Gianfranco. Recorded interviews with Evasio Costanzo, 23 April and 4 June 1981. Private archive of Gianfranco Cresciani; Herald (Melbourne). ‘“Long May We Differ.”’ 6 July 1974, 6; New South Wales. Legislative Council. Parliamentary Debates, 14 October 1993. Accessed 26 August 2019. www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/permalink?id=HANSARD-1820781676-4158. Copy held on ADB file; Rando, Gaetano. ‘I malavitosi dei castelli d’erba: la criminalità organizzta italoaustraliana nei media e nell’editoria in Australia.’ In Emigrazione e organizzazioni criminali, edited by S. Palidda and M. Sanfilippo, 39–44. Viterbo, Italy: Edizioni Sette Citta, 2012; Reynolds, Anne. ‘A Thematic History of Italians in Leichhardt.’ Italian Historical Society Journal 9, no. 2 (July–December 2001): 4–19; Ricatti, Francesco. Embodying Migrants: Italians in Postwar Australia. Bern: Peter Lang, 2011; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘Editor of Paper Resigns.’ 28 November 1975, 15; ‘La Fiamma Editor, Voice of Italians.’ 12 October 1993, 9; Wales, Brennan. ‘La stampa italiana nell’Australia multiculturale.’ Il veltro: Rivista della civiltà Italiana 32, no. 1–2 (Gennaio–Aprile 1988): 133–36.

Francesco Ricatti

COURTICE, FREDERICK COLIN (1911–1992), medical scientist, was born on 26 March 1911 at Bundaberg, Queensland, second of six children of Queensland-born parents, Frederick Courtice, farmer, and his wife Mary Lilian, née Pegg. Courtice had conservative political views despite his paternal family’s involvement in the labour movement; his uncle, Benjamin Courtice [q.v.13], was an Australian Labor Party senator. Excelling at Woongarra Primary and Bundaberg High schools, he was awarded a public exhibition at the University of Queensland in 1929. Wishing to become a general practitioner, he completed a pre-medical year at King’s College, University of Queensland, Brisbane. As there was no medical school in Queensland, he moved to Wesley College, University of Sydney, in 1930. Persuaded by Professor Harold Davies [q.v.13] to study physiology, he graduated (BSc, 1933) with first-class honours and was awarded the university medal. He resumed his medical course the following year but in October won a Rhodes scholarship to New College, Oxford, where he worked in the physiology laboratory (DPhil, 1935). He completed his medical training at London Hospital Medical College. On 18 December 1937 at St Georges Church of England, Bloomsbury, he married Joyce Mary Seaton, a nurse.

In 1938 Courtice was awarded a Nuffield Memorial Fellowship and spent much of World War II as a senior experimental officer at the government defence establishment, Porton Down, Wiltshire, where he began his life-long work on lymphatic physiology. After the war he was appointed reader in human physiology at Oxford, and in 1946 the University of Sydney awarded him a DSc. Despite having better professional prospects in Britain, Courtice returned to Sydney in 1948 as director of the Kanematsu Memorial Institute of Pathology. There he fostered the careers of many of Australia’s future medical research leaders, and with Joseph Mendel Yoffey rewrote Yoffey and Cecil Kent Drinker’s influential study of the lymphatic system. He was elected an honorary fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (1952), a fellow of the Australian Academy of Science (1954), and was a foundation fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australia (1955).

Following Sir Howard (Baron) Florey’s [q.v.14] decision to decline the foundation chair of experimental pathology at the John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, Courtice accepted the position in 1958. He was appointed director of the school (1974–76) and Howard Florey Professor of Medical Research (1974). There he shouldered the administrative responsibilities of the school while building the research culture for his younger colleagues. Experimental pathology flourished as did research on lymphatic physiology. Retiring in 1976, he moved back to Sydney where he became visiting professor (1977–92) in the school of physiology and pharmacology at the University of New South Wales.

Courtice was a council member (1964–66) and vice-president (1965–66) of the Australian Academy of Science, chairman (1965–73) of the National Radiation Committee, Australian delegate (1962, 1964) to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, and a member of the committee charged with establishing the National Heart Foundation. He was described as ‘a notorious crosser of boundaries’ between ‘disciplines and institutions, and between theory and practice’ (Whyte 101–10). In his private life, he was a serious collector of paintings. Survived by his wife, son and three daughters, Courtice died on 29 February 1992 at St Ives and, following a funeral at Wesley College chapel, was cremated.

Korner, P. I. ‘Frederick Colin Courtice 1911–1992.’ Historical Records of Australian Science 10, no. 1 (1994): 35–49; Morris, Bede. ‘F. C. Courtice.’ In Festschrift for F. C. Courtice, edited by D. Garlick, 1–9. Kensington: University of New South Wales, 1981; Whyte, H.M. ‘Crossing Boundaries: Voluntary Modifications of Autonomic Functions.’ In Festschrift for F. C. Courtice, edited by D. Garlick, 101–11. Kensington: University of New South Wales, 1981.

Trevor G. Redgrave

COX, RONALD HUBERT (1914–1992), air force officer and city inspector, was born on 23 January 1914, at Knightsbridge, South Australia, only child of South Australian–born parents, Hubert Richard Cox, contractor, and his wife Eugene (Jean) Agnes Mary, née MacManus. Ronald attended (1921–32) Prince Alfred College, Adelaide, where he represented the school in rowing and obtained his leaving certificate. He commenced studying law at the University of Adelaide but withdrew and worked as a contract carrier at road-making operations in various South Australian country towns.

Of dark complexion, standing 5 feet 5 inches (165 cm) tall and weighing 154 pounds (70 kg), on 15 January 1935 Cox joined the Royal Australian Air Force as an air cadet and trained at Point Cook, Victoria. Graduating in December, he was commissioned as a pilot officer on 1 January 1936, and posted to the RAAF base, Richmond, New South Wales. On 8 August, he married Louisa Eleanor Smith at St. Thomas’ Church, Enfield, Sydney, in a Church of England ceremony. He returned to Point Cook in January 1937 before becoming chief instructor (September 1940 – November 1941) at No. 8 Elementary Flying Training School, Narrandera, New South Wales. Training pilots under the Empire Air Training Scheme, he was promoted to temporary squadron leader. For his ‘keenness, enthusiasm’ and ‘high standard of efficiency’ (NAA A9300), he was awarded the Air Force Cross on 1 January 1942. News of the award ‘was received with much satisfaction in Narrandera’ and at the Air School, where he had been ‘an extremely popular and efficient officer’, and among his ‘civilian friends’ (Narrandera Argus and Riverina Advertiser 1942, 3).

Cox had transferred to Britain in December 1941 where he joined No. 23 Squadron, Royal Air Force. Flying the Douglas A-20 Havoc, a light bomber that was employed as an intruder, attack and reconnaissance aircraft, he participated in sorties between 13 January and 30 June 1942. These included the first 1,000-bomber raid on Cologne, Germany. He was promoted to temporary wing commander in April, and in July was transferred to RAAF Overseas Headquarters, London. Repatriated to Australia on medical grounds in February 1943, he commanded (June 1943–May 1945) units responsible for co-ordinating air defences at Townsville, Queensland, and Darwin. In May 1945 he was transferred to Adelaide, and on 2 August his appointment was terminated at his request.

After a period as a poultry farmer at Moonta, South Australia, Cox resumed work as a road-making contractor for the Highways Department after fire had destroyed his incubators. Employed (1950–55) by Trans Australia Airlines in Adelaide as a bus driver and booking clerk, he then worked (1955–54) for the Adelaide City Council. He rose from clerk of the markets to city inspector responsible, at different times, for enforcing a range of council regulations and by-laws, particularly those relating to traffic management, and overseeing a large staff. He retired in January 1974. Cox was a member of the Air Force Association, North Adelaide, and the Enfield and Seaton Park sub-branches of the Returned Services League of Australia. Predeceased by his wife (d. 1973) and survived by three sons and two daughters, he died on 24 March 1992 at the Repatriation General Hospital, Daw Park and was cremated.

Advertiser (Adelaide). ‘P.A.C. Head of River.’ 4 May 1932, 16; Chronicle (Adelaide). 30 May 1946, 31; Cox, Ron. Interview by Jill Cavanough, 9 November 1978. City of Adelaide Oral History Project OH9. City of Adelaide; Narrandera Argus and Riverina Advertiser. ‘New Year Honours For Service Men.’ 6 January 1942, 3; National Archives of Australia. A9300, Cox, R.H; News (Adelaide). ‘Two Noted S.A. Airmen Return to Adelaide.’ 18 May 1943, 2.

Les Hetherington*

CRAIG, DIANA SOPHY (1912–1992), orthoptist, was born on 11 February 1912 at South Yarra, Melbourne, eldest of five children of South Australian–born (Sir) Frederick Wollaston Mann [q.v.10], barrister, and his Victorian-born wife Adeline Mary, née Raleigh. After being educated at home, Diana attended Clyde School (1926–29) at Woodend. She received an education focused on domestic science and the humanities and was dux of her form from 1926 to 1928. Desiring a career in science, she studied chemistry and physics at the Working Men’s College (1930), before enrolling at the University of Melbourne (BSc, 1934).

After graduation Mann worked as scientific secretary to the ophthalmologist Ringland Anderson. She performed a variety of research tasks including drawing diagrams and preparing printed materials. She also acquired clinical skills in assessing binocular vision and undertaking visual field measurements. In 1937 she travelled to London and worked at the Central London Ophthalmic Hospital under the tutelage of Sheila Mayou, a practitioner in the allied health discipline of orthoptics, specialising in eye movement disorders and low vision care. After Mann’s return to Melbourne in early 1938, she was appointed as an orthoptist at the Alfred Hospital. There Anderson had established a clinic known as the ‘Sight Saving Class’ and introduced a course of study which, at that time, attracted mainly female students. In 1940 Mann was awarded a diploma by the Orthoptic Board of Australia (OBA) and soon after she established a practice in the city.

During World War II Mann worked with Dr Hugh Ryan at Royal Australian Air Force flying-training schools, examining and testing pilots’ vision. She was later described as a leader in treatment that assisted the RAAF by ‘salvaging borderline cases’ and helping those who ‘through fatigue, illness, or injury developed ocular muscle balance problems in the service’ (Daley 1970–71, 9). In 1942 she met with Emmie Russell [q.v.18] and Mrs E. D’Ombrain of New South Wales, to share their experiences working with the RAAF and to discuss the possibility of forming a professional organisation. Their endeavours led to the establishment of the Orthoptic Association of Australia (OAA) in 1944. Mann was appointed to the position of secretary. In 1947 she began further study in psychology at the University of Melbourne. She believed that examining a patient’s mental as well as physical health would better provide for diagnosis and treatment. On 30 August 1952 in a Presbyterian ceremony at her South Yarra home, she married James Douglas Craig, who had been a fellow scholar studying psychology.

Diana was elected to three terms as president of the OAA (1948–49, 1954–55, and 1968–69). She was also a regular contributor to orthoptic and ophthalmology journals. Her articles, penned more as essays, ranged from the general role of the orthoptist to the detailed technical issues facing the profession and its patients. She was dedicated to improving the practice of orthoptics, defining its technical terms and encouraging ongoing education and training. From 1958 to 1960 she edited the association’s Transactions newsletter and later its journal (1973–82). For many years she served on the examination sub-committee of the OBA and she lectured at the Victorian School of Orthoptics, (Royal) Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital. She wrote on the need to foster productive relationships between orthoptists and other medical professionals working within an ophthalmic team. In the mid-1970s she joined the practice of four ophthalmologists.

Over the years Diana and Jim hosted many Victorian branch functions at their Ivanhoe home; reports of these events recorded their love of Eastern art and culture, and of gardens. In 1982 she retired from clinical work and the next year she was presented with the OAA’s inaugural Mary Wesson award for her contribution to the profession. Predeceased by her husband, she succumbed to Alzheimer’s disease on 7 February 1992 at Alphington, having donated her body to the Department of Anatomy at the University of Melbourne. In 1993 the OAA named one of its student achievement awards the Diana Craig prize.

Collins, Leonie. ‘Presidential Address.’ Australian Orthoptic Journal 6 (1964): 4–6; Daley, Air Vice-Marshal. ‘Orthoptists and the Royal Australian Air Force.’ Australian Orthoptic Journal 11 (1970–71): 8–10; Green, Julie. ‘Obituary: Diana Sophie Craig (nee Mann) 1912–1992.’ Australian Orthoptic Journal 28 (1992): 51–52; Lance, Patricia. ‘Orthoptics: Past, Present, and Future.’ Australian Orthoptic Journal 13 (1973–74): 2–7; Orthoptic Association of Australia. Transactions of the Orthoptic Association of Australia. 19441958. Nos. 1–5. [Sydney]: The Association, 1972.

Margaret Park

CRAMER, Sir JOHN OSCAR (JACK) (1896–1994), property developer and politician, was born on 18 February 1896 at Jacob and Joseph Creek (Gaspard), near Quirindi, New South Wales, fourth of six children of New South Wales–born parents John Nicholas Cramer, farmer, and his wife Emily Eleanor, née Cullen. His father was of German descent, while his mother was a local farmer’s daughter of Scottish and Irish descent. Raised as a Catholic, Jack left Gaspard Public School at 14 to work on the family farm, then managed a fruit shop his father had purchased at Quirindi. He played cornet and euphonium in local brass bands and had a good voice and a talent for comic songs. With his brother Charles, who played the piano, he was much in demand for concerts and musical evenings. At one such evening, in Sydney in 1917, he met his future wife, Mary Teresa Earls, a teacher. They married with Catholic rites on 14 January 1922 at St Thomas’s Church, Lewisham, Sydney. It was to be a long and happy marriage.

Cramer had moved to Sydney in 1917 in search of work. He found it with Paramount Pictures Ltd, employed as a clerk by day, and at night, with Charles, providing the music for silent films, with comic songs in the intervals. In 1920 Jack and Charles formed Cramer Bros real estate agents and auctioneers, opening an office at Crows Nest, North Sydney. By 1924 they had joined a syndicate to acquire and subdivide vacant land, including 104 acres (42 ha) on Edinburgh Road, Willoughby, which they called Sunnyside Estate. They also became partners in Higgins (Building) Ltd, constructing blocks of flats and collecting the rents. Another brother, Reg, joined them, and the businesses expanded rapidly.

During the Depression Cramer became interested in politics, initially through the All for Australia League (1931–32), a forum for debating non-party policies that in 1932 became part of the United Australia Party (UAP). He also joined the Rotary Club of North Sydney in 1931, finding himself a rare Catholic, though tolerated among the members. As an alderman in North Sydney from 1931 (mayor, 1939–41), he was closely involved in the development that resulted from the opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge, though his efforts to make Crows Nest the commercial centre eventually failed and Chatswood forged ahead. From 1935 he also represented the North Shore on the Sydney County Council, which regulated the electricity supply for the Sydney area. His experience as chairman (1946, 1948–49) of the council, trying to maintain power for industrial and domestic use during the communist-led strikes of the Australasian Coal & Shale Employees’ Federation, helps to explain his abiding hatred of both communism and the union movement. During those dour times, he became known as ‘Calamity Cramer’, forever announcing power restrictions or failures.

Following the collapse of the UAP in New South Wales in 1943, Cramer had won preselection for the short-lived Democratic Party and stood unsuccessfully for the division of Lane Cove at the 1944 State election. He was active in moves to bring together the non-Labor factions in New South Wales politics, and was elected to the provisional executive of the New South Wales division of the Liberal Party of Australia in January 1945. Cramer’s claims in his autobiography (1989) to be one of the founders of the Liberal Party are often brushed aside, but there can be no doubt that he was continuously active in conservative politics in New South Wales from the early 1930s, and that he took a leading role in the affairs of the Liberal Party, especially in maintaining a voice for New South Wales in response to perceived Victorian dominance.

Overcoming ‘sectarian bitterness’ (Cramer 1989, 101), Cramer gained Liberal preselection for the Federal division of Bennelong in 1949, winning comfortably at the election in December. With the exception of the close 1961 poll, he retained the seat without difficulty at ten consecutive elections. He remained closely in touch with the local community through his real estate interests and the connections he established with sporting and ex-service clubs in his electorate. Mary’s community work was likely a factor too. Continuing as a partner with his brothers in real estate and property development, he profited from the construction of apartment blocks along the North Shore railway line.

In 1956 the prime minister, (Sir) Robert Menzies [q.v.15], made Cramer minister for the army, which puzzled him because he had no army expertise: ‘I had to study night and day’ to learn ‘what the portfolio was all about’ (Cramer 1989, 163). His eight years as minister coincided with the final years of the Malayan Emergency and the beginning of the army’s involvement in Vietnam. A focus on the suppression of communism was evident in his 1958 tour of South-East Asia, during which he met the South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem for official talks and a private dinner at which, according to Cramer, his wife charmed the Vietnamese leader. In 1962 the government sent thirty military advisers to South Vietnam. Tackling sectarianism in the army, he achieved a significant breakthrough when, with the help of a Presbyterian army chaplain who lived in North Sydney, he was able to negotiate a form of religious observance for army parades that was acceptable to both Catholics and Protestants.

Cramer believed that Menzies, who referred to him openly as ‘the Papist’, tolerated him because he was an effective minister and perhaps because of his influence in New South Wales, but blocked his political advancement. After the Federal election in 1963, Cramer offered to resign to make room for a younger minister. Remaining on the back bench for a decade, he became weary of the stress of politics and did not seek preselection in 1973. He would have preferred Peter Coleman to John Howard as his successor in Bennelong. Howard later recalled that Cramer was ‘an able rather than a spectacular administrator’ and ‘a quintessential local politician’ (Howard 1994, 14). Retiring from parliament at the 1974 election, Cramer enjoyed lawn bowls and the fellowship of his weekly Rotary meetings.

Cramer regarded himself as a custodian of the aims and ideals on which the modern Liberal Party was founded. Described as ‘a beefy, broad-shouldered political street-fighter’ who ‘possessed strong views and a stentorian voice’ (Sydney Morning Herald 1994, 4), he was ardently opposed to communism, suspicious of socialism, and single-minded in his advocacy of free enterprise. He was proud of his ancestors’ pioneering background in the Hunter Valley, while his experience of farm life in his youth and then of building a substantial business from scratch gave him a great affinity with ordinary people. Never averse to a gathering where he could lead the community in singing or join in the dancing, he wore his religion lightly, but was nonetheless socially conservative, disapproving of divorce, contraception, and abortion. He was critical of (Sir) John Gorton’s performance as prime minister (1968–71) and was quick to nominate (Sir) William McMahon [q.v.18] as leader immediately after Gorton voted himself out of office.

On Menzies’s recommendation Cramer was knighted in June 1964; then in 1971 his wife Mary, whom McMahon admired greatly, was appointed DBE for her charitable work. After Mary’s death in 1984, Cramer devoted himself to writing his memoirs, which he dedicated to her. Their elder son John, a doctor, died in 1964 of a brain tumour. Survived by his two daughters and younger son, Cramer died on 18 May 1994 at Lulworth House, Elizabeth Bay. Following a state funeral at St Mary’s Church, North Sydney, he was buried in the Northern Suburbs cemetery, North Ryde.

Cramer, John. Pioneers, Politics and People: A Political Memoir. North Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1989; Hancock, Ian. The Liberals: A History of the NSW Division of the Liberal Party of Australia 1945–2000. Annandale, NSW: Federation Press, 2007; Henderson, Gerard. Menzies’ Child: The Liberal Party of Australia, 1944–1994. St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 1994; Howard, John. ‘Traditional Liberal Who Helped Establish Party.’ Australian, 1 June 1994, 14; National Library of Australia. MS 7553, Papers of John Cramer, 1912–1986; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘Liberal Member Was Political Street-Fighter.’ 19 May 1994, 4.

Beverley Kingston

CRAMPHORN, REX ROY (1941–1991), theatre director, critic, and designer, was born on 10 January 1941 in Brisbane, only child of American-born Eric Roy Cramphorn, builder, and his English-born wife Ivy Edith, née Timmins. Educated at Brisbane Boys’ College (1952–58), where he showed an early interest in drama, Rex began studying French literature and English at the University of Queensland in 1959 (BA, 1966). He was involved in the university’s Dramatic Society, producing plays such as The Changeling and Suddenly Last Summer.

Receiving a scholarship from the National Institute for Dramatic Art (NIDA) in Sydney, in 1966 Cramphorn enrolled in the institute’s production course. There he met the young director Jim Sharman, who was teaching workshops in improvisation. He was also influenced by Margaret Barr [q.v.], teacher of movement at NIDA, and Ross Steele, who taught French at the University of New South Wales. He completed a diploma of dramatic art (production) in 1967. In 1968 he commenced writing reviews for the Bulletin, developing a critique of the limits of ‘gum tree culture’ that culminated in 1970 in a manifesto for a new theatre: ‘I take theatre’s unique asset to be the actor’s physical presence, and I take its major misdirection to be the foisting of psychological realism, what Artaud calls “storytelling psychology”, on him’ (Maxwell 2009, 78). He produced his first professional plays for the Q Theatre in Sydney in 1969–70.

In 1969 a fellow NIDA graduate, Nicholas Lathouris, secured a copy of Jerzy Grotowski’s Towards a Poor Theatre. Supported by the director of NIDA, John Clarke, Cramphorn and a group of actors worked through the exercises and methods described by Grotowski, a Polish theatre director whose experiments included paring down costumes and staging in an effort to enhance the communication between actors and audiences. Formed into an ensemble that Cramphorn called Performance Syndicate, the group’s work culminated in the rapturously reviewed 1970 production of The Revenger’s Tragedy at the Theatre Royal, Hobart. The same year Cramphorn devised 10,000 Miles Away from a treatment by David Malouf and Michael Boddy; it developed into a Grotowskian, physically based work for the Jane Street Theatre Australian plays season of 1970 in Sydney. In 1971–72 Cramphorn directed a number of productions with other members of Performance Syndicate, as well as for other companies, including the Old Tote. A 1972 Performance Syndicate production of The Tempest received critical and popular acclaim, being remounted and taken on tour until 1974. In these years Cramphorn was also theatre critic for the Sunday Australian (1971–72).

Performance Syndicate relocated to St Martin’s Theatre, Melbourne, as company-in-residence in 1973, only to face hostile audiences, unsupportive managements, and funding shortfalls. Productions ceased in 1974. In a report to the Australian Council for the Arts that year, Cramphorn lamented the lack of support and interpersonal problems that plagued the group, which disbanded in 1975. Previously having spelt his name Cramphorne, in 1974 he reverted to Cramphorn.

Cramphorn then worked as a freelance director at NIDA and the Old Tote in Sydney. In 1976 he again started writing reviews, now for Theatre Australia. He directed Louis Nowra’s Visions for the short-lived Paris Theatre Company (a collaboration with Sharman) in 1978, and Dumas’s Lady of the Camellias for the first season of the Sydney Theatre Company in 1979. He collaborated with the University of Sydney, forming A Shakespeare Company with the help of a large grant in 1980. This ensemble explored, with no pressure to mount definitive productions, Measure for Measure and The Two Gentlemen of Verona. That year he enrolled in French studies at the University of Sydney, but did not complete a degree.

Returning to Melbourne, in 1981 Cramphorn took up a position as resident director (later co-artistic director) at the Playbox Theatre. There he developed his unimposed directorial style into the Actors’ Development Stream—another attempt to establish an ensemble of actors with whom he could explore the possibilities of a total theatre—while also directing main stage plays, including a commercially successful production of Terry Johnson’s Insignificance. In 1986, frustrated by lack of long-term funding and what he perceived as conservatism in theatre companies, he began studying film at the Australian Film, Television and Radio School; he graduated in 1989. His final attempt to establish an ensemble, Associated Artists, was for the production—his fourth—of Measure for Measure for the 1988 Adelaide Festival. Integrating filmed sequences, the production received poor reviews, and the company disbanded.

A heterodox contributor to the ‘New Wave’ of Australian theatre, Cramphorn directed about ninety productions, drawing on his passion for neo-classical, Elizabethan, and Jacobean drama, and on the influence of European auteurs, including Jean Genet and Grotowski. His theatrical vision was resolutely international and academic. This put him at odds with the vernacular, larrikin Australian-ness of the New Wave as it developed in the 1970s; his career was a series of experiments with classic texts and attempts to establish a stable ensemble of actors with whom he could explore technique and the possibilities of theatre as a total art form. By his own account, these experiments fell short of success, plagued by the limits of funding and the practical complexities of the maintenance of such ambitions.

Committed to his work, Cramphorn did not have any long-term stable partners; he once said that ‘to do anything well one has to devote one’s life to it’. Throughout his life he remained close to his mother. He died of AIDS-related complications on 22 November 1991 at Darlinghurst, Sydney, and was cremated. His life and work are commemorated by: an annual series of lectures, the first of which was delivered by his friend Sharman in 1995; the Rex Cramphorn theatre scholarship established by the New South Wales government; and a studio, popularly known as ‘The Rex’, at the University of Sydney.

Cramphorn, Rex. Interview by Hazel de Berg, 12 October 1973. Transcript. Hazel de Berg collection. National Library of Australia; Maxwell, Ian. ‘“All Exercise Sessions to Take Place in Complete Silence”: Performance Syndicate and the Rise and Fall of the Grotowskian Ideal 1969–1974.’ Australasian Drama Studies 53 (October 2008); Maxwell, Ian, ed. A Raffish Experiment: Selected Writings of Rex Cramphorn. Strawberry Hills, Sydney: Currency Press, 2009; Minchinton, Mark. ‘The Right and Only Direction: Rex Cramphorn, Shakespeare, and the Actors’ Development Stream.’ Australasian Drama Studies 33 (October 1998); Minchinton, Mark. ‘Rex Cramphorn and Measure for Measure, 1973–88.’ In O Brave New World: Two Centuries of Shakespeare on the Australian Stage, edited by John Golder and Richard Madelaine. Sydney: Currency Press, 2001.

Ian Maxwell

CRAWFORD, ARTHUR PINKERTON (1923–1995), surgeon, politician, and community worker, was born on 22 September 1923 at Caboolture, Queensland, son of Andrew Pinkerton Crawford, an Irish-born medical practitioner, and his wife Lilian Mary, née Donnelly, who had been born in New South Wales. Except while confined to bed with polio for a year at the age of ten, Arthur was educated in Brisbane at the Eagle Junction State School, Church of England Grammar School (1936–40), and University of Queensland (MB, BS, 1946). He completed residencies (1946–48) at the Brisbane and Gympie general hospitals. On 6 December 1947 in a Baptist ceremony at the City Tabernacle, Brisbane, he married Marion Amy Chalk, a bacteriologist.

After nearly a decade in general practice at Northgate, Crawford trained in London (1958–60) as a surgeon (fellow, Royal colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and England, both 1959, and Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, 1961). He began practising privately as a general surgeon on his return to Brisbane. On 21 August 1967 he was appointed as a captain in the Royal Australian Army Medical Corps, Citizen Military Forces, and posted to the 1st Military Hospital, Yeronga. In the rank of temporary major (September 1967 to March 1968), he served in Vietnam with the 8th Field Ambulance. Back home, he relinquished his CMF appointment in December but continued at the Yeronga hospital as a part-time consultant. His surgical practice was reported in the late 1960s to be probably the third biggest in Queensland.

On 17 May 1969 Crawford was elected to the Legislative Assembly as member for Wavell, a safe Liberal seat in Brisbane’s northern suburbs. Hoping to achieve changes in the State’s health system, in August he devoted a speech to the subject, beginning with the declaration that he did not believe in ‘platitudinous conversation’ (Qld Parliament 1969, 30) or in wasting time; he then proceeded to argue that ‘our system as implemented is wrong’, a situation created by ‘bad health legislation [which gave] the impression, at best, of being framed in ignorance, and, at worst, of being the result of a persecuted paranoid mentality’ (Qld Parliament 1969, 32). While the minister for health and a fellow Liberal, (Sir) Douglas Tooth, ‘sat poker-faced’ (Canberra Times 1969, 2), Crawford advocated replacing public servants on hospital boards with doctors, nurses, and leading citizens; appointing persons with qualifications in business as hospital administrators; improving financial management; seeking new sources of funds; and improving the training of nurses.

When Crawford continued the attack outside parliament, Tooth rebuked him inside it, rejecting the need for drastic reform, and accusing the new member of being misinformed, and of denigrating twelve years of work by the government without offering realistic suggestions on where the necessary funds could be obtained. A fellow coalition government member, the Country Party’s Russ Hinze [q.v.], praised him, however, for being ‘prepared to say what he thinks’ (Qld Parliament 1969, 142).

In his early days as a politician, Crawford maintained a hectic schedule, attending health and committee meetings, and continuing to see patients for two days a week and in his lunch breaks when parliament was sitting. A Liberal Party official referred to his ‘almost frightening dedication’ (Sunday Mail 1969, 13). Described as one of a number of ‘able, articulate Parliamentarians’, Crawford was identified early as a member of the ‘ginger group’ of Liberal members who were unafraid to criticise government policy and even, at times, to vote with the Opposition (Canberra Times 1970, 16).

Health and medicine were the primary focuses of Crawford’s parliamentary speeches. When the reformist Federal Labor government of Gough Whitlam was in power (1972–75), he deplored the introduction of ‘socialised medicine’ (Qld Parliament 1973, 175). Meanwhile, he continued his attack on the State Department of Health. Remaining a maverick within the Liberals, he was a surprise contender for the vacant parliamentary leadership in August 1976, challenging on the morning of the party-room meeting; as expected, (Sir) William Knox won easily. Crawford justified his standing by saying he wanted to put his colleagues and Knox on their mettle, as the party had become complacent.

Disappointed by the failure of Liberal politicians to implement the party’s health and education policies because of their closeness to their coalition partners, the National Party, and frustrated by his own inability to influence change through his presence in the Legislative Assembly, Crawford precipitately announced, in September 1977, his retirement from parliament (effective 12 November). His dissatisfaction notwithstanding, he reaffirmed his loyalty to the Liberal Party, stating his belief ‘that Liberal policies are second to none’ (Qld Parliament 1995, 23). The early retirement cost him considerably in terms of superannuation.

Interested in the welfare of his professional colleagues, Crawford was a member (from 1947) and councillor (1955–57) of the Queensland branch of the British (Australian) Medical Association and a trustee (from 1957) of the Medical and Associated Professions Superannuation Plan (later MAP Superannuation Fund). His extensive service to the broader community included membership of the committees of the Autistic Children’s Association of Queensland (1970–79) and the sheltered-workshop provider Help Industries Ltd (from 1981). In addition, he sat on the boards of several public companies. Having been divorced in 1983, on 16 March 1984 at his house at The Gap, he married in a Uniting Church ceremony Gabrielle Louise Smith, a registered nurse. Derek Meyers described him as ‘a tall, energetic, gregarious man [who was] always conspicuous’ (1996, 54). Crawford’s recreations were golf and swimming. He died on 17 June 1995 in Brisbane; following an Anglican funeral, he was cremated. His wife survived him, as did the two daughters and one son of his first marriage.

Crawford’s achievements as a surgeon and community worker outweighed his political significance. The constraints of party and parliament, combined with his outspokenness, ensured that his hopes of reforming the health system through political means were never realised. His comparatively brief political career was an early symptom of the disunity that would result in the coalition’s collapse in 1983.

Canberra Times. ‘Liberal Rebels Flare Again.’ 29 April 1970, 16; ‘Saving a Few Dollars but Risking Lives.’ 25 August 1969, 2; Meyers, Derek. ‘Arthur Pinkerton Crawford: MB BS, FRCS Lond, FRCS Edin, FRACS.’ Medical Journal of Australia 165 (1 July 1996): 54; Parker, Bill. ‘Prophetic Words on Health Care Live Years Later: Obituary: Arthur Crawford.’ Australian Surgeon 19, no. 3 (August 1995): 18; Queensland. Parliament. Parliamentary Debates, 7 August 1969, 30–36; 21 August 1969, 142; 16 September 1969, 544–50; 9 August 1973, 174–80, 9 August 1977, 106–10; 7 September 1995, 21–25; Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Archives. Curriculum Vitae, Arthur Pinkerton Crawford. Copy held on ADB file; Royal College of Surgeons of England. Plarr’s Lives of the Fellows. ‘Crawford, Arthur Pinkerton (1932–1995).’ Accessed 2 May 2018. livesonline.rcseng.ac.uk/biogs/E007875b.htm. Copy held on ADB file; Sunday Mail (Brisbane). ‘Doctor Who Never Gives Up the Fight … That’s Wavell’s Arthur Crawford.’ 21 September 1969, 13; Trundle, Peter. ‘Liberal to Quit … Party “Fails.”’ Courier Mail (Brisbane), 2 September 1977, 1.

Brian F. Stevenson

CRAWFORD, HECTOR WILLIAM (1913–1991), television producer, media lobbyist and musician, was born on 14 August 1913 at Fitzroy, Melbourne, younger of two children of William Henry Crawford, salesman, and his wife Charlotte, née Turner. His mother was a skilled musician and she instilled into Hector and his sister, Dorothy [q.v.17], a lifelong love of music. In 1924 Hector successfully auditioned for the choir of St Paul’s Cathedral; he then worked as a full-time chorister in return for education at the choir’s school. The musicologist and broadcaster, Alfred Ernest Floyd [q.v.8], who was the organist and choirmaster, influenced Crawford’s philosophy on life, notably his commitment to making music available to everyone.

Crawford’s music-centred education ended suddenly when his voice broke in 1928. He found himself looking for work just as the Depression began to affect Australia. He became a highly proficient tennis player and acted in plays and performances presented by a drama group formed by his sister at their local church. In 1932 he eventually found full-time employment as a junior clerk with the State Electricity Commission of Victoria (SEC). In his spare time, he established and conducted choirs, managed his sister’s drama group, gave singing lessons, and took conducting classes with Fritz Hart [q.v.9] at the Albert Street Conservatorium, East Melbourne.

In 1938 Crawford formed the Melbourne Conservatorium Symphony Orchestra, comprising students from the Albert Street Conservatorium and a number of musicians who had fled Europe ahead of the looming war. A year later, inspired by Dame Nellie Melba’s [q.v.10] ‘Concerts for the People’, he staged and conducted the first free ‘Music for the People’ concert in Melbourne’s Royal Botanic Gardens. The success of the concert helped Crawford secure commercial sponsors for a regular series of concerts, which continued for more than forty years. Each concert featured Australian singers and musicians and raised money from audience donations for charitable causes including the Australian Red Cross Society and, in World War II, the Australian Comforts Fund. Audience numbers grew rapidly to over 100,000. Crawford persuaded commercial radio to broadcast the live performances and in 1941 the Herald and Weekly Times Ltd became a major sponsor.

‘Music for the People’ had made Crawford a public figure, but he was still a junior clerk at the SEC by day. Another opportunity appeared when the owner of the struggling Broadcast Exchange of Australia Pty Ltd invited Crawford to take over management of its studio. Crawford created and produced music programs then sold them to radio stations desperate for local content due to wartime restrictions on foreign material. His success with Broadcast Exchange enabled him to leave the SEC. On 19 December 1942 at All Saints’ Church of England, St Kilda, he married Edna Marie Stock, a violinist and the leader of his orchestra.

By 1945 Crawford had expanded Broadcast Exchange from music programs into drama production. He invited Dorothy to join the company, which became Hector Crawford (later Crawford) Productions Pty Ltd. In 1946 they produced The Melba Story, a landmark radio drama series based on Melba’s life, which attracted both Australian and international sales. The program also launched the career of Crawford’s future wife, the soprano Glenda Raymond, who sang the title role. During the next decade the company flourished, with programs ranging from the singing competition Mobil Quest to the innovative D24, a drama series sponsored by Victoria Police. By 1950 it was producing, selling, and exporting forty-four hours of radio drama every week. Following the failure of his first marriage, Crawford married Raymond on 10 November that year at the Collins Street Independent Church, Melbourne.

In the 1950s Crawford and his sister began to prepare for the transition from radio to television, only to find that the new broadcast licensees were intending to produce programs internally, and purchase foreign programs to fill their schedules. Crawford began to lobby the Federal government, emphasising the importance of Australian content. He presented himself as an advocate for Australian artists and image making, a position he vigorously maintained for the rest of his life. He also lobbied the management of Melbourne’s HSV-7 (owned by the Herald and Weekly Times Ltd), which finally agreed to feature the live-to-air program Wedding Day during its first week of transmission in November 1956.

Over the next four years the company scaled back its large radio production force, but survival in television was tough. Broadcasters took control of advertising and sponsorship, departing from the common radio industry practice of purchasing programs with sponsors attached. Crawfords produced countless variety and game shows, but it was innovation that saw the next major step when Consider Your Verdict (previously produced for radio 3DB) appeared on HSV-7 in 1961. The interactive courtroom drama, featuring a mixture of actors and real-life barristers, led directly to the creation of the police drama Homicide (1964–77). Crawford had finally broken through with an Australian television drama series.

By 1972 Homicide was attracting 2.5 million viewers each week (40 per cent of the Australian audience). The program’s success prompted the other commercial networks to commission ‘cop’ shows from Crawford, including Division 4 (1969–75) and Matlock Police (1971–75). Crawford also produced a successful film for television, The Hands of Cormack Joyce (1972), which became the first Australian-produced film to be screened on network television in the United States of America. Crawford Productions had become Australia’s largest independent television production company, training and employing generations of actors, writers, technicians, and producers.

All three of Crawfords’ police programs were cancelled in 1974. Despite being forced to lay off most of his workforce, Crawford responded with the wartime drama The Sullivans (1976–83) and Cop Shop (1977–84). In the 1980s the company produced several successful miniseries, notably All the Rivers Run (1983) and The Flying Doctors (1985). Other successful programs included Carson’s Law (1982–84), The Henderson Kids (1985–86), and Crawford’s last personal commission, Acropolis Now (1989–92). Crawford Productions exported Australian drama to more than seventy countries.

With patrician features and a mane of white hair, Crawford was recognisable throughout Australia due to both his orchestral conducting and his judging on Showcase (1965–70) and other programs. His significance as a lobbyist and producer in forcing Australian stories on to television screens is considerable. He was a council member (1972–76) of the Australian Film and Television School and sat on the interim board of the Australian Film Commission in 1974. The winner of four TV Week Logie awards, in 1984 he was the inaugural inductee into the Australian Television Hall of Fame.

Crawford was appointed OBE in 1968, CBE in 1980, and AO in 1986. In 1987 he sold Crawford Productions but remained as chairman. Survived by his wife and the two children of his second marriage, he died at Kew, Melbourne, on 11 March 1991 and was cremated. The Screen Producers Association of Australia created the annual Hector Crawford Memorial Lecture in his honour.

Battye, Don. Interview by Albert Moran, 12 February 1979. 269200, National Film and Sound Archive; Combe, Diana R. ‘The Radio Serial Industry in Australia.’ PhD thesis, Macquarie University, Sydney, 1992; Crawford, Hector. Interview by Albert Moran, 5 July 1979. 269138, National Film and Sound Archive; Crawford, Hector. Commercial Television Programmes in Australia. Melbourne: [s.n.], 1959; Ferrier, Noel. There Goes Whatsisname: The Memoirs of Noel Ferrier. South Melbourne: Macmillan, 1985; Gilmour, K. R. ‘An Historical Perspective of the Development of the Melba Conservatorium of Music.’ MEd thesis, RMIT University, Melbourne, 2000; Griffen-Foley, Bridget. Sir Frank Packer: The Young Master. Pymble, NSW: HarperCollins, 2000.

Rozzi Bazzani

CRAWFORD, JOHN HERBERT (JACK) (1908–1991), tennis player, was born on 21 March 1908 at Albury, New South Wales, fifth child of New South Wales–born parents John McNeill Crawford, farmer, and his wife Charlotte Frances, née Fearne. Jack grew up at Urangeline where all six children played tennis on the family’s homemade court. With natural talent, he outstripped his siblings and as a boy represented Urangeline in local competitions. In 1920 the family moved to Sydney, having been forced by drought to sell the farm, and he attended Manly and Haberfield public schools. A keen watcher of club tennis at Haberfield, he was invited by a local player, Freddie Wallace, to play doubles and mixed doubles. Keen to impress as a junior but selected only as a reserve for the Linton Cup (1925), he proved his point by beating the number one player in the junior championships that followed.

In a long amateur career Crawford won six major international and some seventy-five Australian and state singles, doubles, and mixed doubles championships, beginning with the New South Wales doubles title in 1926 and ending with the New South Wales hardcourt singles title in 1949. In 1933—his golden year—he won the Australian and French mixed doubles championships and the Australian, French, and Wimbledon singles titles, failing to become the first to win the grand slam when beaten in five sets by Fred Perry in the United States final. He represented Australia in Davis Cup ties in 1928, 1930, and from 1932 to 1937, and was a member of the 1939 winning team although he did not play. In a successful doubles career his partners included Daphne Akhurst [q.v.7], Viv McGrath, Harry Hopman [q.v.17], E. F. ‘Gar’ Moon, and Adrian Quist [q.v.].

Crawford was employed making tennis racquets at Baker’s Tennis Shop, which manufactured the flat top racquet that became his trademark. From 1926 to 1936 he worked for the tennis-ball maker Barnet Glass (later Dunlop Perdriau) Rubber Co. Ltd. In January 1937 he joined his brother Allan and Alan Kippax [q.v.9] at the New South Wales Sports Store Ltd, Martin Place. On 28 February 1930 at St Philip’s Church of England, Sydney, Crawford had married Marjorie Cox. From the same Western Suburbs Association tennis club to which he belonged, she was also a champion and together they won many mixed doubles titles, including the Australian championship in 1931, 1932, and 1933. They were defeated in the Queen’s Club tournament final and the Wimbledon quarter-final in 1932. The couple lived in a Kings Cross flat until Marjorie’s death in 1983.

Six feet (183 cm) tall and not an impressive athlete, Crawford credited his success from 1928 to long practice sessions against Percy Jepson’s tennis machine gun. ‘Gentleman Jack’ was a natural stylist and had a competitive streak but was renowned for his sportsmanship and polite demeanour on the court. Identifiable by his long flannel trousers and long-sleeved shirt, buttoned at the wrist, he never felt the need to wear shorts as Quist began to do in the late 1930s, and claimed that long, viyella sleeves absorbed sweat and kept his tennis hand dry. An asthmatic, he found long matches difficult and energy-sapping. At his prime he spearheaded a national interest in tennis, particularly through Davis Cup competition. In 1933 he declined a lucrative professional contract to play in the United States of America. Rejected on medical grounds for service during World War II, he raised money for the Red Cross in exhibition games with Quist, John Bromwich, and a visiting American serviceman, Frank Kovacs. Although his tennis career was waning after the war, he still scored wins over Australia’s best.

In 1946, with his friend George Ryder [q.v.18], he became a partner in Jack Crawford and Ryder Pty Ltd, a wholesale business making and distributing sporting trophies; their association was to last thirty-six years. Through Ryder he became a member of the Sydney Turf and Australian Jockey clubs and attended races regularly with Marjorie. Tennis connections were also instrumental in his membership of a syndicate that owned the racehorse Constant Wonder. After Crawford’s retirement from national competition Ryder organised a testimonial appeal at the behest of the United States professional Jack Kramer. As the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia would not allow professionals to play at White City, it was held at Sydney Athletic Field on 6 January 1959.

In retirement Crawford played at White City courts every Thursday and Sunday, his distinctive long flannels always drawing a crowd of onlookers who marvelled at ‘Craw’s’ effortless technique. His health declining in the 1980s, he moved to the Hunter Valley. He died on 10 September 1991 at Cessnock and was buried in the Anglican cemetery, Denham Court. Appointed OBE for services to sport in 1976 and inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1979, he was posthumously included in the Australian Tennis Hall of Fame in 1997. The Jack Crawford Cup (for men aged over seventy years) has been contested annually since 1983. Crawford brought joy to the growing tennis crowds of the 1930s with a graceful, fluent style, which many aspiring players emulated until the 1970s.

Crawford, Jack. Interview by Neil Bennetts, 1 March 1980. Transcript. National Library of Australia; Danzig, Allison and Peter Schwed. The Fireside Book of Tennis. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972; Kendall, Allan. Australia’s Wimbledon Champions. Sydney: ABC Books, 1995; Kendall, Allan. Personal communication; Metzler, Paul. ‘The Great Jack Crawford.’ Tennis Australia. November 1991, 26–28; People (Sydney). ‘Jack Crawford – He Loathes Losing but He Kept it Quiet.’ 6 June 1951, 36–38; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘Australia’s Gentleman of Tennis.’ 11 September 1991, 10.

Kerry Regan

CRAWFORD, RAYMOND MAXWELL (MAX) (1906–1991), historian and educator, was born on 6 August 1906 at Grenfell, New South Wales, ninth of twelve children of New South Wales–born parents Henry Crawford, stationmaster, and his wife Harriet Isobel, née Wood. Max and his younger brother, the economist (Sir) John Crawford [q.v.17], were the first in the family to go to university. Harriet made sacrifices for their education while Henry was a tireless reader and inspiring storyteller. Max later acknowledged the enduring effect of his upbringing in a Presbyterian home ‘more concerned with the parable of the talents and with life as a calling than with hell’ (Crawford, Clark, and Blainey 1985, 36).

Educated at Bexley Public (1913–18) and Sydney Boys’ High (1919–23) schools, Crawford proceeded to the University of Sydney (BA, 1927). He wrote essays of prodigious length—20,000 words and more and often typed—and graduated with first-class honours in history and English. Supported by a Woolley travelling scholarship, in 1927 he went to Balliol College, Oxford (BA, 1932; MA, 1951), to read modern history. Although awarded a first-class degree, he was not attracted to academic life. He contemplated becoming a writer and considered imperial service.

Resigned to a future in teaching, Crawford returned to Australia in 1930 to take up a position as an assistant master at Sydney Grammar School. On 9 January 1932 at the Presbyterian Church, Bexley, he married a fellow schoolteacher, Dorothy Grace Cheetham. Following a term as a tutor in history at Balliol in 1932, he taught briefly at Christ’s Hospital, West Sussex, and Bradfield College, Berkshire. He returned to Australia in 1935 to a lectureship in history at the University of Sydney under (Sir) Stephen Roberts [q.v.16]. The next year, with the retirement of (Sir) Ernest Scott [q.v.11] imminent, Crawford applied for the chair in history at the University of Melbourne. He had no reason to be confident, writing in his application ‘I have not yet published any original work’ (UMA 1991.0113). He was appointed, aged thirty, and took up the post in March 1937.

The timing was propitious. The university was about to undertake a survey of student numbers and staff resources as a prelude to planning future development. The plan Crawford prepared for his department influenced its character for decades to come and saw its rise to pre-eminence among Australian departments of history. The capstone of his plan was a restructured honours school, with small tutorial classes and an emphasis on historical theory. The research thesis was relegated to a fourth master’s year for the few who wanted to take that route. Instead, the three-year honours course would educate citizens who would use their knowledge of the past to shape a better future.

Crawford and the school of history became inseparably linked—it became his school. He thought of himself later as a Renaissance historian who also wrote Australian history, and he planned ambitious studies of Spain and Russia that he never completed, but his lasting contribution to the writing of history in Australia lay elsewhere. He excelled in the classroom and lecture theatre, in particular teaching his course in the theory and method of history to a new generation of scholars who would fill positions in the rapidly expanding departments of history around Australia after World War II.

From the beginning of his time in Melbourne, Crawford was a public advocate of causes he cared about. He gathered material on what he feared was a tendency of modern government to restrict civil liberties. He made his concerns the theme of a lecture on ‘Liberty and the Law’, given on 18 May 1939 to the Australian Council for Civil Liberties, of which he was a vice president (1938–45). In May 1940 he and thirty of the university’s staff signed a letter to the press deploring a regulation enabling the government to limit the war reporting of the communist and trade union presses. The contents were anodyne, but Crawford outraged some fellow members of the professorial board for two reasons: he and the other signatories signed as individuals but also as members of the university, and the letter was published midway through the German invasion of Belgium and the Netherlands. Crawford defended himself before the professorial board, arguing that universities had ‘a professional interest’ in preserving ‘freedom of expression’ (UMA 1991.0113).

Crawford also brought to his new post an ambition to encourage Australians to recognise themselves as part of Asia and the Pacific. He joined activities to promote friendship with China and supported the creation of an Oriental studies department. He co-ordinated a co-operative of teachers and scholars to produce a school textbook, Ourselves and the Pacific (1941); by 1961 a later edition was used by more than 17,000 students taking the Victorian Intermediate certificate course ‘Australasia and the Pacific’.

In late 1941 Crawford offered his services to the Department of External Affairs for the duration of World War II. He served on the prime minister’s committee on national morale, chaired by Alf Conlon [q.v.13], and in November 1942 was appointed first secretary to the Australian legation in the Soviet Union. It was a life-changing appointment, mostly for the worse. He went with high expectations that he would promote the war effort by familiarising Russians with Australia, and Australians with Russia. Moreover, he would observe at close hand the most monumental social experiment of the twentieth century. What he found instead were obstructive and suspicious authorities, a diplomatic corps mired in cynicism, and an immovably backward society. The ‘dead hand of the past’ as much as the war, he thought, was holding back the construction of a new society. His work became increasingly routine and he suffered a succession of illnesses ranging from colds, bronchitis, and suspected pneumonia, to a condition he likened to dysentery. He was admitted to hospital in Cairo to recuperate and repatriated in January 1944.

Resuming his work at the university, Crawford began to revise his view of history in light of his experiences in the Soviet Union. Under the influence of Arnold Toynbee, he had seen human response to adversity as the most powerful source of social improvement. Now he saw necessity, chance, and the weight of the past acting to check the human quest for freedom. For a while he doubted his essentially humanistic account of the past, and sought understanding in a science of society comparable to the science of physics. In time he abandoned that, too, though more in intellectual despair than in expectation of fresh insight. We are not free to remake our world, he now thought, and the study of history is not a prelude to social action.

Even as he gave up hope for the Russian revolution, he was dogged by his previous enthusiasm for it. He was named in the Victorian parliament in 1946 as one of the ‘pink professors’ teaching communism to their students. In 1951 he defended his moderate politics when seeking entry to the United States of America, but the consulate delayed his application until Crawford cancelled the visit due to his wife’s critical illness. Dorothy died in November 1956 after a long struggle with a heart disorder.

In April 1961, at a time of heightened anxiety about communist infiltration of major institutions, Crawford wrote a letter to the Bulletin alleging misconduct by an unnamed communist in two unnamed departments at the university. Surprisingly, given his reputation as a civil libertarian sympathetic to reformist causes, he recommended that applicants for academic positions should be examined for their political affiliations. The anonymity of those concerned was soon lost in a welter of accusation and counter-accusation. One of the departments was social studies, which had earlier operated under a board Crawford chaired; its head, and a target of the alleged misconduct, was (Eileen) Ruth Hoban, whom Crawford had married in 1958. Tensions over the running of the department had emerged between Hoban and her colleague Geoff Sharp, who had Communist Party affiliations and was acting head in 1958. Crawford masked his own involvement in the matters he revealed in order to allege misconduct deriving from membership of a political party. While individual careers, including his and his wife’s, were under intense scrutiny, the damage inside Crawford’s own department was also grave. He took indefinite sick leave as the controversy escalated. The senior colleague who temporarily replaced him, John La Nauze [q.v.18], resented the interruption to his own work and speculated that a committee of inquiry might recommend termination of Crawford’s tenure. Another senior colleague, Kathleen Fitzpatrick [q.v.17], who had earlier reported her dismay at the time Crawford was devoting to social studies, resigned in 1962 citing a collapse of confidence. Crawford’s health continued to be poor over the next decade and he retired in 1970.

Crawford’s best-known book is Australia, published in four editions between 1952 and 1979. He had been a driving force behind the creation in 1940 of the journal Historical Studies, Australia and New Zealand, which in 1971 published a special issue in his honour. He served two terms (1941–42, 1945–47) as dean of the faculty of arts and was chairman (1947–57) of the board of social studies. Beyond his university he was a foundation member of both the Social Science Research Council of Australia (1942–54) and the Australian Humanities Research Council (1954–68, chair 1965–68). From 1969 he was a fellow and council member of the Australian Academy of the Humanities. He was appointed OBE in 1971.

In retirement, with his health recovered, Crawford wrote a biography (1975) of his University of Sydney teacher George Arnold Wood [q.v.12]. He called it ‘A Bit of a Rebel’, after Wood’s description of himself, but the title is equally appropriate for Crawford, who pushed against inequality and injustice and for a better society, but not too hard. Survived by his wife and the three children of his first marriage, he died on 24 November 1991 at Camberwell, Melbourne, and was cremated. The University of Melbourne named the Max Crawford Chair of History in his honour.

Anderson, Fay. An Historian’s Life: Max Crawford and the Politics of Academic Freedom. Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 2005; Crawford, R. M., Manning Clark, and Geoffrey Blainey. Making History. Fitzroy, Vic.: McPhee Gribble, 1985; Dare, Robert. ‘Max Crawford and the Study of History.’ In The Discovery of Australian History, 1890–1939, edited by Stuart Macintyre and Julian Thomas, 174–91. Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1995; Dare, Robert. ‘Theory and Method.’ In The Life of the Past: The Discipline of History at the University of Melbourne, 1855–2005, edited by Fay Anderson and Stuart Macintyre, 339–53. Melbourne: Department of History, University of Melbourne, 2006; Macintyre, Stuart, and Peter McPhee, eds. Max Crawford’s School of History. Parkville, Vic.: History Department, University of Melbourne, 2000; University of Melbourne Archives. 1991.0113, R. M. Crawford Papers.

Robert Dare

CRIBB, MARGARET NEVILLE BRIDSON (1924–1993), political scientist and journalist, was born on 4 August 1924 at Wandal, Rockhampton, Queensland, only child of Queensland-born parents Edwin Neville Catt, fitter and later mechanical engineer, and his wife Doris Ethel, née Calder, a former teacher. From Rockhampton Girls’ Grammar School, Margaret went to Windsor State School, Brisbane, where in 1938 she came third in the State-wide scholarship examination. She attended Brisbane Girls’ Grammar School from 1938 to 1941 and the University of Queensland (BA Hons, 1965; MA, 1972), intermittently as a day or external student, between 1944 and 1971.

When first at university, Catt had taken an active part in student affairs. In 1946 she was president of the Women’s Club, a delegate to the annual council meeting of the National Union of Australian University Students, a vice-president of the University of Queensland Union, and the first female editor of its newspaper, Semper Floreat. Declaring the paper’s pages open to ‘all views on controversial subjects’ (29 March 1946, 3), she published challenging articles on international, national, and local affairs, as well as reports from sporting and other clubs and societies. When conservative students unsuccessfully attempted to censor the paper, she wrote a robust editorial, ‘Strangling “Semper”?’ (17 May 1946, 2), defending press freedom.

On 12 April 1947 at St Alban’s Chapel, The Southport School, Catt married Ivor Morris Bridson Cribb; he had served in the Australian Imperial Force in World War II and had presided over the university students’ union in 1946. While he taught at the school, she resumed journalism as ‘part-owner, writer and manager’ (Magazine 1993, 17) of the South Coast Express (1949–51), a weekly newspaper for holiday-makers. The Cribbs returned to Brisbane in 1956. Ivor became the inaugural warden of International House at the University of Queensland in 1965. In the same year, having gained her undergraduate degree with first-class honours in government, Margaret joined the university’s staff as a tutor in politics. After completing her master’s thesis, on industrial militancy in the transport industry, she was appointed as a lecturer in 1972. She would be promoted to senior lecturer in 1975 and to associate professor in 1985.

Cribb was an enthusiastic and innovative teacher of Queensland politics and industrial relations, and supervisor of honours students. She initiated a requirement for third-year undergraduates to carry out industrial relations fieldwork. Additionally, she hosted forums in which selected parliamentarians from the major parties gave presentations to students and answered questions. In her 1984 application for promotion, she wrote ‘I have concentrated much of my effort into honing my skills as a teacher’ (UQA S135). Nevertheless, she also carried out extensive research, including investigations into industrial democracy in Britain, Scandinavia, and West Germany (1976), and in Yugoslavia (1979). She co-edited two books and wrote twenty journal articles and book chapters. From 1972 to 1983 she contributed ‘Political Chronicle: Queensland’ to the Australian Journal of Politics and History, and she authored twelve entries, published between 1969 and 1996, in the Australian Dictionary of Biography.

In addition to being a de facto deputy-warden of International House, Cribb served on a multitude of university committees until her retirement in 1987. Among other roles, she was a member (1973–86) and president (1978–82 and 1985) of the council of the Women’s College (honorary fellow 1992). She was active outside the university as a media commentator and lecturer to high schools and community organisations, and was a member (1978–93) and vice-chairman (1984) of the Library Board of Queensland. All political parties trusted her and sought her advice; the Queensland branch of the National Party of Australia commissioned her to report (1990) on its future direction after exposure of government corruption led to its landslide defeat in 1989.

Short of stature, Cribb was a vibrant person, who interacted effortlessly with everyone on campus, from the youngest student to the vice-chancellor. She was appointed AM in 1992 for services to education and women’s affairs. Contracting meningitis, she died on 12 August 1993 at Auchenflower, Brisbane, and, after an Anglican funeral, was cremated. Her husband and their daughter and son survived her. The university’s childcare centre was named in her honour (1994) and the school of political science and international studies established the annual Margaret Cribb memorial prize in 1995.

Magazine (Brisbane Girls’ Grammar School). ‘Obituary: Mrs Margaret Cribb.’ 1993, 17; Personal knowledge of ADB subject; Semper Floreat (University of Queensland). ‘To Contributors.’ 29 March 1946, 3; Semper Floreat (University of Queensland). ‘Strangling “Semper”?’ 17 May 1946, 2; University of Queensland Archives. UQA S135, Staff Files, Margaret Cribb. Extracts provided by UQ Archives held on the ADB file.

B. J. Costar

CRONE, DONALD JOHN (1923–1994), architect, was born on 25 July 1923 at Brighton, Melbourne, second son of Herbert John Crone, accountant, and his wife Margaret Jane, née Westmore. Donald was educated at Wilson Street State and Hampton High schools. Having gained the Intermediate certificate, he joined Brooks Robinson & Co. in 1938 as an architectural draughtsman, while studying at Melbourne Technical College.

Mobilised in World War II, Crone enlisted as a draughtsman in the Citizen Military Forces on 9 September 1941 and transferred to the Australian Imperial Force in October 1942. He served in Port Moresby at the headquarters of New Guinea Force (1942–43) and at Hollandia, Netherlands New Guinea, and Morotai in the Maluku Islands at Advanced Allied Land Forces Headquarters (1944–45). In 1943 he was promoted to acting sergeant (substantive 1944). His AIF service ended in Melbourne on 27 November 1945.

On his return to Melbourne Crone enrolled at the University of Melbourne under the Commonwealth Reconstruction Training Scheme (BArch, 1951). On 11 January 1947 at St Andrew’s Church of England, Brighton, he married Swiss-born Annalies Arbenz, a clerk. Graduating among the top of his class, he had begun work in 1950 at the firm of Mussen & Mackay. He then worked briefly for (Sir) Roy Grounds [q.v.17] before moving in 1956 to Stephenson & Turner. While with Grounds, he had designed a modernist house at Black Rock for the cricketer Lindsay Hassett [q.v.]. This house has been identified as the earliest of his commissions and as the only known example of his work in Victoria.

Relocated to Sydney with his family in 1957, Crone worked as lead architect on the munitions factory at St Marys, before returning to Melbourne in 1958 to Stephenson & Turner. He moved back to Sydney to work on the expansion of the General Motors Holden plant at Pagewood in mid-1958, before returning to Melbourne once more in 1959. There, he was approached by the developer Stanley Korman [q.v.17] to join his Stanhill Consolidated Ltd, and subsequently resigned from Stephenson & Turner.

With Korman, Crone shifted again to Sydney to design the Chevron-Hilton (later Chevron) hotel at Potts Point. Planned as a two-stage development for Hilton Hotels International, it consisted of two towers at right angles to each other perched on the ridgeline in Macleay Street. Stage 1 included a 15-storey, 220-room hotel, with stage 2 adding a 35-storey wing creating a total of 1,200 rooms. These plans would have made it the biggest hotel in the southern hemisphere and the tallest in Australia. While stage 1 opened in September 1960, however, stage 2 never eventuated. Despite lacking the additional tower, the Chevron-Hilton was Sydney’s first postwar international hotel and propelled Sydney back into competition for the international tourist dollar. The use of a glass wall as the facade was one of Sydney’s first examples and considered by some to be the best of the period. Crone and others took advantage of the view in 1964 to watch the Beatles appear on a balcony of the Sheraton Hotel opposite.

Leaving Stanhill in 1961, Crone set up his own practice. During the 1960s Donald Crone & Associates Pty Ltd (later Crone & Associates) was commissioned to undertake numerous projects for David Jones Ltd, including the design of its distribution centre and alterations to existing department stores. Other major projects during this period included Bankstown Square shopping centre, the Prudential Building in North Sydney, the Bank of New South Wales in Pitt Street, the Imperial Arcade, and the restoration of the heritage building in King Street that housed his firm’s offices. He received an award from the New South Wales chapter of the Royal Australian Institute of Architects for best heritage refurbishment for the latter in 1979.

The AMP Society commissioned Crone to design a new retail complex and tower in Sydney. His concept, reputedly first scribbled on the back of a napkin in 1968, complemented his wider vision of pedestrian networks for Sydney via underground and overhead tunnels and bridges linking retail spaces in the central business district. He believed the tower would act as a central marker for the growing city. Crone worked with the structural engineer Alexander Wargon to realise his vision. Work on the street-level retail stores began in 1970, with the first shops opening in 1972. The tower construction, which was itself an engineering marvel for the period, began concurrently with the retail centre and continued over the next ten years. The complexity of the project resulted in long delays, with the tower not opening to the public until 1981. Despite mixed reactions, the public embraced Centrepoint’s Sydney Tower as the tallest building in Sydney (which it remained in 2018) and a major tourist attraction.

Having learned to fly, Crone also ran an air charter company, Coral Ayer Executive Flight Services, Sydney. In 1986 he retired from his architecture practice, with his son Greg taking over. His nephew Peter Crone, inspired by Donald, also became a prominent and award-winning architect, while another nephew, Barry Crone, worked as an industrial designer. Following his retirement Crone lived with his wife on a farm at Mangrove Creek, where he indulged another passion, the collection and restoration of vintage cars. Described by Neville Gruzman as a ‘swashbuckling’ and ‘ebullient character’ (1994, 13), he had transformed the skyline of Sydney. He died on 12 March 1994 at Hunters Hill and was cremated after a service at All Saints’ Anglican Church; his wife and their son and daughter survived him.

Crone, Greg. Personal communication; Earle, Jim. ‘Donald John Crone F.R.A.I.A.’ Architect, April 1994, 15; Gruzman, Neville. ‘Daring Architect Who United a City.’ Australian, 21 March 1994, 13; Hogben, Paul. ‘Double Modernity: The First International Hotels.’ In Leisure Space: The Transformation of Sydney 1945–1970, edited by Paul Hogben and Judith O’Callaghan, 51–69. Sydney: UNSW Press, 2014; National Archives of Australia. B883, VX116214.

Mark Dunn

CULLEN, KEVIN JOHN (1922–1994), medical practitioner and researcher, and vigneron, was born on 22 November 1922 at Bunbury, Western Australia, younger son of English-born Alfred Edgar Cullen, surgeon, and his locally born wife Elvie Alice, née Clarke. Educated at primary school in Bunbury for two years, Kevin boarded at Hale School, Perth (1929–39). After studying science for a year at the University of Western Australia, in 1941 he moved to the University of Melbourne (MB, BS, 1946). There, he met Tasmanian-born Diana Madeline Adams who was studying physiotherapy. They married at St Stephen’s Anglican Church, Sandy Bay, Hobart, on 13 July 1946 while Kevin was a resident medical officer at Hobart General Hospital.

In 1948 the couple settled at Busselton, Western Australia, setting up a general medical practice and physiotherapy rooms the next year. Cullen undertook further studies at the University of Edinburgh, and in 1958 became a member of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh (fellow, 1972). At the University of Western Australia (MD, 1962), while continuing his full-time practice, he completed a thesis entitled ‘A Survey of Behaviour Disorders and Related Factors in the Children of 1000 Western Australian Families’. He was the first to be awarded the degree by the university. In 1963 he gained a research fellowship and with his family travelled to the United States of America, where he continued work on longitudinal studies of child development at the University of California, Berkeley.

On his return Cullen established an institute of medical and population studies at Busselton, the main town in a region of about 6,000 people. He saw the community as a demographic laboratory that could measure the impact of common chronic conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and diabetes, and his medical practice as a suitable point of intervention to monitor public health. In 1966, with Perth-based medical practitioners and researchers, he initiated the Busselton longitudinal study, which mobilised a team of volunteers to survey the health of the adult population of the district, an exercise that was repeated every three years until 1981. There were also triennial surveys of schoolchildren and a further study of the elderly was conducted in 1989. Epidemiological data derived over the period from more than 20,000 participants, which included blood and DNA samples, were of international significance as they provided scientifically verifiable evidence for the health status of an entire community, and risk factors related to chronic disorders. A large number of scientific publications, many co-authored by Cullen, arose from the survey data.

In 1948 the Cullens had purchased land at Willyabrup, south of Busselton, in the Margaret River region. An agronomist with the State Department of Agriculture, John Gladstones, published papers in 1965 and 1966 identifying the area as a suitable locality for growing wine grapes, comparing it to the Bordeaux region in France. In collaboration with their medical friend Tom Cullity, and Geoff and Sue Juniper, the Cullens established a trial acre of vines in 1966. The vineyard, consisting of 18 acres (7.3 ha) of cabernet sauvignon and riesling vines, was established in 1971, and named Willyabrup Wines (later Cullen Wines).

The Cullens built a farmhouse and moved to the property in 1975. Diana assumed increasing responsibility for managing the vineyard, while Kevin, although actively involved, maintained his practice and research activities. He believed that they should try to perfect a cabernet sauvignon and visited Bordeaux regularly to purchase the best examples of the variety. Asserting that the wine should be full-bodied and steely in flavour, he helped make the family’s first cabernet sauvignon in 1974. He was also passionate about chardonnay and believed that the vineyard could produce a wine to rival the world’s best. Later (1986) he initiated the Cullen Wines International Chardonnay Tasting so that the Margaret River variety could be compared with other premium wines.

Cullen was a founding member (1958) of the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners and received its Faulding Research Award in 1970; as censor-in-chief (1971–72) he upheld standards for admission and supervised the board of examiners. He became a fellow of the Royal Australian College of Physicians in 1982. A foundation member of the Australian Medical Association, he won the association’s inaugural award for individual achievement in 1993. That year he was a Western Australian Citizen of the Year, and the next year he was appointed AM. Described as a man of ‘great passion’ who ‘espoused his philosophies with force and vigour’ (Welborn 1994, 11), he exuded a restless energy which he expended on long-distance running, tennis, playing the piano, and working on the family vineyard. He also exhibited ‘extraordinary charm’ (Welborn 1994, 11) and was able to inspire the Busselton population to his vision of a therapeutic community with a healthy balance of diet, exercise, and leisure. Having battled motor neurone disease for eighteen months, he died at Busselton on 9 February 1994 and was cremated; his wife, three sons, and three daughters survived him. The Busselton health studies completed fifty years of operation in 2016. Cullen Wines continued to function under the management first of his wife and then his youngest daughter. The winery’s 2006 vintage chardonnay commemorated his contribution, and the community health centre in Busselton was named in his honour.

Busselton Population Medical Research Institute. ‘Busselton Health Study. Celebrating 50 Years of the Busselton Health Study.’ n.d. Accessed 15 December 2017. bpmri.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/BPMRI-50-years-Booklet-2016.pdf. Copy held on ADB file; Cullen, Ariane. Personal communication; Cullen, Richard. Personal communication; Cullen Wines. ‘Cullen Wines, Wilyabrup, Margaret River.’ Accessed 15 December 2017. www.cullenwines.com.au/. Copy held on ADB file; Halliday, James. The Australian Wine Encyclopedia. Prahan, Vic.: Hardie Grant Books, 2009; McCall, Michael. ‘Dr Kevin Cullen.’ Medicus, February 1994, 16; Welborn, Tim. ‘Promoter of Healthy Milieu.’ Australian, 16 February 1994, 11.

Geraldine Byrne

CUMMINGS, CLEMENT JAMES (1908–1991), soldier, accountant, and sportsman, was born on 25 May 1908 at Atherton, Queensland, eighth child of Queensland-born Albert John Askew Cummings, butcher, and his German-born wife Emma Ernestine, née Hoffmann. Educated at Cairns Boys’ and Cairns High schools, Clem joined Burns, Philp & Co. Ltd as an office boy and trainee bookkeeper in 1922. He became office manager for North Queensland Airways Pty Ltd in 1937 and was Cairns branch manager for Melrose & Fenwick Pty Ltd, monumental masons, when World War II began. A well-known local sportsman, he excelled at rugby league and cricket. On 27 December 1933 at the Methodist church, Tolga, he married Mary Adell Robinson, a nurse.

Cummings had joined the Citizen Military Forces (CMF) in 1927. Having risen to the rank of major, he was appointed to the Australian Imperial Force in that rank on 13 October 1939. From June 1940 he was a company commander with the 2/12th Battalion in Britain, then second-in-command of the 2/33rd Battalion in Egypt, Palestine, and Syria. On 27 December 1941 he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and appointed to command the 2/9th Battalion, which returned to Australia in February 1942. He led it through hard-fought operations in Papua at Milne Bay (September), and Buna, where he was wounded (December), and in New Guinea at Shaggy Ridge (January–February 1944). In August 1944 he was promoted to temporary colonel and placed in command of the 1st Australian Beach Group, which facilitated the landing on Labuan Island, Borneo, on 10 June 1945.

As commanding officer of the 2/9th, Cummings built a reputation for calm, professional resolve. He was neither flamboyant nor gung-ho, but he radiated confidence right down to the lowest ranks: as Warrant Officer Vince Donnelly recalled, ‘If Clem said it was on—it was on—and (his troops) made it happen’ (Brune 2003, 378). Cummings’s superiors shared this confidence and, although he repeatedly clashed with Brigadier (Sir) George Wootten [q.v.16] about hastily mounted attacks at Buna, Wootten still nominated him for the Distinguished Service Order, citing his leadership, command and tactical ability; the recommendation resulted in Cummings being mentioned in despatches. Wootten had also recommended his appointment as OBE (1943) for his actions at Milne Bay. Brigadier (Sir) Frederick Chilton, Cummings’s commander in the Ramu Valley, considered him `a mighty soldier’ and `one of the best infantry commanders’ he had met (Baker and Knight 2000, 255). Chilton successfully recommended him for the DSO (1945).

On 24 November 1945 Cummings transferred to the Reserve of Officers as an honorary colonel. Resuming his job with Melrose & Fenwick, he became an energetic member of the Cairns community, umpiring rugby league matches, serving as a justice of the peace, and filling leadership positions in several community organisations including the Returned Services League of Australia (RSL), Legacy, Boy Scouts’ Association, Cairns Life Saving Club and the Cairns AIF Memorial Masonic Lodge.

At the 1946 Federal election he stood as a Country Party candidate for the seat of Kennedy, but was unable to defeat the sitting Labor member, William Riordan [q.v.16]. His attempt to enter the Queensland parliament in 1956 was also unsuccessful. In December 1949 Cummings was appointed to re-form the 51st Battalion as part of the CMF; he commanded it until 1952.

Clem and Mary moved to Canberra in 1962, for him to take up a job as accountant for Buttercup Bakeries. He then worked for the timber merchants Ern Smith Ltd. Known as ‘The Colonel’ or ‘Colonel Clem’, he became a stalwart of the Woden Valley Returned Services League Sub-Branch, being awarded the RSL’s Meritorious Service Medal (1990). Survived by his wife, two sons, and a daughter, Cummings died on 6 January 1991 at his home at Yarralumla and was cremated. His ashes are interred in the Martyn Street cemetery in Cairns, a city he continued to refer to as ‘home’.

Baker, Clive, and Greg Knight. Milne Bay 1942. Loftus, New South Wales: Australian Military History Publications, 2000; Brune, Peter. A Bastard of a Place: The Australians in Papua. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin, 2003; Dickens, Gordon. Never Late: The 2/9th Australian Infantry Battalion, 1939–1945. Loftus: Australian Military History Publications, 2005; McCarthy, Dudley. South-West Pacific Area – First Year: Kokoda to Wau. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1962; National Archives of Australia. B883, QX6011; Pratten, Garth M. Australian Battalion Commanders in the Second World War. Port Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Garth Pratten

CUNNINGHAM, EDWARD (TED) (1914–1993), grazier, community leader, and philanthropist, was born on 2 December 1914 at Bondi, Sydney, second of four children of Queensland-born parents Arthur Henry (Harry) Wickham Cunningham [q.v.8], grazier, and his wife Nellie Maud, née Wharton. As part-owner and manager, Harry Cunningham controlled a number of Queensland cattle properties from his base, Strathmore station, near Collinsville. Ted’s early education was by correspondence. He then attended Cranbrook School, Sydney (1925–30). In the 1930 Intermediate certificate examination, he received a Miss E. Hume Barbour’s prize for Australian history.

Back at Strathmore, Cunningham worked on the station and by 1936 was head stockman. Following the outbreak of World War II, he and his brothers, John and Henry, enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force, Ted on 22 July 1940. He was discharged three months later, being required in a reserved occupation because of his father’s poor health. When his father died in 1942, he took over the management and control of the family’s grazing interests. From May to August that year he served at Volunteer Defence Corps headquarters, Brisbane. One of his responsibilities during the war was to supply 5,000 head of cattle yearly to the armed forces.

On 19 December 1941 at St James’s Anglican Cathedral, Townsville, Cunningham had married Winifred Margaret Salmon; they had a daughter who died in infancy and a son before being divorced in March 1952. In a Presbyterian ceremony at Norman Park, Brisbane, on 18 April that year Cunningham married Barbara Peyton Macdonald, a private secretary; they were divorced in March 1963. At the district registrar’s office, Chatswood, Sydney, on 5 April the same year, he married Edwina Anne Crabbe, née Wedgwood, a divorcee, who was Strathmore’s bookkeeper; they were later divorced.

Described as an ‘old school’ cattleman, Cunningham bred Devon cattle and ‘woe betide any man foolish enough to suggest he change his ways’ (Andersen 1983, 169). In 1955 he was one of the first to introduce the Poll Devon strain to Australia. He was a councillor and patron of the Devon Breeders’ Society of Australia and president (1968–85) of its Queensland branch. Active in the United Graziers’ Association of Queensland, he served as president of the Bowen branch from 1942 to 1976. Beginning in 1980, he sold the leases on the eight grazing properties, other than Strathmore, that the family owned.

In 1942 Cunningham had succeeded his father as managing trustee of the Scartwater Trust, which helped war veterans to re-establish themselves in civilian life. Men and women who had resided in a defined area of North Queensland before their enlistment were eligible for assistance. The trust operated Scartwater cattle station, on the Suttor River, to fund its activities: providing interest-free loans, but also some grants, to applicants; and awarding scholarships, in the names of Scartwater and Cunningham, to their children.

By the 1960s, although the demand for scholarships was increasing, the requirement for loans and grants was declining. To expend surplus funds, Cunningham decided to establish a retirement home for ex-service personnel. The construction of the A. H. W. Cunningham Memorial Home at Queens Beach, Bowen, was completed in October 1962. Depressed conditions in the beef industry prompted the trust to sell Scartwater station in 1979 and additionally to subdivide and dispose of unused land behind the retirement home. The proceeds were invested to generate continuing income for the home and the scholarship program.

Having chaired Wangaratta Shire Council from 1955, Cunningham held the same office in the amalgamated Bowen Shire Council (1960–66). He was a director of a number of companies, including Bowen Consolidated Coal Mines Ltd. A keen showman, he exhibited his cattle and horses throughout Queensland and helped found the Collinsville Pastoral, Agricultural and Industrial Association (president, 1955–80, and life member, 1981). Horse racing was another of his abiding interests. He was chairman of the North Queensland Amateur Turf Club (1965–68) and the North Queensland Racing Association (1973–82), president (1942–93) of the Bowen River Turf Club, and a member of numerous other racing organisations. For his services to sport and the community he was appointed CBE (1974).

Motivated by a sense of ‘guardianship and care of people’ (Lewis 1994, 11), Cunningham gave dedicated service to his industry and community. A niece, Robin Slattery, described him as a kind and generous uncle who loved children. He taught them life lessons, such as the requirements to behave responsibly with money and to undertake their chores; regaled them with historical anecdotes; and told them about the Aboriginal people’s way of life. His storytelling included a lurid tale of Japanese paratroopers landing in one of his paddocks and being caught and killed; the sighting of an unidentified parachutist had been reported in April 1942. At Strathmore everyone ‘would dress with some formality for dinner with pre-dinner drinks and relaxed conversation on the polished veranda’ (Slattery 2016). A private zoo on the station provided enjoyment for visitors and the children in the extended family.

Cunningham was killed in a car accident near his property on 21 December 1993 and was cremated; his long-time companion, Blanche Marie ‘Peg’ Mott, also died in the accident. His son, Edward Thomas Cunningham, took over Strathmore; when he died in 2008 ‘the 140-year-long male Cunningham management of grazing property in North Queensland’ ended (Morgan 2008, 5). The redeveloped retirement home was renamed Cunningham Villas to acknowledge the contributions of both Harry and Ted; RSL (Qld) War Veterans Homes’ Ltd (RSL Care Ltd) took over its management in 2004. Next year the Scartwater Trust was split in two: one supporting aged care and the other, education.

Andersen, John. Bagmen Millionaires: Life and People in Outback Queensland. South Yarra, Vic.: Lloyd O’Neil Pty Ltd, 1983; Andersen, John. ‘Gripping Yarn.’ Townsville Bulletin, 14 February 2012, 15; Burke, Brian. ‘Champion of Country Ways.’ Australian, 13 January 1994, 11; Lewis, John. ‘Ted Cunningham – “Over Fork Over”.’ Bowen Independent, 4 February 1994, 11; Morgan, Ian. ‘An Era Ends with Passing of Ted Cunningham.’ North Queensland Register (Townsville), 7 August 2008, 5; National Archives of Australia. B883, QX11365; B884, Q249901; Queensland State Archives. Item ID319604, Correspondence, police; Slattery, Robin. Email to author, 11 August 2016. Copy held on ADB file; Smith, Anne. The Story of Scartwater Trust. Charters Towers, Qld: Mimosa Press Publishers, 1986.

David Anthony


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