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Australian Dictionary of Biography Volume 19: 1991–1995 (A–Z)


JACKSON, Sir LAWRENCE WALTER (1913–1993), judge and university chancellor, was born on 27 September 1913 at Dulwich, South Australia, eldest child of locally born parents Lawrence Stanley Jackson [q.v.14], public servant, and his wife Hazel Winifred, née Powell. The family moved to Sydney in 1920 after his father was promoted to assistant deputy commissioner of taxation in New South Wales. Lawrence attended Fort Street Boys’ High School and was awarded a public exhibition in 1931. After studying at the University of Sydney (BA, 1934; LLB, 1937), he was admitted as a solicitor of the Supreme Court of New South Wales in 1937.

Without any immediate prospects in Sydney, Lawrence accepted an offer of employment from his uncle Horace Jackson, who had established a law firm in Perth. On 16 December that year he was admitted as a barrister and solicitor of the Supreme Court of Western Australia. He returned to Sydney and married Mary Donaldson—whom he had met as a fellow student at a university ball—at the Congregational church, Mosman, on 30 December. They left for Perth the following day. He formally became a partner in Jackson, Leake, Stawell & Co. on 1 January 1938. The newlyweds settled at Forrest Street, Peppermint Grove, across the road from his uncle’s home.

In the pre-war period Jackson practised mainly in the fields of industrial arbitration and motor vehicle insurance. Enlisting as a gunner in the Citizen Military Forces on 28 January 1942 and transferring to the Australian Imperial Force in July, he was commissioned as a lieutenant, Royal Australian Artillery, in August. His World War II service was all in Australia. It included some months in 1943 commanding the 419th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Gun Troop at Buckland Hill, overlooking the approaches to Fremantle Harbour. Having topped the qualifying course in March 1944, he was employed as a gunnery instructor before transferring to the Reserve of Officers on 2 August.

Jackson quickly established himself as a skilled junior barrister. By 1946 he was also a visiting lecturer in the law faculty at the University of Western Australia (UWA). In 1949 he received an offer to be appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court of Western Australia, on the condition that he also serve as president of the Arbitration Court. He accepted, and was president of the court until the end of 1954 when he became a full-time member of the Supreme Court bench. He was the youngest person to have been appointed a judge of the court.

A tall, lean, and athletic man, in his leisure Jackson devoted time to improving his golf handicap and participated in the annual cricket match between practitioners and articled clerks. Determined to contribute to community life, he was president (1951–63) of the Western Australian Cricket Association Inc., inaugural chairman (1959–66) of the council of the Western Australian branch of the National Trust of Australia, a member of the organising council for the 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games held in Perth, and chairman (1965–71) of the regional committee of the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust. He became a member of the senate of UWA in 1958. In August 1966 the State government appointed him to chair a committee to examine the needs of tertiary education in Western Australia. The Jackson report was a catalyst for the creation of a second university in the State. Among its recommendations were that UWA limit its student intake on the present site; that the university begin planning for a new campus, one which might later become independent; and that sites be reserved for future tertiary institutions. He became chancellor of UWA in 1968 and the newly opened Murdoch University would award him an honorary doctorate in 1975.

On 2 May 1969 Jackson was appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court, succeeding Sir Albert Wolff [q.v.Supp]. Having been knighted in 1964, he was elevated to KCMG in 1970. Sir Lawrence changed the atmosphere at the court from a combative mood between the bench and the Bar to one of mutual respect. He introduced procedural reforms in a new set of Supreme Court rules in 1972. Soon after his appointment he had been called upon to review proceedings arising out of a collision between two ferries competing for custom. His determination created a valuable precedent as to the workings of the Court of Marine Inquiry. In Nicholas v. Western Australia (1972) he investigated the claim of prospecting companies that the State parliament’s amendment of the Mining Act with a view to extinguishing certain rights was invalid as it was an interference with the role of the courts. Jackson held that the provision lay within the plenary power of a sovereign parliament. A formal sitting of the court on 23 December 1976 marked his retirement. In an interview he quipped that he intended to ‘catch up on the forty years of reading I’ve missed’ (Thomas 1977, 7).

Throughout Jackson’s twenty-eight years on the bench he approached his judicial work with an open mind. In the courtroom he was witty and courteous while remaining firm. His term as chief justice, according to the Australian Law Journal, was characterised by ‘inspired leadership which attracted the loyalty of his judicial colleagues and the ready co-operation of the legal profession’ (1977, 162). His successor, Sir Francis Burt, recalled that Jackson’s judgments were ‘easy to read, easy to understand and never proceeded beyond the question to be decided’ (1993, 12).

Jackson continued to serve as chancellor of UWA until 22 May 1981. The following year the university awarded him the honorary degree of doctor of laws. Survived by his wife, son, and two daughters, he died at Subiaco on 5 June 1993 and was cremated. His career was honoured at a special sitting of the Supreme Court. A barristers’ chambers were named after him and his portrait by Romola Templeman hangs in the Supreme Court. At UWA a courtyard bears his name; a bronze sculpture, The Dancer by Greg James, was erected in his honour; and his portrait by Reginald Campbell is held in the art collection.

Aitken, D. H. ‘A Chancellor Retires.’ University News (University of Western Australia) 12, no. 4 (June 1981): 3; Australian Law Journal. ‘Sir Lawrence Jackson.’ 51 (March 1977): 162; Bolton, Geoffrey, and Geraldine Byrne. May It Please Your Honour: A History of the Supreme Court of Western Australia 18612005. Perth: Law Society of Western Australia, 2005; Burt, Sir Francis. ‘Sir Lawrence Walter Jackson KCMG, 1913–1993.’ Brief 20, no. 6 (July 1993): 10–13; Davies, Diana. Interview by the author, 2 December 2013; Jackson, Alton. Interview by the author, 31 July 2013; National Archives of Australia. B883, WX30457; Thomas, Athol. ‘Chief Justice Looks Back …’ West Australian, 7 February 1977, 7; Virtue, John. ‘Chief Justice.’ Ilex 10, no. 1 (1977): 12–13; Witcomb, Andrea, and Kate Gregory. From the Barracks to the Burrup: The National Trust in Western Australia. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2010.

Nicholas Hasluck

JACKSON, PETER BOWEN (1918–1993), air force officer and bank officer, was born on 17 July 1918 at Launceston, Tasmania, son of Victorian-born Stanley Bowen Jackson, electrician, and his locally born wife Vera Gladys, née Connell, nurse. In 1924 the family moved to Camberwell, Victoria. Peter was educated at Box Hill High School where he was an outstanding sportsman, captaining the cricket XI and Australian Rules football XVIII. His leadership potential was further recognised by his appointment as a prefect and, in 1935, as captain of the school’s Deakin House. Having been awarded the school Leaving certificate, he commenced employment as a clerk with the National Bank of Australasia (NBA), Melbourne. He also became an assistant scoutmaster, winning the King’s scout badge. After World War II broke out in 1939, he served part time (1940–41) in the Citizen Military Forces with the 65th Anti-Aircraft Company, attaining the rank of staff sergeant.

Standing at 6 feet 1 inch (185 cm) tall, with fair hair and hazel eyes, Jackson enlisted in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) on 10 October 1941. After attending training schools at Essendon and in New South Wales at Temora, he was posted to Canada where he underwent further training. He arrived in Britain on 16 December 1942. Having completed operational training, he joined No. 102 Squadron, Royal Air Force, on 12 August 1943 and was promoted to flight sergeant on the same day. The squadron operated Halifax bombers, and was engaged in attacking targets in Germany and occupied Europe. On 12 October he was commissioned.

During the night of 22–23 October, Jackson flew one of 562 aircraft that attacked Kassel, Germany, headquarters of Wehrkreis (military district) IX, and the site of a sub-camp of Dachau concentration camp. Although one engine failed on the outward flight, ‘undeterred … he continued to the target and bombed it from a low level. His effort was typical of the determination he has shown throughout his tour of operations’ (London Gazette 1943). He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Medal. An acting flight lieutenant from January 1944, Jackson was promoted to flying officer in April. On 30 June he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for having ‘completed many successful operations against the enemy in which he has displayed high skill, fortitude and devotion to duty’ (NAA A9300).

From May 1944 to January 1945 Jackson served as an instructor at No. 27 Operational Training Unit, where he continued to impress, being described by his commanding officer as ‘a good conversion instructor … keen and conscientious … who has been an asset to the unit’ (NAA A9300). Jackson returned to Australia in January 1946, and his RAAF appointment terminated on 26 February. In May he rejoined the NBA. Appointed to the relieving staff, he became a teller in the following month. On 17 January 1948 he married Margaret Ellen Gray, a teacher, at St Kilda Presbyterian Church. By the time he retired in July 1980 he had risen to officer-in-charge of the bank’s share and debenture registry. He died on 19 August 1993 at Clayton and was cremated. His wife, their three daughters, and two of their three sons survived him.

Argus (Melbourne). ‘He Had Scores to Settle with the Nazis.’ 12 August 1944, Week-End Magazine 5; London Gazette. 23 November 1943, 5133, 30 June 1944, 3090; Middlebrook, Martin, and Chris Everitt. The Bomber Command War Diaries: An Operational Reference Book 1939–1945. Harmondsworth, UK: Viking, 1985; National Archives of Australia. A9300, Jackson, Peter Bowen.

David Wilson

JACKSON, Sir ROBERT GILLMAN (1911–1991), naval officer and international civil servant, was born on 8 November 1911 at Fitzroy, Melbourne, and baptised as Wilbur Kenneth, younger son of Archibald Jackson, a Scottish-born engineer, journalist, and company chairman, and his Irish-born second wife Kathleen Crooke, née Williams. Known as Rob, he was educated at Cheltenham State (1918–20) and the original (1922) and successor (1923–28) Mentone Grammar schools—where, at the latter, his father was a prominent council member—he excelled at both study and sport. Having to forgo university because of his father’s death in 1928, he applied for a paymaster cadetship in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN); he was selected from a large field of candidates and appointed on 1 May 1929.

While serving in HMA ships Australia (1929–31), Canberra (1931–36), and Sydney (1936–38), Jackson impressed successive Royal Navy (RN) flag officers commanding the Australian Squadron, including Rear Admiral (Sir) Wilbraham Ford. Jackson was promoted to paymaster lieutenant in 1933. He changed his given names to Robert Gillman Allen by deed poll in 1937 but was universally known as ‘Jacko’. On 18 October that year at St David’s Anglican Cathedral, Hobart, he married Una Margaret (Peggy) Dick; they were later divorced.

In 1938 Ford, by then vice admiral, Malta, arranged for Jackson to be loaned to the RN and appointed in June as secretary to his chief staff officer. The threat of war prompted a revision of the Malta Command Defence Scheme. Ford reported that Jackson ‘worked almost without cessation’ on the document’s naval section and was responsible for its ‘rapid issue’, emphasising that his ‘energy, initiative and ability were outstanding’ (NAA A3978). Following the Munich crisis in September, Jackson wrote a paper that Ford believed was influential in persuading the British government that the island could and should be defended.

With Malta under siege by Axis forces, in August 1940 Jackson was promoted to acting paymaster lieutenant commander (substantive 1941) and temporary paymaster commander, and appointed officer-in-charge of the coordination of supplies to the fortress. In late 1941 Ford and Lieutenant General Sir William Dobbie, the governor and commander-in-chief, Malta, credited Jackson with having played a significant part in the successful British defence of the island. He was appointed OBE (1941).

Jackson’s proficiency in military and civilian logistics came to the attention of Oliver Lyttelton (Viscount Chandos), the minister of state for the Middle East. On 1 November 1941 he was appointed to the British Civil Service as a Treasury officer on Lyttelton’s staff; he was placed on the RAN Retired List the same day. From 1942 to 1944 Jackson served as director-general of the Anglo-American Middle East Supply Centre, a Cairo-based organisation that controlled the economies of the countries in the region to ensure that civilian and military needs for food and materials were met. He travelled widely, using his diplomatic skills to gain the cooperation of governments in restricting imports, increasing production, sharing surpluses, and accepting austerity. For his work, he was appointed CMG (1944).

Recognising Jackson’s aptitude for managing a large humanitarian aid project, the British government lent him in February 1945 to the struggling United Nations (UN) Relief and Rehabilitation Administration; on 7 May he became senior deputy director. He was simultaneously director of UNRRA’s European regional office, which was responsible for more than 80 per cent of the administration’s total expenditure. His characteristic vigour was ‘combined with a truly global wisdom to make UNRRA an effective instrument for economic reconstruction’ (Cleveland 1959, 17). He realised that failure of the UN’s first operational body would shake international confidence in the UN concept itself. By the time he left in October 1947, the administration had saved countless lives, his efforts earning widespread praise. In May 1948 he assumed office as assistant secretary-general for coordination, but his forceful personality upset the secretary-general, Trygve Lie, and other assistant secretaries-general, and he was removed about four months later. He returned to the British Treasury.

In 1950 Jackson was lent to the Australian government to head the new Department of National Development, his appointment becoming effective on 17 March. With the outbreak of the Korean War in June, increasing the momentum of the Cold War, he advocated measures to improve Australia’s national security through immigration and the exploitation of natural resources. In particular, he strongly supported the Snowy Mountains hydro-electric scheme. On 1 October he was relieved of his duties to allow him to return to England. Having converted to Catholicism, on 16 November 1950 at St Felix Church, Felixstowe, East Suffolk, he married (Dame) Barbara Mary Ward (Baroness Jackson), then assistant editor of the Economist; they would later separate. Jackson resumed his post on 11 May 1951.

Jackson’s Australian secondment having ended, he left for England in January 1952 but the Commonwealth government paid for him to visit India and Pakistan that year to advise those countries’ governments on development planning. In 1953 the British government appointed him to be the special commissioner of the Preparatory Commission of the Volta River Project, a massive hydro-electric power and aluminium-smelting scheme in the colony of the Gold Coast (Ghana). He moved to Accra. Between 1957 and 1962 he was chairman of independent Ghana’s Commission for Development. He had been knighted in 1956 and he was appointed KCVO in 1962 for assisting with a visit to the country by Queen Elizabeth II.

Based mainly in New York, Jackson undertook consultancies and assignments for the UN. From 1963 he also worked part time as an adviser to the Liberian government. A member (1962–75) of the Mekong Committee’s advisory board, in 1963 he became a consultant to the UN Special Fund, which was later subsumed in the UN Development Programme. In 1968 he was appointed to review the entire UN organisation for assisting developing countries. A Study of the Capacity of the United Nations Development System (1969)—which he prepared in collaboration with his British chief of staff, (Dame) Margaret Anstee—emphasised technical cooperation, the need for a central UN coordinating body, and synchronisation with recipient countries’ national development strategies. Although never fully implemented, the report came to be seen ‘as a seminal work’ (Gibson 2006, 235).

Jackson’s leadership qualities, operational skills, and political finesse continued to be in demand for humanitarian work. Between 1972 and 1974 he was under-secretary-general-in-charge of the UN relief operations in Bangladesh, the mission serving as a model of how to orchestrate close interaction between competing agencies. He coordinated UN assistance to Zambia (1973–77), Indochina (1975–77), and Cape Verde (1976–77). As the UN secretary-general’s special representative for Kampuchean (Cambodian) relief from 1979 to 1984, he oversaw the humanitarian mission for refugees along the Thai–Cambodian border.

Although Jackson could be abrupt and intolerant of inefficiency, colleagues found him to be fair as well as firm, and to have a pleasant disposition overall. Gibson described him as ‘a commanding figure: very tall and slim, with wavy auburn hair and smiling blue eyes’ (2006, vii). Completely committed to whatever task was at hand, he possessed a ‘remarkable capacity for absorbing the technical details and procedures of specialist work’ (Gibson 2006, 32). He was an international ‘logistical genius’ (Karetny and Weiss 2015, 102), who displayed exceptional ability in dealing with large-scale, multi-dimensional emergencies. In 1986 he was appointed AC.

Sir Robert died on 12 January 1991 at Roehampton, Wandsworth, London, and was cremated. He was survived by Margaret Anstee, his close personal companion for more than twenty years, and by the son of his second marriage. His portrait, by Judy Cassab, was commissioned for the Palais des Nations in Geneva. When unveiling it in 1997, the UN secretary-general, Kofi Annan, asked: ‘Jacko, where are you now when we need you?’ (Gibson 2006, xi). Annan based his strategy for improving the coherence and coordination of UN programs to a considerable degree on Jackson’s still-relevant capacity study.

Bodleian Library, University of Oxford. MSS Eng c. 4676–4678, 4733, Papers relating to Robert Jackson’s service with the UN, Western Manuscripts, Private Collection, United Nations Career Records Project; Cleveland, Harlan. ‘Introduction: History of an Idea 1959.’ In The Case for an International Development Authority, by Robert G. A. Jackson, edited by Harlan Cleveland, 5–18. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1959; Columbia University Libraries, Rare Book and Manuscript Library. MS 0659, Papers of Sir Robert G. A. Jackson; Gibson, James. Jacko, Where Are You Now?: A Life of Robert Jackson, Master of Humanitarian Relief, the Man who Saved Malta. Richmond, UK: Parsons Publishing, 2006; Jackson, Robert G. A. The Case for an International Development Authority, Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1959; Jackson, R. G. A. Interview by Richard Symonds, March–April 1978. Transcript. Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Columbia University Libraries; Jackson, R. G. A. Interview by William Powell, 29 November 1985 and 21 February 1986. Transcript. United Nations Archives, New York; Jackson, R. G. A. A Study of the Capacity of the United Nations Development System. 2 vols. Geneva: United Nations, 1969; Karetny, Eli, and Thomas G. Weiss. ‘UNRRA’s Operational Genius and Institutional Design.’ In Wartime Origins and the Future United Nations, edited by Dan Plesch and Thomas G. Weiss, 99–120. London: Routledge, 2015; Mitcham, Chad J. ‘Australia and Development Cooperation at the United Nations: Towards Poverty Reduction.’ In Australia and the United Nations, edited by James Cotton and David Lee, 191–221. Canberra: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and Sydney: Longueville Books, 2013; National Archives of Australia. A3497, JACKSON R G A, A3978, JACKSON R G A, A6769, JACKSON R G A; National Archives (UK). CAB 2/9 and FO 371/72645.

Chad Mitcham

JACKSON, Sir RONALD GORDON (1924–1991), company chairman and adviser to governments, was born in Brisbane on 5 May 1924, first son and third child of Queensland-born Rupert Vaughan Jackson, clerk, and his New South Wales–born wife Mary, née O’Rourke. Educated at Brisbane Grammar School, Gordon—as he was known—joined the Colonial Sugar Refining Company Ltd (CSR) as a clerk in 1941. Having been mobilised in the Citizen Military Forces as a gunner in May 1942, he transferred to the Australian Imperial Force on 13 August. The army recorded that he was 5 feet 9 inches (175 cm) tall, with brown eyes, dark hair, and a fair complexion. From July 1943 to March 1944 he served in Papua as a sergeant in the 163rd Light Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battery. He then performed training duties in Australia until his discharge on 2 July 1946.

Returning to CSR, Jackson continued part-time studies at the University of Queensland (BCom, 1949), which he had begun before enlisting in the army. On 3 April 1948 at All Saint’s Church of England Cathedral, Bathurst, New South Wales, he married Margaret Alison Pratley. He moved to the company’s headquarters in Sydney and in 1951 assisted in negotiations of the Commonwealth Sugar Agreement in London. When the British government indicated its wish in 1961 to join the European Economic Community, the managing director of CSR, (Sir) James Vernon, saw the need to diversify the company’s overseas markets away from Britain and Europe towards Japan and Asia; Jackson shared Vernon’s vision. As head of the sugar marketing division, he was charged with helping the company to negotiate two long-term sugar contracts with Japan.

In 1964 Jackson was promoted to senior executive officer. That year the mining company, American Metal Climax Inc. (AMAX), approached CSR as a potential partner to mine massive iron ore deposits that had been discovered in 1957 at Mt Whaleback, Western Australia. Through partnerships with AMAX and later with Broken Hill Proprietary Co. Ltd (BHP) in the Mount Newman Mining Co., Jackson built CSR’s connection with one of the largest and most successful mining companies operating in Australia, supplying the Japanese steel industry with iron ore. While the Mount Newman operation was still being planned, in 1964 the European company, Swiss Aluminium, approached CSR to join it in a project to develop bauxite deposits at Gove, Northern Territory. The two companies formed the North Australian Bauxite and Alumina Co. (Nabalco) after being awarded a lease to those resources by the Commonwealth government. In 1968 disputes over the structure of the project and the distribution of profits drew Jackson into complicated financial negotiations in Zurich and Sydney that resulted in a restructuring of Nabalco as a venture consisting of two separate companies, Swiss Aluminium and Gove Alumina, CSR’s vehicle for mining bauxite and producing alumina. Later, Jackson would steer Gove Alumina into the construction of an aluminium smelter at Tomago, New South Wales, using alumina produced in the Northern Territory.

Aware of his leadership potential, in 1970 CSR’s board sponsored Jackson on courses of management study in the United States of America at the Sloan School of Management (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and the Stanford Research Institute. In June 1972 he took over from Vernon as general manager and chief executive officer. Hearing of an attempt by the mining entrepreneur Lang Hancock [q.v.] to acquire finance in the United States to take over CSR for use as a vehicle for planned mining operations in Western Australia, Jackson introduced far-reaching administrative and financial reforms to strengthen his company. The essential elements were long-term strategic planning, monthly reporting, and the creation of a less centralised structure with greater autonomy for its divisions.

Under Jackson’s leadership, CSR further diversified into minerals and energy in the 1970s and 1980s. At the suggestion of the Japanese trading house Mitsui, CSR purchased the Hunter Valley soft coal producer Buchanan Borehole Colliery in the early 1970s, and in the latter half of the decade secured a stake in a major coking coal project at Hail Creek in central Queensland. Jackson’s most ambitious acquisition was the $460 million takeover in 1980 of Thiess [q.v.] Holdings Ltd, the mining and construction company that was central to coal operations in Queensland’s Bowen Basin. At the time this was the largest takeover in Australian history. Increases in oil prices in the 1970s had raised demand for thermal coal; together with coking coal it became Australia’s main export earner.

Following Vernon’s example of providing service to government, in 1973 Jackson had been a member of Australia’s first trade mission to the People’s Republic of China. In July 1974 the Whitlam government appointed him chairman of a committee to advise on policies for the manufacturing industry. The Jackson committee, as it was known, focused on foreign ownership of Australian companies, deep-seated malaise in industry, and the need to rekindle enthusiasm in manufacturing. It made recommendations on tariffs, the exchange rate, balance of power and capital flows, and criticised the Industries Assistance Commission’s approach to the manufacturing sector as academic. The government implemented only some of the committee’s recommendations. In 1976 he was appointed AC for eminent achievement and merit in the field of industry and business management.

After retiring in 1982, Jackson remained with the company as a director and deputy chairman until March 1985. Under his management CSR had developed into a large diversified industrial group with divisions responsible for sugar, building materials, aluminium, minerals, coal, and petroleum, and gross annual sales of more than $3 billion. He had succeeded in moving CSR out of many industries protected by government and into internationally competitive ones. More than half of its sales were exported to countries within the Pacific basin.

In retirement Jackson continued to serve on the board of the Reserve Bank of Australia (1975–91), donating his fee to the Salvation Army. The University of New South Wales awarded him an honorary doctorate of science in 1982, and in 1983 he was appointed AK. From 1983 to 1991 he was chairman of both the Australian Industry Development Corporation and the Police Board of New South Wales. He also headed a committee to review Australia’s overseas aid program. In 1983 the government adopted the committee’s main recommendations for more clearly identifying the objectives of foreign aid, improving its administration, and moving to country programming. Chancellor of The Australian National University, Canberra, from 1987, ill health forced his resignation in 1990. Sir Gordon was a profound thinker and compassionate leader. He was a member of the Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron as well as the Australian, Union, and Royal Sydney Golf clubs. His interests included fishing and photography. Survived by his wife, daughter, and son, he died of colon cancer on 1 June 1991 at Pymble, Sydney, and was cremated.

Australia. Policies for Development of Manufacturing Industry: A Green Paper. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1977; Australia. Report of the Committee to Review the Australian Overseas Aid Program. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1984; Bell, Stephen. Australian Manufacturing and the State: The Politics of Industry Policy in the Post-War Era. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1993; Gadiel, David. ‘A Review of the Jackson Committee on Policies for Development of Manufacturing Industries in Australia.’ Australian Quarterly 48, no. 2 (June 1976): 32–41; Lee, David. ‘The Development of Bauxite at Gove, 1955–1975.’ Journal of Australasian Mining History 12 (Oct. 2014): 131–47, ‘The Establishment of Iron Ore Giants: Hamersley Iron and the Mount Newman Mining Company.’ Journal of Australasian Mining History 11 (Oct. 2013): 61–77; Moynagh, Michael. ‘The Negotiation of the Commonwealth Sugar Agreement, 1949–1951.’ Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 15, no. 2 (1977): 170–90; National Library of Australia. MS 8353, Jackson, Sir Gordon; Noel Butlin Archives Centre, Australian National University. AU NBAC Z390, Sir Gordon Jackson Collection.

David Lee

JACOBY, ELSA ANTOINETTE (also Elza) RUTH (1910–1994), actress, opera singer, and fundraiser, was born Eliza Antoinette Ruth on 2 May 1910 at Neutral Bay, North Sydney, fifth surviving child of English-born Edwin James Stenning, builder, and his New South Wales–born wife Leah, née Gutterridge. After attending North Sydney Girls’ High School, Eliza began her first career, in Australia’s embryonic film industry. At the age of eighteen, in 1928, she starred—under the name Elza Stenning—in The Devil’s Playground, a film produced by the Australian company Fineart Film Productions Ltd. The movie was set in the South Pacific, and featured cannibals and unethical white characters. She played the romantic lead, Naneena. Although the rights had been sold overseas, the film was banned for export because of a scene in which Naneena was whipped. The Devil’s Playground would not be seen in Australia for nearly forty years. Even then, it aroused controversy at its first showing, at the unlikely venue of the crowded St Mark’s Anglican Church hall, Avalon Beach, in 1966. By then a celebrity, she was much amused by the movie.

On 24 May 1930 Stenning married the Sydney-born sculptor Lyndon Raymond Dadswell [q.v.17] in a Congregational service at Windsor, Melbourne. While her husband worked on sandstone panels commissioned for Victoria’s Shrine of Remembrance, Elza continued her performing career. She had a minor role in Frank Thring [q.v.12] senior’s successful film Harmony Row.

By 1933 the Dadswells were living in North Sydney. Their son Paul Anthony was born that year, and at the end of the year Lyndon won the Wynne prize for his sculpture Youth. Their future seemed promising. Then tragedy struck. On 25 February 1934 baby Paul died from injuries received in a car accident while his Dadswell grandfather was driving and his grandmother was nursing him in the front seat.

Working as a model to pay for singing lessons, Elza gained experience in her second career, as an opera singer. In January 1935 the Sydney Mail proclaimed her ‘a very great success’ (1935, 9) as Adele in Johann Strauss II’s Die Fledermaus. With her marriage under strain, she left Sydney to pursue her career in London, Lyndon following later. The couple subsequently divorced.

Lyndon and Elza both met new loves in London, but while he was unknown and impoverished, she was neither. As Elsa Stenning, from 1935 to 1939 she sang grand opera at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, and she also performed in pantomimes. Singing soprano, she was known as ‘the Australian nightingale’ (Another Popular Artist 1938). She was at the height of her London operatic success when she met Ian Mathieson Jacoby [q.v.14], a married Australian financier who was as dynamic and adventurous as she, and who also loved music. Jacoby divorced his wife Hilda, a violinist, and on 17 December 1943 Elza, who had returned to Australia, via South Africa, after World War II broke out, married him at the office of the government statist, Melbourne. She gave troop concerts in Australia, England, and South Africa, and appeared in support of war bonds and comfort funds, so beginning her third and last career, as a volunteer fundraiser.

After the war the Jacobys settled in style on Sydney’s harbourside above Hermit Bay, Vaucluse. Their house was to be Elsa’s home for the rest of her life, and the centrepiece of her high society existence. She continued her performing career, and also her fundraising activities for organisations, including the Sydney Opera House ladies committee, the Friends of the Australian Ballet, the Elizabethan Theatre Trust, the Arts Council of Australia (New South Wales division), and the Sydney Dance Company. An initiator and leader in a wide variety of sporting and cultural organisations—including the Australian-American Association and the Royal Motor Yacht Club of New South Wales—she hosted lunches at home, singing if requested, and spoke at countless city and country functions.

Society columns in Sydney and Melbourne newspapers told a story of Jacoby’s high life during the 1950s and 1960s. She also had her own radio show, and Sir William Dobell [q.v.14] painted her portrait (Seated Lady in a Blue Dress, 1967). In reality, her marriage and life were falling apart. Tragedy struck again when her second son, nineteen-year-old James, died on 27 May 1967. He committed suicide while awaiting trial for manslaughter following a fatal car accident the previous year. Ian had a stroke and returned to live in his hometown, Perth. Elsa divorced him for adultery in January 1970.

Once again, despite personal adversity, Jacoby continued her public life. She wrote a cookbook and her memoirs, and planned to launch a nightclub entertainer enterprise. In 1970 she played Baroness Bronoski in The Set. The film was an exposé of Sydney’s eastern suburbs high society, and was partly filmed in her house. It was ‘the first Australian feature with homosexuality as a central theme’ (Kuipers n.d.) and, although it had limited release, it became a cult movie.

In January 1972 Jacoby was appointed MBE for services to the community (she dieted and went to England so she could receive the award from the Queen). She later said:

I work to help young artists, and all forms of art—ballet, opera, theatre, etc—for the physically incapacitated, for the very young and very old and those less fortunate than myself. My work load is heavy, but I would rather wear out than rust out! (Lofthouse 1982, 251)

Her daughter remembered her as ‘a very warm and generous person’, as well as ‘an astute business woman’, who, by the time of their respective deaths, was wealthier than her former husband (Frank, pers. comm.). As well as opera, she enjoyed ballet, theatre, boating, swimming, golf, and horse racing. Survived by her daughter, she died on 25 March 1994 at her home, and after a funeral service at St Michael’s Anglican Church, Vaucluse, was cremated. A room at the Point Piper clubrooms of the Royal Motor Yacht Club of New South Wales was named after her.

Another Popular Artist, from Royal Opera House, Covent Garden: Elsa Stenning the Australian Nightingale. Film. London: [Pathe Studio], 1938; Frank, Toni. Personal communication; Kuipers, Richard. ‘Curator’s Notes.’ Accessed 1 June 2016. Copy held on ADB file; Lofthouse, Andrea, compiler, based on research by Vivienne Smith. Who’s Who of Australian Women. North Ryde: Methuen Australia, 1982; Prior, Sheila. ‘Charity’s Faithful Songster.’ Australian, 4 April 1994, 12; Stapleton, John. ‘Elsa Jacoby, the Last Charity Queen, Dies.’ Sydney Morning Herald, 28 March 1994, 1; Sydney Mail. ‘Grand Opera in Sydney.’ 2 January 1935, 9.

Jan Roberts

JAMES, ALFRED FRANCIS PHILLIP (1918–1992), journalist, publisher, airman, political and religious activist, polymath, and eccentric, was born on 21 April 1918 at Queenstown, Tasmania, eldest of three sons of Victorian-born Alfred Edwin James, Young Men’s Christian Association secretary, and his New South Wales–born wife Beatrice Irene Teresa (‘Happy’), née Eather. Francis was proud to be a fifth-generation Australian through his mother, but his character was greatly influenced by his father, a man who held opinions strongly and publicly. In World War I James senior had served overseas with the YMCA, attached to the 2nd Light Horse Regiment, Australian Imperial Force. He became an Anglican clergyman and the family moved frequently between parishes in Tasmania and New South Wales.

While a student at Fort Street Boys’ High School, Sydney, in 1932 young James attracted public attention for the first time by telling how he and another boy fought off souvenir hunters to save the Australian and Union flags on the arch of the Sydney Harbour Bridge the night it opened. He next attended Goulburn High School. In 1934 and 1935 he was at Canberra Grammar School, where the headmaster, W. J. Edwards [q.v.14], awarded him a prize for divinity ‘because Francis believed it’ (Stephens 1992, 2), even though a fellow student, Gough Whitlam, achieved the highest marks. According to James, Edwards later expelled him after a dispute as to whether attendance at chapel was compulsory. He gained his Leaving certificate from Wollongong High School in 1936.

For some months in 1937 James served in the Royal Australian Air Force as an aircrew cadet at Point Cook, Victoria, but he could not accept military discipline in peacetime. When World War II broke out, he sailed to England and on 4 January 1940 enlisted in the Royal Air (RAF) Force Volunteer Reserve. In September 1941 he began operational flying, first with No. 452 Squadron, then No. 92 and No. 616 squadrons. He was with No. 124 Squadron on Anzac Day 1942, when his Spitfire was shot down over St Omer, France.

James bailed out and landed with his parachute in flames. He suffered a fractured back and severe burns to the face, legs, eyes, and wrists. In his own account of his ensuing captivity, he told the Germans he was Air Vice Marshal Turtle Dove, his RAF nickname. Surgeons in a French hospital gave him facial skin grafts, and an ophthalmic surgeon in Germany treated his temporary blindness before he was taken to Dulag Luft transit camp, near Frankfurt. He escaped, was recaptured, and transported to Stalag Luft III, where he established a matriculation class of twenty-two airmen, preached sermons, tunnelled, played chess, read dozens of books, and organised debates.

Released because of his injuries and sent to Cairo in October 1943, James celebrated with parties and flights around Heliopolis and Cairo before returning to England. After medical authorities categorised him as permanently unfit to fly, because of corneal scars that left him with seriously impaired vision, József Dallos fitted him with a pair of hard contact lenses, about an inch (2.5 cm) in diameter, that rested only on the sclera. A revised medical category allowed him to undertake non-operational flights in daylight. He delivered aircraft around Britain for the Air Transport Auxiliary. In January 1945 he collapsed with a duodenal ulcer, and on 28 April he was invalided from the RAF as a temporary warrant officer.

Late in 1944 James had persuaded Joyce Milfred Staff, to whom he was engaged in 1939, to leave her position as a school counsellor in New South Wales and join him in England. They were married on Anzac Day 1945 in the parish church of St Peter with St Thomas, St Marylebone, London. James began reading politics, philosophy, and economics at Balliol College, Oxford. He pursued his interest in politics, captained the college’s hockey XI, and spoke twice in the Oxford Union. In February 1946, however, he left the university, reportedly sent down for taking part in the prank mistreatment of a student who failed to pay his gambling debts.

James became assistant editor of World Review in London, wrote articles for journals, and flew aircraft on contracts. His idea for a British Empire food scheme led him to set up and chair Anglo-Australian Fisheries Pty Ltd. He moved to Albany, Western Australia, in 1949; bought trawlers to operate from that port; and hired British trawler men. The business secured backing from the Western Australian government and began well but it ran into problems and, following a dispute with fellow directors, he resigned in February 1950 and returned to Sydney.

Shortly afterwards James joined the Sydney Morning Herald, writing editorials and articles on education and religion, often while sitting in his 1928 Rolls Royce, parked outside. He completed one year (1950) towards a law degree at the University of Sydney, intending to become a barrister, but then dropped the course. Encouraged by Bishop John Moyes [q.v.15], he took over the Church Publishing Co. Ltd’s ailing Church Standard, which he incorporated in a new newspaper, the Anglican, in 1952. He wrote editorials and Joyce became editor in 1954. That year he left the Herald, saying he could not serve both God and Mammon. In 1957 he started the Anglican Press Ltd to print the Anglican and other publications.

After the Anglican Press went into receivership in 1960, an alliance between James and Rupert Murdoch vied with the Packer family for control of the printery. On 7 June a group led by Clyde and Kerry Packer brawled at the Chippendale premises with James’s supporters, led by the journalist and former boxer Frank Browne [q.v.17]. The James–Murdoch forces won. In 1964 two magistrates found issues of OZ and Tharunka, printed by James, to be obscene. He was fined £50 and £10, but the Court of Criminal Appeal quashed both convictions.

James was a member of the Australian Institute of International Affairs, vice-president of the Association for International Co-operation and Disarmament (New South Wales), and a member (from 1957) of the Royal Australian Historical Society. He regularly took part in the Australian Broadcasting Commission’s radio and television program Any Questions? In 1956 he had visited China with an Anglican delegation, reporting on the visit for the Anglican and the Daily Telegraph.

Until the mid-1960s the Anglican was widely read but its strong opposition to the Vietnam War led many supporters to cancel subscriptions. James addressed public meetings, appeared frequently on television, and wrote dozens of articles opposing the war on moral and logistical grounds. He infuriated Sir Robert Menzies’ [q.v.15] government by correctly predicting in December 1965 an increased commitment of Australian troops (announced next March). At the 1966 Federal election, standing against (Sir) William McMahon [q.v.18] as a Liberal Reform Group candidate for the seat of Lowe, he won less than 5 per cent of the primary vote but generated anti-war publicity.

In 1969 James left Sydney for London to be fitted with a new pair of contact lenses. On the way, he visited China and, in June, had long articles published in the Sunday Times and the Age. These claimed he had ridden on horseback with a Kazakh cavalry regiment and visited nuclear sites at Lanchow (Lánzhōu) and Lop Nor. The Hong Kong–based Far Eastern Economic Review challenged the ‘journalistic coup’ as ‘extraordinarily incredible’ (26 June 1969, 695), and quoted a Chinese government spokesman as saying the articles were ‘pure fabrication’ (10 July 1969, 113). Photographs with the articles were unclear and apparently taken in 1956.

En route home from London in 1969, James entered China from Hong Kong. Chinese officials detained him on 4 November. They did not release him until 16 January 1973, after Whitlam had told China’s premier, Chou En-lai, that James ‘might be eccentric but was no enemy of China’ (1985, 58). Although James was not a spy, he might have been happy for people to think he was. He later said: ‘My life is secret. [Nobody] will ever succeed in writing an article about the real James’ (Murdoch 1987, 5). He described his experiences in eight newspaper articles which he typed without notes in ten days after his release.

James resumed flying. He piloted three colleagues to Indonesia in a light aircraft in 1975; on a flight from Sydney to Melbourne in 1982, his plane ran out of fuel and he had to land in a field. In 1986 the Chinese government gave him and his wife an extensive tour of the country, with an apology for having imprisoned him. He reviewed books for newspapers and journals and wrote many letters to editors and bureaucrats, often defending ordinary people pushed around by the powerful. At his Wahroonga home he grew lawns from seed, established fruit trees, and laid out twelve bricked garden beds for vegetables. His private library of about 25,000 books was one of Australia’s largest. Judy Cassab painted his portrait; Bob Ellis wrote a play, The James Dossier, first staged in 1975 (‘Biggles Goes to Church’ had been floated as a possible title); and a film on his life, The Gadfly, was made in 1994. James died on 24 August 1992 at home and was cremated. His wife and their two sons and two daughters survived him.

Far Eastern Economic Review (Hong Kong). ‘Traveller’s Tales.’ 26 June 1969, 695, 10 July 1969, 113; James, Alfred. Biographical Sketch of Francis James. Unpublished manuscript, 1996. Held by Alfred James; James, Alfred. Interviews by the author, October 2012; Penrith City Library, New South Wales. Francis James Collection; James, Francis. ‘The Early Days.’ In Deo, Ecclesiae, Patriae, edited by P. J. McKeown, 49–60. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1979; Murdoch, Anna. ‘Encounters with the Elusive Francis James.’ Age (Melbourne), 24 January 1987, Saturday Extra 5; National Archives of Australia. A1838, 1957/16/1 PART 1; People (Chippendale, NSW). ‘The Thorny Individualist.’ 30 November 1955, 32–33; Royal Air Force. Manuscript record of the service of Alfred Francis Phillip James. Copy held on ADB file; Stephens, Tony. ‘Flamboyant Francis Moves On, with Untold Stories.’ Sydney Morning Herald, 28 August 1992, 2; Souter, Gavin. Company of Heralds: A Century and a Half of Australian Publishing by John Fairfax Limited and Its Predecessors, 18311981. Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1981; Sun (Sydney). ‘1 a.m. Drama on Bridge Arch.’ 23 March 1932, 19; Whitlam Gough. The Whitlam Government 19721975. Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin, 1985.

Tony Stephens

JAMES, FLORENCE GERTRUDE (1902–1993), literary agent, editor, writer, and peace activist, was born on 2 September 1902 at Gisborne, New Zealand, elder daughter of New Zealand–born George Llewellyn Denton James, engineer, and his English-born wife Annie Gertrude, née Russell. As the Jameses moved frequently, Florence attended a number of schools. In 1916 Lew took the family to Darwin while he oversaw the construction of Vestey Brothers’ meatworks. On their return to New Zealand later that year, Florence attended Iona College, Napier. She matriculated from St Cuthbert’s College, Auckland, where she had written short stories and other pieces for the school magazine, in 1919. The following year the family moved to Sydney. Florence attended the New South Wales State Conservatorium of Music, studying voice and piano. She joined the Theosophical Society in Australia, where she met Willem Johan Cornelis (Pym) (later William John) Heyting.

With Heyting, James enrolled at the University of Sydney in 1923 (BA, 1926). A brilliant student, she was influenced by Henry Lovell [q.v.10] and George Wood [q.v.12], and graduated with first-class honours and the university medal in philosophy. In 1927 she travelled to Europe, settling in London where she worked as an advertising copywriter and briefly stayed with Christina Stead [q.v.18]. She joined the Empire Literary Service in 1930, syndicating women’s magazine features to English-speaking countries worldwide.

On 1 September 1932 James and Heyting—by now a barrister—married at the register office, Hampstead. Between 1933 and 1938 she worked as a freelance journalist and literary agent, including popularising the work of the Italian physician and educator Maria Montessori. In 1938 she returned to Sydney with her two daughters to visit her widowed father. From January 1940 she was employed as the public appeals officer for Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, fundraising and editing its journal, R.P.A. She resigned in 1945. In the meantime, Pym had returned to Australia and from 1941 to 1949 served as an intelligence officer in the Royal Australian Air Force.

James had kept up correspondence with her university friend Dymphna Cusack [q.v.17], who had recently retired from school teaching. They and their children shared a rented cottage in the Blue Mountains where they initially collaborated on a children’s book, Four Winds and a Family (1947). A second project exposed the impact that American troops on leave from the Pacific War had made on Sydney. The manuscript, ‘Unabated Spring’, focused on the experiences of a group of women employed in a beauty salon in a Sydney hotel. Under the pseudonym of Sydney Wyborne, it was entered in the 1946 Daily Telegraph novel competition, and won the £1,000 prize. However, owing partly to concerns about possible breaches of obscenity and libel laws, as well as the novel’s length, the authors spent two years haggling for the prize money and—after Australian Consolidated Press Ltd refused to publish it—the release of the manuscript.

Having returned to Britain with her daughters in July 1947, James divorced Heyting in May 1949. Cusack arrived from Australia in July 1949 and they began further revising and cutting their manuscript. Now entitled Come in Spinner, it was published under their own names by William Heinemann Ltd in 1951, with a run of 24,000 for the first edition and four reprints in the first year. The eminent bibliophile and publisher Michael Sadleir gave it a glowing review in the London Sunday Times. He recruited James to advise his firm, Constable & Co., on the literary quality of manuscripts submitted by Australian and New Zealand authors. She acted as a reader and talent scout for Constables, and also for Richmond, Towers and Benson Ltd. Among the authors she promoted were Mary Durack [q.v.], Sylvia Ashton-Warner, Maurice Shadbolt, Colin Johnson (Mudrooroo Narogin), and Nene Gare [q.v.].

A member of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom and the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, James participated in several anti-nuclear weapons demonstrations, which led on one occasion to a month in gaol. She returned to Australia in 1963. Living at Manly, Sydney, she continued her involvement in the feminist and peace movements, and in 1968 joined the Society of Friends (Quakers). Richard Walsh, of Angus and Robertson, commissioned James to revise the original uncut manuscript of Spinner for an unabridged edition, which he published in 1988. In March 1990 the Australian Broadcasting Corporation screened a television miniseries version.

‘Warm, generous and serene’ (Cato 1993/94, 23), James was modest and dignified. In the last year of her life her sight deteriorated, and she could no longer read the books which ‘were life for her’ (Sydney Morning Herald 1993, 17). She died on 25 August 1993 at Manly, survived by her daughters. Her life and work were commemorated by a plaque at the Woodford Quakers’ Cottage garden in the Blue Mountains where, as she had requested, her ashes were scattered.

Cato, Nancy. ‘Vale, Florence James.’ Australian Author 25, no. 4 (Summer 1993/94): 23; Freehill, Norman, with Dymphna Cusack. Dymphna Cusack. West Melbourne: Thomas Nelson (Australia), 1975; My Grandmother’s Footsteps: The Life of Florence James. Television documentary. Written by Pippa Bailey and Margie Bryant, and directed by Margie Bryant. Special Broadcasting Service, 1994; James, Florence. Interviews by the author, tapes and transcripts, 1980–89; North, Marilla. ‘The Anatomy of a Best-Seller: The Making of “Come in Spinner.”’ MA (Hons) thesis, University of Wollongong, 1990; North, Marilla, ed. Yarn Spinners. A Story in Letters: Dymphna Cusack, Florence James, Miles Franklin. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland Press, 2001; Pesman, Ros. ‘In Search of Self, Love and a Career: Florence James in London.’ Southerly 58, no. 4 (Summer 1998–99): 75–83; State Library of New South Wales. MLMSS 5877, Florence James—Papers; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘No Surrender for This Spinner of Earthy Tales.’ 27 August 1993, 17.

Marilla North

JAMES, GWYNYDD FRANCIS (GWYN) (1912–1994), historian and publisher, was born on 28 June 1912 at Bolton, England, eldest of four surviving children of William Job James, blacksmith, and his wife Eliza Frances, née Callow, the daughter of a carpenter, wheelwright, and pattern maker. Gwyn was educated at Burton Grammar School, Staffordshire, and at the University of Birmingham (BA Hons, 1933; MA, 1937). The quality of his master’s thesis on the seventeenth-century British Admiralty brought him to the attention of (Sir) Keith Hancock [q.v.17], then a professor of history at Birmingham. James became a research assistant (1935–37) at the Institute of Historical Research, University of London, and then, under Hancock’s influence, successfully applied for a joint college–university appointment as a tutor in history (1938–39) at St Andrew’s College, University of Sydney.

In January 1939 James read a paper at the biennial meeting of the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science (ANZAAS) in Canberra, arguing the need for a scholarly journal for historians in Australia and New Zealand. He impressed Max Crawford [q.v.], professor of history at the University of Melbourne, who had been thinking along the same lines. Crawford lobbied his university to support the journal while Frank Wilmot [q.v.12], the manager of Melbourne University Press (MUP), persuaded his editorial board to publish it. In 1940 James accepted a lectureship which Crawford had created at the University of Melbourne and became the founding editor (1940–46) of Historical Studies: Australia and New Zealand. He married Evelyn Noad, an English-born schoolteacher, on 15 April 1940 at the Congregational Church manse, Kew.

In 1942 MUP published the first of several books by James arising from his local history research: A Homestead History, about a Victorian pastoral run. That year, wishing to contribute to Australia’s effort in World War II, he began part-time work as assistant to an engineer at the Commonwealth Ordnance Factory, Maribyrnong, but he was released to take up the position for which he is best known, as manager (1943–62) of MUP. He continued to lecture part time in the history department until 1948. On a visit to England after the war, he turned down offers from two English universities, deciding that he was now committed to MUP. Widowed in June 1948 when his first wife committed suicide, he married Melbourne-born Patricia Mary Stewart, a clerk, on 5 September 1949 at St Patrick’s Cathedral, East Melbourne. He did not share his second wife’s Catholic faith, but nor was he a Protestant: his brother-in-law recalled ‘he was “non-conformist”—though still a believer’ (Ingham 1995, 479).

James was fortunate that his two decades as MUP manager coincided with a period when literacy rates were increasing, along with access to tertiary education. He assiduously cultivated historians to publish with MUP: Geoffrey Blainey, Geoffrey Serle, Kathleen Fitzpatrick [q.v.17], Weston Bate, Margaret Kiddle [q.v.15], and, later, Ann Blainey. He was also responsible for securing two flagship multi-volumed publications: Manning Clark’s [q.v.] A History of Australia, published from 1962, and the Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB), from 1966. In 1943 MUP was ‘not much more than the Melbourne University Bookshop’ (Ingham 1995, 477). Under James’s direction it became a leading Australian publisher with its university bookroom joined by a trade department for its own publications, a printing and binding works, a storehouse, a Melbourne head office, and branches in Sydney and Hobart.

According to Peter Ryan, who succeeded him as manager, James ‘had deep feeling for typography, quality book production, and the sacred (yes, sacred) role of rigorous editorial integrity’ (2000, 87). He employed book designers such as Alison Forbes and editors such as Barbara Ramsden [q.v.16], who were behind MUP’s reputation for ‘well-designed, well-edited books’ (Tomlinson 1994, 10). No expense was spared in the pursuit of quality: for the ADB he selected a rare nine-point Juliana typeface and cajoled a local manufacturer of fine papers to produce a special cream laid paper in an unconventional sheet size. James was, however, economically innocent and his ambitions for MUP were ‘not matched by managerial capacity or administrative experience’ (Ryan 2010, 13). In 1961 the press’s bank overdraft exceeded £150,000, with a trading surplus of less than £4,000. For this reason, he was encouraged to retire in 1962.

James then focused on his local history research, publishing Walhalla Heyday (1970) and Border Country (1984), while ‘proofreading for, and guiding authors of, local district and personal histories’ (Age 1994, 16). He was publications officer (1973–78) for the newly formed Public Record Office of Victoria and from 1977 the biographical editor for the fourth edition of The Australian Encyclopedia (1983). In 1991 he was appointed AM for service to the publishing industry. Survived by his wife and their four children, he died on 17 September 1994 at Camberwell and was cremated. Colleagues and friends remembered him as an Anglo-Australian with a ‘gritty Midlands accent’ (Ingham 1995, 478) that remained strong even after fifty-six years in Australia, together with ‘the very sharp wit that so often goes with it’ (Tomlinson 1994, 10).

Age (Melbourne). ‘Gwynydd Francis James, 82.’ 18 November 1994, 16; Anderson, Fay. An Historian’s Life: Max Crawford and the Politics of Academic Freedom. Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 2005; Australian Historical Studies. ‘Fifty Years in the Making of Australian Historical Studies.’ 24, no. 95 (1990): 171–74; Ingham, Sidney. ‘Gwynned [sic] Francis James 1912–1994.’ Australian Historical Studies 26, no. 104 (1995): 477–79; James, Gwynydd F. Interview by Cecily Close, 1992. Audiorecording. University of Melbourne Archives; Ryan, Peter. ‘The ADB.’ Quadrant 44, no. 6 (June 2000): 87–88, Final Proof: Memoirs of a Publisher. Sydney: Quadrant Books, 2010; Tomlinson, Jock. ‘Manager Strove for Quality Publishing.’ Australian, 25 November 1994, 10; University of Melbourne Archives. 1983.0002, James, Gwynydd Francis. Papers (1900–1962).

Melanie Nolan

JAMES, JIMMY (c. 1925–1991), tracker, was born about 1925 near Ernabella, a sheep station in the Musgrave Ranges, north-west South Australia, son of Pitjantjatjara parents, Warlawurru and Kaarnka. His birth, like that of many Aboriginal children, was not officially recorded. In later life James usually gave his birth year as 1910 or 1913. His death certificate records his date of birth as 7 March 1910. At the time of his marriage in February 1947, however, he indicated that he had turned twenty-one at his last birthday, thus giving a birth year of 1925 or 1926. This date is supported by a photograph of James taken in 1945 in which he appears to be approximately twenty years of age (Holmes 2000, 13).

As a boy Jimmy trekked southwards with his parents to Ooldea siding, on the East-West Transcontinental Railway, arriving in time to participate in the corroboree arranged by Daisy Bates [q.v.7] for the Duke of Gloucester’s brief visit in October 1934. Later Jimmy attended school at the non-denominational United Aborigines’ Mission (UAM) station at Ooldea, and was baptised there in 1944.

In early 1945 James and four other young Ooldea men were sent to work on Mount Dare station in the far north of the state. A few months later the five men were convicted of assaulting the station-owner, Rex Lowe. Subsequent police investigations revealed that Lowe had fabricated the charges. The men had resigned after Lowe refused to pay their wages, but when they tried to leave his property, Lowe assaulted them and left them chained up outside his homestead for several days. On 20 December 1945 Lowe was found guilty in the Oodnadatta court of seven counts of assault. In a widely reported judgment, the magistrate, W. C. Gillespie, warned other pastoralists that they faced imprisonment if they continued to treat their Aboriginal workers ‘as human chattels or beasts of burden’ (Sydney Morning Herald 1945, 6).

James moved to the new UAM station at Gerard on the Murray River in 1946. There, on 22 February 1947, he married Lilian Florrie Disher, the adopted daughter of the Aboriginal tracker Jimmy James [q.v.14]; although they shared the same name, the two men were not related and had never met. The younger James had learned the art of tracking as a boy, hunting for food. Following his marriage, he did some minor tracking jobs for local police and residents around Gerard. He came to prominence when his remarkable skills—and those of his relatives Albert Anunga and Daniel Moodoo—proved invaluable in identifying the man responsible for the Sundown station murders in central Australia in 1957, and in the hunt for the killer of the manager of Pine Valley station in north-eastern South Australia in 1958.

In 1966 James and Moodoo were enlisted to help in the search for a nine-year-old girl, Wendy Pfeiffer, who had been abducted, assaulted, and left to die in the Mount Lofty Ranges. Numerous police and volunteers had searched the area and found no trace of her, but James and Moodoo picked up her tracks and followed them through thick scrub for 20 kilometres to find the girl alive near the Onkaparinga River. James came to public prominence again in 1982 when he tracked an escaped child-killer, James Smith, through the Riverland for six days, eventually leading the police to their quarry.

A quiet and humble man, James shunned the limelight. He remained a committed Christian all his life, as well as a passionate defender of Aboriginal culture and heritage. He was a respected elder and community leader at Gerard and served on the Gerard Community Council for many years. In 1983 he was named the inaugural South Australian Aborigine of the Year. He was awarded the OAM the following year. In 1985 the South Australian Police presented him with a plaque acknowledging the superb tracking skills he had displayed during thirty-seven years of service. His most prized possession, however, was the gold medal presented to him by Pfeiffer’s parents in 1966.

In 1983 James moved to live with relatives near Adelaide. A teetotaller since his late teens, he was deeply distressed by the deaths of his three adult children, all from alcohol-related problems, during the 1980s. He suffered several strokes in 1987 and was admitted to a nursing home at Salisbury South. Predeceased by his wife, daughter, and three sons, he died there on 27 October 1991 and was buried in the mission cemetery at Gerard. He is commemorated as one of ‘SA’s greats’ by a brass plaque on the Jubilee 150 Walk on North Terrace, Adelaide, and by a monument at Berri, near Gerard.

Donovan, Zac. ‘Memorial Service for Famous Tracker.’ Advertiser (Adelaide), 29 October 1991, 6; Holmes, Robert. Lost and Found. The Life of Jimmy James: Black Tracker. Port Lincoln, SA: The Printing Press, 2000; Jones, Max. Tracks. Renmark, SA: S. M. Jones, c. 1989; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘Aborigines Chained: SA Farmer Fined.’ 21 December 1945, 6.

Tom Gara

JAMES, KATHLEEN NOLA (1933–1993), Aboriginal cultural leader and activist, was born on 18 December 1933 at North Rockhampton, fifth of six children of Queensland-born parents Joseph James, labourer, and his wife Margaret, née Chubb. Her father was of Gangulu heritage, traditionally connected to the Dawson Valley, south-west of Rockhampton. Nola believed that her great-grandmother was born at Cullin-la-Ringo, near Emerald, at about the time of the Wills [q.v.2] massacre in 1861. She attended the Bluff Colliery State School and had a period of correspondence schooling. Later she worked with her family on pastoral stations, then as a domestic. She raised a family of nine children who were born between 1953 and 1964. She worked as a nurse for the Aboriginal Medical Service, in particular helping young mothers. In 1973 she was among a group of parents from Rockhampton who began to teach their children traditional dances.

James was an early visionary for the education of non-Indigenous Australians about Aboriginal life and culture. A founding member and coordinator of the Central Queensland Aboriginal Corporation for Cultural Activities (registered in 1980), she ran activities such as dance training, and recorded stories using small amounts of grant funding. At the same time, she envisaged a cultural centre at Rockhampton and set out to publicise and raise funds for the venture. In August 1985 the city council granted CQACCA 4.85 hectares 6 kilometres north of the city. Commonwealth Bicentennial and Department of Aboriginal Affairs grants provided funds, and Prime Minister Bob Hawke opened the centre on 9 April 1988. Named the Nola James Building, it featured cave-like galleries displaying and representing Indigenous art and artefacts, and included a small meeting room. Later two buildings were added, the complex being renamed the Dreamtime Cultural Centre.

From 1986 to 1989 James was on the Aboriginal Arts Board of the Australia Council. In 1987 she was appointed to the council of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies (from 1988 the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies). By then she had collected, collated, and lodged with AIATSIS substantial records and photographic material of Queensland Aboriginal life dating from the 1930s to the 1980s. She travelled throughout Queensland for the Commonwealth Department of Aboriginal Affairs accompanied by non-Indigenous field teams, to locate and identify cultural sites and relics. This included undertaking an assessment of the heritage values of the site for the Jindalee Operational Radar Network for the Department of Defence. Having secured the services of Arthur Walton, acknowledged as the custodian of the Longreach–Stonehenge–Jundah region, she undertook investigations in Gulilae traditional country at Stonehenge. Numerous sites and cultural landmarks were located, including stone arrangements of rings, pathways, stone knapping grounds, rock art, a native well, scarred trees, and plant resources. The field report, which she co-authored, recommended that future archaeological investigations include Indigenous cultural consultants; this has since become standard practice.

Understanding that ‘white people like to see things on paper’, James displayed ‘commitment, determination and resilience’ (Griffin and Shelley 1993, 173) in her efforts to achieve her goals. The University of Central Queensland (later Central Queensland University) awarded her an honorary doctorate in 1993 for her contribution to central Queensland’s Aboriginal culture. ‘Sensible, of few words, practical and with a big heart, ready to stand her ground, and with inexhaustible patience’ (Ganter, pers. comm.), she continued as the cultural director of the Dreamtime Centre until her death from bowel cancer on 22 July 1993 at Rockhampton. Survived by six daughters and three sons, she was buried in the North Rockhampton cemetery.

Blair, Bob. Personal communication; de Brabander, Dallas. ‘James, N.’ Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia. Vol. 1, A–L, edited by David Horton. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, 1994; Ganter, Regina. Personal communication; Griffin, Grahame, and Reg Shelley. ‘Dreamtime in a Cow Town: The Dreamtime Cultural Centre in Rockhampton, Queensland.’ Culture and Policy 5 1993, 157–176; Huf, Liz, Lorna McDonald, and David Myers, eds. Sin, Sweat and Sorrow: The Making of Capricornia 1840s to 1940s. Rockhampton, Qld: Central Queensland University Press, 1999; James, Nola. Housing, Camps and Material Culture in Queensland, 1930–1980. Copy negatives. Pictorial Collection, James.N2.BW. Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies; Knuckey, Graham, and Ken Kippen. ‘The Archaeology of Stonehenge—A Preliminary Survey.’ Queensland Archaeological Research 9 (1992): 17–25.

Betty Cosgrove*

JAMES, WALTER EDWARD (BOB) (1905–1991), journalist and wine writer, was born on 22 June 1905 in London, the youngest of four children of (Sir) Walter Hartwell James [q.v.9], agent general and former premier of Western Australia, and his wife Gwenyfred Eleonora Marie, née Hearder. His father returned to Perth with his family in 1906 to resume a successful legal career. Young Walter was educated at Hale [q.v.4] School, Perth, and The King’s School, Parramatta, New South Wales. He was, by his own admission, ‘a problem child’, disappointed by boarding school and its sporting culture. By the age of seventeen, however, he had ‘formed the basis of good taste in literature’ (Turnspit 1938, 6), and learned to smoke his father’s cigars and to drink his best wines. He was known as ‘Bob’ James to distinguish him from his famous father, who was a shareholder and director of the West Australian newspaper, which Bob joined in 1923. (Sir) Paul Hasluck [q.v.], a fellow journalist, became a lifelong friend.

In 1928 James joined the Melbourne Herald and by 1930 was freelancing in London, enjoying its cultural entertainments, lectures, bookstores, and galleries. He discovered ‘Chateau Margaux at 7/6d a bottle … [and] superb old ports’, and travelled in Italy (Dunstan 1980, 16). Back with the West Australian in 1932, he became its features editor and edited the weekly Broadcaster. On 8 March 1935 at St Luke’s Church of England, Maddington, he married Noel Rose Johnston, the daughter of a retired banker who was also known by her family as ‘Bob’. Paul and (Dame) Alexandra Hasluck’s [q.v.] Freshwater Bay Press published his Venite Apotemus (‘Come, Let Us Drink’) in 1940, under the pseudonym of Tom Turnspit; a reviewer described it as ‘a reasoned—and seasoned—argument’ for greater consumption of local wines and for European-style café culture (Drake-Brockman 1940, 4). By now an experienced journalist and sub-editor, James worked briefly for the Daily Telegraph in Sydney before joining the Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC) and moving to Canberra in 1941.

James reluctantly accepted the position of state publicity censor for Western Australia in 1942 following a recommendation by the chief publicity censor, E. G. Bonney [q.v.13]. Unhappy in this role and in poor health (he was rejected for military service), he told Hasluck he was ‘revolted by the unhealthy dullness of my sedentary work’ (James 1942). Returning to Canberra in January 1943, he worked for the ABC news department until 1945. Inspired by the American champion of the simple life, H. D. Thoreau, he then took his wife and young family to the Perth hills, where he purchased the Glen Hardey vineyard and winery. With no practical experience, he produced sweet wines for Anglo-Australians and ‘claret’ for those of Continental origin, until a fire destroyed his vineyard in March 1949.

That year Georgian House (Melbourne) published James’ Barrel and Book: A Winemaker’s Diary, with illustrations by Harold Freedman. It ran to a second edition. James moved to Melbourne. Several books followed, including Nuts on Wine (1950), the influential primer Wine in Australia (1952), The Gadding Vine (1955), Antipasto (1957), A Word-Book of Wine (1959), and Ants in the Honey (1972). He also wrote for the Age, Home Beautiful, and Epicurean, and the wine diaries produced annually by Wynn [q.v.12] Winegrowers Ltd.

James’s writings on wine coincided with changes in Australians’ tastes and led them as well. He could be mannered, witty, and epigrammatic, but also confident and informative, drawing on his accumulated literary and practical knowledge. He was convinced of the delights and civilising benefits of wine. He railed good-humouredly against ‘beerolatry’, restrictive licensing laws, wowsers, and drunks alike. A stout, shy, and bookish man, his publications appealed to Australians who, in the 1950s and 1960s especially, were seeking greater worldly sophistication and knowledge of wine and food. Survived by his wife, two sons, and a daughter, he died of cancer on 3 May 1991 at South Caulfield, Melbourne, and was cremated.

Drake-Brockman, Henrietta. ‘Zest in Life and Cafes for Perth?’ West Australian, 23 March 1940, 4; Dunstan, David. ‘An Autumn Afternoon with Walter James.’ Wine & Spirit Buying Guide, May 1980, 15–17, ‘The Wine Press.’ Meanjin 61, no. 4 (2002): 34–43, ‘Nuts on Wine: Walter James and Australian Wine Writing.’ In Telling Stories: Australian Life and Literature 19352012, edited by Tanya Dalziel and Paul Genoni, 139–46. Clayton, Vic.: Monash University Publishing, 2013; James, Walter Edward Senior. Letter to Paul Hasluck, 24 April 1942. Hasluck Papers. Private collection; National Archives of Australia. ST482/1, James, W. S; Turnspit, Tom [Walter James]. ‘The Pulings of a Problem Child.’ Pt. 1. West Australian, 24 September 1938, 6.

David Dunstan

JAMIESON, HUGH GILMOUR (GIL) (1934–1992), painter, was born on 31 January 1934 at Monto, Queensland, eldest son of South Australian–born Donald Gilmour Jamieson, farmer, and his Victorian-born wife Clarice Edith Ivy, née Webb. Gil attended the local state school and Gatton Agricultural High School and College. He contracted rheumatic fever during national service training, and a second bout in 1953 freed him from work on the family farm. Compensation from the government enabled him to start a welding company, Speedweld, with friends, but his interest in the business diminished as his interest in art developed, and the company later collapsed.

In Brisbane Jamieson worked as a clerk for the Southern Electric Authority of Queensland, drew political cartoons, and sketched patrons in pubs. He took evening classes in drawing at the Central Technical College (1956–57) under Melville Haysom, and spent time in the studio of the expressionist artist Jon Molvig [q.v.15]. Both shared the view that art cannot be taught but were too temperamentally similar to get on. He began exhibiting his work in 1957.

On 21 February 1959 at the Presbyterian Church, Woody Point, Queensland, Jamieson married Maureen Joan Spradbrow, a governess (d. 1985). The couple moved to Melbourne where they rented premises opposite Martin Smith’s picture framing business in Hawthorn. Through this connection Jamieson was able to meet and befriend artists such as Asher Bilu, Charles Blackman, Sam Fullbrook, George Johnson, Clifton Pugh [q.v.18], Edwin Tanner, and Fred Williams [q.v.18], several of whom belonged to the group known as the Antipodeans. Jamieson existed on the fringe of this group, his work paralleling its figurative and expressionist approach.

The Melbourne art patron John Reed [q.v.18] supported Jamieson in his first significant exhibition, showing alongside Sam Byrne [q.v.13] at the Museum of Modern Art (and Design) of Australia in 1960. Reed later described Jamieson as a landscape painter with a difference: ‘Gil is painting his own life, and because this has involved participation in an intense daily struggle for a livelihood, with the bush an integral part of that struggle rather than as something seen objectively, his paintings often achieve a wild and sometimes tempestuous beauty which sweeps us along into a world of heightened emotional experience’ (Gil Jamieson 1997, 9). This remains an effective summation of the artist’s oeuvre even when Jamieson developed a more strident and colourful palette and an even more forceful brush-stroke.

In Sydney Jamieson’s art was championed by Rudy Komon [q.v.17], who exhibited his work regularly from 1960 to 1983. The National Gallery of Victoria awarded him the John McCaughey memorial prize for his painting The Pigs in 1965. In 1971 he returned to Monto, making this his base for numerous trips to Melbourne and to remote parts of Australia. His reputation was consolidated in 1973 when his 72-foot-long (22 m) mural Jay Creek, painted on location near Alice Springs, was exhibited at the Tolarno Galleries, Melbourne. He received a grant from the Australian Council for the Arts that year.

Self-described as a ‘social realist of the bush’ (Dorey 1993, 6), Jamieson produced paintings of the most confronting and brutal aspects of life on the land. Critics commended his uncompromising style, hailing his 1988 solo exhibition, Passion of a Bushman, held at the William Mora Galleries, Melbourne, as a landmark for Australian landscape and expressionist painting. Jamieson identified strongly with Aboriginal people, both in his attachment to the land and in his deep and intuitive response to the landscape. He held more than thirty-five solo exhibitions.

Jamieson enjoyed smoking cigars and discussing poetry and philosophy. His friend and the chief chronicler of his work, Phil Brown, described him as ‘irrepressible, full of fun and satire and a desire to outrage his public’ (Gil Jamieson 1997, 4). He had married Beverly May O’Brian in Melbourne in 1987; they later divorced. Survived by his son and daughter from his first marriage, he died of cancer on 14 June 1992 at Monto and was buried in Monto cemetery. A retrospective exhibition, Gil Jamieson: Life on the Land, opened at the Rockhampton Regional Art Gallery in 1997. His work is represented in the National Gallery of Australia, the National Gallery of Victoria, and the Queensland Art Gallery.

Chape, Betty. ‘Cancer Claims Artist.’ Burnett Times (Qld), 18 June 1992, 1; Dorey, Brian. ‘Monto Artist Enthralled by Nature’s Abundance.’ Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton), 27 December 1993, 6; Gil Jamieson: Life on the Land. Rockhampton: Rockhampton Art Gallery, 1997. Exhibition catalogue; Jamieson, Matthew. Personal communication; Murdoch, Anna. ‘The Bush Breeds its Own Artists.’ Age (Melbourne), 16 May 1988, 15; Personal knowledge of ADB subject; Stone, Deborah. ‘Passion for the Bush Unlocked by Inner City Sojourn.’ Australian, 27 April 1988, 4; Ward, Peter. ‘Into the Interior.’ Australian, 13 November 1978, 10.

Glenn R. Cooke

JENNINGS, Sir ALBERT VICTOR (BERT) (1896–1993), building industries entrepreneur, was born on 12 October 1896 at Brunswick, Melbourne, youngest of nine children of locally born John Thomas Jennings, blacksmith, and his English-born wife Selina, née Steel. Much of Bert’s early life was spent in South Melbourne where he attended the local state school and was deeply involved in St Luke’s Church of England. He enjoyed the outdoors and was active in a range of sports including badminton, cricket, and rowing. A talented marksman, he represented Victoria in the 1909 Empire Day rifle shooting competition for the Earl of Meath trophy.

In 1910 Jennings commenced an apprenticeship in mechanical dentistry, learning to make false teeth. Under the influence of his mother, he developed habits of thrift and was encouraged by his brother-in-law Horrie Amos, a real estate agent, to invest in blocks of land. Aged nineteen, he sold the land and bought a house which was paid off over time by tenants. On 23 August 1916 he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force and was allocated to home service as a staff sergeant in the dental detail of the Australian Army Medical Corps. He re-enlisted in July 1918 in order to serve abroad. Later that month he sailed to Britain, where he worked with the AAMC’s dental service. In June 1919 he joined the Graves Registration Detachment in France. He returned to Melbourne in February 1920 and was discharged on 9 May. Not wanting to return to dentistry, he worked as an auctioneer in Horrie Amos’s real estate business. On 23 September 1922 he married Ethel Sarah Johnson, a tailoress, at St George’s Church of England, Malvern.

With the onset of the Depression, in the early 1930s house sales plummeted. Jennings was canny enough to realise that some people still had sufficient income to buy a home and, given depressed wages and lower costs, it was possible to build a quality residence much more cheaply than in the previous decade. He mortgaged his family home and, in 1932, employed six builders to construct a house at 78 Booran Road, Glenhuntly, which quickly sold. Embarking on new housing projects, he sold most on contract from the plans because this method offered greater security than speculative building. The practice would become a hallmark of his business. Working with an architectural student, Ed Gurney, and a builder, Billy Vine, he formed the A. V. Jennings’ Construction Co. By now he was widely known as ‘A. V’.

The company began work on its first urban subdivision, thirteen blocks at Hillcrest, Caulfield South, in 1933. It was such a success that other estates followed—Beauville at Murrumbeena, Beaumont at Ivanhoe, and Beauview at Ivanhoe East. Jennings’s enterprise was inspired partly by his belief in the capacity of a modern and well-equipped family home to create happy and good citizens. Commencement of work on the Beauview estate coincided with the outbreak of World War II and the subsequent decline and then banning of private home building. The company continued to prosper by turning to government projects, including military camps and hospitals. To help overcome shortages in materials Jennings expanded the firm, establishing subsidiary manufacturing and supply businesses. After the war, private housing remained stagnant but a backlog in the construction of public housing and infrastructure offered a boom in contracts. The company erected thousands of government dwellings across Australia. One hundred and fifty tradesmen were recruited from Germany to help build 1,850 homes in Canberra; the workers became known as ‘Jennings Germans’.

In 1950 A. V. Jennings Industries (Australia) Ltd was formed as a public company with A. V. as its chairman and managing director. The suspension of several large government contracts, however, resulted in losses in two financial years (1952–53 and 1953–54). Recognising the need to diversify, Jennings Industries returned increasingly to building private homes and housing estates. The company soon achieved large profits, assisted by the buoyant economic conditions and A. V’.s leadership. Short in stature, invariably smiling, he was charming, charismatic, and highly skilled at networking and negotiation. He also showed a capacity to choose and appoint competent and loyal staff who shared his values and aspirations.

During the 1960s Jennings Industries was Australia’s largest home builder with branches in each State and the Australian Capital Territory. Appealing designs offering good value for money, well-planned community developments, display villages, and a raft of innovative marketing techniques contributed to the success of the business. A visit to a Jennings display home was a popular activity. Jennings Industries, however, continued to be multifaceted. Its general construction company undertook work ranging from building mining towns in Western Australia to the Wrest Point Casino in Hobart. The company portfolio grew to encompass ventures related to its core home and general construction businesses, including finance, transport, and caravans.

From the late 1950s Jennings had been less involved in the daily running of the company. Spending only short periods in the office, he was renowned for having a desk that was generally clear of paper. In 1965 his elder son, Victor, took over as managing director. Much of A. V’.s time was devoted to visiting building sites, networking with fellow businessmen, and promoting the industry. He was active in the Master Builders’ Association of Victoria (council member 1943–71), Master Builders’ Federation of Australia (MBFA) (life member 1972), and Australian Institute of Building (president 1964–66). He served on the Commonwealth Building Research and Development Advisory Committee (1949–70), Manufacturing Industries Advisory Council (1962–72), and Metric Conversion Board (1970–72). In 1969 he was knighted and the following year he was awarded the AIB medal.

By then trouble was brewing in the family and the company. Douglas [q.v.17], his younger son, began to influence his father and the direction of the company. On his advice, Sir Albert persuaded the board to use some of its profits to invest in a mining venture and a Brahman cattle stud. Victor and other board members became increasingly uncomfortable with such endeavours. Matters came to a head in August 1972 when their resistance prompted A. V. to resign from the board. He retired to his home at Mount Eliza, where he remained active, swimming every morning. In 1976 he was presented with the inaugural Sir Charles McGrath [q.v.18] Award for marketing. His support of the Jennings company never flagged and he regularly visited head office for ‘a yarn and a cup of tea’ (Waby 1986, 22). After his wife’s death in 1981, he would also pick up a supply of prepared meals from the staff canteen. In 1986 the MBFA held the inaugural Sir Albert Jennings lecture. Survived by one of his three sons, he died on 3 March 1993 and was buried in Springvale cemetery. His portrait by the photographer Kate Gollings is held by the National Portrait Gallery, Canberra.

Age (Melbourne). ‘Businessman Built Empire of Housing.’ 5 March 1993, 4; Bruce, Pieter. ‘Death of a Very Proud Old Builder.’ Australian Financial Review, 5 March 1993, 37; Edwards, Roy, and Vic Jennings, with Don Garden. AVJennings: Home Builders to the Nation. North Melbourne, Vic.: Arcadia, 2013; Garden, Don. Builders to the Nation: The A.V. Jennings Story. Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1992; Jennings, Sir Albert. Interview by Alan Hodgart, 8 June 1973. Transcript. National Library of Australia; National Archives of Australia. B2455, JENNINGS ALBERT VICTOR, MT1486/1, JENNINGS/ALBERT VICTOR; Stevens, John. ‘Building Up from Nothing’. Age (Melbourne), 28 July 1992, 11; Waby, Heather. ‘Retired Bliss of a Household Name’. Woman’s Day, 1 September 1986, 22.

Donald S. Garden

JIMMY, ANDRUANA ANN JEAN (1912–1991), Aboriginal leader, land rights activist, local government councillor, and poet, was born on 30 September 1912 near the Pennefather (formerly Coen) River, south-west of Mapoon Presbyterian Mission, on western Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, youngest of three children of Philip, a member of the Rakudi people—probably a Yupangathi (Yupungathi) clan group—and Lorna (Maggie), believed to be a Yupangathi woman. Jean’s traditional name in the Yupngayth (Yupungayth) language was Andruana, meaning wattle flower—a name signifying a strong woman, through the power of the tree.

In Jean’s childhood at Mapoon, the Presbyterian missionaries housed children in a dormitory, where she lived from the age of about five until she left school at fourteen. She rarely saw her parents in those years, because her father was an Aboriginal evangelist to traditional people near the Batavia outstation some 15.5 miles (25 km) south of Mapoon. In her late teens she was able to spend more time with them, learning traditional customs and knowledge from her mother.

The missionaries taught the girls crocheting, sewing, and other handicrafts, as well as domestic science. In later life Jean was to recall with sadness that the mission teachers taught only in English, leading to the loss of spoken traditional languages at Mapoon. At the mission’s church on 29 August 1933 she married Gilbert Jimmy, a seaman who sailed in pearl-shelling and church vessels. Towards the end of World War II, the couple moved to Thursday Island, where Gilbert worked for Burns Philp [qq.v.7,11] & Co. Ltd and Jean was employed in domestic work.

Church and government officials decided in April 1954 to abandon Mapoon, seeking to reduce costs and move the residents to communities more conducive to assimilating them into white Australian society. Few of the decision-makers understood the deep cultural and spiritual connections that the people had for their traditional land and sea country, so the stage was set for a long and bitter dispute. The conflict was complicated in 1957 when the State government included more than one-third of the former Mapoon Aboriginal Reserve in an area leased next year to the mining company Commonwealth Aluminium Corporation Pty Ltd (Comalco).

About 1958 Jean and Gilbert Jimmy returned to live at Mapoon. With other community elders, they vigorously campaigned against the settlement’s closure. In November 1963 the Jimmys and their fellow resisters were forcibly removed by police under orders from the director of native affairs, Patrick Killoran, and their homes were destroyed. They were transported to a new village, Mandingu (Hidden Valley), near Bamaga, about 124 miles (200 km) to the north-east; it was to become known as New Mapoon.

Mrs Jimmy’s commitment to the fight for her traditional homeland was sustained by a sense of mission that combined her traditional spirituality with the Christian religion she was taught in the dormitory. In 1964 she travelled to Canberra to attend the annual conference of the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders (FCAATSI). She spoke about the community’s attempts to be self-sufficient and how the government had broken its morale. The conference secretary, Pauline Pickford, found her ‘a most capable, dignified Aboriginal woman’ (Taffe 2005, 192). Mrs Jimmy was to continue her advocacy through her participation in national forums during the next ten years.

From 1969 to 1971 Jean Jimmy chaired the New Mapoon Community Council. About 1974 she and Gilbert moved to the Weipa South (Napranum) community, which brought them closer to the original Mapoon. Again recognised as a leader, she was elected to the Weipa South Community Council on 15 January 1982. While chairing the council from that year until 1985, she oversaw the early stages of the transition from government control of the community to a self-management model under Queensland’s Community Services (Aborigines) Act of 1984.

As a young woman, Jean had been taught about bush foods and medicines by her mother. She generously shared that knowledge not only with later generations of her people, but also with the Australian Army’s survival specialist, Captain Les Hiddins, who recorded information she provided at Mapoon in 1983.

Next year Mrs Jimmy worked with others to establish the Marpuna Community Aboriginal Corporation, formed to assist Mapoon people back to their lands and to provide a vehicle towards self-management. At Napranum on 26 April 1989 the Queensland minister for community development, Bob Katter junior, presented a deed of grant of land in trust over 183,960 hectares of the former Mapoon Aboriginal Reserve to six trustees, including Jean’s daughter, Constance. Small-statured, but with great courage, determination, and grace—qualities that shine through her free-verse poems—Mrs Jimmy had inspired her people’s successful struggle for their land.

Predeceased by her husband and survived by their daughter, Jean Jimmy passed away in Weipa Hospital on 17 October 1991 and was buried in the Mapoon cemetery (Musgrave outstation). A photograph of her by Charles Birkett was placed in the foyer of the Mapoon Aboriginal Shire Council offices, and Mapoon’s Jean Jimmy Land and Sea Centre was named in her honour.

Bauxite Bulletin (Weipa, Qld). ‘Survival Project.’ 13 May 1983, 1–2, ‘Mapoon People Given Land Title.’ 28 April 1989, 1, ‘Mapoon Elder Passes Away.’ 25 October 1991, 2; Jimmy, Jean. Interview by the author, recording on compact disc, 1 July 1975; Jimmy, Jean. ‘Christmas Day’, ‘Child Growing’, and ‘Tribal Dancing.’ Napranum Cha (Weipa South, Queensland), November 1985; Personal knowledge of ADB subject; Queensland State Archives. Item IDs 507740, 511511, 506593, Item ID 646022, 509022, Correspondence, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, Item ID 271658, Papers; Roberts, J. P., ed. The Mapoon Story: By the Mapoon People. Fitzroy, Vic.: International Development Action, 1975; State Library of New South Wales. Report of Mapoon Conference held at Mapoon on Thursday and Friday, 8th and 9th April, 1954, File AQ/7, BOEMAR Records, Box 19, MLMSS1893 Add on 1872; Taffe, Sue. Black and White Together: FCAATSI: The Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, 1958–1973. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland Press, 2005; Wharton, Geoffrey. ‘The Day They Burned Mapoon: A Study of the Closure of a Queensland Presbyterian Mission.’ BA Hons thesis. University of Queensland, 1996.

Geoff Wharton

JOHNSON, GREGORY RICHARD (GREG) (1947–1994), medical scientist, was born on 4 November 1947 in Melbourne, only son and eldest of three children of Richard Johnson, an English-born carpenter and cabinet-maker, and his Victorian-born wife Charlotte Elaine, née Powell. After attending Fairfield Primary and Rosanna High schools, Greg enrolled at the University of Melbourne (BSc Ed, 1971; BSc Hons, 1973; PhD, 1976). He had held numerous part-time jobs as a schoolboy and he continued the practice as a university student, tutoring, marking exam papers, and working at a bookshop in the city. On 14 December 1968 at Knox Presbyterian Church, Ivanhoe, he married Patricia Joan Knight. She was the purchasing officer for the Brotherhood of St Laurence at Fitzroy.

From 1973, under the supervision of R. O. Jones in the university’s zoology department, Johnson studied the initiation of haemopoiesis (blood cell development) in the liver. He met Malcolm Moore, who was on sabbatical leave from the Sloan Kettering Institute in New York and working with Don Metcalf at the Walter and Eliza Hall [qq.v.9] Institute of Medical Research (WEHI). Moore and Metcalf had recently published several studies of embryonic haemopoiesis. Joining this fruitful collaboration, Johnson essentially moved to the WEHI. In 1975 he and Moore co-published a paper in Nature suggesting that haemopoiesis in the foetal liver occurs through the migration and seeding of progenitor (stem) cells from elsewhere in the foetus. Johnson joined the staff of Metcalf’s cancer research unit in 1976.

At that time Metcalf was trying to understand the regulation of white blood cell formation using the ability of the progenitor cells to form colonies in semi-solid agar, a technique that he and Ray Bradley had pioneered in Australia. Johnson helped to develop several specific assays, including those for B- and T-lymphocytes and eosinophils, and for erythroid and multi-potential progenitor cells. The growth of the multi-potential progenitor cells, in particular, was very important because it was the first time that this complex process could be studied outside a living animal. In addition, Johnson was involved in the twofold endeavour of purifying the growth (colony-stimulating) factors that fostered the proliferation of progenitor cells, and of delineating the different hierarchies of those cells.

For fifteen months in 1979 and 1980 Johnson gained experience at the Basel Institute for Immunology, Switzerland, and the Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Canada. Back at the WEHI, in 1981 he was promoted to head of the cancer research unit’s developmental haematology laboratory. He became interested in the use of genetically engineered retroviruses to infect haemopoietic stem cells, both as a tool to study the responses to excess growth-factor stimulation and as a potential strategy for gene therapy. This research continued to occupy him after his appointment, effective from February 1993, as foundation professor of experimental haematology at the University of Queensland and chairperson of the joint experimental haematology program between the university, the Queensland Institute of Medical Research, and the Leukaemia Foundation of Queensland.

Johnson’s somewhat larrikin and irreverent style was much enjoyed during vigorous question times at international conferences. He filled his leisure hours with a large range of activities. Passionate about music, he collected both classical and popular works. Sports-minded, he was a fervent supporter of the Collingwood Football Club and a good basketballer, playing until his late thirties. Other interests included reading, travel, and building furniture and stereo equipment. The Johnsons loved renovating houses and then selling them. They were generous hosts who enjoyed entertaining.

In 1986 a malignant melanoma had been removed from Johnson’s back but by October 1993 the cancer had recurred and metastasised. With his doctors, he initiated a pioneering experimental immunisation strategy that aimed to generate an immune response against the tumour. This involved culturing his own melanoma cells, infecting them with a retrovirus that expressed granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and injecting the dead cells into the skin and muscles. Given his extraordinary knowledge of what was involved and his ability to give informed consent, the regulatory bodies permitted the treatment, which started in January 1994. Despite some initially promising immune reactions and the regression of some of the tumours, the immune response ultimately subsided. He died from brain metastases on 14 May 1994 in South Brisbane and was cremated. His wife survived him. A ‘great scientist’ (Begley 1994, 13), he had published 122 scholarly articles and book chapters in his short career.

Begley, Glen. ‘Rebel Scientist Solved Some of Blood’s Mysteries.’ Australian, 6 June 1994, 13; Johnson, Tricia. Personal communication; Personal knowledge of ADB subject; Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research. Annual Review. Melbourne: The Institute, 1992–93, 6, & 1993–94, 8.

Nicos A. Nicola

JOHNSON, ROGER KIRK HAYES (1922–1991), architect, planner, and educator, was born on 28 December 1922 at Whitehaven, England, one of two sons of William Henry Johnson, mining engineer, and his wife Mary Stewart Sharpe, née Hayes. Roger’s father, a talented amateur painter, was a strong creative influence and encouraged his appreciation of the natural environment. Educated at St Bees School, Cumbria, he studied at the University of Liverpool (BArch 1949, Dip Civic Design 1951) under the town planner and architect Gordon Stephenson. He served as a lieutenant in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (1942–46). He was flying an Avenger with the 855 Squadron on 23 July 1944 when he was shot down off Dieppe. Rescued by a German submarine he remained a prisoner of war in Germany until 20 May 1945 when the Russians released him. On 9 July 1949 at St Stephen’s Church of England, Prenton, Birkenhead, he married a managerial trainee, Patricia Noel Bellis.

Johnson worked as an architect in Britain and Kenya and taught architecture in England, South Africa, and Burma (Myanmar), becoming foundation head (1957–60) of the department of architecture at the University of Rangoon. At the invitation of Stephenson, then a planning consultant to the Western Australian government, Johnson moved to Perth. Appointed to the consultant architect’s office at the University of Western Australia in 1961, he contributed to the design of individual buildings and a whole campus plan before becoming reader (1965), and then dean (1967), in the faculty of architecture.

Johnson’s sensitivity to the need to site buildings in harmony with the Australian landscape and his success in planning complex public institutions made him an obvious recruit for the National Capital Development Commission, Canberra, where he became first assistant commissioner of civic design and architecture (1968–71). He led the design team that developed a ‘National Place’ plan for Canberra’s parliamentary triangle. The scheme proposed a grand plaza of important national buildings, including a permanent parliament house conceived as ‘an open house to every Australian’ (Johnson 1974, 34) and integrated within a recognisably Australian landscape. Parliament’s decision to site the new building on Capital Hill disillusioned Johnson, who argued for the rejection of the formality of Walter Burley Griffin’s [q.v.9] plan in favour of ‘asymmetry and calculated irregularity’ (Reid 2002, 293).

In 1972 Johnson moved to Brisbane as head planner for the new Griffith University at Nathan. There he developed a campus plan that reflected an academic organisation into schools of like areas of study rather than separate departments. In a break from European models of formal, geometric designs with historic references, Johnson’s plan developed a ‘spine path’ that acted as a street, unifying activities and buildings. He then became foundation head (1973–87) of the school of environmental design at Canberra College of Advanced Education (later the University of Canberra). His school integrated design streams, providing a common first year to all students before branching into professional specialisation. Giving principal lecturers autonomy, Johnson encouraged academic and professional excellence by leaving detailed course planning to them. He was an inspiring teacher who asked his students to lie under a tree and consider its engineering before becoming satisfied with their own design proposals.

Embracing architecture, planning, landscape architecture, and engineering, Johnson sought to produce work that reconciled people, buildings, and landscapes. His approach to practice and teaching was humanistic and collaborative. Awarded numerous design prizes, he was also a Fulbright scholar (1976). His books Design in Balance: Designing the National Area of Canberra, 1968–72 (1974) and The Green City (1979), are accounts by a significant participant in Canberra’s planning. After 1987 he continued his professional and creative contribution. A collected painter, architect, and writer, he listed tree planting as his favourite recreation. Survived by his wife and two sons, he died of a heart attack on 23 May 1991 at Bungendore, New South Wales, and was cremated. The Roger Johnson prize in environmental design is awarded annually by the University of Canberra where a design studio bears his name.

Clough, Richard. ‘Roger Kirk Hayes Johnson 1922–1991.’ Landscape Australia 3 (1991): 199; Johnson, Roger. Design in Balance. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland Press, 1974; Johnson, Roger. Papers 1932–1992. National Library of Australia; Reid, Paul. Canberra Following Griffin: A Design History of Canberra. Canberra: National Archives of Australia, 2002.

Susan Boden

JOHNSTON, ROBERT HENRY (BOB) (1924–1995), businessman, was born on 26 May 1924 at Camperdown, Sydney, second of three children of William Johnston, ship’s mate, born in the Shetland Islands, and his London-born wife Helen, née Malton. Brought up at Lakemba, Bob attended North Newtown Boys’ Intermediate High School and in 1938 began work as a copy-boy at John Fairfax & Sons [qq.v.4,8] Ltd. Mobilised for service in World War II, he joined the Royal Australian Naval Reserve on 1 June 1942 and was soon selected for officer training. In January 1943 he was appointed as a midshipman and posted to HMAS Assault, the navy’s amphibious-training establishment at Nelson Bay. From March 1944 he served in the Pacific as an acting and confirmed sub-lieutenant aboard the landing ship, infantry, HMAS Kanimbla. He was promoted to provisional lieutenant in May 1946 before the termination of his appointment on 3 June. His war service left him with a hearing disability, but in 1953 he was ruled to have ‘no pensionable degree of incapacity’ (NAA A6769).

Returning to his civilian occupation, Johnston studied at Sydney Technical College, passed his accountancy exams, and became an associate of the Australian Society of Accountants. By 1951 he was chief financial officer at Fairfax. That year he became a sales executive at the motor vehicle distributor Hastings Deering [q.v.13] Pty Ltd, later taken over by Leyland Motor Corporation Ltd. He rose to become managing director of its trucks and bus division in Melbourne, before returning to Sydney, where he was a director of British Leyland’s Australian subsidiary. Joining Thiess [q.v.] Toyota Pty Ltd in 1972, he was managing director of the company’s Sydney-based commercial vehicle arm. In 1986 he was appointed chairman and chief executive officer, a rare example of a non-Japanese chief executive of a Toyota enterprise. He became president when the two arms of the company merged in 1989 to form Toyota Motor Corporation Australia Ltd, based in Melbourne. Two years later Toyota overtook Holden and Ford as new car market-leader in Australia for the first time. He was president of the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries from 1990 to 1992.

Following negotiations with Senator John Button, the minister for industry, technology, and commerce, Johnston embarked on his great achievement, the establishment of Toyota’s motor car-manufacturing plant at Altona, Melbourne. With the factory under construction, in the 1993 Federal election campaign, Johnston joined Ford’s Jac Nasser and Mitsubishi’s Mike Quinn in condemning the zero tariff policy of John Hewson’s Liberal Party Opposition. The first Altona-built Toyotas were produced in 1994. A board restructure in December 1992 had seen Johnston move to become chairman of the company. The Keating government chose him in November 1993 to be chairman of the Australian Trade Commission (Austrade), and the next January he was appointed AO. He retired from Toyota in December 1994.

Johnston’s marriage at St Stephen’s Presbyterian Church, Sydney, on 9 July 1958 to Raymonde Dorothy Garner, a comptometrist, ended in divorce on 8 July 1971. He was nearly 6 feet (183 cm) tall, with black hair, brown eyes, and a dark complexion. A newspaper report in 1980—‘Our 25 Most Eligible Men’—described him as ‘a quiet man who lives in an elegantly modern townhouse in the Eastern Suburbs’ and a ‘keen tennis player who entertains with tremendous style on his cruiser’ (Sun Herald 1980, 123). He also enjoyed playing at the Australian Golf Club. Johnston was president of the Melanoma Foundation at the University of Sydney. He suffered from cancer himself in his later years, losing the sight of his right eye as a result, and for a time sported an eyepatch. Early in 1995 he also underwent an operation for a brain tumour, but was soon back at work.

After opening a new Austrade office in Detroit, Johnston was on a private visit to Houston, Texas, when he died on 7 May 1995. He was cremated after a funeral at St Mark’s Anglican Church, Darling Point. He had regarded automotive manufacture as the key to Australia’s future competitiveness. Toyota’s Altona plant closed on 4 October 2017; on 20 October Holden, too, closed its factory in Adelaide, ending motor car manufacturing in Australia.

Brewer, Peter. ‘Revered Captain of Trade.’ Canberra Times, 9 May 1995, 23; Conomos, John. ‘Prime Mover Behind Our Car Industry.’ Australian, 16 May 1995, 16; Lyons, Patrick. ‘Motoring Chief Helped Save Car Industry.’ Herald Sun (Melbourne), 12 May 1995, 88; National Archives of Australia. A6769, JOHNSTON R H; Sun-Herald (Sydney). ‘Our 25 Most Eligible Men.’ 6 April 1980, 123.

Chris Cunneen

JOLLEY, LEONARD JULIER (1914–1994), librarian, was born on 12 August 1914 at Bromley, London, youngest of three children of Henry Julier Jolley, lay reader, and his wife Bertha, née Craddock. The family was painfully poor in hard times, and Leonard was often ill as a child; his health would be a problem all his life. Awarded a London County Council bursary to The Coopers’ Company School, East London (1925–32), he was an outstanding student, winning a number of prizes. Matriculating with a Campbell Clarke scholarship in English at University College, London (UCL) (BA, 1935; MA, 1938), he relished an environment that valorised unconventional thinking. He read voraciously, studied Freud, vacillated between socialism and communism, and became a Quaker. Although he won prizes in English literature, he confessed: ‘It is awful what little work I do’ (Jolley 1941).

Jolley’s first job was in the library of the Institution of Civil Engineers (1938–39), where he admitted to being ‘the messiest labeller in the history of the British Isles’ (Jolley 1941). In April 1940 he was hospitalised with rheumatoid arthritis, firstly in Hackney Hospital, and then at the Emergency Hospital, Pyrford. He flirted hopelessly with a series of nurses, while avoiding the male patients who despised his pacifism. When discharged in October 1941, he joined a commune for conscientious objectors but was soon dismissed for not pulling his weight. Appointed half-time librarian of the missionary Selly Oak Colleges, Birmingham, in March 1942, he gained expertise in theology books; he was awarded a diploma of librarianship from UCL in 1944.

On 8 August 1942 Jolley had married Joyce Ellen Hancock, a schoolteacher, at Friends Hall, Bethnal Green; the two had met at UCL. They befriended Monica Elizabeth Knight, who had nursed Jolley at Pyrford. She gave birth to his child on 30 April 1946, five weeks before Joyce also gave birth. Monica and her child briefly moved into the Jolley household. A Selly Oak fellowship enabled Jolley to study theology libraries in the United States of America in April 1949.

After being appointed in 1950 as librarian, Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, Jolley left his wife; they divorced in 1952. He enjoined her never to tell her family and also kept it from his parents, a fiction he sought to maintain for the rest of his life. After he and Monica married at the register office, Wolverhampton, on 5 December 1952, at his direction she began using her middle name, Elizabeth. The new job enabled him to indulge his passion for incunabula and rare books. He revelled in filling gaps in the collections, but abhorred being secretary and college factotum. In November 1956 he became deputy librarian at the University of Glasgow, a job that gave him more responsibility in a much larger library. He also worked on his book Principles of Cataloguing (1960), and in 1958 founded and edited The Bibliotheck, a journal of Scottish bibliography. Realising that it might be years before the head librarian’s position became available, he was soon applying for other jobs.

In November 1959 Jolley arrived in Perth to take up the position of librarian at the University of Western Australia (UWA), a position carrying professorial status. The timing was propitious, as Australia’s universities would benefit from a period of generous funding. On his arrival, a windfall increased his acquisitions budget by 50 per cent. He established an undergraduate collection of books on open reserve, built up a rare book collection, formed a society to raise funds, and implemented an automated loan system, one of the first in the world, in 1967. During his tenure staff numbers increased from 31 to 135, and he recruited professional librarians, and sought to have them reclassified in line with academic positions. The library collection increased from 172,000 to 832,000 volumes. He played a vital role in developing the new Reid [q.v.16] Library building, which was opened in 1964 and extended in 1972 and 1973.

Some came to regard Jolley as a ‘god-librarian’ for such qualities as his ability to attract well-qualified and experienced senior librarians, and to assist his staff into headships elsewhere. Others saw him as a scholar-librarian for his UCL qualifications, for his skill with several languages and national literatures, and for his book on cataloguing. Students, however, knew him for his increasing stoop, pronounced limp, acerbic manner, and seeming disdain for undergraduates. Insights into his querulous disposition are found in his annual reports, which he structured as a rhetorical tour de force that perplexed and bullied everyone from the vice-chancellor down. Blending fantasy, fact, and fiction, they were described by a British colleague ‘as eagerly awaited and much prized … both for their content and their style’ (MacKenna 1979, 203), and continued to be read long after he retired.

To his friends Jolley was ‘whimsical, ironical and very scholarly’ (Hallam 1979, 201), but to others he was eccentric and difficult in manner, ‘monstrously self-regarding’, subjecting his two wives to ‘subterfuge and daily cruelties’ (Modjeska 2009, 65). Yet he could also show compassion toward colleagues and staff. Having retired in 1979, in 1989 he received the prestigious H. C. L. Anderson [q.v.7] award for services to Australian librarianship. In 1991 he entered a nursing home, by which time Elizabeth had built a career as a major writer of prose fiction—all his life he had wanted to be a writer, and all her life she had wanted to be a doctor. She was at his bedside reading to him when he died on 22 July 1994 at Claremont. The daughter of his first marriage, and a son and daughter from his second, survived him; he was cremated. His portrait by Ben Joel hangs in the Reid Library, UWA.

Barnes, John. ‘A Marriage of True Minds: Leonard and Elizabeth Jolley.’ Westerly 58, no. 2 (2013): 118–37; Borchardt, D. H., and H. Bryan. ‘Leonard Jolley: The Colleague.’ Australian Academic and Research Libraries 10, no. 4 (1979): 206–10; Dibble, Brian. ‘He Did Not Suffer Fools Gladly: Leonard J Jolley.’ Australian Library Journal 48, no. 4 (1999): 327–42, Doing Life: A Biography of Elizabeth Jolley. Crawley, WA: University of Western Australia Press, 2008; Hallam, H. E. ‘Mr. Leonard Jolley: An Appreciation.’ Australian Academic and Research Libraries 10, no. 4 (1979): 201–3; Jolley, Leonard. Diary, 1941. Copy in author’s possession; MacKenna, R. O. ‘Leonard Jolley—the British Years.’ Australian Academic and Research Libraries 10, no. 4 (1979): 203–6; Modjeska, Drusilla. ‘Between a Muddle & a Mystery.’ The Monthly, no. 41 (2009) 62–65; Swingler, Susan. House of Fiction: Leonard, Susan and Elizabeth Jolley: A Memoir. Fremantle, WA: Fremantle Press, 2012.

Brian Dibble*

Paul Genoni

JONES, Sir GEORGE (1896–1992), motor mechanic, soldier, air force officer, and company director, was registered as having been born on 22 November 1896 at Rushworth, Victoria, youngest of eight surviving children of Victorian-born parents Henry Jones, farmer and miner, and his wife Jane, née Smith. The family bible recorded George’s birth as 18 October and he would adopt that date. His father died in a mining accident three months before his birth. Thereafter the family lived in poverty and there were no opportunities for the children to have anything more than a basic education. Having attended Rushworth and Gobarup State schools, in 1910 he began a carpentry apprenticeship. He then moved to Melbourne where he studied engineering at the Working Men’s College and worked as a motor mechanic. A part-time soldier, he was serving with the 29th (Port Phillip) Light Horse when World War I broke out. On 21 June 1915 he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) and on 25 October joined the 9th Light Horse Regiment at Gallipoli, Turkey. Following evacuation of the Australian forces to Egypt in December, he served with the Imperial Camel Corps before transferring to the Australian Flying Corps on 26 October 1916. Established in 1912, the AFC was a branch of the Australian army until 1921, when the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) was founded.

With his background as a motor mechanic, Jones had the skills and experience that the AFC was seeking. After successfully completing a trade test, he was posted to No. 67 Squadron as a 2nd class air mechanic and then to No. 68 Squadron. In January 1917 the unit was sent to England, where squadron personnel commenced training for combat in France. Promoted to 1st class air mechanic in April, he began training as a pilot and, having completed the course, was commissioned in October. He was posted in January 1918 to No. 71 Squadron with the rank of lieutenant. The unit (later renamed No. 4 Squadron, AFC) was based at Bruay, France, and equipped with Sopwith Camel fighter aircraft.

Jones flew his first offensive patrol with the squadron on 10 February and fifteen days later scored his initial air combat victory when he shot down a German Albatross fighter near Lille. His fortunes were reversed on 15 March when his plane’s engine failed and he was forced to glide back towards the allied lines pursued by a German fighter. He crashed in no man’s land but suffered minimal physical injuries. Later that month the German army launched its final major offensive of the war and Jones’s squadron was involved in operations to counter it. Several sorties were flown each day by every available aircraft. On 24 March, while on an escort and reconnaissance flight, he received a serious gunshot wound to his back. After recovering in Britain, he rejoined his squadron in July. Between then and the Armistice, he shot down six more aircraft, bringing his tally to seven and qualifying as an ace. He was to be awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross in April 1919 for his daring and gallant leadership, and display of marked ability in all his duties. Promoted to captain, he was appointed as commander of ‘B’ Flight on 4 November 1918. After serving briefly with his squadron as part of the British army of occupation in Germany, he was repatriated in May 1919 and his AIF appointment terminated on 8 August.

Back in Melbourne Jones worked as a motor mechanic, except for a month in 1920 when he was employed as a pilot at Mildura. On 15 November 1919 at the Church of St Paul, Malvern, he married Muriel Agnes Cronan (d. 1959), a typist, in a Church of England ceremony. Following the establishment of the RAAF, he applied for, and was granted, a short service (later permanent) commission on 24 August 1921. At first he was employed on flying duties. From 1925 he served at the Flying Training School, Point Cook, where he commanded the Workshops Squadron (1925–26 and 1928) and the Flying Squadron (1927–28), and was promoted to squadron leader (1927).

Recognised by his superiors as a capable and hard-working officer, Jones was selected to attend the Royal Air Force Staff College at Andover, Hampshire, Britain, in 1929. Although he passed the course, he acknowledged that he found it difficult owing to his lack of formal education. He spent the following twelve months attached to RAF units in Britain. At the Central Flying School, Wittering, Cambridgeshire, he qualified as a category A.1 flying instructor and on his return to Australia was posted as officer-in-command of the Training Squadron at Point Cook. His expertise in this field was acknowledged with his appointment in November 1931 as director of training at RAAF Headquarters, Melbourne. In 1934 he commenced a six-year appointment as an honorary aide-de-camp to the governor-general. During September and October 1935 he skilfully piloted and navigated a de Havilland DH 89 aircraft to remote locations in the Northern Territory and the north of Western Australia as part of the North Australian Aerial Geographical and Geophysical Survey. It was a considerable feat of airmanship.

Promoted to wing commander on 1 January 1936, in March Jones became the RAAF’s director of personnel services, a position that he held for two years, before being appointed director of recruiting. He was appointed assistant chief of the air staff on 1 July and five months later promoted to acting group captain. His friend and mentor, Group Captain William Bostock [q.v.13], became deputy chief.

After the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, Jones worked with Air Vice Marshal Stanley Goble [q.v.9], acting chief of the air staff (CAS), on plans for an expeditionary air force that would be sent to Britain as part of Australia’s contribution to the war effort. The government, however, preferred participation in the Empire Air Training Scheme (EATS), by which the dominions would contribute aircrew to the RAF. The terms and agreements governing the EATS were formulated in November 1939 at a conference in Ottawa. Jones attended as a member of the Australian delegation led by James Fairbairn [q.v.8], the minister for air.

Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Burnett [q.v.13], RAF, replaced Goble as CAS in February 1940. He retained Bostock as his deputy and Jones returned to his earlier appointment as director of training (1940–42). Jones immediately set about the immense task of establishing a training network to meet the demands of the EATS, building numerous additional schools and acquiring new trainer aircraft. This work was recognised when, on 21 February 1941, he was made acting Air Commodore and the following year appointed CBE.

When the war in the Pacific started on 7 December, Jones was in Canada, having been sent there by Burnett to resolve some EATS problems. He quickly returned to Australia where he conducted an on-site inspection of the RAAF units stationed in Darwin. Finding morale to be low and aircraft poorly maintained, he concluded that the fighting value of the three squadrons was below standard. The erratic behaviour of some RAAF staff after the first Japanese air raids on Darwin (19 February 1942) seemed to confirm his observations. In April the Australian government placed its combat forces in the region under the American commander-in-chief, South-West Pacific Area, Douglas MacArthur [q.v.15]. The government decided to divide command of the RAAF between the CAS, responsible for administration, and the commander of the Allied Air Forces, responsible for operations.

Burnett’s term as CAS ended in May 1942 and he recommended to the government that Bostock, by then a substantive air vice marshal, succeed him. Arthur Drakeford [q.v.14], minister for air and civil aviation, having had a hostile relationship with Burnett, refused to appoint Bostock. The Federal cabinet selected Jones as CAS, promoting him three substantive ranks to air vice marshal ahead of eight officers senior to him. The appointment on 5 May came a surprise to everyone in the RAAF, not least, to Jones himself. Bostock was appointed air officer commanding RAAF Command—the operational element. Jones’s role was to raise, train, and sustain the RAAF, which included supporting RAAF Command by supplying it with personnel, air bases, and aircraft. While Jones would be answerable to Drakeford, Bostock was to be responsible for conducting air operations and would receive orders from the commander of the Allied Air Forces, Lieutenant Generals George Brett (until July) and thereafter George C. Kenney, both of the United States Army Air Forces.

While this was not an ideal situation, it allowed the government to have some control over the RAAF, and might have worked if different personalities had been involved. Instead, Jones and Bostock went from being friends to the most bitter of enemies. They quarrelled continually for the remainder of the war on issues that included disputed authority over support functions for operational units, appointments of officers, requirements for operational training, construction of airfields, and the supply of aircraft and materiel. Units received conflicting orders from senior officers, and hostile correspondence between Jones and Bostock continued throughout the war. There is no doubt that such disputes damaged the RAAF’s war effort. Nevertheless, Jones was appointed CB in June 1943.

Both Jones and Bostock attended the Japanese surrender ceremony in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Bostock, together with several other senior officers, retired from the RAAF in April 1946. Jones remained as CAS and was promoted to air marshal on 1 January 1947. He presided over the task of demobilising the wartime RAAF, and developed plans for Australia’s postwar air force. His Plan D, adopted in 1947, was the basis of the service’s postwar organisation and requirements for the following twenty years. During this period he provided RAAF units to support Australian involvement in the Malayan Emergency (1948–60) and the Korean War (1950–53). He also supervised the acquisition of new aircraft including the Sabre jet fighter, Canberra bomber, and Winjeel trainer, and the establishment of the RAAF College (1948) and the RAAF Museum (1952), both located at Point Cook, Victoria.

Retiring from the RAAF on 23 February 1952, Jones became director of coordination of the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation and a member of the board of Ansett [q.v.17] Transport Industries Ltd. In January 1953 he was appointed KBE for his military service. A boy scout during his youth, Sir George became Victorian branch president of the Baden-Powell Scout Guild. Hoping to pursue a political career, in 1952 he had nominated for Liberal Party of Australia preselection for the Federal seat of Flinders, but was unsuccessful. Having become disenchanted with the party, he joined the Australian Labor Party in 1958 and contested the seat of Henty three years later; again he was unsuccessful. Dissatisfied with the ALP’s internal disputes and its attacks on Ansett Transport Industries Ltd, he resigned in 1965. The Liberal Reform group approached him to stand in 1967 at a by-election for the Federal seat Corio; again he was unsuccessful.

Motivated by his opposition to communism, soon after retiring from the RAAF he had joined the Moral Re-Armament movement and in 1952 attended an MRA conference in Colombo. His interest in MRA slowly waned. In 1964 he was initiated into the Peace Commemoration Lodge, eventually reaching the level of master mason. Later he became affiliated with the United Services Lodge. Since the 1930s when he saw a strange object in the sky, Jones had been fascinated with unidentified flying objects and, in retirement, became a patron of the Commonwealth Aerial Phenomena Investigation Organisation and a member of the Victorian UFO Research Society. Another of his retirement activities was building houses for his sons and himself.

In 1978 at Brighton, he married Gwendoline Claire Bauer; she died two years later. Both sons from his first marriage also predeceased him; one died from cancer and the other, who was mentally unstable, was killed in a shoot-out with police. Sir George died on 24 August 1992 at Mentone, Victoria, and was buried beside his second wife in the Cheltenham lawn cemetery. He had been Australia’s last surviving fighter ace from World War I and the last surviving commander from World War II. Douglas Gillison assessed him as ‘an able and particularly conscientious officer, somewhat shy and reserved’ (1962, 477). He was a ‘good and decent man who had overcome considerable personal hardship as a youth to achieve remarkable professional success’ (Stephens, 26), but ‘was neither an inspiring leader nor a notable conceptual thinker’ (Stephens and Isaacs 1996, 96).

Australian War Memorial. 3DRL/3414 — Jones George (Air Marshal, Director of Training and Chief of Air Staff, RAAF); Coulthard-Clark, Chris. Soldiers in Politics: The Impact of the Military on Australian Political Life and Institutions. St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 1996, The Third Brother: The Royal Australian Air Force 1921–39. North Sydney: Allen & Unwin in association with The Royal Australian Air Force, 1991; Gillison, Douglas. Royal Australian Air Force 1939–1942. Vol. I of Series 3 (Air) of Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1962; Helson, Peter. The Private Air Marshal: the autobiography of Air Marshal Sir George Jones KB [sic] CB DFC. Canberra: Air Power Development Centre, 2010; Jones, Anne. Personal communication; Jones, George. From Private to Air Marshal. Richmond, Vic.: Greenhouse Publications, 1988. McCarthy, John. Australia and Imperial Defence 1918–1939: A Study in Air and Sea Power. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland Press, 1967; McCarthy, John. A Last Call of Empire. Australian Aircrew, Britain and the Empire Training Scheme. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1988; National Archives of Australia. A12372, R/31/H, B2455, JONES G; Odgers, George. Air War Against Japan. Vol. II of Series 3 (Air) of Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1957; Personal knowledge of ADB subject; Ruddell, Rosemary. Personal communication; Stephens, Alan. Going Solo. The Royal Australian Air Force, 1946–1971. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1995; Stephens, Alan, and Jeff Isaacs. High Fliers: Leaders of the Royal Australian Air Force. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1996.

Peter Helson

JONES, PERCIVAL (PERCY) (1914–1992), Catholic priest and musician, was born on 10 January 1914 at Geelong, Victoria, eldest of five children of Percy Jones, music teacher, and his wife Ethel May, née Bourke, both Victorian born. Percy senior was a devout Catholic, talented musician, and champion cornetist who had been reared in St Augustine’s Orphanage, Geelong. He trained in Europe before returning to conduct the municipal band. Taught by his father, Percy junior also excelled in music examinations and competitions. He was educated at St Mary’s Christian Brothers’ College, Geelong, where he shone academically (sub-intermediate dux 1926) and in team sports. In the 1929 public examinations he secured an exhibition in music and a free place at the University of Melbourne, but he chose to enter the priesthood instead.

Archbishop Daniel Mannix [q.v.10], sensing Jones’s potential as a future music director for the Melbourne archdiocese, facilitated his theological studies at the Pontifical Athenaeum Urbanianum de Propaganda Fide, Rome, and at All Hallows College, Dublin. While living in Ireland Jones also developed an interest in folk music. He was ordained on 13 March 1937 in Rome and undertook further studies at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra (MusDoc, 1941). His research was on the traditional use of Gregorian chant and sacred polyphony in the liturgy, focusing on the ninth-century Irish theologian John Scottus Eriugena (published 1957). After submitting his thesis he returned to Melbourne in late 1939.

Within a short time Jones began providing advice on musical education in the archdiocese, as well as organising festivals and special celebrations. From 1940 he was production director of the influential Sunday evening ‘Catholic Hour’ broadcast on radio station 3AW, educating his audience in liturgical music. Two years later he was appointed president of the archdiocese’s committee for sacred music and choirmaster (until 1973) of St Patrick’s Cathedral. In training choristers he used a French voice-production technique that achieved clarity of diction and a Spanish method of producing the voice on the hard palate to deliver resonance, emotional contrast, and drama. He compiled and edited The Australian Hymnal (1941) and The Hymnal of Blessed Pius X (1952).

During 1940 Jones began searching for distinctively Australian songs to teach a girls’ choir. Unsuccessful, he appealed to Jerry Waight, the Sun News-Pictorial columnist known as ‘Jonathan Swift’. The publicity produced hundreds of letters from readers, with the words, but not the music, of old Australian songs. Although Jones visited several informants to transcribe the music and arrange some songs, he had little opportunity for research and published only his preliminary findings. In 1952 the touring American folk singer Burl Ives performed and popularised some of the songs Jones had amassed, including ‘Click Go the Shears’. The following year a selection of the music Jones had collected and arranged was published as Burl Ives’ Folio of Australian Folk Songs.

In 1947 Jones had formed the Catholic Philharmonic Society. Despite his lack of orchestral experience, he chose Haydn’s ‘The Creation’ for the society’s inaugural concert, a memorable performance by a 250-voice choir and a symphony orchestra at the Melbourne Town Hall. Five successful productions of sacred choral works followed. During the 1940s he was involved in the Victorian School Music Association and then the National Music Camp Association (chairman 1965–78). He would also direct tours of the NMCA’s offshoot, the Australian Youth Orchestra, to Japan (1970) and the United States of America (1976). In 1950 he was appointed vice-director of the conservatorium of music at the University of Melbourne.

Working under the directorship of Sir Bernard Heinze [q.v.17], Jones carried a heavy administrative and teaching load. He restructured and then taught the music history course, as well as conducting the conservatorium choir and the university choral society. He recalled that it was ‘an exhausting life by any standards’ (Cave 1988, 61). In 1957 the university conferred on him the degree of master of arts. He was appointed a reader in 1975, served as associate dean of the faculty of music (1975–77), and was president of the staff club, University House (1976–77). He retired from the university in 1978 and was awarded an honorary doctorate of music in 1987.

From 1953 to 1972 Jones had been parish priest of the Church of the Sacred Heart, Carlton. Fluent in Italian, he was popular with a congregation that was dominated by migrants from Italy. In 1960, while on sabbatical leave, he joined a preparatory commission advising the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council on liturgy, and later became a member of the International Commission on English in the Liturgy. He engaged in detailed research to produce translations and sought to adapt them to their music, a challenge he discussed in his book English in the Liturgy (1966). In 1973 he organised the musical and artistic elements of the international Eucharistic Congress in Melbourne.

Jones was short, corpulent, and ruddy faced, with a ready smile and bright eyes. He was enthusiastic and affable, which helped him to get things done swiftly in his active life. His occasional irascibility quickly passed. In retirement he often lunched at University House with academic and cultured friends. They were known as the ‘Glee Club’ for their ‘love of good humour, good conversation and, to the scandal of not a few, good wine’ (Cave 1988, 128). For services to religion and music, he was appointed MBE (1968) and elevated to OBE (1979). In 1988 his reminiscences, edited by his friend Donald Cave, were incorporated into a biography published as Percy Jones: Priest, Musician, Teacher. After a long illness, he died at Newtown, Geelong, on 17 November 1992 and was buried in the local Sacred Heart Convent cemetery.

Cave, Donald. Percy Jones: Priest, Musician, Teacher. Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press, 1988; Griffin, James. ‘Obituary: Percy Jones 1914–1992.Eureka Street 2, no. 11 (December 1992 – January 1993): 35; Hazell, T. A. ‘Percy Jones 1914–1992: Priest and Musician.’ Footprints 10, no. 3 (September 1993): 17–20; Hince, Kenneth. ‘Musician Who Revived a Sacred Tradition.’ Age (Melbourne), 19 November 1992, 14; Jones, Dr Percy. Interview by Gwenda Davey, 18 February 1991. Transcript. National Library of Australia; McKenry, Keith. ‘Percy Jones: Australia’s Reluctant Folklorist.Overland, no. 186 (Autumn 2007): 25–33.

Renn Wortley

JONES, PHILIP HARRHY (1931–1994), professor of environmental engineering, was born on 30 January 1931 at Tredegar, Wales, son of Reginald Salisbury Jones, master decorator and house painter, and his wife Evelyn Anne Elizabeth, née Harrhy, a schoolteacher. During the Depression the family moved to Slough, England, and Philip attended Windsor County Boys’ School. He gained a position as an articled pupil of the Slough Borough engineer and attended evening courses at the University of London. At age twenty he joined Sir William Halcrow & Partners Ltd, which sent him to the Gold Coast (Ghana) to carry out hydrologic and hydrographic surveys for the planned Volta River Project.

In 1954 Jones moved to Toronto, Canada. On 11 December that year at nearby Oakville, he married Eileen Mildred Ryan; they had met in the Gold Coast, where she was living with her parents, her father being a British Army officer stationed in the colony. Jones studied civil engineering at the University of Toronto (U of T) (BASc Hons, 1958) and, after three years working as a consultant, completed studies and research in sanitary engineering at Northwestern University (MS, 1964; PhD, 1965), Evanston, Illinois, United States of America. Back at U of T in 1964 as a senior Ford fellow, he became an associate professor in 1966. He held dual positions as professor of civil engineering and microbiology from 1971. That year he was appointed founding chairman of the university’s multidisciplinary Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering (Institute for Environmental Studies).

The author of more than 100 scholarly publications throughout his career, Jones had been influential in achieving a decision in 1970 by the Canadian government to ban phosphates in detergents to combat eutrophication of waterways. He served as a consultant and adviser to numerous bodies, including the World Health Organization; sat on expert panels and international commissions on water quality; chaired the 10th Biennial Conference of the International Association on Water Pollution Research (1980); helped to establish the Pacific Basin Consortium on Hazardous Wastes (1986); and organised symposia on the destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls using cement kiln technology. In 1986 he was elected to the American Academy of Environmental Engineers. The Canadian Society for Civil Engineering awarded him the Albert E. Berry medal for his pioneering contribution to environmental engineering (1990).

Selected to head the new school of environmental engineering in Griffith University’s innovative division of Australian environmental studies (later, faculty of environmental science), Jones arrived in Brisbane to take up the post in February 1991. He established a ground-breaking environmental engineering degree that created early cohorts of graduates who were unique in Australia and much sought after by industry. The program required students to take six, rather than the conventional four, subjects per semester. It substituted sociology, communication, and ecology subjects for some traditional first-year engineering courses. When students complained of prejudice against them in the ecology class, Jones informed them that, as engineers trying to solve environmental problems, they would continue to encounter suspicion during their careers, because of the profession’s usual association with development rather than conservation.

Appointing capable deputies and senior colleagues to whom he could delegate responsibility and authority, Jones concentrated on his role as a global leader in environmental engineering, promoting the field in the university and the outside world. His reputation, experience, knowledge, ability to link with industry groups, and communication skills ensured that he was invited to join the boards or steering committees of many environmental initiatives. Typically, after one or two meetings, he would nominate an alternate from his staff to carry on in his place.

In 1991 Jones established the Waste Management Research Unit (WMRU), with financial assistance and direction from the then Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage. The WMRU represented the school of environmental engineering on a number of bodies, including the Environmental Management Industry Association of Australia (Sustainable Business Association) and the Standards Australia mirror committee for Technical Committee 207 developing the International Organisation for Standardization’s 14000 Series Environmental Management Systems Standards.

The WMRU and school ran a succession of important international technology-transfer conferences. Jones ensured that they attracted media attention, with the aim of informing the public and politicians about sustainable waste management and the recovery of materials and energy from waste. He chaired Kilburn ’92, on the role of cement kilns. The Compost 94 conference on organic waste, at which he presented two seminal papers, included a free, open public session. His encouragement and support of junior staff resulted in the faculty’s considerable contributions to the United Nations’ environmental education and training program and the establishment of the school’s innovative course in industrial ventilation.

Besides his work and family, Jones loved rugby football, a beef pie eaten in his hands (even in stylish restaurants), and smoking his pipe while discussing football or the next big project he had in mind for the school. He died of cancer on 22 September 1994 at his Sunnybank Hills home and, following an Anglican funeral, was cremated. His wife and their two daughters and two sons survived him. The legacy of his time in Australia is the significant contribution of himself, his staff, and his students to the national and global movement towards environmental protection and sustainable development.

Davey, Tom. ‘Outspoken Environmental Scientist Dies.’ Environmental Science and Engineering Magazine (Aurora, Ontario, Canada) 7, no. 5 (October–November 1994): 9; Jones, Eileen. Personal communication; Jones, P. H. Professional and Academic Curriculum Vita of Philip H. Jones. Unpublished typescript, August 1989. Copy held on ADB file; Rose, Calvin. Personal communication, ‘Scientist Fought for Environment.’ Australian, 30 September 1994, 12; Personal knowledge of ADB subject.

Darryl Bennet

David Moy

JOYCE, EILEEN ALANNAH (1908–1991), concert pianist, was born on 1 January 1908 at Zeehan, Tasmania, fourth of seven children of Tasmanian-born Joseph Thomas Joyce, miner, and his Victorian-born wife Alice Gertrude, née May. By 1911 the family was living at Boulder, a gold-mining town adjacent to Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. Like many mining communities, Boulder and Kalgoorlie resounded with music from choirs, bands, and orchestras reflecting the traditions of miners from many countries. Central to Eileen’s musical training were the piano lessons given her by Sister Mary Monica Butler at St Joseph’s Convent School, where she was educated.

A system of examinations, then organised by London academies and colleges of music, ensured a high standard for music teachers and students in both city and country. It was through this system that Joyce’s talent was discovered by the visiting London examiner Charles Schilsky in 1923. So moved was he by her playing that he immediately wrote to the Kalgoorlie Miner that she ‘bids fair to become within the next very few years a pianist of sensational order and will take her place in the very first ranks among her contemporaries’ (1923, 4). She was then fifteen years old. Money raised on the goldfields provided a two-year scholarship for her to attend Osborne, a Loreto Convent school in Perth, where she extended her general education and was guided in piano by an extraordinarily gifted teacher, Sister John More. In 1926, the last year of her scholarship, a committee was formed to raise funds for the young pianist’s training abroad. Joyce left Australia in December 1926 to study under the director of the Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy Hochschule für Musik at Leipzig, Germany, the pianist Max Pauer.

Pauer’s classes proved too advanced and Joyce transferred to Robert Teichmüller, another teacher at the institution. Under his instruction she made great progress. In 1930, after she decided to move to London, Teichmüller wrote to the distinguished English conductor Albert Coates commending her highly. She made her London début in September that year playing Prokofiev’s third piano concerto at the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Proms under Sir Henry Wood. During the next three years she extended her technique and musicianship through studies with Tobias Matthay, Adelina de Lara, Artur Schnabel, and Myra Hess. BBC broadcast recitals began to spread her name, but the most effective medium was recordings. The first of these came out in June 1933, following a small payment to Parlophone for a private recording. Her brilliant, sure-fingered technique quickly led to a contract.

Three years later Joyce embarked on her first Australian tour, organised by the fledgling Australian Broadcasting Commission. Shortly after her return to London, in a rapid romance she married Douglas Legh Barratt, a stockbroker, on 16 September 1937 at the register office, Marylebone; a son was born in 1939. It was an unhappy marriage that was cut short by Barratt’s death at sea in 1942 while on service with the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. Like many musicians, Joyce helped raise morale by touring and playing during World War II, often with the London Philharmonic Orchestra in theatres and music halls.

During the 1940s Joyce formed a relationship with Christopher Mann (d. 1978), a theatrical and film agent whose list of artists, musicians, and actors included some of the greatest stars in Britain and the United States of America. It is not known whether they were officially married, although both claimed they were, and they were regarded so by the public (Davis 2001, 114). Mann managed Joyce’s career, arranging international tours for her in Europe, the United States, Africa, South America, and Asia, as well as another to Australia in 1948. She gained a star status that she enjoyed for the rest of her life. Her glamorous image owed much to her lavish concert gowns, created by leading designers, particularly Norman Hartnell. The couple’s combined wealth enabled them to buy property in Mayfair and farms in the country, including two at Chartwell previously owned by (Sir) Winston Churchill, who became their neighbour.

Extending her career into film and television, Joyce performed on screen and in soundtracks, and acted in A Girl in a Million (1946) and Man of Flowers (1983). In 1949 she took up the harpsichord and clavichord, becoming part of the movement to revive early music then taking place in Britain. By 1960 she had made more than 100 recordings, some of which were highly acclaimed. It was unfortunate that she was often regarded as a light-weight pianist because of the many recordings of shorter works which established her name. In the 1930s, she had practised seven hours a day, amassing a wide repertoire that included over seventy concertos. She gave the first performances of Shostakovich’s piano concertos in Britain—the first on 4 January 1936 with the BBC Symphony Orchestra under Sir Henry Wood, and the second on 5 September 1958 with the same orchestra under Sir Malcolm Sargent. Her film work is probably best known: in 1945 she played Rachmaninoff’s second piano concerto on the soundtrack in two feature films, Seventh Veil and Brief Encounter.

Generosity to both her fans and to charitable causes had built her popularity further. She often chatted with admirers at her concerts, and performed in schools, asylums, hospitals, and prisons. Her gruelling professional regimen, which included annual tours of Britain, radio and television broadcasts, recording sessions, and lengthy concert programs, provoked acute physical and nervous problems in mid-life, including a nervous breakdown in 1953. For many years she suffered from rheumatism and sciatica.

After effectively retiring from the concert scene in 1960, Joyce continued to be involved in the music world. She encouraged young musicians and supported musical causes. She returned to Perth in 1979 to adjudicate at the National Eisteddfod, and the same year donated $37,600 to the University of Western Australia (UWA) for an Eileen Joyce Music Fund, as well as giving the Western Australian Museum a clavichord, an antique French music chair, a portrait of herself by Augustus John, and a bronze bust by Anna Mahler. In 1981 she attended the opening of the Eileen Joyce Studio at UWA, which she had financed at a cost of $110,000. Awarded honorary doctorates in music from the universities of Cambridge (1971), Western Australia (1979), and Melbourne (1982), she was appointed CMG in 1981. Survived by her son, she died on 25 March 1991 at Redhill, Surrey, and was cremated. She is remembered in Tasmania by the Eileen Joyce Memorial Park.

Callaway Centre, University of Western Australia. CRE 001, Eileen Joyce Collection; Davis, Richard. Eileen Joyce: A Portrait. Fremantle, WA: Fremantle Arts Centre Press, 2001; Hubble, Ava. ‘Always Proud of Her Origins.’ Sydney Morning Herald, 9 April 1991, 14; Kalgoorlie Miner. ‘Musical Prodigy in Kalgoorlie.’ 16 October 1923, 4.

David Tunley

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