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Australian Dictionary of Biography Volume 19: 1991–1995 (A–Z)


MACDOUGALL, JAMES CLAUDE (JIM) (1903–1995), journalist, was born on 25 August 1903 in Brisbane, third son of Dugald Graeme Macdougall, a Victorian-born journalist, and his Queensland-born wife Mary, née Ryan. After the family moved to Melbourne, Jim attended Wesley College (1917–19), then spent some happy years jackarooing on a property in the Riverina owned by (Sir) George Fairbairn [q.v.8], a friend of his father. In 1923 his father showed another prominent acquaintance, (Sir) Keith Murdoch [q.v.10], a poem his son had composed while droving sheep, on the strength of which Murdoch hired him in 1924 as a cadet reporter on the Melbourne Herald.

Impressed by Macdougall’s eye for a good story, Murdoch sent him to the Herald’s London bureau for two years to gain experience. At the end of 1926 he returned to Melbourne, to be met by a request from Murdoch that he move in with and keep a watchful eye on the poet C. J. Dennis [q.v.8], then a Herald columnist and drinking heavily. He shared ‘Den’s’ flat for several months. Macdougall made Australian radio-broadcasting history on 25 August 1927, when his interview from Melbourne with a subject in Sydney was transmitted live in both cities.

On 5 August 1932 at Scots Church, Melbourne, after a six-week courtship, Macdougall married Olive Conway MacKnight, daughter of Conway MacKnight, a leading Albury surgeon. Soon afterwards, he resigned from the Herald and the newlyweds sailed for Britain. They travelled extensively on the Continent. Leaving his wife and infant son to sail home ahead of him, in early 1934 he cycled across Nazi Germany with Ronald Hughes-Jones, a journalist friend from Melbourne. In Vienna in May, Macdougall interviewed Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, the composer Franz Léhar, and the actor Emil Jannings. He then journeyed alone to the Balkans, where he worked briefly on the English-language South Slav Herald (Belgrade), and languished in prison for two days in Skopje, for a passport violation.

Olive Macdougall returned to Australia in August 1934 and Jim in September. For about a year, they lived in Sydney, from where he freelanced. She had brought a breeding pair of Dalmatians and a cocker spaniel from Britain. A few months later the dogs were joined by what was said to be the first Afghan hound imported into Australia. The couple established studs, breeding, exhibiting, and selling pedigreed dogs, an enthusiasm they shared for the rest of their lives.

By 1936 Macdougall was working as a sub-editor and occasional feature-writer for the Melbourne Star. Moving back to Sydney in 1937, he was a sub-editor then pictorial editor of (Sir) Frank Packer’s [q.v.15] Daily Telegraph. In 1941, having been rejected for military service because of a bleeding ulcer, he transferred to the Sun, where his daily column, ‘Contact’, was launched on 18 February 1946; it was one of the first American-style, front-page features in Australian newspapers.

‘Contact’ was the perfect expression of Macdougall’s personality, reflecting (as a rival acknowledged) his ‘sunny and gregarious disposition’ (McNicoll 1979, 119). Widely plundered for individual items by provincial and interstate columnists, it was typically a series of half a dozen or more paragraphs of society gossip, business and political news, humorous or appealing stories, and whimsical one-liners. Although he sometimes referred to the sagacity of his father and his own exotic adventures in early life, his staple source and subject was, as he put it, ‘the brain, the wit and the wisdom of the people of Sydney’ (Verlander 1990, 4), from whom, at the peak of his career, he was receiving nearly 1,000 letters and phone calls every week. He often used his column, in turn, to highlight individual cases of hardship or injustice, and to lend his support to charitable causes.

After John Fairfax & Sons Pty Ltd took over the Sun in 1953, Macdougall had to resist pressure from the new editor, Lindsay Clinch [q.v.17], to use his column to ‘start kicking people in the guts’ (McNicoll 1979, 249). Eventually, in 1956, he migrated, with ‘Contact’, to the front (later back) page of the Daily Telegraph. The move was marked by the first appearance of his distinctive puckish caricature, with big spectacles, long nose, abundant black hair, and stylish buttonhole. Resentment at his and others’ recent rough treatment by Fairfax’s management made him agree to write two paragraphs sharply critical of the firm’s corporate behaviour and journalistic standards; he had to defend his own integrity in the public hostilities that ensued between the two newspapers.

At the height of his popularity, in 1961 Macdougall joined the Daily Mirror, where his column appeared seven days a week (Sunday Mirror included)—with a new title, ‘Town Talk’. He called it his ‘corner of warmth in the paper’ (White 1995, 62). His readers agreed and he became ‘perhaps Australia’s best-known columnist’ (Newspaper News 1966, 11), with an uncanny knack—often credited to either his ‘crystal ball’ or ‘my spotted dog’ (White 1995, 13)—for accurately predicting honours awards, senior political appointments, and Archibald prize winners. He was appointed OBE (1969) and elevated to CBE (1974) for services to journalism.

Though he officially retired at the end of 1974, Macdougall worked (1975–91) for Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd, writing a weekly column in the Australian, ‘Jim Macdougall’s Cathay’; the title was soon changed to ‘Jim Macdougall’s Cathay Advertisement’ (later ‘Commercial’). During these years he also contributed a regular column to the North Shore Times. He died on 25 August 1995 in his house at Lindfield, Sydney, and was cremated. His wife and son survived him.

Argus (Parramatta, NSW). ‘He’s a Mirrorman Now.’ 18 January 1961, 14; McNicoll, David. Luck’s a Fortune. Sydney: Wildcat Press, 1979; Macdougall, Jim. ‘In the City of Doreens.’ Quadrant, November 1975, 60–61; Macdougall, Jim. Interview by Stewart Harris, 10 November 1993. Sound recording. Oral History and Folklore collection. National Library of Australia; Newspaper News (Sydney). ‘Personalities Command Wide Readership.’ 29 April 1966, Daily Mirror Anniversary Feature, 11; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘Columnist Inspired by Man in the Street.’ 5 September 1995, 4; Verlander, Helen. ‘Columnist’s Flights of Fancy Really Took Off.’ Australian, 15 August 1990, 4; White, Matt. ‘Columnist Who Thrived on People.’ Australian, 14 September 1995, 13; White, Matt. ‘The Daddy of Sydney Columnists.’ Daily Telegraph Mirror, 5 September 1995, 62.

Patrick Buckridge

MACINTOSH, WILLIAM FREDERICK (BILL) (1914–1993), army officer, clerk, and businessman, was born on 22 August 1914 at Toowoomba, Queensland, eldest of three children of William Albert MacIntosh, business manager, and his wife Martha Amelia, née Bruggemann, both born in Queensland. After William senior died unexpectedly, in 1927 Martha married Malachy Edmond Gleeson, a grazier, and the family moved to his property near Frederick Peak, inland from Townsville. Young MacIntosh attended Weir State School, before starting work as a clerk at the Townsville branch of Howard Smith Ltd, shipping agents. He also served in the 31st Battalion, Citizen Military Forces.

After World War II broke out in September 1939, MacIntosh volunteered for the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) on 9 October. He was posted to the 2/9th Battalion, promoted to sergeant in May 1940, and allocated to the (Vickers) machine-gun section. Arriving in the Middle East via Britain in December, the 2/9th saw its first action from 19 to 21 March 1941, when it attacked and captured a fort garrisoned by Italian and Libyan troops at Giarabub, Libya. Although injured in a fall down a cliff on the first night, MacIntosh remained on duty. He directed his men ‘with calmness and determination, and twice brought up ammunition parties under fire’ (NAA B883), enabling the section to hold a vital flank and knock out enemy posts. For his outstanding leadership and courage, he was awarded the Military Medal.

The 2/9th Battalion took part in the defence of Tobruk (April–August 1941), then served in Syria, before returning to Australia in March 1942. By August the unit was in Papua and in early September was involved in the heavy fighting that repelled a Japanese invasion at Milne Bay. That same month MacIntosh was commissioned as a lieutenant. From 18 December at Cape Endaiadere, near Buna, he fearlessly led his platoon in repeated assaults against the enemy and rescued a wounded man under heavy fire. Himself shot in the right knee and arm, he was evacuated and hospitalised in Brisbane. He was mentioned in despatches in December 1943 for his gallant and distinguished service in the South-West Pacific area, and in April 1944 awarded the Military Cross for his efforts at Cape Endaiadere. On 16 July 1943 at St James’ Cathedral, Townsville, he married Hylma Sutton Lyons, a librarian and member of the Voluntary Aid Detachment.

MacIntosh returned to the 2/9th Battalion, which deployed to Papua in August and trained around Port Moresby with other units of the 18th Brigade. In November he was posted to brigade headquarters but rejoined his battalion in February 1944 in New Guinea. Back in Australia in May, he was classified as medically unfit for active service in the field. After performing administrative duties in Queensland as a temporary captain (September 1944) his AIF appointment ended and he transferred to the Reserve of Officers on 5 February 1946. As Townsville’s most decorated World War II soldier, he was chosen to lead the city’s Victory Day parade in June.

Following the war, MacIntosh returned to work at Howard Smith Ltd, Townsville. Notwithstanding promises to keep him on, the firm later dismissed him and other ex-servicemen. He subsequently had a general store, then a grocery store and post office. Next he worked for an oil company before purchasing the Causeway Newsagency and Gift Shop in about 1960. Moving to Brisbane in 1964, he worked for the stockbroking firm Corrie and Co. and then for the Stamp Duties Office until he retired.

Standing 173 centimetres tall, MacIntosh was slim but well-proportioned with strong facial features and calm eyes. He frequently led Anzac Day marches in Townsville. Survived by his wife and their two daughters, he died at the War Veterans Home, Pinjarra Hills, on 16 April 1993 and was buried in Pinnaroo lawn cemetery, Bridgeman Downs, Brisbane.

Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. 23 December 1943, 2800, 27 April 1944, 893; Dickens, Gordon. Never Late: The 2/9th Australian Infantry Battalion 1939–1945. Loftus, NSW: Australian Military History Publications, 2005; Hansen, Geoff, and Diane Menghetti, eds. Townsville in War and Peace 1942–1946. Townsville, Qld: Townsville Museum and Historical Society, 2005; London Gazette. 13 June 1941, 3369; Lyons, Terry. A Pride of Lyons. Townsville, Qld: Terry Lyons, 1996; National Archives of Australia. B883, QX2163.

Geoffrey E. P. Hansen

MACLACHLAN, BYRON HUGH (1900–1991), pastoralist, was born on 7 August 1900 in Adelaide, second son of Hugh Patterson McLachlan, grazier, and his wife Euleena, née Sawers. Both parents came from families with extensive pastoral interests in South Australia. Educated at the Collegiate School of St Peter, MacLachlan enrolled in medicine at the University of Adelaide but left before the first-year examinations to go jackarooing on his family property, Paratoo station, north-east of Peterborough. He took over as manager six months later, aged nineteen. On 29 February 1928, at Toorak Presbyterian Church, Melbourne, he married Joan Glasgow, daughter of Major General Sir William Glasgow [q.v.9]. They spent their early married life at Paratoo before moving to Strathcourt at Gilberton, and later to Springfield station, Williamstown, in South Australia.

In his early years MacLachlan established the practice that was to serve him well throughout his career; to invest in land at good prices in preference to shares. Beginning with Lake Everard station, purchased in 1931, MacLachlan built one of Australia’s largest pastoral empires. In 1937 he acquired a vast tract of undeveloped semi-desert land north-west of Tarcoola, subsequently transformed into Commonwealth Hill—‘the jewel in his crown’ (Saints 1991, 15). Confident that the outback, with its low annual rainfall, was prime sheep-growing country he successfully lobbied for the construction of an outer dog fence across the State as protection against dingoes. On 17 June 1947 the South Australian Dog Fence Act came into force and a 5-foot (150 cm) barrier was erected from the Great Australian Bight to the New South Wales border. MacLachlan served on the South Australian Dog Fence Board almost continuously from 1947 to 1979. Some of the methods he proposed for protecting the fence from damage by local Aboriginal people and dingoes, in the interests of his sheep, later aroused severe criticism in the press and on television. He publicly complained about the destruction of fencing by Aboriginal people at his Mulgathing station in the 1940s, and in 1970 was criticised for poisoning spring water to eradicate feral goats and kangaroos at his Balcanoona station. By the mid-1980s his holdings encompassed seventeen stations throughout Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, and Western Australia, carrying more than 355,000 sheep and producing over 8,000 bales of wool each year.

As president (1950–51) of the South Australian Stockowners’ Association, MacLachlan contributed to the successful blocking of the Menzies [q.v.15] government’s proposed wool reserve price plan in 1951. That year he and another driver were involved in a fatal car accident. Although the coroner found that there was no culpable negligence on the part of either driver, MacLachlan paid the victim’s widow over £3,000 in compensation.

On 2 February 1939 MacLachlan had enlisted in the Citizen Military Forces. Called up for full-time duty in October 1941, he was commissioned in December. He served as a captain in cavalry and artillery units in Australia before being placed on the Retired List in September 1942.

MacLachlan was widely regarded as a hard employer and a tough businessman, but some who were close to him saw a warmer side. Of less than average height, well built, and with a rosy complexion, he loved French wines and driving large cars. His recreations were billiards and shooting. He served on the building and fundraising committees and board of St Andrew’s Hospital, Adelaide and with his two brothers donated £1,000 to help establish it. A nominal Presbyterian but proud of his Scottish heritage, in the late 1940s he changed the spelling of his name from McLachlan to its original form of MacLachlan. Survived by his wife, a son, and twin daughters, he died on 4 August 1991 at Springfield station and was cremated. A bronze bust by John Dowie and a portrait by Sir Ivor Hele [q.v.] are held by the family.

Adamson, Peter. ‘Harassing Aborigines and Poisoning Waterholes. B. H. MacLachlan (1900–91). Some Examples of a South Australian Pastoralist’s Attitude to and Treatment of Aborigines from the 1940s to the 1970s.’ Unpublished typescript, 2007. Copy held on ADB file; Austin, Nigel. ‘How the Laird of Commonwealth Hill Built His Wool Empire.’ Bulletin (Sydney), 9 December 1986, 76–82; Cockburn, Stewart. ‘Pioneer Who Tackled the “Useless” Land.’ Advertiser (Adelaide), 10 August 1982, 4, The Patriarchs. Adelaide: Ferguson Publications, 1983; MacLachlan, Hugh. Interview by the author, 12 and 26 April 2012; National Archives of Australia. B884, S9076; Saints (Magazine of St Peters’ College, Adelaide). ‘Byron Hugh MacLachlan (1917).’ 55 (September 1991): 15; Woodford, James. The Dog Fence: A Journey Across the Heart of Australia. Melbourne: Text Publishing, 2003.

Dirk Van Dissel

McALONEY, WILLIAM SIMPSON (BILL) (1910–1995), air force officer, was born on 12 May 1910 at Rose Park, South Australia, eldest son and second of six children of Irish-born William Samuel McAloney, waterworks patrolman, and his Melbourne-born wife Mary, née Murphy. Bill was educated at Thebarton Technical High School and the Adelaide School of Mines. He worked as an automotive mechanic and trained (1928–29) in the 43rd Battalion, Citizen Military Forces. In 1931 he purchased a garage and engineering workshop in Wirrulla, but in 1936 the business failed and he was subsequently bankrupted. On 24 June 1936 at the local hall, Carawa, he married Dora Winifred Johnson.

Enlisting in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) on 1 July, McAloney became an aero engine fitter with No. 1 Squadron at Laverton, Victoria. On 31 August 1937 he accompanied one of three Hawker Demon biplane fighter-bombers on a formation flight to Hamilton, where the aircraft were to form a static ground display at the local agricultural show before returning to base. When one of the departing Demons crashed on take-off from Hamilton, he unhesitatingly entered the burning wreckage in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue the injured pilot. He suffered severe burns himself before being dragged unconscious from the flames by onlookers. In February 1938, while still recovering from his injuries, he was awarded the Albert Medal—a rare imperial civil decoration; he was the only member of the RAAF to receive it.

Resuming duties in September, McAloney rose rapidly through the ranks to warrant officer (1942) while serving with No. 1 Aircraft Depot at Laverton from 1939 and the Directorate of Equipment at RAAF Headquarters, Melbourne, from 1942. He was commissioned as a flying officer in March that year. Promoted to flight lieutenant in August 1943, he continued working with technical directorates at RAAF Headquarters for the rest of the war, apart from a month in late 1944 when he was sent on temporary duty to the Netherlands New Guinea to rectify problems experienced with aircraft engines in the First Tactical Air Force.

In September 1948 McAloney was granted a permanent commission as an engineer officer. A squadron leader from March 1950, in June 1952 he was posted to Singapore as technical officer of the RAAF’s No. 90 Wing based at Changi, for operations during the Malayan Emergency; the wing was disbanded in December, and he was transferred to No. 1 Squadron at Tengah. Returning to Australia in July 1953, he joined the staff of Maintenance Group Headquarters in Melbourne. On his promotion to wing commander in January 1957, he was posted to Maintenance Command headquarters to manage aircraft servicing and policy. In October 1960 he became officer commanding the engineering squadron at the Aircraft Research and Development Unit, Laverton, where his focus was on maintenance and serviceability of the diverse range of aircraft passing through the unit, both jet and piston-engine. Appointed OBE in January 1966, he retired on 12 May in the following year with the honorary rank of group captain. This was two years later than required by his age, his service having been extended owing to the RAAF’s shortage of technical officers.

McAloney was an active Freemason. He enjoyed reading, gardening, and golf. Largely self-taught and a perfectionist in everything he did, he was a strict disciplinarian at home with a strong sense of duty in his professional life He also possessed a dry sense of humour. In 1971 the Albert Medal was superseded and substituted by the George Cross; he was among the six living Australian recipients who exchanged their medals. Survived by his wife, two of their three sons (all of whom served in the armed forces), and four daughters, he died on 31 August 1995 at Windsor, Victoria, and was cremated. He was described as ‘gracious in manner … pleasant and fatherly’ towards junior officers, an ‘individual who thinks of others first’ (NAA A12372). His son John, who won a Military Cross in the Vietnam War and rose to colonel in the Australian Army, had predeceased him.

Coulthard-Clark, Chris. ‘Ordinary Bloke Proved His Mettle.’ Australian, 15 September 1995, 16, The Third Brother: RAAF 1921–39, Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1991; London Gazette, no.34485, 18 February 1938, 1069, no. 43855, 31 December 1965, Supplement, 38; National Archives of Australia. A705, 55/1/219, A2626, A18, A12372, A3600; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘Bravery Rewarded.’ 11 February 1938, 12.

Chris Clark

McAULAY, RONALD (PETER) (1932–1995), police commissioner, was born on 30 November 1932 at Alberton, Adelaide, younger son of South Australian–born parents Angus Babbington McAulay and his second wife Daisy, née Wilkins. Always known as Peter, he attended Streaky Bay and Alberton primary schools and Woodville High School. Leaving school after gaining his Intermediate certificate, he worked as a junior audit clerk at the Adelaide Steamship Co. Ltd and General Motors Holden Ltd before joining the South Australia Police (SAPOL) as a junior constable in 1951.

Appointed a probationary constable in 1953, McAulay gained permanent status on 13 October and was posted to Port Adelaide Police Station. On 26 December 1953, at St Margaret’s Church of England, Woodville, he married Eileen Mavis Day; they later divorced. Between 1956 and 1967 he had four postings: Central Division in Adelaide, Woomera, Elizabeth, and Christies Beach. He undertook a Criminal Investigation Branch (CIB) course in 1959, his instructor describing him as ‘easily the best student in the course’ (Potts 1995). In 1967 he became the youngest person appointed to the rank of inspector in SAPOL. Seconded to the Australian contingent to the United Nations (UN) Civilian Police in Cyprus in 1968, he returned there in 1970 at the invitation of the UN secretary-general as police adviser.

Back in South Australia in 1972, McAulay worked in SAPOL’s major planning and research unit and later served as a consultant to the Papua New Guinean government on the implementation of a patrol system for Port Moresby. In 1975 he was awarded the Queen’s Police Medal and in 1978 was appointed detective chief superintendent in charge of CIB headquarters, SAPOL. He married Avril Shirley Holdstock, former principal of a British services school, Cyprus, at the Adelaide Registry Office on 16 March 1978. Offered a position with the UN in New York, he declined in favour of the role of commissioner, Northern Territory Police, which he assumed in August 1978.

The first Northern Territory police commissioner after self-government, McAulay boosted morale, upgraded equipment, closed unnecessary stations, and introduced innovative programs such as the Police Aide Scheme, which saw Aboriginal people become involved in policing within their own communities. The Chamberlain case occurred during his time as commissioner. On 17 August 1980, nine-week-old Azaria Chamberlain [q.v.13] disappeared from her family’s tent at Ayers Rock (Uluru), allegedly taken by a dingo. In 1981 Lindy Chamberlain was convicted of her daughter’s murder and sentenced to life imprisonment; her husband, Michael, was convicted as an accessory and released with a suspended sentence. Following the chance discovery of a piece of Azaria’s clothing in 1986, McAulay supported calls for an inquiry into the Chamberlains’ convictions, including the quality of the police investigation. Justice Trevor Morling concluded that the manner in which the Northern Territory police had conducted the investigation had not prejudiced the trial; instead, the ‘great difficulties for the defence arose out of the scientific evidence’ (Australia 1987, 341). McAulay’s insistence on police probity at a time of searing media examination undoubtedly helped him to avoid undue criticism when, in September 1988, the Northern Territory Court of Appeals overturned both convictions owing to inconsistences and errors in the forensic evidence. Later, McAulay led moves to establish a national institute of forensic science.

McAulay became commissioner of the Australian Federal Police in January 1988. He was concurrently Australia’s representative to the International Criminal Police Organization. In June 1988 he was appointed AO. Aware of the need for reform in the AFP, he sought to establish a more efficient organisation that included changing the structure of ranks, and he encouraged the investigation of allegations of police corruption. More broadly he sought to address the problems of crime across State and Territory borders and organised crime. On 10 January 1989 his long-time friend and colleague Assistant Commissioner Colin Winchester was shot and killed outside his Deakin home. A lengthy police investigation led to the former public servant David Eastman being charged with the murder. Although much of the evidence was circumstantial, Eastman was found guilty in November 1995 and sentenced to life imprisonment; however, in 2018 he was exonerated. McAulay, who had retired in 1994, never disclosed his personal feelings about Eastman’s guilt or innocence.

A courageous, ethical, and visionary commissioner, McAulay made a major contribution to effective policing throughout Australia. A big man—6 feet 2 inches (188 cm) tall—with grey eyes, dark hair, and a dark complexion, he was considered ‘hard’ (Holdstock, pers. comm.) by some; not one to be dismissed lightly, he had a firm handshake and determined set of jaw. He was also known to be scrupulously fair and honest and was admired for his ‘common touch’ (Bates 1995, 14). During his last years he suffered from a respiratory illness. Survived by his wife and two sons from his first marriage, he died on 14 November 1995 at Woden Valley Hospital, Canberra, and was cremated. The Peter McAulay Centre (formerly Berrimah Police Complex), Darwin, is named for him.

Australia. Royal Commission of Inquiry into Chamberlain Convictions. Report of the Commissioner the Hon. Mr Justice T. R. Morling. Darwin: Government Printer, 1987; Bates, Brian. ‘Police Chief with Common Touch.’ Australian, 24 November 1995, 14; Canberra Times. ‘The Amazing Case of the Chamberlains.’ 31 October 1982, 2; Clack, Peter. ‘Tough Cop at the Top.’ Canberra Times, 28 July 1990, 17; Holdstock, Avril. Personal communication; Personal knowledge of ADB subject; Potts, R. J. Letter to W. Wilson Re: Ronald (Peter) McAulay, 13 November 1995. Copy held on ADB file; Wilson, Bill. ‘McAulay, (Ronald) Peter.’ In Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography, vol. 3, edited by David Carment and Helen J. Wilson, 386–87. Darwin: Charles Darwin University Press, 1996.

Bill Wilson

McBURNIE, DONALD HINDLE (DON) (1920–1995), air force officer and airline pilot, was born on 6 April 1920 at Lakemba, New South Wales, second son of Victorian-born John McBurnie, electrician, and his English-born wife Annie, née Hindle. Don was brought up at Quirindi and, after gaining his Intermediate certificate, worked with the New South Wales Government Railways as a clerk in the booking office at Cootamundra. He swam frequently at the town’s pool and was ‘an amateur boxer of no mean ability’ (Cootamundra Herald 1942, 2).

Having served in the Citizen Military Forces, McBurnie enlisted in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) on 16 September 1940. Standing 5 feet 10 inches (178 cm) tall and weighing 152 pounds (69 kg), he qualified as a pilot under the Empire Air Training Scheme. He completed his training in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and Egypt, before joining No. 229 Squadron, Royal Air Force (RAF), in October 1941, with the rank of flight sergeant. Based in Egypt and part of the Desert Air Force, the squadron was equipped with Hawker Hurricanes, in which McBurnie flew his first combat missions the following month. He was posted to No. 450 Squadron, RAAF (‘The Desert Harassers’), in early 1942, being one of the squadron’s original pilots. Flying a Kittyhawk, he scored his first kill on 8 March, shooting down an Italian Macchi C.200 over Tobruk, Libya. In the following months he shot down three German Messerschmitt Bf 109s, a Messerschmitt Bf 110, and shared in the downing of a Junkers Ju 87 (Stuka). This brought his total score to five and a half, making him a flying ace.

On 31 May 1942, during the battle of Gazala, Libya, McBurnie was returning from a patrol south-west of Tobruk, when his Kittyhawk was jumped by five Messerschmitt Bf 109s. After fifteen minutes of combat, during which he was wounded in the right leg and left shoulder, and his Kittyhawk shot to ribbons, McBurnie managed to crash-land near a British army camp. Having exited the cockpit, he took cover beside the Kittyhawk’s engine as one of the Messerschmitts strafed the wreck before being driven off by ground fire. In July he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Medal and commissioned as a pilot officer. He was the first member of No. 450 Squadron to be awarded a decoration and was its highest scoring pilot.

Following the completion of his first tour in September, McBurnie was posted to No. 206 Group, RAF, as a test pilot and promoted to flying officer in January 1943. He commenced his second tour in September with No. 451 Squadron, RAAF, based on Corsica. In July 1944 he was promoted to flight lieutenant, and in the following month advanced to acting squadron leader and appointed commanding officer of No. 238 Squadron, RAF. From its base on Corsica, he led his squadron in support of the Allied landings in southern France (Operation Dragoon) and oversaw its relocation to France. Under his leadership, the squadron’s Spitfires destroyed more than 300 enemy vehicles during a three-week period. On completion of his second tour in October 1944, he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, the citation stating that he ‘led his squadron with skill and determination’. In his two tours, he had flown 222 sorties, and accumulated 333 hours of operational flying.

McBurnie returned to Australia in November 1944. Having transferred to the RAAF Reserve on 2 June 1945, he gained employment with Australian National Airways Pty Ltd, for which he flew Douglas DC3s and DC4s. On 30 August 1946 he married Joyce Temple-Smith at St Stephen’s Church, Macquarie Street, Sydney. In 1957 he joined Qantas Empire Airways Ltd, flying Super Constellations, Electras, and Boeing 707 and 747 aircraft on its global network. Having flown 25,000 hours during his thirty-five years as a pilot, he retired in 1976. Survived by his wife and their two sons and one daughter, he died on 15 January 1995 in Royal North Shore Hospital and was cremated. Three portraits are among several photographs of McBurnie held by the Australian War Memorial, Canberra.

Australian War Memorial. AWM65, 3307, McBurnie, Donald Hindle. Barton, Leonard. The Desert Harassers: Memoirs of 450 (RAAF) Squadron 1941–1945. Sydney: Astor Publications, 1991; Brown, Russell. Desert Warriors: Australian P-40 Pilots at War in the Middle East and North Africa 1941–1943. Maryborough, Qld: Banner Books, 2000; Cootamundra Herald. ‘Cootamundra Airman Awarded DFM for Heroic Exploit.’ 24 July 1942, 2; National Archives of Australia. B4747, McBURNIE, DONALD HINDLE, A705, 163/141/569, McBURNIE, DONALD HINDLE, A9300, McBURNIE D. H.; Newton, Dennis. Australian Air Aces: Australian Fighter Pilots in Combat. Canberra: Aerospace Publications, 1996; Shores, Christopher, and Clive Williams. Aces High: A Tribute to the Most Notable Fighter Pilots of the British and Commonwealth Forces in WWII. London: Grub Street, 1994.

Lachlan Grant

McCARTHY, AMANUEL ERNEST (MANNY) (Emmanuel) (1902–1994), axeman, was born on 15 April 1902 at Cedar Creek, Camden Haven, New South Wales, fifth of eight children of New South Wales–born parents William McCarthy, farmer, and his wife Elizabeth Agnes, née Beecham. There is little record of Manny’s early years. According to an obituary, he started cutting railway sleepers for pocket money aged eleven, presumably after school and on weekends. At that time, rail-line construction from Sydney to Brisbane reached the heavily timbered Hastings Valley where he resided. Knowledge of timber and dexterity with axe and saw drew admiration as well as employment opportunities in this logging community and he began competing in agricultural shows. He first entered the Royal Easter Show in Sydney in 1921. Such events not only showcased excellence in skills of Australian rural economy and life, but in hard economic times the professional woodchopping circuit promised a good living.

Travelling extensively in search of work, McCarthy met Eileen Florence May Sutton (d. 1987) at Maxwell, in the New South Wales Riverina district. They married at Holy Trinity Church of England, Macksville, on 6 December 1924, the same year he won his first title at the Royal Easter Show. The couple settled in Sydney in 1925, where he worked as a tree lopper and timber contractor. In 1928 at Dandenong, Victoria, he set a new world record in the 18-inch (46 cm) underhand chop, cutting through the log in 52.4 seconds, an achievement that remained unbeaten for over sixty years.

Manny and Eileen McCarthy lived at Bondi, Sydney, from the 1940s. Over his lifetime he won twenty-seven world titles and hundreds of regional and metropolitan titles. Dark-haired and bronze-skinned in his youth, he became wiry and weather-beaten over seven decades of making the chips fly, earning legendary status for his precision and speed in competitive woodchopping. He did not retire from his Sydney tree-lopping business until he was seventy-nine years old and competed at the Royal Easter Show for the final time at eighty-nine years of age. Intending to chop on his ninetieth birthday in 1992, with a twenty-year-old axe, he was prevented by a bout of bronchitis. He credited his longevity to hard work and revelled in the accolades and ovations that accompanied success in competition. He died on 13 December 1994 at Carlton, Sydney, and was buried at the Botany General lawn cemetery, Matraville; his two daughters and his three sons survived him. Two of his sons, Jim and Jack, were also champion axemen. He is remembered in the New South Wales Hall of Champions and the Manny McCarthy Memorial 375 mm World Championship Underhand at Sydney’s Royal Easter Show.

Andrews, Malcolm. ‘Keen Woodchopper Kept Young Blades in Check.’ Australian, 22 December 1994, 13; Beckett, Richard. Axemen: Stand By Your Logs! Sydney: Lansdowne Press, 1983; Signy, Helen. ‘A Show of Old and New Hands.’ Sydney Morning Herald, 8 April 1992, 19.

Julie McIntyre

McCARTHY, DARCY PATRICK (1932–1991), Catholic priest, was born on 9 January 1932 at Casino, New South Wales, third of four children of locally born parents Huntley Duffy McCarthy, grocer, and his wife Kathleen Clare, née Dwyer. The McCarthys were devout Catholics. After gaining his Intermediate certificate at Marist Brothers College, Casino, and a carpentry apprenticeship at Casino Technical College, Darcy chose to become a priest. He entered St Columba’s Seminary, Springwood, in 1951, attaining his Leaving certificate in 1953. Completing his studies at St Patrick’s College, Manly, he was ordained at Casino on 12 June 1960 by William Brennan, Bishop of Toowoomba.

Around 5 feet 10 inches (178 cm) tall, fair, angular, and energetic, with a broad grin, rapid speech, and a keen business mind, and driving a Volkswagen Beetle often laden with gifts for his sisters’ children, McCarthy was a well-known figure in the Catholic diocese of Lismore. He served first in parish duties at Port Macquarie and Murwillumbah and later as administrator at St Carthage’s Cathedral, Lismore. From 1970 to 1975 he was seconded as an army chaplain, serving at Singleton, Brisbane, and Liverpool. He had hoped to serve in Vietnam, but hearing problems ruled this out.

In 1981 McCarthy applied to become the first parish priest of Alstonville, near Ballina, when it was designated a separate parish. Living alone for the first time, he enjoyed cooking, in which he found an avenue for creativity, fellowship, and relaxation. The classrooms of St Joseph’s, the parish school, were in severe disrepair and an application for a government grant had failed. Among the parish’s fundraising efforts was a cake stall after Mass. ‘Father Mac’, as he was known, often arrived with Christmas puddings made from his mother’s secret family recipe. Studying cooking at the local college of technical and further education around this time, by 1985 he was rising well before dawn to prepare puddings, two and three at a time, in a boiler in the presbytery kitchen; that year he made 100.

Liberally spiked with rum, and rich with spices, fresh eggs, Australian dried fruits, and dates, these wholesome treats were soon dubbed ‘Father Mac’s Heavenly Puddings’. They sold well, and the next year McCarthy made 300, working at night so the activity did not hamper care of his parishioners. The public was intrigued by his cooking and, with plentiful media attention, demand for the puddings grew rapidly. So did the operation: volunteers joined McCarthy and in 1987 pudding production intensified. With his savings, he bought an atmospheric steamer discarded from a hospital kitchen and installed it in an unused classroom. Helpers arrived each day to assist him, and that year 11,000 puddings were produced, the number rising to 60,000 in 1990.

By 1990 McCarthy’s puddings had paid for $250,000 of renovations to the school buildings. Even after he was diagnosed with a brain tumour following a collapse while celebrating Mass on New Year’s Day in 1991, parishioners, with willing support from the Alstonville community, elected to continue production. Reportedly, his final advice about the much-loved puddings was to ‘add more rum’ (Reimer 2008, 8). As a limited company owned and operated by the Parish of Our Lady of the Rosary, Alstonville, the enterprise continues, funding charitable projects around the world as well as within the parish.

McCarthy died at Lismore on 5 September 1991 and, after a requiem Mass at the Alstonville Catholic Church and a funeral Mass at St Carthage’s Cathedral, was buried in Alstonville cemetery.

Adamson, Teresa. ‘Heavenly Pudding Maker Needs Miracle.’ Catholic Leader, 8 September 1991, 12; Catholic Life. ‘Welcome to Father Mac’s Heavenly Puddings.’ 6, no. 1 (March 2003): 17; Father Mac’s Heavenly Puddings. ‘About Us.’ 2012. Copy on ADB file; Freymark, Susanna. ‘A Heavenly Taste for All.’ Northern Star (Lismore), 22 December 2009, 21; National Archives of Australia. B2458, 220424; Northern Star (Lismore). ‘Much-Loved Priest Dies.’ 7 September 1991, 2, ‘Puddings Pass Council’s Test.’ 11 December 2008, 6; Reimer, Patrizia. ‘Puddings’ Proof Is in the Eating.’ Northern Star (Lismore), 5 May 2008, 8; Rolls, Eric. ‘Delightful Tastes at Christmas.’ Sun Herald (Sydney), 5 December 1993; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘“Pudding Priest” Helped Parish.’ 7 September 1991, 9.

Marianne Payten

McCULLOCH, ALAN MCLEOD (1907–1992), artist, art historian, critic, and gallery director, was born on 5 August 1907 at St Kilda, Melbourne, second of four sons of Alexander McCulloch, mining and marine engineer, and his wife Annie, née McLeod, both born in Victoria. Raised at Mosman, Sydney, Alan received art lessons from his father, an amateur painter. After Alexander’s death in 1917, the family returned to Melbourne where Alan attended Balwyn State School then Scotch College, Hawthorn (1920–22). Following a disastrous family property investment he left school at fifteen and found employment as a junior clerk.

From 1925 to 1944 McCulloch worked as a teller for the Commonwealth Bank of Australia, while also pursuing his chosen vocation as an artist. He attended night classes at the National Gallery of Victoria Art School and the Working Men’s College. Encouraged by Will Dyson [q.v.8], he became an illustrator and writer, contributing stories, cartoons, and caricatures to newspapers and magazines, including the Sydney Sun, Smith’s Weekly, and Table Talk. He self-published humorous booklets on the foundation of Melbourne, the Ballets Russes, and other topics. In the mid-1930s he established an artists’ camp at Gunnamatta Beach, near Cape Schanck, with his brother Wilfred (d. 1942) and Arthur Boyd [q.v.7].

After resigning from the Commonwealth Bank, in 1944 McCulloch was employed as an art critic and cartoonist for the Argus, and as art editor for its weekly, the Australasian Post. In late 1946, however, he was sacked for being too artistically radical, having included contributions by left-wing artists including Albert Tucker and Noel Counihan [q.v.17]. He left Australia in 1947, and for three years travelled, studied, and worked in the United States of America, Europe, and England. While overseas he immersed himself in recent and contemporary American and European art. On 14 September 1947 at the New York City Hall he married a Victorian-born actress, Ellen Marion Moscovitz, née Bromley. He contributed to Holiday magazine and the Saturday Evening Post, and co-wrote Masterpieces of the National Gallery of Victoria (1949) with Ursula Hoff and Joan Lindsay [q.v.18]. After arriving in Paris he was Australia’s sole representative at the inaugural congress of the International Association of Art Critics in June 1948. With Ellen he pedalled from Paris to Positano, Italy, on a tandem bicycle, the journey recorded in an illustrated travel memoir, Trial by Tandem (1950). He followed this with Highway Forty (1951) about his American travels.

In December 1949 McCulloch had returned to Australia with his wife and daughter and settled at Shoreham, Victoria. Employed by the Melbourne Herald from 1951 to 1981, he became one of Australia’s foremost art critics, also serving as art editor (1954–61) of Meanjin. He wrote passionately and intelligently about emerging modern artists, including (Sir) Sidney Nolan [q.v.], Albert Tucker, Arthur Boyd, Charles Blackman, John Brack, and Godfrey Miller [q.v.15]. With (Sir) Joseph Burke [q.v.], the Herald professor of fine arts at the University of Melbourne, he initiated the Herald Outdoor Art Show, which was an important forum for modernist artists in the 1950s. In the 1960s he was critical of some international trends including colour-field abstraction and conceptual art, but he remained supportive of many contemporary artists.

McCulloch’s Encyclopedia of Australian Art was first published in 1968 and updated in 1984. Posthumous editions in 1994 and 2006 were co-authored by his daughter, Susan McCulloch, and his granddaughter, Emily McCulloch Childs. Other key works by McCulloch include The Golden Age of Australian Painting: Impressionism and the Heidelberg School (1969) and Artists of the Australian Gold Rush (1977). A strong advocate of regional art galleries, he was the inaugural director (1970–91) of the Mornington Peninsula Arts Centre (later the Mornington Peninsula Regional Gallery), where he developed a specialist collection of works on paper. In 1976 he curated a regional touring exhibition, The Heroic Years of Australian Painting, 194065.

McCulloch also promoted Australian art on the world stage. He was the foundation president (1963–66) of the Australian division of the International Association of Art Critics, and the Australian correspondent (1969–71) for the journal Art International. In 1966 he curated an exhibition of Aboriginal bark paintings from the National Museum of Victoria’s collection, which was displayed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, United States.

Witty, determined, and an engaging storyteller, McCulloch valued creativity and originality in art above all else. He held three major exhibitions of his own paintings and drawings, one in London (1949) and two in Melbourne (1951, 1968). Appointed AO in 1976, he received an honorary doctorate (LLD, 1988) from the University of Melbourne and a laureate medal (1992) from the Australia Council for the Arts. A keen tennis player and swimmer in his prime, he suffered from Parkinson’s disease in his final years. Predeceased by his wife (d. 1991) and survived by his daughter, he died on 21 December 1992 at Kew, Melbourne, and was cremated. A fellow art critic, Christopher Heathcote, described him as a ‘quiet and gentle man [who] was arguably the most influential art critic to have practised in this country’ (1992, 14). The National Library of Australia holds a portrait of him by Noel Counihan.

Heathcote, Christopher. ‘An Art Critic Who Fostered a Generation.’ Age (Melbourne), 22 December 1992, 14, ‘Conservations with Alan McCulloch.’ Art Monthly Australia, April 1993, 13–17; James, Rodney. ‘The Battle for the Spencer Barks: From Australia to the US 1963–68.’ La Trobe Journal, Nos. 93–94, 2014; Klepac, Lou. ‘Salute to Alan McCulloch.’ Art and Australia 29, no. 2 (Summer 1991): 179; State Library of Victoria. MS 13506, Alan McCulloch, Papers, 1875–1992.

Rodney James

McCUSKER, Sir JAMES ALEXANDER (1913–1995), entrepreneur and philanthropist, was born on 2 December 1913 in Perth, only child of Victorian-born parents James Alexander McCusker, storekeeper, and his wife Lilian Mary, née Brittain. Jim attended Highgate Primary School, winning a scholarship to Perth Modern School (1925–28) before family financial pressures forced him to find work. He joined the Commonwealth Bank of Australia as a junior clerk, studying accounting and gaining experience at a number of branches in the metropolitan area and country. As a boy he had learned much about customers’ needs through pushing a barrow to deliver fruit and vegetables, before and after school, for his father’s greengrocery.

On 16 November 1936 McCusker married Mary Martindale While, a machinist, at St Alban’s Anglican Church, Highgate Hill, Perth. Mary supplemented the family income by working as a seamstress. After World War II broke out in 1939, he enlisted first in the Citizen Military Forces (1940–41) then, from 15 December 1941 to 15 June 1944, the Australian Imperial Force. He served in Australia with the 2/10th Armoured Regiment, rising to sergeant (1943). Returning to his employment with the bank, and having qualified as a valuer, in 1948 he was transferred to Hobart as a security officer. He returned to Western Australia in 1953 when he was promoted to manager of the bank’s main State branch in William Street, Perth.

In 1959 McCusker resigned to establish and manage several terminating building societies. The decision to strike out on his own was prompted, he said later, by a wish to stay in Western Australia rather than seek promotion in another State. Five years later, with his son Malcolm and a business associate, Bob McKerrow, he founded the Town and Country Permanent Building Society (chairman of directors, 1964–83). With a starting capital of £100,000, within five years the company held over $100 million in assets. Having merged with the Western Australian Building Society in 1983, the company had increased its assets to over $900 million by 1990.

Specialising in marketing house, land, and finance as a package, McCusker led the company to purchase and develop property in outer suburban and country areas. During the 1980s when interest rates were high, he established a rental-purchase scheme to attract customers whose lack of equity would otherwise disqualify them from securing a loan. Unlike most member-based financial institutions, he sought finance from overseas banks, establishing lines of credit which the company could draw on at times of strong housing demand. Such arrangements allowed flexibility in the way housing finance could be disbursed; he estimated that as many as 200,000 Western Australian families had benefited from the comparatively low rates of interest offered by his company.

Elected State president (1978–79) of the Australian Association of Permanent Building Societies, McCusker was a member (1979–82) of the State committee of the Indicative Planning Council for the Housing Industry; a member (1982) of the Rural and Allied Industries Council; and chairman (1980–81) of the State Committee of Inquiry into Rates, Taxes, and Charges related to Land Values. In 1984 he was briefly associated with the John Curtin Foundation, a body established to raise funds for the State branch of the Australian Labor Party, and he was deputy chairman (1985) of Exim Corporation, an initiative of the ALP government. He had been knighted in 1982.

In 1990 the ANZ Banking Group purchased the Town and Country Building Society; Sir James’s shares were reported to have gained him $80 million of the $145 million that ANZ paid. He was appointed chairman of the bank’s local advisory board. Through his family company, Martindale Pty Ltd, he became a generous benefactor. When his wife started to suffer from the effects of Alzheimer’s disease, he established (1990) the Sir James McCusker Training Foundation to provide support and training for carers, and the McCusker Foundation for Alzheimer’s Research. A donor to a number of medical research organisations and welfare providers, he was praised by the Anglican archbishop of Perth, Peter Carnley, for his generous but careful support which was ‘in part determined by his ability to become himself really committed and involved’ (On Line 1995, 2).

Through Martindale, McCusker also engaged in land development, agriculture, and grazing, acquiring pastoral properties in the Murchison and Gascoyne regions, and farms at Chittering and New Norcia. Having a keen interest in farming, he was made a life member of the Royal Agricultural Society of Western Australia. In conjunction with the faculty of agricultural science at the University of Western Australia and the Western Australian Department of Agriculture, he and his son established the Martindale Research Project to develop cattle and sheep fodder plants for dry lands.

McCusker professed a talent for timing but retained a degree of humility. He liked to work on the bank counter to have direct contact with customers, but stopped because his staff ‘thought I was looking over their shoulder’ (Smith and Urquart 1988, 96). Despite his wealth, he led a quiet and unostentatious life. Known for his dry wit and self-deprecatory style, he had a habit of ‘producing the apt quotation from Shakespeare or the Bible’ (McIlwraith 1995, 13) at board meetings. He died on 30 September 1995 at Dalkeith, Perth, survived by his son and two daughters, and was cremated; his wife had died earlier the same year. The Business Review Weekly had that year listed him as one of Australia’s richest men, with a net worth of $120 million. Malcolm McCusker later became governor of Western Australia (2010–14); he and his sisters continued to manage the family trusts and companies. A park in the suburb of Iluka commemorates his contribution to Western Australia.

Armstrong, Paul. ‘Sir James Leaves Town for Country.’ West Australian, 31 July 1990, 9; Bell, Susan. ‘Praise for a Noble Man Who Gave Much.’ West Australian, 3 October 1995, 10; McCusker, Jim. Interview by D. Lipscombe, 1978. Sound Recording. State Library of Western Australia; McCusker, Malcolm. Personal communication; McIlwraith, John. ‘Banker Transformed Housing Finance.’ Australian, 16 October 1995, 13; National Archives of Australia. B883, WX18045; On Line (Anglican Homes Incorporated) ‘Anglican Homes Benefactor Sir James McCusker Dies at 81.’ 1 (November 1995): 2; Smith, Roger and Barry Urquart. The Jindalee Factor: Insights on Western Australian Entrepreneurs. Perth: Marketing Focus, 1988.

Patrick Cornish

McDIARMID, DAVID ROSS (1952–1995), artist, designer, and gay community activist, was born on 5 September 1952 in Hobart, youngest of three sons of Scottish-born Thomas Peden McDiarmid and his Melbourne-born wife Maisie Vivian, née Ross. The family moved to Melbourne in 1954 where Thomas worked as a company executive; he died in 1961. David attended Deepdene State and Camberwell High schools. According to his English teacher, he was a ‘determined’, ‘serious’, and ‘original’ child, never content to ‘pursue things in a stultified way’ or ‘accept outworn concepts’ (McDiarmid Papers). After studying design for film and television at Swinburne College of Technology for two years (1969–70), he left without graduating to pursue a career as an artist.

With his lover, John Lee, a gay activist, McDiarmid moved to Sydney in 1972. Involved in organising the Sydney Gay Liberation movement, he wrote for and illustrated the Sydney Gay Liberation Newsletter, while engaging in protests and demonstrations for gay rights, including the legalisation of male homosexual acts. On 12 July 1972, in the course of demonstrating against the cancellation of an Australian Broadcasting Commission television program on homosexuality and the gay liberation movement in Australia, he was arrested and charged with using unseemly language. He and the artist Peter Tully [q.v.] were lovers for two years from 1973 and friends and collaborators until Tully’s death in 1992.

McDiarmid’s first exhibition, Secret Love, was held at Hogarth Galleries, Sydney, in 1976. Featuring explicitly political, gay liberationist art, it was followed by The Australian Dream Lounge (1977), an ironic domestic interior installation created in the wake of travel in the United States of America, and New Work: David McDiarmid (1978), both also at Hogarth Galleries. On 24 June 1978 he participated in the demonstration that became the founding event for the Sydney Gay (and Lesbian) Mardi Gras. A night-time parade with a carnival atmosphere, it broke with Sydney’s tradition of protest marches, but was still ‘terrifying’ (Harris, White, and Davis 2008, 12) for participants who clashed with police. In July McDiarmid designed posters for an exhibition of homosexual and lesbian artists at Watters Gallery, Sydney; several of his works were featured. He was arrested in August over his involvement in a protest march in support of women’s rights to abortion; the charge was later dropped.

Attracted by the larger and more culturally diverse gay communities of San Francisco and New York, McDiarmid returned to the United States in 1979 to pursue his art career. He periodically revisited Sydney for exhibitions of his work and for Mardi Gras celebrations. While in New York he hand-painted fabrics for the Sydney fashion designer Linda Jackson. This work appeared in fashion parades organised by the Sydney label Flamingo Park, and was shown in the exhibition Art Clothes at the Art Gallery of New South Wales (1980–81). In 1984 he exhibited a series of his New York paintings in David McDiarmid & Peter Tully at Roslyn Oxley9 Gallery, Sydney. His work was also shown in numerous group exhibitions at venues including the National Gallery of Australia (NGA) (1985, 1986).

Diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1986, McDiarmid returned to Sydney the following year. After a period of adjustment he resumed his artistic output with renewed vigour, finding the creative means to make strong and confronting art about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Appointed artistic director of the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras from 1988 to 1990, he became a strong advocate for the human rights and appropriate medical treatment of people suffering from HIV/AIDS. His 1990 series Kiss of Light was a powerful evocation of anger and transcendence in the face of his own mortality and the loss of friends and lovers to AIDS. In 1991 he was commissioned by the AIDS Council of New South Wales to create a series of safe sex and safe injecting posters that became international benchmarks for effective public health communication. Other work, such as Toxic Queen (1992), focused on the homophobia re-energised by the AIDS epidemic. His Rainbow Aphorism series, which featured bold text against a spectrum of rainbow colours, was included in the widely acclaimed exhibition Don’t Leave Me This Way: Art in the Age of AIDS at the NGA (1994).

McDiarmid died on 25 May 1995 at his Darlinghurst home and was cremated. His fame as an artist, designer and political activist grew after his death, with posthumous exhibitions held at the British Museum, London (2011); the Fashion Space Gallery, London College of Fashion, University of the Arts London (2011); Heide Museum of Modern Art, Melbourne (2011); the Centre for Sex and Culture, San Francisco (2013–14); the Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney (2013); the Art Gallery of Western Australia, Perth (2015); and the Monash Museum of Art, Melbourne (2015). A major retrospective exhibition, David McDiarmid: When This You See Remember Me, was held at the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, in 2014. In 2017–18 McDiarmid’s Rainbow Aphorism series was exhibited at stations across the London Underground. His art and design work is held in national, state, and regional public collections in Australia; in the British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum, London; and in private collections in Australia, Japan, Europe, and the United States.

Harris, Gavin, John White, and Ken Davis. New Day Dawning: The Early History of Sydney’s Gay & Lesbian Mardi Gras. Sydney: Pride History Group, 2008; McDiarmid, David. ‘Memoirs of an Oppressed Teenager.’ Sydney Gay Liberation Newsletter 1, no. 4 (1972): n.p.; McDiarmid, David. ‘A Short History of Facial Hair.’ In Sex in Public: Australian Sexual Cultures, edited by Jill J. Matthews, 91–96. St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 1997; McDiarmid Papers. Private collection; Personal knowledge of ADB subject.

Sally Gray

McDONALD, BRUCE ALEXANDER (1925–1993), army officer, was born on 23 March 1925 at Geelong, Victoria, third son of Angus Alexander McDonald, stock and station agent, and his wife Olive, née Penny. At Ballarat College Bruce was school captain and dux (1942); he was also awarded Blues for cricket, tennis, rowing, Australian Rules football, and athletics. In February 1943 he entered the Royal Military College (RMC), Duntroon, Australian Capital Territory, where he excelled at athletics and graduated from the shortened war course in December 1944. He was commissioned as a lieutenant in both the Permanent Military Forces and the Australian Imperial Force that month.

In June 1945 Lieutenant McDonald joined the experienced 2/5th Battalion, which was fighting in the Wewak campaign in New Guinea. On 8 July he and a classmate, Lieutenant K. W. Newton, led their platoons in an attack at Ulupu. With great daring, McDonald moved well ahead of his men, neutralised two Japanese pillboxes with grenades, and then, despite being wounded, crawled forward under fire to silence a machine-gun. Both he and Newton were awarded the Military Cross.

McDonald then served (1945–47) in the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Japan. On his return to Australia, in March 1948 he became adjutant of the 8th/7th Battalion, North Western Victorian Regiment. Promoted to captain in June, on 11 August at St James church, Kyogle, New South Wales, he married Elizabeth Mary Griffiths in a Church of England ceremony. In November 1953 he was posted to the 2nd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (RAR), in Korea. After suffering a slipped disk in March 1954 he became aide-de-camp to the commander-in-chief of the British Commonwealth Force Korea. In October he was appointed aide-de-camp to the chief of the General Staff in Australia, and was promoted to major in December.

Attending the 1956 course at the Staff College, Camberley, England, McDonald impressed its commandant with his potential as a staff officer or commander. His next postings were to the Australian Army Staff, London (1957); RMC, Duntroon (1958–60); and Army Headquarters, Canberra (1960–63). He was promoted to lieutenant colonel in December 1962 and appointed commander of the 3rd Battalion, RAR, in May 1963. The unit carried out an operational tour in Malaya and Borneo from July that year to July 1965. McDonald’s British commanders praised the high morale and military efficiency of the battalion, which participated in anti-terrorist searches on the Thai–Malaysian border and operations against the Indonesians in Malaya and Borneo, including the secret cross-border incursions, code-named `Claret’, in the latter. He was appointed OBE (1966) for his exceptional ability, initiative, and drive. His soldiers nicknamed him ‘mother’, not in a derogatory sense but because they felt he looked after them so well.

Back at Army Headquarters, Canberra, McDonald undertook a series of staff postings, during which he was promoted to colonel (1968). In February 1971 he assumed command of the 1st Australian Task Force in South Vietnam, as a temporary (substantive, 1972) brigadier. In the conduct of operations he left his battalion commanders to carry out their assigned roles without undue interference, in circumstances that varied from little activity to frenzied conflict. He continued to pursue a largely successful strategy of preventing enemy access to villages, by close ambushing and cooperation with the local South Vietnamese forces. He complemented this policy by targeting the enemy main force units on the northern borders of the province, though this effort was not greatly successful. Imposing careful control on the operations of the Special Air Service, he ensured that its work directly supported battalion operations. He was a forthright critic of what he saw as the premature withdrawal of tanks from his task force. The successful reduction of the force as Australia progressively disengaged from the war was a testament to his command skills. By December most of the combat troops had left the country. Returning to Australia that month, McDonald was awarded the Distinguished Service Order (1972) and appointed to the Republic of (South) Vietnam Legion of Merit.

Having attended (1972) the Royal College of Defence studies in London, McDonald was chief of staff, Northern Command, Brisbane (December 1972 – October 1973), before his promotion to temporary (July 1974) and substantive (February 1975) major general. In that rank he held the appointments of chief of the Army Reserve (1974–76), and commander of the 1st Division (1976–77) and Training Command (1977–82). In 1979 he was appointed AO. He retired from the army on 10 March 1982.

Hardworking, imperturbable, resourceful, and analytical, McDonald was cool and calculating, rather than dashing. He knew when to trust his subordinates and related well to his superiors—he was a first-class commander in all respects. Seen by his contemporaries as an upright gentleman, he was an enthusiastic golfer, a follower of Australian Rules football, and a surfer. He retired to Queensland and supported veterans through his membership of Legacy. A heavy smoker, he died of lung cancer on 23 March 1993 at Auchenflower, Brisbane, and was buried in Pinaroo cemetery. His wife, son and daughter survived him.

Dennis, Peter and Jeffrey Grey. Emergency and Confrontation: Australian Military Operations in Malaya and Borneo 1950–1966. Vol. 5 of The Official History of Australia’s Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 1948–1975, edited by Peter Edwards. St. Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin in association with the Australian War Memorial, 1996; Long, Gavin. The Final Campaigns. Vol. VII of Series I (Army) of Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1963; McNeill, Ian and Ashley Ekins. The Australian Army and the Vietnam War, 1968–1973. Vol. 2 of The Official History of Australia’s Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 1948–1975, edited by Peter Edwards. St. Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin in association with the Australian War Memorial, 2012; National Archives of Australia. B2458, 3392; Personal knowledge of ADB subject.

Michael O’Brien

McDONALD, Sir WILLIAM JOHN (BLACK JACK) (1911–1995), grazier and politician, was born on 3 October 1911 at Binnum, South Australia, only surviving child of John Nicholson McDonald, farmer, and his wife Sarah, née McInnes, both born in South Australia. Jack was educated at Binnum Public School, then as a boarder (1925–29) at Scotch College, Adelaide, before returning to the family farm. In 1931 he purchased Brippick station, near Neuarpurr, Victoria, where he raised merino sheep and shorthorn cattle. He married Evelyn Margaret Koch on 15 August 1935 at the Catholic Presbytery, Naracoorte, South Australia.

Following the outbreak of World War II in 1939, McDonald was called up for full-time duty in the 19th Machine Gun Regiment (later Battalion), Citizen Military Forces, on 7 November 1941. Commissioned as a lieutenant in April 1942, he was transferred to the Australian Imperial Force in June, and posted to the headquarters of the 23rd Brigade in December, and then to the headquarters of the 3rd Division twelve months later. As a temporary captain, he served in New Guinea (from July 1944) and on Bougainville (November 1944 to April 1945), before transferring to the Reserve of Officers in Australia on 29 June 1945.

After the war McDonald entered politics, serving as a councillor (1946–55) of Kowree Shire, including a term as shire president (1948–49). Representing the Liberal Party of Australia, he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly division of Dundas in 1947. He lost the seat in 1952 but successfully recontested it in 1955, holding it for another fifteen years, including twelve as Speaker of the assembly (1955–67). Six feet (183 cm) tall, with jet-black hair and a stentorian voice, ‘Black Jack’ was an impressive figure in the Speaker’s chair, strict but dignified. For his services to the parliament he was knighted in 1958.

In 1967 Sir William joined the cabinet as minister of lands, soldier settlement, and conservation. Although he was commended for his innovative response to a drought in 1967, his plan to develop the Little Desert in Victoria’s north-west, along the lines of previous agricultural settlement schemes, proved controversial. It was hotly opposed by Victoria’s burgeoning environmental movement, by farmers sceptical of the project’s viability, and even by Liberal politicians, including a young Bill Borthwick, who later replaced McDonald as minister. The scheme became a major crisis for Sir Henry Bolte’s [q.v.17] government. The Age, fiercely critical, ran months of reports and editorials opposing the plan. On 4 October 1969 a front-page story revealed a road to be built through the desert would end at the property of McDonald’s brother-in-law, Charles Koch. McDonald denied any collusion and demanded an apology from the Age for what he deemed ‘the tactics of low-class spectacular journalism’ (Age 1969, 1). Three days later, after hours of stormy debate in the assembly, the Labor and Country parties put a no-confidence motion against the minister. It failed to pass.

McDonald remained defiant and indignant. When an apology from the Age was not forthcoming, he sued for libel, eventually settling out of court. But this was not before the defeat of the Little Desert scheme. On 4 December 1969 the Labor and Country parties combined in the Legislative Council to block a bill that included funding for roads through the desert. Two days later the Liberals lost the Dandenong by-election to Labor in a landslide. On 8 December the cabinet decided to rethink its plans, ultimately shelving the scheme. The crisis resulted in a significant change in the government’s direction, including new conservation and environmental protection bodies, expansion of the State’s national parks, and the dumping of other controversial development plans.

Out with the government’s aggressive developmentalist approach went ‘Black Jack’: he would lose his seat to Labor at the election in May 1970, when the Country Party directed preferences against the Liberal Party across the State. Planning to recontest Dundas in 1973, he won preselection but withdrew to once again defend his honour, suing the journalist Peter Blazey for repeating the claims of the Age in his biography of Bolte. Blazey later observed that the legal proceedings ‘died for lack of interest’ (Blazey 1990, xiii). Sir William did not return to politics. He was a trustee (1967–93) of the Royal Agricultural Society of Victoria and a council member of the Victorian Amateur Turf Club. The McDonalds sold Brippick station in 1980, retiring to Toorak, Melbourne. Predeceased by his wife (d. 1987) and survived by his two daughters, he died on 13 September 1995 at Malvern and was buried in Naracoorte cemetery, South Australia.

Age (Melbourne). ‘Stormy Debate on Little Desert: Sir William Calls for an Apology.’ 8 October 1969, 1; Blazey, Peter. Bolte: A Political Biography. 2nd ed. Port Melbourne: Mandarin Australia, 1990; Clode, Danielle. As If For a Thousand Years: A History of Victoria’s Land Conservation and Environment Conservation Councils. Melbourne: Victorian Environmental Assessment Council, 2006; Colebatch, Tim. Dick Hamer: The liberal Liberal. Melbourne: Scribe, 2014; Dunk, Lionel. ‘Bolte May End Little Desert Plan.’ Age (Melbourne), 9 December 1969, 1, ‘Little Desert May Force Snap Poll.’ Age (Melbourne), 5 December 1969, 1; Messer, John. ‘New Facts on the Little Desert: Minister’s Relatives Live at Road’s End.’ Age (Melbourne), 4 October 1969, 1; Morton, Ian. ‘Rural Visionary Gave All for Family and Electorate.’ Age (Melbourne), 12 October 1995, 18; National Archives of Australia. B883, VX134691; Thompson, Lindsay. ‘Strict, Yet a Generous Speaker.’ Australian, 3 October 1995, 15; Victoria. Legislative Assembly. Parliamentary Debates, 3 October 1995, 233–34.

James C. Murphy

McGUIRE, FRANCES MARGARET (1900–1995), biochemist, writer, and Catholic social thinker, was born on 20 May 1900 at Glenelg, Adelaide, fourth of five surviving children of English-born Alfred Stanley Cheadle, woolbroker, and his South Australian–born wife Margaret, née Loutit. Her father, a member of Adelaide’s Protestant establishment and a former mayor of St Peters, had prospered in the wool trade. The younger Margaret’s autobiography, Bright Morning (1975), describes her happy twentieth-century childhood among settler families like her own, still bound to Scotland and England. Her paternal grandfather’s early death reverberated through family memory and framed her father’s admonition to her aged about eighteen: ‘Never lose your independence’ (McGuire 1975, 17). Over the years of social engagement, intellectual enterprise, and committed religious faith that followed, she prized her ability to think clearly and choose wisely.

Cheadle and her siblings were nurtured amid books, music, and ideals of community service. Raised on Bible stories and John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, and acquiring ‘an abhorrence of dogma’ (SLSA PRG 336), she was also captivated by George MacDonald’s fairy stories that drew inspiration from the subtlety of evil and the beauty of divine wisdom. From the outset her Christianity focused on the life of Jesus in her own context. She imagined the woman cured of an issue of blood (Mark 5: 25–34) sitting on an Adelaide bluestone curb and reaching out to touch the passing Messiah.

After attending Girton House Girls’ Grammar School, Cheadle studied science at the University of Adelaide but did not take a degree. In 1923 and 1924 she assisted the biochemist Professor T. B. Robertson [q.v.11] in his pioneering work preparing insulin. At university she met Dominic Paul McGuire [q.v.15] and converted to Catholicism in order to marry him. While she was appalled by the clericalism of Irish Australians, she formed a deep affinity with Catholic scholarship and tradition, especially through contact with the Dominicans in North Adelaide. On 18 November 1927 she and McGuire married at St Laurence’s Church, North Adelaide; their two children would be stillborn.

The couple helped to support themselves by writing and running a literary page in Adelaide’s Catholic weekly, the Southern Cross. Some three years in London from early 1929 in the circle of G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc proved definitive. The McGuires embraced the public outreach of the Catholic Evidence Guild, the teaching of the social encyclicals, and the Belgian model of Catholic Action developed by Fr Joseph Cardijn and the Young Christian Workers. On their return to Adelaide in 1932, Margaret founded, with Paul and their Dominican friend Fr John O’Doherty, the Catholic Guild for Social Studies. With Margaret as director of studies and an exhilarating hostess over tea and biscuits, the Guild gathered 2,000 members. She was also instrumental in forming the nucleus of Adelaide’s Catholic Central Library.

An inspiring speaker, Margaret McGuire conducted study groups and presented numerous lectures with zeal and humour. Her Handbook for Catholic Action Groups (1939) sought to form lay people as confident, perceptive, and practising apostles. In 1939 and 1940, and again in 1946, she accompanied Paul on speaking tours across the United States of America, and conducted workshops on Catholic Action. During World War II they moved to Melbourne: Paul worked for naval intelligence; Margaret collaborated with him on The Price of Admiralty (1945), an account of the HMAS Parramatta, and completed her commissioned history The Royal Australian Navy (1948). Back in Adelaide, postwar confusion about Catholic Action in Australia spread to the guild. She resigned as director in 1948 to protest against the assumption they should ‘promulgate the doctrines of one political party’ (SLSA PRG 336).

The couple worked together on social histories of The Australian Theatre (1948) and Inns of Australia (1952). Margaret also provided research support for Paul’s increasing involvement in government policy. She adapted easily to life in diplomatic circles when Paul served as minister (later ambassador) to Italy (1954–59). Back in Australia, she turned keen botanical observation into Gardens of Italy, which ran to several editions. She also published three novels (1961, 1963, 1964) and two volumes of poetry (1990, 1994). After Paul’s death in 1978 Margaret remained active in community work, in writers’ networks, as a parishioner at St Laurence’s, and as a generous philanthropist to the church and the State library. She died on 14 August 1995 in North Adelaide and was buried in Brighton cemetery. Earlier that year she had been appointed AM.

Cockburn, Stewart. ‘Exhilarating Spray of Ideas.’ Advertiser, 14 April 1982, 5; Massam, Katharine. Sacred Threads: Catholic Spirituality in Australia. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 1996; McGuire, F. Margaret Cheadle. Bright Morning. Adelaide: Rigby, 1975; McGuire, Frances Margaret. Handbook for Catholic Action Groups. Adelaide: Archdiocese of Adelaide, 1939; National Library of Australia. MS 6453, Papers of Paul McGuire, 1878–1987; State Library of South Australia. PRG 336, Papers of Frances Margaret McGuire.

Katharine Massam

MACINTOSH, WILLIAM FREDERICK (BILL) (1914–1993), army officer, clerk, and businessman, was born on 22 August 1914 at Toowoomba, Queensland, eldest of three children of William Albert MacIntosh, business manager, and his wife Martha Amelia, née Bruggemann, both born in Queensland. After William senior died unexpectedly, in 1927 Martha married Malachy Edmond Gleeson, a grazier, and the family moved to his property near Frederick Peak, inland from Townsville. Young MacIntosh attended Weir State School, before starting work as a clerk at the Townsville branch of Howard Smith Ltd, shipping agents. He also served in the 31st Battalion, Citizen Military Forces.

After World War II broke out in September 1939, MacIntosh volunteered for the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) on 9 October. He was posted to the 2/9th Battalion, promoted to sergeant in May 1940, and allocated to the (Vickers) machine-gun section. Arriving in the Middle East via Britain in December, the 2/9th saw its first action from 19 to 21 March 1941, when it attacked and captured a fort garrisoned by Italian and Libyan troops at Giarabub, Libya. Although injured in a fall down a cliff on the first night, MacIntosh remained on duty. He directed his men ‘with calmness and determination, and twice brought up ammunition parties under fire’ (NAA B883), enabling the section to hold a vital flank and knock out enemy posts. For his outstanding leadership and courage, he was awarded the Military Medal.

The 2/9th Battalion took part in the defence of Tobruk (April–August 1941), then served in Syria, before returning to Australia in March 1942. By August the unit was in Papua and in early September was involved in the heavy fighting that repelled a Japanese invasion at Milne Bay. That same month MacIntosh was commissioned as a lieutenant. From 18 December at Cape Endaiadere, near Buna, he fearlessly led his platoon in repeated assaults against the enemy and rescued a wounded man under heavy fire. Himself shot in the right knee and arm, he was evacuated and hospitalised in Brisbane. He was mentioned in despatches in December 1943 for his gallant and distinguished service in the South-West Pacific area, and in April 1944 awarded the Military Cross for his efforts at Cape Endaiadere. On 16 July 1943 at St James’ Cathedral, Townsville, he married Hylma Sutton Lyons, a librarian and member of the Voluntary Aid Detachment.

MacIntosh returned to the 2/9th Battalion, which deployed to Papua in August and trained around Port Moresby with other units of the 18th Brigade. In November he was posted to brigade headquarters but rejoined his battalion in February 1944 in New Guinea. Back in Australia in May, he was classified as medically unfit for active service in the field. After performing administrative duties in Queensland as a temporary captain (September 1944) his AIF appointment ended and he transferred to the Reserve of Officers on 5 February 1946. As Townsville’s most decorated World War II soldier, he was chosen to lead the city’s Victory Day parade in June.

Following the war, MacIntosh returned to work at Howard Smith Ltd, Townsville. Notwithstanding promises to keep him on, the firm later dismissed him and other ex-servicemen. He subsequently had a general store, then a grocery store and post office. Next he worked for an oil company before purchasing the Causeway Newsagency and Gift Shop in about 1960. Moving to Brisbane in 1964, he worked for the stockbroking firm Corrie and Co. and then for the Stamp Duties Office until he retired.

Standing 173 centimetres tall, MacIntosh was slim but well-proportioned with strong facial features and calm eyes. He frequently led Anzac Day marches in Townsville. Survived by his wife and their two daughters, he died at the War Veterans Home, Pinjarra Hills, on 16 April 1993 and was buried in Pinnaroo lawn cemetery, Bridgeman Downs, Brisbane.

Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. 23 December 1943, 2800, 27 April 1944, 893; Dickens, Gordon. Never Late: The 2/9th Australian Infantry Battalion 1939–1945. Loftus, NSW: Australian Military History Publications, 2005; Hansen, Geoff, and Diane Menghetti, eds. Townsville in War and Peace 1942–1946. Townsville, Qld: Townsville Museum and Historical Society, 2005; London Gazette. 13 June 1941, 3369; Lyons, Terry. A Pride of Lyons. Townsville, Qld: Terry Lyons, 1996; National Archives of Australia. B883, QX2163.

Geoffrey E.P. Hansen

McKELLAR, REGINALD VINCENT (REG) (1914–1995), soldier and printer, was born on 9 November 1914 at Grenfell, New South Wales, son of Coonamble-born Percival Frederick McKellar, printer, and his Queensland-born wife Ada Florence Rose, née Lewis. Soon after Reg’s birth the family moved to Enmore, Sydney. Percival served as a private in the 9th Light Trench Mortar Battery, Australian Imperial Force (AIF), and was gassed on the Western Front in November 1917. After the end of the war the family moved to Hornsby, where Reg became an apprentice printer with the Advocate. The family moved later to Mount Kuring-gai.

With the outbreak of World War II, McKellar enlisted on 9 November 1939 in the Citizen Military Forces and then on 27 May 1940 in the AIF. He was allotted to the 2/13th Battalion (the ‘Devil’s Own’), a unit of the 20th Brigade, which later transferred to the newly formed 9th Division. Standing 5 feet 11 inches (180 cm) tall with a diamond-shaped face, short brown hair, thin moustache, and strong thrusting chin, he once told a war cameraman ‘I’m no Clark Gable’ (Fearnside 1993, 330). The 2/13th Battalion embarked for the Middle East in October. On 4 April 1941 in Libya, during the Allied withdrawal from Benghazi to Tobruk, the battalion became the first complete Australian army unit to engage the Germans, in an action at Er Regima, about 15 miles (24 km) east of Benghazi.

During the siege of Tobruk, McKellar proved an outstanding soldier. He led a two-man reconnaissance patrol more than 2,000 yards (1,800 m) forward of Australian positions, gaining valuable information on enemy dispositions. Later that month at Ed Duda, south of Tobruk, he led an ambush on a German artillery command vehicle, capturing five prisoners, maps, plans, orders, and equipment. By then he was renowned within the battalion for his ‘“one-man” exhibitions of daring and initiative’ (Fearnside 1993, 154). Following his attendance at a junior leaders’ course in March 1942, he was assessed as being ‘a very keen and energetic NCO’ who ‘would be an extremely capable and reliable Platoon Sergeant’ (NAA B883).

The 2/13th took part in the battle of El Alamein, Egypt (23 October–5 November 1942). In the Fig Orchard area on the night of 28–29 October, McKellar led ten men through a minefield and captured two machine-gun posts and a mortar post. He was promoted to acting sergeant on 5 November but reverted in rank in December when he was hospitalised with hepatitis. For outstanding bravery and leadership, he was awarded the Military Medal (1943).

As a lance sergeant from January 1943, McKellar returned to Australia with his battalion in February and undertook jungle training. In July the 2/13th embarked from Cairns for New Guinea and in early September made an amphibious landing at Lae. On the 25th of that month he led a patrol in which he killed one enemy sniper and wounded another. Although injured in the left arm and leg he remained on duty. He was promoted to sergeant on 30 October. The following day, while trying to penetrate a Japanese position with a small patrol, he crawled to within 10 yards (9 m) of the enemy before being badly wounded. Following hospital treatment he returned to Australia in February 1944. In May he was awarded a Bar to his Military Medal for ‘consistent daring, determination and skill as a leader of patrols’ (NAA B883). He rejoined the 2/13th for operations in Borneo in June 1945 but was evacuated to Australia the following month for medical reasons, before being discharged on 9 October.

McKellar returned to civilian life at Mount Kuring-gai, later moving to Hornsby. On 8 April 1954 at St John’s Church of England, Darlinghurst, Sydney, he married Heather Jean Daniels, a shop assistant. By 1958 McKellar was working at Darlinghurst West as a compositor. Predeceased by his wife, he died at Darlinghurst on 7 June 1995 and was cremated. The couple had no children.

The Devil’s Own Despatch (Sydney). ‘Valedictory.’ September 1995, 53–54; Fearnside, Geoffrey Harry, ed. Bayonets Abroad: A History of the 2/13 Battalion in the Second World War. Swanbourne, WA: John Burridge Military Antiques, 1993; Maughan, Barton. Tobruk and El Alamein. Vol. 3 of Series 1 (Army) of Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1966; National Archives of Australia. B883, NX21667, McKELLAR, REGINALD VINCENT, B2455, McKELLAR, P.F.

Mark Johnston

McKIE, RONALD CECIL (1909–1991), author and journalist, was born on 11 December 1909 at Toowoomba, Queensland, second of three sons of Queensland-born parents Allan McKie, bank accountant, and his wife Nesta May, née Brown. The family was living at Ascot, Brisbane, in 1914 but spent most of the war years at Bundaberg, where Allan managed the local branch of the Bank of New South Wales. Ronald attended Bundaberg State High School for one year, and then, the family having moved to the capital, Brisbane Grammar School. In 1930–31 he studied at the University of Queensland.

At the end of a four-year cadetship with the Brisbane Daily Mail, McKie was one of 250 employees laid off when the Mail merged with the Courier late in 1933. He sailed steerage to Melbourne and shared a room at Richmond with an English actor friend, at last finding employment with the Sun News-Pictorial and the Age. After a sojourn in Canberra, he joined the Sydney Telegraph, where Brian Penton [q.v.15] encouraged his efforts to write fiction. McKie was sacked after (Sir) Frank Packer [q.v.15] bought the Telegraph. In 1936 he joined the Sydney Morning Herald.

Between 1937 and 1939, he worked for the Straits Times in Singapore. He later recalled that Singapore and Malaya were ‘more than a new place’; they were ‘an awakening, a violent awareness of different peoples with different histories, customs and religions’ (McKie 1988, 64). Paid off with other Australian journalists following the declaration of war in Europe, he travelled through Japanese-occupied northern China and briefly visited Tokyo.

On 5 January 1940 McKie married Anne Catherine Lindsay, a fashion designer, at the residence of the officiating Congregational minister in North Sydney. He returned to work with the Sydney Morning Herald, but soon joined Penton’s team as a feature writer for the Daily Telegraph. Following the Japanese occupation of Singapore, he quickly published his first book, This Was Singapore (1942). On 14 May 1943 he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force as a gunner, but was discharged on 4 February 1944, being required for an essential occupation.

Accredited as an Australian war correspondent to cover the India–Burma (Myanmar) theatre, McKie reported the halting of Japanese forces at Kohima and Myitkyina and the American construction of the Ledo Road. In 1945 he reported the closing phases of the European war from Athens, Salonika, and Rome. He entered Bologna with the II Polish Corps and viewed the corpses of Mussolini and other Fascists at the Milan crematorium. In Oslo he attended Vidkun Quisling’s preliminary trial. He interviewed a member of Goebbels’ staff, the reporter Inger Haberzettel, in Berlin, and observed Truman and Churchill on tour. He reported the Potsdam Conference before returning via Paris and London to Sydney on Christmas Eve.

Postwar, McKie returned to writing feature articles and editorials for the Daily Telegraph, a position he held until 1960. His reports from the war zone had been printed in the Argus in 1945, and feature articles on other topics appeared sporadically in the late 1940s in the Sunday Times (Perth). In 1952, as the first Australian recipient of the United States Department of State’s Smith-Mundt fellowship, he wrote for a newspaper in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and toured eastern America. From 1957 to 1960, he wrote prolifically as a staff reporter for the Australian Women’s Weekly, while also contributing occasionally to the Sydney Morning Herald, the Bulletin, the Australian Monthly, and regional newspapers.

McKie drew on his experience as a war correspondent in three books. In 1953 he published Proud Echo, narrating the brave last fight of HMAS Perth and USS Houston in the 1942 battle of the Sunda Strait. Proud Echo sold well, but was less popular than The Heroes (1960), which told the story of secret Australian and British sea raids, codenamed Jaywick and Rimau, mounted against Japanese-held Singapore in 1943 and 1944. In 1980 he published the autobiographical Echoes from Forgotten Wars.

Earlier, four books had expanded McKie’s coverage of South-East Asia: Malaysia in Focus (1963), The Company of Animals (1965), Bali (1969), and Singapore (1972). He fulfilled his lifelong ambition for success as a fiction writer when The Mango Tree, a highly descriptive novel that drew on his Bundaberg boyhood, won the 1974 Miles Franklin [q.v.8] award and was a joint winner of the Barbara Ramsden [q.v.16] award. In 1977 it was made into a film. His second novel, The Crushing (1977), also set in a Queensland sugar town, followed; a third, Bitter Bread, based on his experiences in Depression Melbourne, appeared in 1978. In 1988 McKie published his autobiography, We Have No Dreaming. The following year the British-Australian television series of The Heroes was released, followed in 1991 by the telemovie The Heroes II: The Return.

One of the first writers to envisage Australia as a South-East Asian nation, McKie wrote that ‘Asia was not the “Far East”, a concept we had inherited from our Anglo-Saxon past, but rather our “Near North”’ (1988, 65). He cultivated a military officer appearance, with an air-force moustache. Fundamentally, he was a thoughtful, observant, creative, and gentle man. Survived by his son, he died on 8 May 1991 at Canterbury, Victoria, six days after the death of his wife, and was cremated.

McKie, Ronald. Interview by Hazel de Berg, 6 November 1975. Hazel de Berg collection. National Library of Australia; McKie, Ronald. We Have No Dreaming. Sydney: Collins, 1988; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘A Writer Who Witnessed Our Darkest Hours.’ 11 May 1991, 24.

Cheryl Taylor

McLACHLAN, IAN DOUGALD (1911–1991), air force officer and aeronautical consultant, was born on 23 July 1911 at South Yarra, Melbourne, fourth child of Victorian-born parents Dougald McLachlan, teacher, and his wife Berta Florence, née Gilliam. Educated at Williamstown High and Melbourne High schools, Dougald gained the Leaving certificate before working as a junior clerk with the Victorian Railways. In 1928 he entered the Royal Military College (RMC), Duntroon, Australian Federal Territory, under an arrangement for his subsequent transfer to the Royal Australia Air Force (RAAF). Strongly built with sandy brown hair and a fair complexion, he was a keen rugby union player.

Having performed well at the RMC, McLachlan was commissioned in the RAAF on 1 January 1932. He progressed through a series of flying and training posts, culminating in his appointment as commanding officer of No. 3 (Army Co-operation) Squadron in December 1939, three months after the outbreak of World War II. In July 1940, now a squadron leader, he led his unit in action in the Middle East. Forthright and astute, he became an aggressive, respected combat pilot and commander.

Operating obsolescent Gloster Gladiator biplane fighters and Westland Lysander observation aircraft, No. 3 Squadron supported the Australian Imperial Force’s 6th Division. His squadron fought (December 1940 – January 1941) in the battles of Sidi Barrani (Egypt) and Bardia (Libya), and during the capture of Tobruk (Libya). McLachlan shot down an Italian fighter. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross in February for displaying ‘determined leadership’ and accomplishing ‘many fine military feats’ (London Gazette 1941, 831). Promoted to wing commander the previous month, he served briefly on the staff of Air Marshal Arthur (Baron) Tedder, the air officer commanding-in-chief, Middle East.

Recalled to Australia in August 1941, McLachlan commanded RAAF stations at Canberra and Laverton, Victoria, before establishing No. 71 Wing at Milne Bay, New Guinea. He was promoted to acting group captain in March 1943 (substantive 1950). Equipped with Hudson and Beaufort general purpose bombers and Kittyhawk fighters, the wing took part in the battle of the Bismarck Sea. In June McLachlan became senior air staff officer of No. 9 Operational Group, the RAAF’s premier fighting formation in the South-West Pacific Area. Subsequent wartime appointments included command of the RAAF’s Southern Area, Melbourne, in March 1944, and of No. 81 (Fighter) Wing (Netherlands East Indies, now Indonesia) in April 1945. He had been mentioned in despatches in March for his outstanding work as an operational commander.

On 5 January 1946 at St Paul’s Cathedral, Melbourne, McLachlan married Margaret Helen Chrystal. She had been an officer in the Women’s Auxiliary Australian Air Force during the war. They were to divorce in 1968. Between 1946 and 1948 he served with the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Japan and, from October 1951, commanded the RAAF’s North Eastern Area headquarters, Townsville. Promoted to air commodore in July 1952, in the following year he attended the Imperial Defence College in London. He became director of flying training with the Royal Air Force in January 1955 and, on his return to Australia in 1957, was appointed air officer commanding Training Command (April 1957 – September 1959).

Promoted to acting air vice marshal in May 1959 (substantive September), he became an influential figure in the air force’s modernisation; two reviews were held under his authority. The first resulted in the RAAF College (which trained the air force’s future leaders) introducing tertiary education and subsequently becoming the RAAF Academy. The second rationalised the service’s command structure, reorganising Home Command as Operational Command, and amalgamating Maintenance and Training commands as Support Command.

In 1959 McLachlan was appointed deputy chief of the Air Staff, Canberra, and in 1961 head of the Australian Joint Services Staff in Washington. He became air member for supply and equipment in 1964, where he again implemented far-sighted policies. Under his guidance, the branch’s professionalism was enhanced by increasing the proportion of tertiary-educated logistics officers. Simultaneously, the branch led the services in the introduction of electronic data processing: by 1968 comprehensive computer-based logistics, personnel, and pay systems had been established.

McLachlan retired in July 1968, having been appointed CBE in 1954 and raised to CB in 1966. He became a consultant (1968–87) to the Northrop Corporation and sat on a number of boards, including Pokolbin Winemakers (1970–75) and Information Electronics Ltd (1983–87). Retaining an interest in defence, in 1975 he joined several other prominent retired senior officers to advocate for the acquisition by Australia of nuclear weapons. For recreation, he played tennis, squash, and golf; enjoyed horse racing; and was a member of the Melbourne Cricket, Royal Sydney Golf, Royal Canberra Golf, Naval and Military, Australian Jockey, and Victoria Racing clubs. Survived by his daughter, he died on 14 July 1991 at Darlinghurst, Sydney, and was cremated. His son had predeceased him.

Herington, John. Air War Against Germany & Italy 1939–1943. Vol. III of Series Three (Air) of Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1962; London Gazette, no. 35073, 11 February 1941, 831; National Archives of Australia. A12372, R/325/H, McLACHLAN, IAN DOUGALD, A12372, R/325/P, McLACHLAN, IAN DOUGALD; Odgers, George. Air War Against Japan 1943–1945. Vol. II of Series Three (Air) of Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1957; Personal knowledge of ADB subject; Stephens, Alan. Going Solo: The Royal Australian Air Force 1946–1971. Canberra: AGPS, 1995, Power Plus Attitude: Ideas, Strategy and Doctrine in the Royal Australian Air Force, 1921–1991. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1992.

Alan Stephens

McLEAN, GEORGE THOMAS (TOM) (1901–1994), tourism and hospitality entrepreneur, was born on 12 December 1901 at Mount Morgan, Queensland, second of eleven children of Queensland-born parents George Weston McLean, labourer, and his wife Annie, née Redhead. Tom attended Cawarral State School, between Rockhampton and Yeppoon, for four years—his entire formal education. His father moved the family frequently, trying various rural pursuits interspersed with hotel ownership and mining. When Tom was sixteen, his father built a store at Dululu, near Mount Morgan, which the youth ran single-handedly for several years. In 1923 McLean senior bought two cane farms in the Mackay region; Tom and his brother Perce managed them. On 6 April 1932 at the Methodist Church, Netherdale, Tom married Helen (Nell) Bell Braithwaite (d. 1992), whose parents were local cane farmers. He had purchased a small cane farm of his own, near Calen, and the couple moved there.

Having selected a suitable tree for the timber, McLean built his first boat, the Dorothy, 24 feet 6 inches (7.5 m) in length. He reluctantly parted with it in 1938, when he became the proprietor and licensee of the Proserpine Hotel. Two years later he sold out and bought the lease of the nearby Metropole Hotel. Always interested in politics, he was an active member (1939–42) of the Proserpine Shire Council and in July 1940 was appointed deputy chairman. He unsuccessfully contested the Legislative Assembly seat of Bowen for the Australian Country Party – Queensland in 1947.

By 1938 McLean had recognised the requirement for a cruise service to the Great Barrier Reef and the islands of the Whitsunday and Cumberland groups, but his plans were thwarted by the outbreak of World War II the next year. Lowering his age by three years, on 23 April 1942 he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force. He served in Papua with the 2/2nd Docks Operating Company (1942–43) and in Queensland with the 5th Advanced Reinforcement Depot (1944–45), as an acting (June 1943) and substantive (August 1944) sergeant.

Following his discharge on 17 April 1945, McLean bought a motor launch, the Shangri-la, which had been requisitioned for service with the United States Army Small Ships Section. The next year he sold the leasehold of the Metropole Hotel, shifted to Mackay, qualified as a skipper, and started offering charter cruises. In late 1948, needing a bigger vessel, he acquired an ex-naval Fairmile motor launch, which he called Roylen, from the names of two of his children, Fitzroy and Helen. With the five-day cruise format he devised gaining momentum, he went to Tasmania in 1950 to find suitable vessels to add to his fleet. He bought four steamers but decided, instead of sailing them back to Mackay, to use them in a second venture, McLean’s Derwent River Cruises. Hampered by what he perceived to be official obstruction to his setting up in competition with local operators and not enjoying the climate, he sold the ships and returned to Mackay in 1952. The original business had operated a second Fairmile from 1951; by the 1960s eight were in service.

As Roylen Cruises grew, members of the next generation of McLean’s family joined the firm. In 1962 the business purchased Brampton Island to use as a destination for day trips and as an accommodation option for passengers on five-day cruises. The McLeans undertook a major refurbishment and expansion of the island’s facilities, including a deep-water jetty, a miniature railway to service it, and an airstrip. By the early 1980s, the ageing Fairmiles could not cope with the demand, so the family commissioned four large catamarans and, for viewing coral, a semi-submersible. In 1985 they sold Brampton Island to Trans-Australia Airlines to concentrate on cruising. Although notionally retired, the founder retained a keen interest in his enterprise.

Generous and community minded, McLean donated holidays on Brampton Island as prizes to assist the fundraising efforts of the Macgregor Lions Club, Brisbane, which honoured this Mackay man as its 1984 Citizen of the Year. He took an active interest in the welfare of ex-servicemen and, after the war, had presided over the Proserpine sub-branch of the Returned Sailors’, Soldiers’ and Airmen’s Imperial League of Australia. In 1991 he was awarded a jewel in recognition of fifty years of service to Freemasonry in North Queensland. He was appointed MBE (1970) for services to tourism. Particularly fond of lawn bowls, he continued to play after he became legally blind. The publication of his autobiography, Captain Tom (1986), fulfilled a long-held ambition. Years after he retired from the sea, he still dressed in immaculate captain’s whites.

McLean died in Mackay on 17 February 1994. His two daughters and one of his two sons survived him. After a well-attended funeral service at St Paul’s Uniting Church, he was buried in the Mount Bassett cemetery. Tourism to the reef and islands, which he had done so much to develop, became a major industry in the Whitsunday and Mackay regions. McLeans Roylen Cruises Pty Ltd traded until 2009.

Daily Mercury (Mackay, Qld). ‘Captain Tom Saw Tourism Potential.’ 19 February 1994, 6; McLean, G. T. Captain Tom. Edited by Colleen Davis. Spring Hill, Qld: Boolarong Publications, 1986; National Archives of Australia. B883, QX31766; Townsville Daily Bulletin. ‘C. P. Candidate for Bowen: Mr G. T. McLean.’ 31 January 1947, 2.

Hilda E. Maclean

McLEOD, NEIL (1909–1993) and Audrie Lillian MCLeod (1912–1992), co-founders of the Spastic Centre of New South Wales (later the Cerebral Palsy Alliance), were husband and wife. Neil was born on 8 July 1909 at Rupertswood, Pinjarra, Western Australia, fourth of six children of New South Wales–born Herbert Augustus McLeod, farmer, and his Victorian-born wife Clarice, née Bowden. Brought up by his aunt and uncle following the early death of his parents, Neil left home aged twelve to work in the wheat fields. He later studied accounting, and sold and installed accounting machines in Perth.

On 23 November 1932 at the Congregational Church, Claremont, Perth, McLeod married Audrie, a trained nurse then working in a solicitor’s office. She was born on 6 October 1912 at Claremont, sixth child of New Zealand–born Alfred Mell, carpenter, and his Western Australian–born wife Henrietta May, née Pass. On 9 August 1938 their first child, Jennifer, was born with cerebral palsy. A paediatrician advised them to ‘put her in a home and forget her’ (McLeod 2007, 13). The couple were convinced that there had to be another option.

Having been ruled medically unfit for military service in World War II, in 1943 Neil accepted a role in Sydney as a liaison officer in the Department of War Organisation of Industry. This brought the young family to Gladesville. At a time when little was known about ‘spastic paralysis’ (as cerebral palsy was then called), they had begun conducting their own research into how best to assist their daughter. Their ‘breakthrough’ (McLeod 2007, 19) came with the discovery that Jennifer was actively engaging with the Australian Broadcasting Commission Kindergarten of the Air radio program as she listened from her high chair. They contacted the program presenter, Ruth Fenner, who featured Jennifer in an article in the ABC Weekly. The consequent exposure put the McLeods in contact with other parents of children with cerebral palsy who could not find services to meet the children’s developmental requirements. Building on this groundswell of support, and with the donation of part of a house in Mosman by the wealthy local merchant Arthur Sullivan, the McLeods founded the Spastic Centre to provide much-needed educational and medical services for children with cerebral palsy.

The Spastic Centre opened on 30 January 1945 with fifteen children. With the support of the minister for education, Robert Heffron [q.v.14], and working together with a small number of therapy and teaching staff, the parents provided outpatient services, treatment, and schooling. Audrie took on the role of honorary superintendent, with Neil as chairman of the board and honorary treasurer. By the end of 1945, the number of children attending the centre had increased to forty. No fees were charged for their treatment and the cost to run the facility in the first year was $14,000. As there was no government funding or private endowment, the McLeods principally relied on fundraising to provide services.

From 1948 Neil worked as a branch manager for Burroughs Ltd, while remaining in his roles at the Spastic Centre. The Australian Cerebral Palsy Association was established in 1952, and in 1955 Audrie was elected president. The demand for cerebral palsy service provision continued to grow and in 1958 a facility for country-based children, later known as McLeod House, was opened. Neil’s aim of creating a facility where people with and without disabilities could work together was realised with the formation in 1961 of Centre Industries, a factory that, by 1974, employed around 300 people with disabilities who worked side by side with 200 able-bodied people. Jennifer was one of its employees. Resigning from the Spastic Centre in 1974, Neil became the full-time managing director of Centre Industries.

The Miss Australia Quest (later Miss Australia Awards) became the major fundraising activity for the national network of Spastic Centres from 1954. The Australian Cerebral Palsy Association ran it until 1995, when the Miss Australia Company took over its management. Between 1954 and 2000 when it closed, the Miss Australia competition raised around $90 million nationwide for services for people with cerebral palsy.

Audrie was appointed MBE in 1959, and elevated to CBE in 1977, while Neil was appointed OBE in 1969 and selected as New South Wales Father of the Year in 1979. The McLeod Society of Japan, which had adopted many of the methods developed in Australia, was named in their honour. Having retired as honorary superintendent in 1982, Audrie remained a director of the Spastic Centre until 1988; Neil had left Centre Industries in 1986. Audrie died on 5 October 1992 at Seaforth, and Neil died on 31 October 1993 at Chatswood. They were both cremated. Their second daughter, Robyn, survived them; Jennifer had died in 1986. Based on their motto ‘Nothing is impossible’, Neil’s and Audrie’s work and world-leading vision for people with cerebral palsy continued in the twenty-first century. Their legacy was in human capital as well as institutional, with Robyn (by then Robyn Way), her son Jeremy, and her daughter Melissa, all working in the field of disability services.

Beard, Katherine. Miss Australia: A Retrospective 1908–2008. Hindmarsh, SA: Crawford House Publishing, 2001; Cerebral Palsy Alliance. ‘The McLeods.’ Accessed 28 February 2018. Copy held on ADB file; McLeod, Neil. Nothing Is Impossible: Adventures in Cerebral Palsy. Allambie Heights, NSW: The Spastic Centre, 2007.

Katherine Beard

McMEEKIN, IVAN JUNIOR (1919–1993), potter and university teacher, was born on 15 September 1919 in Melbourne, youngest of four children of John Ewing Duncan (‘Ivan’) McMeekin, electrical engineer, and his wife Ethel Miriam, née Plaisted, pianist. Ivan’s family moved to Sydney and he attended Manly Boys’ Intermediate High School, where he passed the Leaving certificate. He studied painting and drawing with J. S. Watkins and later with Hayward (Bill) Veal. Mobilised in the Royal Australian Naval Reserve on 5 September 1939, he served at sea in HMA ships Coolebar and Manoora before being commissioned in December 1940. He then went back to sea in HMA ships Arawa (1941) and Kanimbla (1941–42), and was promoted to sub-lieutenant in March 1941. His appointment was terminated on 5 May 1942, as a result, McMeekin claimed, of his ‘protest’ about his war work (McMeekin 1965), and he entered the merchant navy. In 1946 he joined the China Navigation Co. Ltd, spending three years in merchant ships plying the Chinese coast and visiting Asian ports. He began collecting Chinese ceramics, especially Sung dynasty.

Intending to study pottery making in China, McMeekin resigned in 1949. The political situation in China made this impractical, so he travelled instead to Paris and then London. Bernard Leach recommended he start classes with Michael, Bernard’s son, at Penzance School of Art. Subsequently, he was employed to assist Michael Cardew at his Wenford Bridge Pottery in Cornwall. There McMeekin developed the principles that would guide his practice: he would use local materials to make useful pots from stoneware clays, finished with Oriental-style glazes. On 3 January 1950 he married Australian-born Colleen Holmes, a musician, at the parish church of St Breward, Cornwall. The following year Cardew moved to Northern Nigeria, where he developed a pottery training centre at Abuja. McMeekin became a partner in Wenford Bridge Pottery during Cardew’s absence.

In 1952 Winifred West [q.v.12] and McMeekin discussed establishing a pottery at her Sturt workshops at Mittagong, New South Wales, encouraging the McMeekin family’s return to Australia. Little was then known in Australia about stoneware technology. Throughout 1953 he investigated local clays and glaze materials. In 1954 he began a five-year contract at Sturt, developing domestic vessels, working with local materials, designing a wood-fired kiln, and learning about Australian wood fuels.

During all this time the pottery ran at a loss. Increasingly McMeekin and West disagreed about the directions and management of the Sturt pottery. By late 1958 the rift became irreconcilable. His contract was not renewed. McMeekin also clashed with assistants Les Blakebrough and Col Levy; they and Gwyn John (Hanssen Pigott), his first Sturt apprentice, later became highly regarded Australian potters.

Away from Sturt, McMeekin was regarded as ‘a leader in the postwar pottery movement in Australia … who showed potters the unique qualities of local materials’, and expounded a philosophy ‘related to aesthetics and use’ (Rushforth et al. 1993, 19). With Mollie Douglas, Peter Rushforth, and Ivan Englund, in 1956 he formed the Potters’ Society of New South Wales, the first ceramics organisation in Australia (now the Australian Ceramics Association). He was also a foundation member (1964) and president (1969) of the Craft Association of Australia, New South Wales branch.

From 1959 McMeekin worked at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in the departments of ceramic engineering and later industrial arts, which employed practising artists as teachers. He published Notes for Potters in Australia in 1967, and established teaching and production potteries at his home at Woronora. Some of his industrial arts students ultimately became recognised in the ceramics world, including Owen Rye and Geoff Crispin.

In 1966 Sir Philip Baxter [q.v.17], the university’s vice-chancellor, invited McMeekin to start a pottery at Bagot, Darwin, to promote Aboriginal employment. In May 1968 Cardew, then a visiting fellow at UNSW, went to Bagot to train potters. Disagreements arose between Cardew and McMeekin, who departed, leaving Cardew in control. H. C. Coombs and Eddie Puruntatameri involved McMeekin in the early 1970s to assist in setting up a pottery on Bathurst Island.

McMeekin’s health deteriorated in the mid-1970s. Diagnosed with cancer, he retired from the university in 1978. With his daughter Susie as apprentice, he made pottery, first at Woronora, then at Beryl, near Gulgong, where he established another pottery. Despite ill health he continued working and writing. He was awarded the OAM in 1982 for his services to pottery. Survived by his wife and two daughters, he died on 28 May 1993 in St George Hospital, Kogarah, and was cremated. McMeekin was a strong-minded, even stubborn holder of principles that did not allow compromise, often causing rifts with colleagues. At the same time, these characteristics allowed him to persevere with his search for high standards in his art, and to become recognised as an Australian authority on the materials and technology of Oriental-style stoneware.

McMeekin, Ivan. ‘As It’s Been for Me.’ Pottery in Australia 20, no. 2 (November–December 1981): 9–12; McMeekin, Ivan. ‘In His Own Words.’ Ceramics: Art and Perception, no. 13 (1993): 61–65; McMeekin, Ivan. Interview by Hazel de Berg, 22 November 1965. Transcript. Hazel de Berg collection. National Library of Australia; McMeekin, Ivan. Interview by Paul Bugden, September 1980. National Film and Sound Archive; National Archives of Australia. A6769, McMEEKIN, I. J.; Rushforth, Peter, Ivan Englund, Mollie Douglas, Geoff Crispin, Stephen Anderson, Eddie Puruntatameri, and Tony Martin. ‘A Tribute to Ivan McMeekin OAM.’ Pottery in Australia 32, no. 3 (Spring 1993): 19–23.

Owen Rye

McNALLY, WARD (1915–1991), criminal and author, was born on 14 July 1915 at Auckland, New Zealand. His autobiography relates that his birth parents were not married and his father had been killed in action during World War I. In late 1916 he was adopted by Milton Bernard Keane, builder, and his wife Emma Julia Blanche, née Browne; she had already given birth to a daughter. Named Clifford Douglas Keane, he was dressed in tailored clothes, and showered with toys. He was educated locally and enrolled in a children’s club conducted by the Auckland Star.

His adoptive father’s business prospered until the Depression but then collapsed when several clients could not pay their debts. The marriage also broke down and Cliff was shunted between his parents. He began to play truant from school and, falling in with a delinquent set of his contemporaries, bullied other children into surrendering their pocket money or chocolates. In his mid-teens he ran away, living rough in the vicinity of Auckland’s wharves, where he cadged meals from fishermen. His behaviour brought him to the attention of the police and led to spells in reformatories. From 1933 he was, ‘at frequent intervals’ (Auckland Star 1937, 11), convicted of increasingly serious crimes and spent more than eleven of the next sixteen years in prison.

On 22 March 1939 Keane married Joyce Katherine Fowler at the registrar’s office, Auckland. The union was short-lived and they would divorce. In 1942, for twenty-one offences including forgery and housebreaking, he was sentenced to five years hard labour which he served in Mount Eden Prison. He had often used assumed names and was notorious for his escapes from custody, including while under police escort on a train and when being led from a courthouse. During one period of freedom he found refuge in the home of Fr Michael McNally, who was surprised to discover Keane’s skill in creative writing. The priest urged him to study journalism when he was next incarcerated, and helped him to secure the publication of his first journal articles. On regaining his liberty, Keane found that no editor would retain him once they learned of his past.

Keane’s reformation, though, was still incomplete and, to avoid a new charge of robbery with violence, he stowed away aboard a ship bound for Sydney in 1950. Taking up a position as a security officer in Melbourne, he assumed the name ‘Ward McNally’, having been a ward of the state and after the priest who had helped him. On 17 November 1955 at the registrar general’s office, Sydney, he married Joyce Lilian Hall, a New Zealand–born nurse. Among other jobs, he was employed as a journalist in Hobart in the early 1950s, then as assistant editor of the Fiji Times and Herald (1956) and editor of the Centralian Advocate (1962) at Alice Springs, Northern Territory. He was unafraid of ‘twigging the nose of the establishment’ (McQueen 1973, 15) and accumulated powerful enemies. In each case, soon after his employers learned of his criminal background, he was dismissed.

Unwilling to conceal his past any longer, McNally wrote Cry of a Man Running (1968), a frank account of his early years. In 1969 he became public relations officer to the Liberal and Country League of South Australia. His appointment was opposed by the LCL leader and premier, Steele Hall, a mild advocate of progressive social change. McNally was again dismissed because of his history. Four years later he was press officer to Senator James Cavanagh [q.v.17], minister for works in the Whitlam Labor government. But persistent attacks in Queensland’s Legislative Assembly under the protection of parliamentary privilege, denouncing McNally as a notorious criminal, led to another forced resignation. Nevertheless, sociologists lauded his efforts to become reformed in the face of critics (advocates of law and order) who denied ex-convicts the right to take their place in society.

McNally could be abrasive but his experiences had also given him ‘a powerful sense of justice’ (NLA MS 2403). Ever since he had lived in Alice Springs, he had been appalled at the circumstances of Aboriginal people. He wrote scathingly of Australia’s record of poor treatment and discrimination in the press and in several of his books, and appeared in 1973 before the Senate standing committee on the social environment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Likewise he was outspoken about the deficiencies he perceived in rehabilitation programs offered to convicted offenders. Meanwhile, he scraped together a living by journalism, writing books, and receiving small grants from the Commonwealth Literary Fund. His prose had many rough edges and he could never resist a good yarn. Critics claimed that the only books of McNally’s worth reading were those produced by publishers who had engaged skilled sub-editors to iron out their defects. Besides fiction, biography, and autobiography, his output included Australia: The Challenging Land (1965); New Zealand: The Which-Way Country (1966); Australia, the Waking Giant (1969); Goodbye Dreamtime (1973); The Angry Australians (1974); and Aborigines, Artefacts and Anguish (1981). Some were best sellers, reprinted several times.

A minor celebrity, McNally spoke on rehabilitation to clubs and societies, appeared on television, and featured in glossy magazines and the American press. In 1977 his story was the subject of an episode of the television program This Is Your Life. He spent his last decades living quietly in the outer suburbs of Adelaide. Widowed on 24 June 1991, he died on 24 December, during a visit to Brisbane, and was cremated. He was survived by his two sons and two daughters.

Auckland Star. ‘Youth’s Crimes. Career of Five Years. Further Chance Refused.’ 8 April 1937, 11; McNally, Ward. Cry of a Man Running. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1968; McNally, Ward. Man from Zero. Melbourne: Thomas Nelson, 1973; McQueen, Humphrey. ‘How Political Positions Folded on McNally.’ Canberra Times, 9 November 1973, 15; National Film and Sound Archive (NFSA). This Is Your Life. Episode 3/035, recorded 23 September 1977. Ward McNally: Documentation; National Library of Australia. MS 2403, Papers of Ward McNally, 1962–1983.

P. A. Howell

McSWEYN, ALLAN FRANCIS (FRANK) (1918–1994), air force officer, wartime escapee, and business executive, was born on 31 July 1918 at Ashfield, Sydney, eldest of three children of Victorian-born Neil Alexander McSweyn, farmer, and his New South Wales–born wife Millicent, née Rath. Allan’s childhood on Mona Leigh, the family’s Ardlethan property, was marred by tragedy; his baby sister was killed in a horse-and-buggy accident in 1921 and his mother died in 1924. A housekeeper took on parental duties for Allan and his brother. Ill-heath eventually compelled his father to relocate to Sydney, where Allan attended Kogarah High School and later studied accountancy. In the late 1930s, working as a clerk and accountant, he saved for flying lessons, gaining a private pilot’s licence. A Presbyterian, he was also a keen sportsman who played soccer and cricket for Kogarah teams.

On 28 April 1940 McSweyn enlisted in the Royal Australian Air Force. He started flying training at Narromine, New South Wales, and in August sailed for Canada under the Empire Air Training Scheme. One of the first RAAF pilots to graduate in Canada under the scheme, he was commissioned in December. In April 1941, after completing training in England, he was posted to No. 115 Squadron, Royal Air Force, based at Marham, Norfolk. He was promoted to flying officer in June. Piloting a Wellington bomber, McSweyn was shot down on the night of 30 June while attacking Bremen, Germany. It was his fourteenth sortie. Captured three nights later while attempting to steal a Messerschmitt Bf 110 twin-engine fighter, he was taken prisoner. Meanwhile, in December 1942 he was promoted to temporary flight lieutenant.

McSweyn made ten escape attempts from prison camps. His methods included using wire cutters made from fire-grate bars, and hiding in a laundry cart. At Oflag IXA/H, Spangenberg Castle, a prison camp for officers, he was caught trying to escape from the fortress by rope. In April 1943, while being transferred from Oflag XXIB, Schubin, to Stalag Luft III, Sagan (Zagan), Poland, he swapped identities with Corporal John McDiarmid, a British soldier. His changed identity undetected, McSweyn worked as an orderly until transferred in July to Stalag VIII-B, Lamsdorf (Lambinowice), Poland. Having escaped from a work party, he was recaptured at Danzig (Gdansk), where he had stowed away in the coal bunker of a small steamer bound for Sweden. He was returned to Stalag VIII-B, his real identity still undetected. The inveterate escaper’s persistence paid off in September when he escaped by tunnel. Using forged papers that identified him as a French workman, in company with a New Zealand soldier he made his way to Germany and across the country by train. The pair crossed the German–French border at Luneville and contacted the Resistance, which organised their crossing of the Pyrenees into Spain. McSweyn finally arrived back in England in December 1943.

On 6 March 1944, at the parish church, Winchester, McSweyn married Barbara Margaret Smith, a section officer in the Women’s Auxiliary Air Force. He was awarded the Military Cross in May for his resourcefulness and determination to escape, but for security reasons the award was publicised with a vague reference to ‘gallant and distinguished service’ (Herald 1944, 3). After a refresher course, he was promoted to temporary squadron leader in July, becoming an instructor at No. 105 (Transport) Operational Training Unit, Nottinghamshire. Possessing ‘strong character and above average ability’, he displayed ‘utmost patience … particularly when dealing with backward students’ (NAA A9300). In July 1945 he was awarded the Air Force Cross.

Returning to Australia in January 1946, McSweyn was discharged the following month. He accepted a position with Trans-Australia Airlines, and became its Queensland manager. As president of the United Services Institute’s Queensland branch (1953–54), he received the Queen’s Coronation Medal. In late 1955 he established a motor dealership at Lismore, New South Wales, and from 1960 held senior roles with American Machine and Foundry Co. (Australia) Pty Ltd, ultimately managing its Melbourne-based southern sales region. Extroverted and sociable, he made friends easily, frequently hosting dinner parties and barbeques. Retiring to the Gold Coast, Queensland, in the early 1980s, he died on 24 April 1994 in Brisbane and was cremated. He was survived by his wife and their son and daughter.

Adams, Murray. Against the Odds: Escapes and Evasions by Allied Airmen, World War II. Canberra: Air Power Development Centre, 2005; Australian War Memorial. AWM54 779/10/12, Account of escape of F/Lt A. F. McSweyn RAAF of 115 Sqn Bomber Command, escape from Stalag III; Burgess, Colin. Freedom or Death: Australia’s Greatest Escape Stories from Two World Wars. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1994; Herald (Melbourne). ‘Gallantry Awards To 4 Airmen.’ 22 May 1944, 3; Hetherington, John. Air War against Germany and Italy 1939–1945, Vol. III of Series 3 (Air) of Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1962; McSweyn, Ian. Personal communication; National Archives of Australia. A705, McSWEYN, ALLAN FRANK, A9300, McSWEYN, ALLAN FRANK.

John Moremon

McWILLIAM, RUSSELL JOHN (JACK) (1894–1991), consulting structural engineer, was born on 18 March 1894 at Summer Hill, Sydney, the only son of Queensland-born parents, Thomas Moore William McWilliam, clerk, and his wife Olga Christine, née Harden. The family moved to Brisbane where Thomas McWilliam started an import–export business. Jack was educated at The Southport School (1908–12), where he excelled at athletics, cricket, and shooting. He began studying engineering at the University of Queensland but on 30 April 1917 enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force. From May to November 1918 he served on the Western Front as a sapper in the 1st Field Company, Engineers. Returning to Australia in April 1919, he was discharged from the AIF on 17 May.

On 30 December at St Peter’s Church of England, Southport, McWilliam married Ella Clow McLean, a nurse. Returning to university, he graduated (BE, 1920) and began work as a design engineer for Expanded Steel and Concrete Products Co., Sydney, later transferring to Brisbane. In 1922 he was employed by the architects Hall [q.v.9] & Prentice to undertake the structural design of the new Brisbane City Hall, and he is known to have been a site clerk on the reconstruction of the Wintergarden Theatre.

In 1924 McWilliam started his own practice, and during the Depression was engaged to design and detail the towers and cable anchorages for the Indooroopilly Bridge. During World War II he worked with Evans [q.v.8] Deakin & Co. Ltd and the United States Army Service of Supply in the design of defence projects.

After the war McWilliam recommenced private practice, designing four new thermal power stations, the Australian Paper Manufactures Ltd mill at Petrie, and a pipe factory at Meeandah for James Hardie and Co. Pty Ltd. He also provided structural services to architects for commercial and industrial buildings, universities, schools, and hospitals throughout Queensland. In 1959 he formed R. J. McWilliam & Partners, and in 1975 the firm became a registered company. McWilliam retired the same year, becoming a consultant to the company.

Among the projects for which his firm provided structural and engineering services were Penneys Department Store, buildings for the Bank of New South Wales and the Courier Mail, the Queensland Cultural Centre, the Australian Mutual Provident Society’s Gold Tower, and News Limited printing and publishing complex at Murrarie.

McWilliam was a member of the Code Committee for Concrete Structures between the wars, and chairman of the Queensland branch of the New South Wales Welding Association from 1946 (later the Australian Welding Institute). He was federal president of the AWI in 1967, and received the institute’s Florence Taylor Award in 1986 for his contribution to its advancement. He was a fellow of the Institution of Engineers Australia, Queensland division, and a part-time lecturer in structural engineering to architectural students at the University of Queensland. In June 1986 he was appointed MBE for his services to structural engineering.

Predeceased by his wife and survived by four children, McWilliam died of myocardial infarction on 2 July 1991 at the Noel Land Nursing Home, Pinjarra Hills, and was cremated.

Matthews, Tony. Bearing the Palm: A Century of Education at the Southport School. Southport, Qld: Southport School, 2000; Clarke, G. C. ‘R. J. McWilliam.’ In Eminent Queensland Engineers, vol. 2, edited by Geoffrey Cossins, 74–75. Brisbane: Institution of Engineers, Australia, Qld Division, 1999; National Archives of Australia. B2455, McWILLIAM, R. J.

P. F. Clarke

MABO, EDWARD KOIKI (EDDIE) (1936–1992), Torres Strait Islander community leader and land rights campaigner, was born on 29 June 1936 at Las, on Mer, in the Murray group of islands, Queensland, the fourth surviving child of Murray Islands–born parents ‘Robert’ Zesou Sambo, seaman, and his wife ‘Annie’ Poipe, née Mabo. Koiki’s mother died five days after his birth and he was adopted by his maternal uncle and aunt, Benny and Maiga Mabo, in accordance with Islander custom. As a child he participated in fishing and farming activities on Mer, absorbing Meriam culture. His first language was Meriam, but he also spoke Torres Strait Islander creole. He learnt English at the state school with special assistance from one of his teachers, Bob Miles, who recognised his ability and stressed the importance of English for his future involvement in mainland culture. His first two jobs were as a teachers’ aide and as an interpreter for a medical research team in the Torres Strait. Fluency in English also placed him in leadership positions when he was in groups interacting with white Australians.

On 2 February 1956 the Murray Islands Court found Mabo guilty of drinking alcohol and exiled him for one year in accordance with community by-laws. He worked aboard fishing vessels until 1957 and then as a cane cutter and railway fettler in Queensland. He married Queensland-born Ernestine Bonita ‘Netta’ Nehow, a South Sea Islander, on 10 October 1959 at the Methodist Church in Ingham.

During the 1960s Mabo became involved in trade union politics, and became increasingly comfortable mixing with white people and adept at public speaking. In 1960 he was appointed a union representative for Torres Strait Islanders on the Townsville–Mount Isa rail reconstruction project. From 1962 to 1967 he worked for the Townsville Harbour Board, and became the Islander representative on the Trades and Labour Council. He was also a leader in Indigenous politics, serving as secretary of the Aborigines Advancement League (Queensland) from 1962 to 1969. Involved in the campaign for a ‘Yes’ vote in the 1967 referendum to remove discriminatory references to Aboriginal people in the Constitution, he subsequently helped to organise an inter-racial conference entitled ‘We the Australians: What is to Follow the Referendum?’ The conference showed Mabo that he could find supporters for Aboriginal and Islander advancement among academics such as Margaret and Henry Reynolds, Nonie Sharp, and Noel Loos.

Mabo gave occasional guest lectures to Loos’s students at the Townsville College of Advanced Education and James Cook University. This involvement increased after he was employed at the university as a gardener (c. 1967–75). He sometimes sat in on lectures, and regularly used his lunch hour to study A. C. Haddon’s [q.v.14] six-volume Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits. In 1970 he became president of the all-black Council for the Rights of Indigenous People. Concerned that his children were losing their language and cultural traditions, with Harry Penrith (later known as Burnum Burnum) he set up the Black Community School in Townsville in 1973 and served as its director until 1985. This led to his involvement in the National Aboriginal Education Committee (1975–78) and the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies Education Advisory Committee (1978–79). A talented performer of Torres Strait Islander music and dance, Mabo was a member of the Australia Council for the Arts for four years from 1974. He was president of the Yumba Meta Housing Association Ltd (1975–80), an organisation that acquired houses in Townsville using Commonwealth funds and rented them to Indigenous tenants, and was employed by the Commonwealth Employment Service as an assistant vocational officer (1978–81).

Informed by Henry Reynolds and Loos that he and other Murray Islanders were not the legal owners of land inherited under Meriam custom and tradition, and that instead it was crown land, Mabo was shocked. As co-chairmen of the Townsville Treaty Committee, Mabo and Loos joined forces with the James Cook University Students’ Union to stage a conference on ‘Land Rights and the Future of Australian Race Relations’ in 1981. The conference attracted lawyers and others familiar with questions of Indigenous rights in both domestic and international contexts. After Mabo’s presentation on ‘Land Rights in the Torres Strait’, H. C. ‘Nugget’ Coombs encouraged him and other Meriam people to take a case to the High Court of Australia to establish ownership of their land.

On 20 May 1982 Mabo, Sam Passi [q.v.18], David Passi, Celuia Mapo Salee, and James Rice initiated proceedings in the High Court against the State of Queensland and the Commonwealth. Meanwhile, the Queensland government introduced legislation designed to retrospectively cancel any native title that might exist. The Queensland Coast Islands Declaratory Act 1985 was subsequently challenged by Mabo and his colleagues in the High Court. On 8 December 1988 the court found in favour of Mabo, ruling that the Queensland law breached the Commonwealth’s Racial Discrimination Act 1975. This judgment became known as Mabo v. Queensland [No. 1].

In 1986 the High Court had passed the original land claim case to the Supreme Court of Queensland to determine the facts. The Supreme Court handed its findings to the High Court in 1990. Justice Martin Moynihan determined, on the basis of evidence presented to him, that Mabo had not been adopted by Benny and Maiga Mabo. He considered Mabo’s legal right to inherit land was based on individual rather than native title. The community could prove native title: it had observed traditional laws and customs and had continuously occupied and inherited its land on Mer since before white settlement. If Mabo had not been adopted, as Moynihan decided, then individually he had no claim on the land in dispute, that is Benny Mabo’s land on Mer. This brought Mabo’s individual land claim to an end.

Of the original five plaintiffs, only two remained to present evidence to the High Court; Salee had died, and Sam Passi had withdrawn his claim. Hearings began in the High Court in May 1991 and a verdict, in favour of community entitlements rather than individual claims, was delivered on 3 June 1992. Mabo v. Queensland [No. 2] overturned the doctrine known as terra nullius (land belonging to no one), and paved the way for the Commonwealth Native Title Act 1993. Mabo’s role in this landmark judgment was summed up by Bryan Keon-Cohen, junior counsel in both cases: ‘without Eddie Mabo there was no case’ (2011, 1:46).

During the preceding decade Mabo had pursued various lines of education and employment. From 1981 to 1984 he was enrolled in an Aboriginal and Islander Teacher Education Program at the Townsville College of Advanced Education (later, following amalgamation, James Cook University), but he did not finish the course. He worked as a field officer with the Townsville Aboriginal Legal Service in 1985, and served as director (1988–87) of the ABIS Community Cooperative Society Ltd in Townsville. He was employed by the Department of Aboriginal Affairs as a community arts liaison officer (1987–88) for the Festival of Pacific Arts held in Townsville, and also served as vice-chairman of Magani Malu Kes, an organisation that stressed Torres Strait Islander identity and autonomy.

Diagnosed with cancer in 1990, Mabo did not live to hear the High Court’s ruling in Mabo No. 2. Survived by his wife, two sons, five daughters, and three adopted children (two sons and a daughter), he died on 21 January 1991 in the Royal Brisbane Hospital and was buried in Belgian Gardens cemetery, Townsville. On 3 June 1995 an elaborate marble tombstone featuring a sculptured image of his face was unveiled in front of a large number of assembled guests. That night the grave was desecrated. The Federal government assisted Mabo’s relatives to transfer his remains to the Murray Islands. On 18 September 1995 Mabo was reburied at Las.

Throughout his life Mabo had demonstrated initiative, originality, determination, intelligence, and commitment to obtaining justice for Indigenous Australians and recognition of the traditional land rights of his family and people. Following his death, and in the wake of Mabo No. 2, he became a household name. Posthumously awarded a Human Rights Award by the Australian Human Rights Commission in 1992, he was also the Australian newspaper’s Australian of the Year for 1992. A memorial sculpture was unveiled in Townsville in 2007, and in 2008 James Cook University named its Townsville campus library the Eddie Koiki Mabo Library. In the Shire of Torres, and across other regions of Queensland, 3 June—known as Mabo Day—has been declared a bank holiday, a significant move given that for much of his life Mabo was regarded with hostility by many Meriam leaders. Mabo’s life has become the subject of academic scrutiny, art, literature, film and television; the television movie Mabo starring Jimi Bani was released in 2012. Mabo Boulevard in the Canberra suburb of Bonner is named after him.

Forbes, Cameron. ‘Mr Mabo is Entitled to be an Agitator.’ Age (Melbourne), 11 February 1992, 3; Kennedy, Fiona. ‘Mabo Returns to Native “Cradle”.’ Australian, 19 September 1995, 3; Keon-Cohen, Bryan. Mabo in the Courts: Islander Tradition to Native Title: A Memoir. 2 vols. North Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing, 2011; Loos, Noel, and Koiki Mabo. Edward Koiki Mabo: His Life and Struggle for Land Rights. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland Press, 1996; National Library of Australia. Papers of Edward Koiki Mabo; Personal knowledge of ADB subject; Russell, Peter H. Recognising Aboriginal Title: The Mabo Case and Indigenous Resistance to English-Settler Colonialism. Sydney: UNSW Press, 2006; Solomon, David, Deanie Carbon, and Fiona Kennedy. ‘Aborigines Rejoice as High Court Ends Terra Nullius.’ Australian, 4 June 1992, 1; Walker, Jamie. ‘Eddie Mabo—Australian of the Year.’ Australian, 26 January 1993, 1.

Noel Loos

MAHER, FRANCIS KEVIN (FRANK) (1902–1994), solicitor, reader in law, and Catholic activist, was born on 10 November 1905 at South Yarra, Victoria, elder child of Victorian-born parents James Joseph Maher, civil servant, and his second wife, Dora Gertrude, formerly Cameron, née Heathcote. His father also had three sons from his first marriage. Educated at De La Salle College, Malvern, Frank left school and worked briefly as a messenger boy at the University of Melbourne.

By 1922 Maher had enrolled at St Kevin’s College, East Melbourne, established to prepare senior students for university entrance. Two years later he matriculated with honours, and secured a senior State scholarship and a resident scholarship to Newman College, at the University of Melbourne (BA, 1927; LLB, 1932; MA, 1937). In 1926 he won the Wyselaskie scholarship in political economy. He left the university briefly in 1929 to test a religious vocation, entering the Jesuit novitiate in Sydney. Returning to complete his law degree, he taught history part time at St Kevin’s, where his pupils included B. A. Santamaria. On 1 May 1934 he was admitted as a barrister and solicitor of the Supreme Court of Victoria and soon established a partnership with V. R. Adami. Meanwhile, he read widely in European history and politics, and the history and teaching of the Catholic Church.

Maher realised that his own religious education was superficial, and early in 1931 he had formed a group of like-minded friends from school and university to discuss matters of Catholic doctrine and social justice. Known as the Campion Society, the group drew on the holdings of the Central Catholic Library but it had no clerical supervision, no set papers, just ‘talks where anyone is free to interrupt’ (Maher-Santamaria Correspondence). Its success inspired the formation of similar groups in rural Victoria and in other States. The archbishop of Melbourne, Daniel Mannix [q.v.10], who believed that priests should not monopolise Catholic teaching, saw the opportunities presented by the organisation of intelligent and influential laymen. In 1937 he and the other Australian bishops approved the founding of the Australian National Secretariat of Catholic Action (ANSCA) with Maher as director and Santamaria as his deputy. On 2 February 1935 Maher had married Mary Carmel (Molly) Shawcross (d. 1957) at the Newman College chapel. They would welcome countless friends to their intellectually lively home at Kew.

Based in Melbourne, Maher and Santamaria established the ANSCA to foster the promotion of Catholic social principles in everyday life by the laity. Over the next seven years they were assisted by a talented administrator, Noreen Minogue. The secretariat provided information on Catholic Action (CA), coordinated and nurtured existing Catholic organisations, and helped to establish new groups such as the Young Christian Workers and the National Catholic Rural Movement. A thinker, writer, and teacher rather than an administrator, Maher became frustrated by the increasing demands of the office. In 1946 he visited postwar Europe hoping to connect Australian CA with its European counterparts. He found that in war-damaged London intellectual life had scarcely resumed. Desperate to salvage something from the trip and repair his financial situation, he tried to secure an appointment at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, to enable him to explore developments in the United States of America. Unsuccessful, dispirited, and out of pocket, he returned home at the end of October.

During the intervening months, Santamaria had assumed responsibility for running the ANSCA as well as the Catholic Social Studies Movement, a secret organisation he had helped form to confront the power of the Communist Party of Australia in trade unions. The new anti-communist campaign was replacing the CA adventure and Maher’s heart was always in the latter (Niall 2015, 294). He worked on research, editing, and writing projects before resigning in 1951. Despite the subsequent controversies over the Movement’s interventions in politics, and the blurring of lines between it and CA, his friendship with Santamaria remained unbroken.

Maher had been a non-resident tutor at Newman (1936–45, 1947–50, 1952), and he taught economics and history at Xavier College (1937, 1952–57). In 1950 he was appointed as a tutor in law at the university. Lectureships in law (1952, 1958) and in economics and commerce (1953–54, 1957) followed, and in 1959 he was a visiting lecturer in law at the University of Adelaide. Returning to the University of Melbourne in 1960, he was promoted to reader in 1966. That year he co-authored the seminal textbook, Cases and Materials on the Legal Process, with (Sir) David Derham [q.v.17] and Professor Louis Waller.

A pioneering educator, Maher was a key figure in changing legal tuition from a series of formal dictated lectures to a structured program of discussion in small classes. His teaching style was Socratic, wise, and empowering. He continued to lecture and be a mentor to students until 1980. Five years later the university awarded him an honorary doctorate of laws. Survived by his two sons and three of his four daughters, he died on 22 January 1994 in St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, and was buried in Box Hill cemetery.

Jory, Colin H. The Campion Society: The Growth of Lay Catholic Action in Australia. Sydney: Harpham Press, 1986; Maher Family Papers. Private collection; Maher, Margaret. Personal communication; Maher-Santamaria Correspondence. Private collection; McInerney, Sir Murray. Memoirs. Private collection; Niall, Brenda. Mannix. Melbourne: Text Publishing, 2015, The Riddle of Father Hackett: A Life in Ireland and Australia. Canberra: National Library of Australia, 2009; Personal knowledge of ADB subject.

Brenda Niall

MALOAT, Sir PALIAU (1907–1991), political and religious leader, was born about 1907 at Lipan village, Baluan Island in the Admiralty Islands, German New Guinea (Manus Province, Papua New Guinea), only son of Maloat, Pulialipan clan leader, and his wife Asap Nelimbul (Ipul), of the Ulput clan. Paliau was orphaned when he was about seven years old and felt neglected and in between the families of his mother and his father. Nevertheless, while he was still a teenager his paternal relative Joseph Paril told him to perform at a traditional feast, perhaps recognising his potential as a local leader. His performance went completely awry, as he mixed up the words he should speak. This traumatic experience possibly contributed to his later criticism of large traditional feasts, which he considered wasteful distributions of wealth that could bring hunger and death.

Following traditional custom, Paliau was known by his first name, rather than his patronymic surname. When he reached the age of fifteen, he was required to pay head tax by the Australian administration of the Mandated Territory of New Guinea and thus sought employment. After some odd jobs, he joined the New Guinea Police Force in 1928, serving in a number of towns and attaining the rank of sergeant at Rabaul in 1935. He regularly sent money home but was critical of the way it was distributed by his kin and so established a renewable fund that could provide loans to those unable to pay their head tax. During World War II, when Japanese forces occupied Rabaul in January 1942, Paliau was the highest-ranking indigenous police officer, and he fled with other policemen to avoid capture. In August 1943 he surrendered and was forced to supervise the native population on behalf of the Japanese until an Allied air raid in 1944 gave him the chance to escape again. After the war he was arrested for collaboration, but he was never charged.

During the war years Paliau had built a reputation as a charismatic leader. On his return to the Manus province in 1946 he attracted people from faraway villages who wanted to hear his message of self-reliance and equality with the white colonisers. Claiming to have had a series of dreams that influenced his religious insights and teachings, he initiated plans to reorganise the local society, including the concentration of villages and amalgamation of village resources. The Australian administration became concerned about his growing influence and detained him in April 1950 on charges of insubordination and ‘spreading false reports’ (White 1953, 11). Subsequently, the territorial administrator Jack (Sir Keith) Murray [q.v.15], under pressure from the local population and facing criticism by a visiting mission of the United Nations Trusteeship Council, followed a more constructive strategy with the aim of enlisting Paliau’s collaboration. The Baluan Native Village Council was established later in 1950 as one of the first such councils in New Guinea, although the island’s population and economic base were small for a viable council. Having divorced his first wife, Lomot Viviana, Paliau married Teresia, daughter of Paliau Chamokou and Sauyang, both from Mouk village on Baluan, in 1951.

When Paliau returned from detention, he was elected a member and later chairman (1951–65) of the Baluan council. This was the beginning of a successful career as a local and national politician. In 1964 he was elected as the member for Manus in the Territory of Papua and New Guinea’s first House of Assembly, and he was a founding member (1967) of the Pangu Pati (Papua and New Guinea Union Party). As a member of parliament, and the president (1966–67) of the Manus multiracial council, he played an important role in the modernisation of Manus society. Appointed OBE in 1970, he lost his assembly seat in 1972, but the same year was narrowly elected chairman of the new Manus District Area Authority, a position from which he was ousted in 1973. Although his career as a national and regional politician was in decline, he remained a popular local leader.

The growing opposition to Paliau at a regional level derived partly from his role as founder and leader of a native church. He had never been baptised and opposed the missions when he returned to the islands in 1946, proclaiming that they had been distorting knowledge of God. Many of his followers defected from the Catholic church to join his religious movement, called the Baluan United Christian Church or Paliau Native Christian Church, while many Manus north coastal villages and villages with strong Seventh Day Adventist parishes opposed the new religion. From 1978 the movement was retitled Makasol, a contraction of the Tok Pisin name Manus Kastom Kansol (Manus Traditional Council), and it gained support from younger educated Manusians returning from positions in the national capital to enter politics in their home province. In 1984 Paliau claimed that he was the last prophet of the world and that his message about possible redemption from earthly suffering applied to all people, ‘black, brown or white’ (Otto 1992, 54). The movement again changed its name in 1989 to fit this more universal mission, being called Win Neisen (the nation of wind, breath, or spirit).

Paliau returned in July 1991 to Baluan, where he died on 1 November. He was survived by his wife, a son and a daughter from his first marriage, and five adopted children, and was accorded a state funeral, which was attended by Papua New Guinea’s first prime minister, Sir Michael Somare. Shortly before his death, Paliau had been knighted. The honour recognised one whose life aim had been the liberation of his fellow Papua New Guineans, not only from Western economic, political, and ideological domination, but also from elements of the native tradition that he saw as inhibiting progress. He had a captivating presence, possessing great rhetorical powers and a strong imagination. At times he came into open conflict with colonial and post-colonial governments and the Christian missions, but he was loyally supported by many. His religious and spiritual insights led to prophesies of salvation for all the earth’s people. Towards the end of his life his followers accorded him an almost divine status as the ‘Melanesian Jesus’. His house on Baluan became a shrine to his memory.

Fenbury, David M. Practice without Policy: Genesis of Local Government in Papua New Guinea. Development Studies Centre Monograph no. 13. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1978; Kais, Kakah. The Paliau Movement: Past, Present and Future. Papua New Guinea: University of Papua New Guinea Press and Bookshop, 2008; Maloat, Paliau. ‘Histori bilong mi taim mi bon na i kamap tede [The Story of My Life from the Day I Was Born until the Present Day].’ In The Politics of Melanesia: Papers Delivered at the Fourth Waigani Seminar at Port Moresby, edited by Marion W. Ward, 144–61. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1970; Mead, Margaret. New Lives for Old: Cultural Transformation—Manus, 1928–1953. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1975; National Archives of Papua New Guinea. ‘Special Report: Local Government on Baluan Island, Manus.’ 7/N-CA 35/6/38; Otto, Ton. ‘From Paliau Movement to Makasol: The Politics of Representation.’ Canberra Anthropology 15, no. 2 (1992): 49–68; Otto, Ton. ‘Paliau’s Stories: Autobiography and Automythography of a Melanesian Prophet.’ Focaal 32 (1998): 71–87; Otto, Ton. ‘The Paliau Movement in Manus and the Objectification of Tradition.’ History and Anthropology 5, no. 3 (1992): 427–54; Otto, Ton. ‘The Politics of Tradition in Baluan: Social Change and the Construction of the Past in a Manus Society.’ PhD thesis, Australian National University, 1991; Schwartz, Theodore. ‘The Paliau Movement in the Admiralty Islands, 1946–1954.’ Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 49, no. 2 (1962): 209–421; White, Osmar. ‘This Is Paliau, Ogre of the Islands.’ Daily Telegraph (Sydney), 17 September 1953, 11.

Ton Otto

MANN, JOHN (1905–1994), entomologist, was born on 13 August 1905 at Greenmount, near Toowoomba, Queensland, second son of John Edward Mann, a locally born farmer, and his Sydney-born wife Millicent, née Tucker. His father died the same year and his mother, aged only nineteen, took the boys to Sydney, where she married Albert Croucher in 1909. It is not known where John went to school. He worked as a shop assistant and collected insects in his spare time. His love of butterflies brought him into contact with G. A. Waterhouse [q.v.12], who paid him to collect and breed them.

Recommended by Waterhouse, Mann was appointed on 8 February 1923 as a laboratory assistant with the Commonwealth Prickly-Pear Board and posted to Biniguy Field Station, near Moree. The next year he was transferred to the program’s headquarters laboratory (later, Alan Fletcher Research Station) at Sherwood, Brisbane. By the mid-1920s prickly pear had ravaged an area of some 65 million acres (26.3 million ha) in Australia, much of it prime agricultural land and most of it in Queensland. In May 1925 Mann received the historic shipment of the moth Cactoblastis cactorum that A. P. Dodd [q.v.17] sent from Argentina. He bred the first generation of the insects and studied them and their progeny. The distribution of eggs to areas infested with prickly pear began the following year.

On 23 June 1926 at Rockdale, Sydney, Mann married, in a Church of Christ ceremony, Muriel Edith Dines, a stenographer. In 1929 he was appointed as a research entomologist and officer-in-charge of the Chinchilla Field Station, continuing its important role in the mass rearing and release of Cactoblastis cactorum. The prickly pear was under control by 1930 and the eradication program received international acclaim. Mentored by George Hardy, from the University of Queensland, Mann became an authority on the stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae). He produced three well-regarded publications, in which he described a new genus and some twenty-two new species. A genus, Johnmannia, and a species, Nanexila manni, were named after him.

Mann returned to the Sherwood laboratory in 1934 and spent the rest of his career there. When the Prickly-Pear Board was disbanded in 1939, he transferred as an entomologist to the biological section, lands development branch, Queensland Department of Public Lands, which took over the laboratory; Dodd was appointed as director. Among other responsibilities, Mann prepared in 1951 the first batches of myxomatosis virus for the control of rabbits in Queensland. The success of the campaign against prickly pear encouraged Dodd and his team to investigate the biological control of other noxious plants. Mann sought destructive insects in Mexico (1953–54) for lantana; in India (1957 and 1963) for Noogoora burr; and in the Americas (1958–59) for Harrisia cactus. His trip to Mexico ended when he became severely ill with amoebic dysentery.

In 1962 Mann succeeded Dodd as director, responsible for all research on chemical and biological control of weeds. His tenure marked ‘a period of enthusiasm, scientific resourcefulness, [and] official and primary industry recognition’ (Haseler 1985, 3). As well as speaking frequently at science conferences, he addressed public meetings and gave radio talks. He was a foundation (1975) and life member of the Weed Society of Queensland; a foundation member (1923), president (1940), and life member (1970) of the Entomological Society of Queensland; and a fellow of the Royal Entomological Society, United Kingdom (1964), and the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales (1969).

The publication in 1970 of Mann’s Cacti Naturalised in Australia and Their Control (1970) generated friction with Dodd, who believed that it understated the contributions of Mann’s colleagues to the prickly-pear program. After retiring that year, Mann compiled butterfly and other insect collections for schools. For his contribution to entomology, the biological control of prickly pear, and weed management, he was appointed MBE (1970) and awarded an honorary doctorate of agricultural science by the University of Queensland (1983).

Jack Mann was liked by his superiors, colleagues, and staff. Among the Christian Brethren community, he was a well-respected lay preacher. Upright bearing and a grey moustache gave him a distinguished appearance; from 1962 he walked with a limp as a result of a leg injury suffered in a car crash and used a stick. A passionate Christian and creationist, he gave talks on God as Creator and considered the relationship between cactus and Cactoblastis to be an example of divine purpose. He died on 27 June 1994 at Ipswich and was buried in Mount Gravatt lawn cemetery. His wife, their daughter, and one of their three sons survived him.

Daniels, G. Bibliography of Australian Entomology 1687–2000. Mount Ommaney, Qld: G. Daniels, 2004; Dodd, Alan P. The Biological Campaign against Prickly-Pear. Brisbane: Commonwealth Prickly Pear Board, 1940; Haseler, W. H. ‘In Retrospect.’ Weed Society of Queensland Newsletter, December 1985, 3–7; Mackay, John. ‘Interview: John Mann, M.B.E.’ Ex Nihilo 5, no. 2 Australian/1, no. 2 International (1982): 13–17; McFadyen, Rachel E. ‘The Harrisia Cactus Eradication Scheme: Policy-Making by Technocrats.’ Master’s thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 1990; News Bulletin (Entomological Society of Queensland). ‘Obituary: John Mann 13.08.1905–27.06.1994.’ 22, no. 4 (1994): 54, (Entomological Society of Queensland). ‘Review by Mr A. P. Dodd of the Book: “Cacti Naturalised in Australia and their Control”—J. Mann, M.B.E.’ 69 (September 1970): 3; Queensland State Archives. ID606453, Personnel file.

W. A. Palmer

Chris Rinehart

MAREK, DUŠAN THOMAS (1926–1993) and MAREK, VOITRE (Vojtech) (1919–1999), artists, were brothers, youngest and eldest of three sons of Vojtech Marek, railway administrator, and his wife Hermina, née Schinovska. Both were born at Bitouchov, Bohemia, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic), Voitre on 30 May 1919 and Dušan on 7 March 1926. Voitre was apprenticed in metal engraving (1935–38), and then studied at the Prague Academy of Fine Arts under Professor J. Horejc (1939–44). He established an atelier, working as a freelance sculptor, and was a member of the Czech Union of Creative Artists. In 1946 and 1947 he won prizes for his work. Dušan showed early talent and studied (from 1942) at schools of applied art at Turnov and Jablonec, moving to Prague to study at the Academy of Fine Arts under František Tichý, a noted surrealist.

In the wake of the communist takeover in 1948, Voitre, his fiancé Vera Podperova, and Dušan decided to flee. After a period at a refugee camp in Dillenburg, West Germany, the brothers sailed for Australia in August 1948 aboard the Charleton Sovereign. Neither expected to remain permanently in Australia. They landed in Sydney and were sent to the Bathurst migrant camp before moving to Adelaide. Vera, a teacher and translator, followed the brothers to Australia; she and Voitre married on 8 April 1949 in Adelaide. Dušan married Milada (Helena) Jakubova, a bookkeeper, whom he had met on board the migrant ship, on 11 January 1951 at the Office of the Principal Registrar, Adelaide.

Under the Displaced Persons’ Employment Scheme, the brothers and their wives had to work for two years to repay the costs of their passage, usually in labouring roles. The brothers initially worked for the railways until Vera, with her superior English, secured a job for Voitre utilising his engraving skills at Shepphard’s Jewellers. Dušan later joined the firm. Dušan’s strong accent and limited English made adjusting to his new life more difficult. During this time the brothers took part in group exhibitions. Voitre exhibited at the Royal South Australian Society of Arts (RSASA) autumn exhibition in 1949, while both had pieces in the Contemporary Art Society exhibition of July that year. The CAS refused to hang two of Dušan’s nude pictures on the grounds of obscenity; they were later shown in the Adelaide Independent Group exhibition. The exhibitions divided public opinion due to the content and structure of the paintings.

The negative reaction to Dušan’s work convinced him to leave Adelaide. He and Helena spent a short period in Tasmania (1951), moving to Sydney later that year. At this time he began experimenting with three-dimensional artworks and animated films. A further controversial exhibition in Sydney at the Mack Gallery in 1953 led him to withdraw to Papua New Guinea (1954–59). While working as a cargo boat engineer, he produced only two paintings, one film (The Magician, 1956), and a number of observational drawings. Returning to Adelaide, he began to create landscapes in a lyrical-abstract style, incorporating surrealist iconography. This culminated in a 1963 exhibition at the Bonython Gallery, Adelaide. In the same year, his film Adam and Eve was awarded the Australian Film Institute prize for best experimental film.

Between 1963 and 1968 Dušan lived in Sydney where he continued to paint and increasingly focused on film, producing the feature-length surrealist work Cobweb on a Parachute (1966–67), which survives only as a working print. He returned to Adelaide in 1969, producing another feature-length film, And the Word Was Made Flesh (1971), and a significant number of paintings. In 1973 he was invited to Hobart to take a post as lecturer in painting and film at the Tasmanian School of Art. A solo exhibition was mounted by the Art Gallery of New South Wales in 1975. After taking up a fellowship (1977) at The Australian National University, Canberra, he returned to Hobart. During 1979 he undertook a study tour to the United States of America and Europe. From 1982 his health began to decline and he resigned from his lectureship. After travelling to Italy and France on a painting tour, he returned to Adelaide and settled at Eden Hills, where he established a studio and painted until the end of his life. Two major series emerged: Homage to the Sun (1984), comprising more than eighty works in response to the disastrous bushfires in the Adelaide hills; and Eye of the Heart (1990), a sequence of fourteen large-scale works.

Unlike his brother, Voitre remained in Adelaide. In 1953 he became director of the New Gallery, presenting a solo exhibition there. While their children were small, he and Vera took the opportunity to live and work on offshore lighthouses between 1956 and 1960. During this time a religious epiphany had a decisive effect on the course of his future work. From his arrival in Australia until the 1960s he had been producing small drawings as well as prints, working in a lyrical-surrealistic style reminiscent of the German-French artist Jean Arp. In 1960 he held a solo exhibition at the RSASA, Adelaide. Around this time he discovered and adapted a steel-rod welding technique to create sculptures, and experimented with a number of abstract and biomorphic works. In the wake of these trials, he realised the opportunity to create ecclesiastical works in churches that were being adapted according to the postulates of Vatican II (1962–65). From this point his work was largely dedicated to religious art, blending surrealist, Byzantine and Romanesque elements, and employing steel rods and embossed copper panels. His works can be found in twenty-four churches throughout the country. He held a solo exhibition at the Adelaide Festival in 1966, was awarded a Churchill fellowship (1969–70) to further his studies in religious art, and was elected an associate member of the United States Guild for Religious Architecture.

Both brothers were affected by poor health in the latter part of their lives. Dušan suffered multiple heart attacks and developed kidney disease. During his final years he charted in paint the demise of his body, perhaps illustrating his comment that ‘It is as necessary for me to paint as it is for a tree to grow’ (Schrapel 1993, 14). He died on 9 March 1993 in Adelaide and was survived by his wife, who took his ashes back to the Czech Republic. His death came the night before the National Gallery of Australia opened Surrealism: Revolution by Night, which featured his work. Voitre had suffered brain injuries from a car crash in 1973 which progressively affected his capacity to work. He died on 27 November 1999 in Adelaide, survived by his wife, and their son and daughter. Before his death he had received a blessing from the Pope for his contribution to religious art.

‘Beauty Springs from a Blowtorch.’ Australian Women’s Weekly, 26 May 1971, 36; Donaldson, Cheri. ‘Deep and Defiant: Dušan and Voitre Marek: Two European Émigré Artists in Postwar (South) Australia.’ MA (Art history) thesis, University of Adelaide, 2007; Marek, Vera. Oral history interview, State Library of South Australia, OH 628/3; Murphy, Bernice. Dušan Marek. Sydney: Macquarie Galleries, 1979; Mould, Stephen. The Birth of Love: Dušan and Voitre Marek, Artist Brothers in Czechoslovakia and Post-War Australia. Norwood, SA: Moon Arrow Press, 2008; Schrapel, Stephanie. ‘Dušan Marek’, Kalori 31, no. 1 (March 1993), 14; Dutkiewicz, Adam. ‘Raising Ghosts: Post-World War Two European Emigré and Migrant Artists and the Evolution of Abstract Painting in Australia, with Special Reference to Adelaide ca.1950–1965.’ PhD thesis, University of South Australia, 2000.

Stephen Mould

MARSHALL, CHARLES WOOLLER (1904–1991), surveyor and mining consultant, was born on 19 February 1904 at Merinda, near Bowen, Queensland, third surviving child of New South Wales–born parents Charles John Marshall, meatworks manager, and his wife Mary Constance, née Wooller. Both of Charles’s grandfathers had joined the gold rush to California in the 1840s; his great-grandfather, James Adams, took up gold mining at Ophir, New South Wales, in 1851; and his father pioneered coal mining in North Queensland. Educated locally and at Newington College, Sydney (1919–22), he was articled to Henry George Foxall [q.v.14] as a mining and engineering cadet surveyor. He qualified as a licensed surveyor in 1928.

Encouraged by Foxall, in 1927 Marshall had joined Oriomo Oil Ltd as surveyor and assistant to the geologist V. L. Newberry. In 1927–28 he participated in and led oil and minerals exploration expeditions in the Western division of Papua, including one journey that took him 400 miles (640 km) up the Fly River. He travelled to regions previously unvisited by Europeans. Oil was not found in commercial quantities and he returned to Sydney in 1929.

In June that year Marshall joined the newly formed New Guinea Goldfields Ltd in what he called ‘one of the last of the great land gold rushes’ (Proceedings: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 1982, 8) at Wau and Edie Creek in the Mandated Territory of New Guinea. During the next ten years with the company he was, successively, chief surveyor, mine manager, mine superintendent, alluvial superintendent, and construction superintendent. He designed and built treatment plants and large hydraulicking operations on the Bulolo River and Koranga Creek.

Earlier, Marshall had made many exploratory trips on behalf of the company. The most significant of these expeditions was the journey with the prospectors Michael [q.v.10] and Daniel Leahy [q.v.] to the Chimbu district in the New Guinea highlands in February 1933. The three men were the first Europeans to see the Wahgi Valley; Marshall called this sight ‘one of the greater thrills of my life’ (Proceedings: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 1982, 9). Like all his expeditions, the trip was meticulously planned, scientific, orderly, and focused (to fellow prospector Mick Leahy’s annoyance) on fast and accurate records: he took photographs and compass bearings, made notes describing the country, recorded possible types of rock formations, washed river gravel to check for gold, mapped, and obtained local names for landmarks. ‘The strain of heavy climbing, being surrounded by hundreds of excited natives and the delicate task of making friends with them’ began to tell (Marshall 1983, 113). The explorers moved as fast as possible to reduce the risk of attack. On 12 June 1935 at St Mark’s Church of England, Darling Point, Sydney, he married Eileen Marian Channon, from Killara.

In 1939 Marshall returned to Australia and worked for the New South Wales Main Roads Board as a district engineer. Enlisting in the Royal Australian Air Force on 30 March 1942, and commissioned as an engineer officer in May, he served in mobile works and airfield construction squadrons in northern Australia, on Morotai, and in Borneo, before being demobilised on 28 November 1945 as a flight lieutenant. Following another stint with the Main Roads Board, he joined the Commonwealth-New South Wales Joint Coal Board when it was formed in 1947. By 1949 he was the engineer-in-charge of all open-cut coal mining in the state. He became assistant general manager of Davis Contractors Pty Ltd in 1954. Four years later he formed his own firm of mining and engineering consultants, which gained a high reputation as an adviser to governments.

The expeditions and survey work that Marshall had conducted in Papua New Guinea resulted in some of the first accurate maps of the country. In his later career he revolutionised open-cut coal mining in Australia. He was a fellow (1937) of the Institution of Surveyors, Australia. A councillor (1964–74) and president (1969) of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, he was awarded the institute’s medal for 1981. That year he was appointed AO. He held office in 1981–83 as the first chairman of the Minerals Industry Consultants Association.

Marshall took an interest in the history of mining and the industry’s social and cultural context. He donated the artefacts he collected on his prospecting expeditions in Papua New Guinea, together with his photographs and diaries from that time, to the Australian Museum in Sydney. Survived by his wife and their two daughters, he died on 25 August 1991 at Wahroonga, Sydney, and was cremated.

Australian Museum Archives. AMS148. ‘C W Marshall Survey Notebooks, Diaries and Sketch Map’; Australian Museum Archives. AMS321. ‘Charles Marshall Photographs 1927–1933’; Connolly, Bob, and Robin Anderson. First Contact. New York: Viking, 1987; Marshall, Charles. ‘The Chimbu Expedition: New Guinea—February 1933: An Adventurer Tells His Story.’ Australian Natural History 21, no. 3 (1983): 104–15; Proceedings: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. ‘Presentation of The Institute Medal, 1981, to Charles Wooller Marshall, A.O.’ No. 282 (June 1982): 5–9; National Archives of Australia. A9300, MARSHALL C. W.; The Australian Surveyor. ‘Personalities of the Profession: Charles Wooller Marshall.’ 33, no. 6 (June 1987): 556–57; Waterhouse, Michael. Not a Poor Man’s Field: The New Guinea Goldfields to 1942—An Australian Colonial History. Canberra: Halstead Press, 2010.

Vanessa Finney

MARTIN, JAMES ERIC GIFFORD (1904–1993), electrical engineer and army officer, was born on 17 April 1904 in South Brisbane, son of William Henry Martin, a New South Wales–born schoolteacher, and his Queensland-born wife Isabella Susan, née Laking. After attending Toowoomba Grammar School (1917–21), Eric studied mechanical and electrical engineering at the University of Queensland (BE, 1926). He resided in Emmanuel College from 1922, staying on as a mathematics tutor until his marriage to Dulcie Winifred Phillips (d. 1992), a nurse, on 4 August 1931 at St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church, Bundaberg. In 1926 he had joined City Electric Light Co. Ltd, Brisbane. Initially an assistant engineer at the firm’s power station in William Street, he was later superintendent of its larger plant at Bulimba. He left in 1932 to become engineer and manager of Rockhampton City Council’s electricity supply department.

Commissioned as a lieutenant in the Citizen Military Forces (CMF) in 1923, Martin rose to lieutenant colonel and commander of the 42nd Battalion in 1937. On 13 October 1939 he was appointed commanding officer of the 2/9th Battalion, the youngest of the first twelve infantry unit commanders selected for the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) in World War II. He trained his men hard; they considered him ‘tough but fair’ (Dickens 2005, 6). As a component of the 18th Brigade, the 2/9th sailed in May 1940 for Britain, which was then facing the threat of invasion. In December the brigade arrived in Egypt. Martin was appointed OBE the next month. The formation’s first operation—the capture of the Italian outpost of Giarabub, Libya, largely by Martin’s battalion—was accomplished on 21 March 1941, the 2/9th’s black-over-blue banner being hoisted above the fort.

From April to August 1941 the battalion took part in the defence of Tobruk. For the energy, leadership, and courage he displayed at the fortress, Martin was awarded the Distinguished Service Order. He was also mentioned in despatches. On 27 December he was promoted to brigadier and placed in command of the 19th Brigade, again becoming the youngest infantry commander of his rank in the AIF. The formation returned to Australia in March 1942 and from June was part of Northern Territory Force.

In November 1944 the brigade moved to Aitape, New Guinea. It led the advance towards Wewak (seized in May 1945) and then southwards, until relieved in late July. Confronted with Japanese soldiers determined to fight to the death from well-sited bunkers, Martin survived malaria, enemy sniper fire, and an air strike on his headquarters and supporting units by a squadron of American Lightnings. On 13 September he stood at Cape Wom with Major General (Sir) Horace Robertson [q.v.16] at the surrender of Lieutenant General Adachi Hatazo, commander of the Japanese Eighteenth Army. Martin was awarded the Efficiency Decoration (1945) and appointed CBE (1946), the citation noting that he was ‘Continually with his forward troops and always in complete control of the situation’, and that his whole service had been marked by ‘unselfish devotion to duty’ (CARO n.d.).

On 21 December 1945 Martin transferred to the Reserve of Officers. Back at Rockhampton, he became the first manager (1946) of the Capricornia Regional Electricity Board. In 1949 he returned to Brisbane and rejoined City Electric Light, as senior engineer; the Southern Electric Authority of Queensland absorbed the company in 1953. Martin was promoted to deputy chief engineer in 1957 and to chief engineer in 1968, taking increasing responsibility as the authority’s new power stations on the Ipswich coalfields—Swanbank A (1967), C (1969), and B (1970)—came into service. From 1970 he was SEAQ’s chairman and chief executive officer. He retired in June 1972.

Martin had continued his CMF service, assuming command of the 7th Brigade in 1950. He was an honorary aide-de-camp (1953–56) to the governor-general, Field Marshal Sir William (Viscount) Slim [q.v.16]. Following his retirement from the CMF in 1954, he became the first honorary colonel, Queensland University Regiment, which commissioned his portrait by Graeme Inson. His experience and skills were called on as chairman (1965–70) of development committees for the Queensland Institute of Technology (Darling Downs) and the Queensland Institute of Technology (Capricornia); as president (1955–68) of the Queensland branch of the Boy Scouts’ Association; as a board member (1971–83) of St Andrew’s War Memorial Hospital; as a councillor (1951–69) and chairman (1959–68) of Emmanuel College, which named a wing in his honour; and as an elder of the Presbyterian Church of Queensland. He was well known for mentoring and encouraging junior engineers.

Although quietly spoken and slightly built, ‘Sparrow’ Martin had a remarkable presence. For recreation, he was a keen player at Clayfield Bowling Club. He died on 15 October 1993 in Brisbane and was cremated. His three sons and two daughters survived him. A memorial service for him was held at St Andrew’s Uniting Church, Ann Street, Brisbane.

Central Army Records Office, Melbourne. Unpublished typescript extract from J. E. G. Martin’s service record, n.d. Copy held on ADB file; Dickens, Gordon. Never Late: The 2/9th Australian Infantry Battalion 19391945. Loftus, NSW: Australian Military History Publications, 2005; Long, Gavin. To Benghazi. Vol. I of Series 1 (Army) of Australia in the War of 19391945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1952, The Final Campaigns. Vol. VII of Series 1 (Army) of Australia in the War of 19391945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1963; Maughan, Barton. Tobruk and El Alamein. Vol. III of Series 1 (Army) of Australia in the War of 19391945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1966; Mercer, Doug. ‘J E G Martin.’ In Eminent Queensland Engineers. Vol. II, edited by Geoffrey Cossins, 76–77. Brisbane: The Institution of Engineers, Australia, Queensland Division, 1999.

R. I. Harrison

MARTIN, PETER GORDON (1923–1994), botanist and geneticist, was born on 20 June 1923 in North Adelaide, only son of locally born parents Stanley Gordon Martin, bank clerk, and his wife Annie Violet, née De Rose. Peter was educated at Prince Alfred College (1936–40). Following the outbreak of World War II, on 1 September 1940 he joined the Permanent Naval Forces as a special-entry cadet midshipman. He completed a shortened course at the Royal Australian Naval College, HMAS Cerberus, Westernport, Victoria, and then, promoted to midshipman, trained at sea in the heavy cruiser HMAS Australia in 1941 and 1942. The ship operated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and fought in the battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942).

As an acting and substantive sub-lieutenant, Martin undertook professional courses and combined operations training in Britain (1942–43), before being sent to the landing ship, infantry, HMS Keren, which took part in the invasion of Sicily in July 1943. That month he was promoted to lieutenant. Aboard the destroyer HMAS Napier (1943–45), he served in the South Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans. He was second-in-command of the frigate HMAS Barwon (1946–47) and the corvette HMAS Gladstone (1947–48). Resigning to pursue a career in science, he was transferred to the Retired List on 22 July 1948.

On 13 July 1946 at St Columba’s Anglican Church, in the Adelaide suburb of Hawthorn, Martin had married Beryl Laura Maud Thomas, an artist who had served in the Women’s Auxiliary Australian Air Force. Resuming his education, he studied botany and genetics at the University of Adelaide (BSc, 1953; PhD, 1957). He won the John Bagot (1949) and Ernest Ayers (1951) scholarships, a Gowrie Scholarship Trust Fund award (1950), and the Elsie Marion Cornish (1951) and William Culross (1955) prizes. Appointed lecturer in 1956, he spent his entire academic career at the university. His encouragement of others was exceptional and for many years he taught first-year biology, insisting that only the ‘best lectures’ can properly introduce students to the subject (University of Adelaide Library MS0092). Rising through the academic hierarchy, he was made professor of botany in 1969.

Officer training and wartime service had marked Martin. He was decisive, impatient with shilly-shallying, and always trying to make up for lost time as a scientist. Consequently, while many colleagues, students, and friends described him as adventurous and generous-spirited, he was not without academic adversaries. His research focused on evolution in plants and animals, and utilised quantitative as well as qualitative methodologies. In 1958 he was awarded a Nuffield Foundation travelling fellowship to conduct research on cellular differentiation in England at the John Innes Institute, Hertford, and King’s College, University of London. After a seminal sabbatical at Durham, England, with the biologist Donald Boulter in the mid-1970s, he pioneered studies of amino acid substitution in proteins, and DNA base changes as molecular clocks in plants.

As a scientist Martin was receptive to new ideas, a good conceiver of experiments, and an amenable collaborator. He was an enthusiastic proponent of the geophysicist Alfred Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift. His interest in its biogeographical consequences led to a collaboration with the geneticist David Hayman on the chromosomes and chromosomal evolution in marsupials. Their book, Mammalia I: Monotremata and Marsupialia (1974), was a fine combination of courage and caution, action and reflection. It provided a clear account of changes in chromosomal morphology and number over evolutionary time, and indicated that Australian and South American marsupials had a common Gondwanan origin. Many of the scholars who subsequently helped to make Australia pre-eminent in the field of marsupial evolution were either taught or influenced by Martin or Hayman.

An early member of the Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Martin was a keen gardener and an enthusiast for native plants. He always encouraged his family’s interests, and his most-cited paper remains one in which he assisted his son, a geneticist, in a study of intellectual ability in human twins. At sixty-one, he retired so that he could devote more time to research. With work still in progress, he died of cancer on 15 December 1994. His wife, and their son and daughter survived him. A prize for excellence in scientific communication was established in his name at the University of Adelaide. His last joint paper was published posthumously in 2000.

Conran, John. ‘A Pioneer in Evolutionary Studies.’ Adelaidean, 8 May 1995, 8; Crisp, Mike. ‘Professor Peter Gordon Martin (1923–1994).’ Australasian Systematic Botany Society Newsletter, no. 82 (March 1995): 14–15; Martin, Beryl, and Nick Martin. Personal communication; National Archives of Australia. A6797, MARTIN P G; University of Adelaide Library. ‘Biographical Note.’ MS0092, Peter Martin (1923–1994). Papers 1954–1996.

Oliver Mayo

MASON, WILLIAM DARCY (1911–1992), air force officer, was born on 24 October 1911 at Balmain, Sydney, son of Canadian-born William James Mason, master printer, and his Victorian-born wife Charlotte Louisa, née Lawrence. Educated at Chatswood Intermediate High School, Darcy joined the New South Wales Department of Family Endowment as a clerk in 1928. He completed a diploma in commerce (1934) at the University of Sydney and served as a lieutenant in the Citizen Military Forces. On 7 April 1936 he was granted a short service commission in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) as a stores and accounting officer, and was then posted to Laverton for training. At the Congregational Church, Chatswood, Sydney, on 12 November that year he married Millicent Amy Adeline Finn, a clerk. He was promoted to flying officer in 1937, while serving at No. 2 Aircraft Depot, Richmond.

During World War II Mason’s diligence and high capacity for work were quickly acknowledged. Although his substantive rank was flight lieutenant (1943), he was to be an acting group captain by the end of the war. He commanded (June 1942 – October 1943) No. 2 Stores Depot, Waterloo, where he demonstrated his leadership abilities by overcoming deficiencies in the receipt, storage, and issue of aircraft, propellers, guns, clothing, furnishings, and hazardous materials, at a time when Australian communications were under constant threat.

Mason was sent to Britain in October 1943 to gain essential staff experience. There he contributed to logistics planning for the Italian and Normandy campaigns: from January to April 1944 he was attached to Headquarters, Mediterranean Allied Air Forces, based in North Africa and Italy; and from April to August he served with the Headquarters of the Allied Expeditionary Air Forces in England. Returning to Australia in October, he was appointed as senior equipment staff officer with the RAAF’s First Tactical Air Force in the South-West Pacific Area, where he was responsible for maintaining and provisioning the force during intensive operations in the Halmahera Islands and Borneo areas. He was mentioned in despatches (1945) for excellent work in this role.

In 1946 Mason gained a permanent commission in the permanent RAAF. While occupying command, policy, and procurement positions in Australia and abroad, he used his detailed knowledge of air logistics and financial management to support wide-ranging operations. He completed the joint services staff course in England in 1950 and graduated from the University of Melbourne (BCom, 1950). Promoted to substantive group captain in 1951, he attended the Imperial Defence College, London, in 1959. For his ability and devotion to duty, he was appointed OBE (1954) and CBE (1967). From October 1960 he was the senior equipment staff officer at Headquarters, Support Command, Melbourne. Promoted to air commodore on 16 December 1963, he retired on 18 February 1969, becoming secretary (1969–76) of Mitchell College of Advanced Education, Bathurst, New South Wales. He then held the position of bursar, St John’s College, University of Queensland. Survived by his wife and daughter, he died on 29 June 1992 at Southport and was cremated. Mason had been a strong leader, a capable manager, and an exceedingly intelligent forward-thinker who helped to foster a high level of professionalism among non-aircrew officers in the RAAF.

National Archives of Australia. A12372, R/3131/P, A12372, R/3131/H, A705, 166/27/766; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘College Post for Air Commodore.’ 4 December 1968, 33.

Gregory P. Gilbert

MATHEWS, JANET ELIZABETH (1914–1992), music teacher and recorder of Indigenous culture, was born on 18 January 1914 at Wollongong, New South Wales, only child of Irish-born James Wilson Russell, solicitor, and his New South Wales–born wife Mary Irene, née McLelland. Her Protestant grandfather, Charles Coffey Russell, was an occasional fiction writer and author of The Ulsterman (1923), an ethnological treatise on the Northern Irish. Janet was raised at Ardeen, her parents’ home in Smith Street, Wollongong, where she had a governess but was schooled by her mother. Mary Russell was a talented pianist and fostered Janet’s deep engagement with music. When Janet was twelve the family travelled to Britain and Europe, attending many concerts. Heading homeward, she drew inspiration from a fellow passenger, Alfred Francis Hill [q.v.9], who gave lectures and violin recitals during the voyage.

Completing her education at Presbyterian Ladies’ College, Sydney (1927–28), and Frensham, Mittagong (1929–30), Janet focused on the piano, resulting in indifferent performance in other subjects. In 1931 she commenced the diploma course at the Sydney Conservatorium of Music, where Laurence Godfrey Smith was her piano teacher and Hill taught harmony. Compositions for two pianos were her great love; she performed with her mother on occasion. With professional engagements forthcoming, she never finished her diploma. She played regularly with the Sydney String Quartet, and formed the first music club in Wollongong.

In 1935 Russell went to London and then Paris where she began a musical collaboration with a distant cousin, Blanche Dassonville, a graduate of the Geneva Conservatoire. The women performed two-piano works, mainly at private functions. Returning to Australia, on 3 December 1936 Russell married Francis Mackenzie Mathews (1903–1982), a mechanical engineer, with Presbyterian forms at her parents’ Wollongong home. They had three children.

Born at East Maitland, New South Wales, on 13 July 1903, Frank Mathews was the second of three surviving children of Hamilton Bartlett Mathews [q.v.10], surveyor, and his wife Enid Chatfield, née Mackenzie, both born in New South Wales. He studied mechanical and electrical engineering at the University of Sydney (BE, 1925), before joining Australian Iron and Steel Ltd in the Port Kembla steel works in 1935. From 1950 until his retirement in 1968 he was chief engineer. Well known in higher and technical education, he played a vital role in improving tertiary training facilities in Wollongong after World War II. He was central to the establishment of Wollongong University College and he served as councillor (1949–81) and deputy chancellor (1976–81) of the University of New South Wales (Hon.DSc, 1962). He was a member of the Library Board of New South Wales and chairman (1966–81) of the Standards Association of Australia.

Like Janet, Frank was descended from Irish Protestants. His father was surveyor-general (1927–36) of New South Wales, and his grandfather, Robert Hamilton Mathews [q.v.5], was a prosperous surveyor and pioneer anthropologist. Janet never met her grandfather-in-law, but the Mathews name, and the connection with the anthropologist, who was still remembered in Aboriginal communities, proved significant when she became involved in Aboriginal studies.

Marriage and the arrival of children effectively ended Mathews’s career as a performer, but her commitment to musicianship was undiminished. From 1954 she taught piano from their Wollongong home; Dutch-born Gerard Willems became her most celebrated student. In the early 1960s an old friend, the Liberal parliamentarian William Charles Wentworth, urged Mathews to become involved in the planned Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies (AIAS). Wentworth was convinced that with her musical sensibility she was ideally placed to document Aboriginal song.

Mathews became one of the first generation of AIAS researchers, contributing to the institute’s audio archive as a freelance sound recordist and interviewer. It was a turning point in her life, for her experience and knowledge of Aboriginal people had until that time been negligible. Established by the Federal parliament in 1964, the early AIAS was a product of the assimilationist policies of the period. Until Aboriginal activists forced a reinvention, its purpose was to salvage and preserve ‘dying’ customs as a future national resource. While Mathews was an heir to this orthodoxy, and never queried it directly, her work undermined some cardinal assumptions on which it was based. The salvage project privileged the cultures of Aboriginal people in northern and Central Australia over the long colonised south-east; people of full Aboriginal descent were seen as more authentic than people of mixed ancestry. Mathews’s recordings, all made in New South Wales, often with people of mixed parentage, contain invaluable evidence of post-contact music and other aspects of Aboriginal life.

The AIAS supplied a tape recorder—‘huge, bulky things’ (Mathews 1987, 8)—and trained Mathews in recording techniques. She began her fieldwork in 1964 on the New South Wales south coast in the traditional estates of Dharawal- and Dhurga-speaking peoples. Her first field report intimates the challenges and possibilities of the years ahead: Jimmy Little (father of the popular singer of the same name) played gum leaf; a Wallaga Lake elder, Bert Penrith, spoke fluent Dhurga; elsewhere she encountered obstructiveness, drunkenness, shyness, and suspicion. Descendants of Emma Timbery [q.v. Supp], who taught Dharawal to R. H. Mathews, were the first to connect Janet to her earlier namesake. They spread word of the association and she found that work on the coast became easier.

Patrician in style and Anglo in accent, Mathews was an unlikely visitor to the often-troubled Aboriginal settlements and former missions. The juxtaposition of class and ethnicity can be heard in the interviews, often with hilarious effect. Where possible, she made an advantage of her incongruity. Known always as ‘Mrs Mathews’, she maintained the same formality in addressing interviewees who warmed to these basic courtesies. Being mature, upper class, and impeccably respectable, she won the confidence of superintendents and others who still controlled access to Aboriginal people. Police admitted her to their lockups where inmates sang for the recorder. Mathews was intrepid and utterly fearless, willing to comb the tenements of Redfern for interviewees, or drive solo to north-west New South Wales. Attacked by a dog on the Aboriginal reserve at Bourke, she fought to ensure the canine offender was not put down, winning credit from the Aboriginal residents and gaining the trust of informants: ‘the dog episode was quite fortunate for everything except my leg’ (AIATSIS, PMS 4322).

Encouraged by the professional linguists Luise Hercus and Lynette Oates, Mathews expanded her initial brief of documenting music; her tapes contain linguistic and historical data of inestimable value. Between 1964 and 1976 she contributed 180 hours of recordings to the AIAS audio archives, containing testimony from more than eighty Aboriginal people.

Where possible Mathews encouraged people to preserve their culture on their own terms. Jimmie Barker [q.v.13] was a Muruwari speaker whom she met in Brewarrina in 1968. He had bought his own tape recorder with the idea of making a ‘dictionary of words’ (AIATSIS, PMS 4322). Mathews corresponded with him and archived tapes that he recorded independently. By 1972 she could advise the institute that Barker had produced more than 100 tapes containing ‘language, legends, customs and everything he can remember about the Murawari tribe’ (AIATSIS, PMS 4328). Following his death she developed a book from the recordings, The Two Worlds of Jimmie Barker (1977), which awakened many Australians to the racism and violence experienced by Aboriginal people.

After Frank Mathews retired in 1968, he and Janet moved to Sydney, where she remained until her death. She wrote three children’s books on Aboriginal themes and, after Frank died in 1982, arranged for the family’s holdings of R. H. Mathews’s papers to be donated to the National Library of Australia. Survived by her two daughters and son, Mathews died on 1 January 1992 at Neutral Bay, and was cremated. Her last book, The Opal that Turned into Fire, inspired by the writings of her grandfather-in-law, was published posthumously in 1994.

Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS). PMS 4326 (1964), PMS 4322 (1968), PMS 4328 (1972); Koch, Grace, and Luise Hercus. ‘Obituary: Janet Mathews.’ Australian Aboriginal Studies 1 (1992): 106–7; Mathews, Janet. ‘A Lifetime of Music.’ Con Viva 1, no. 2 (1987): 6–8; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘AI&S Chief Engineer was a Leader in Education.’ 3 December 1982, 12; Thomas, Martin. The Many Worlds of R. H. Mathews: In Search of an Australian Anthropologist. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2011, ‘“To You Mrs Mathews”: The Cross-Cultural Recordings of Janet Mathews.’ Australasian Sound Archive, no. 29 (Winter 2003): 46–59; Upton, Susan (née Mathews). Personal communication.

Martin Thomas

MAYER, HENRY (1919–1991), professor of politics, was born on 4 December 1919 at Mannheim, Germany, son of Oscar Mayer, a lawyer and atheist who had been brought up as a non-observant Jew, and his Czech-born, Catholic-raised wife, Rosemarie, née Kleiner. He was named Helmut and had a stepsister, Liselotte, from his mother’s first marriage. After Hitler became German chancellor in 1933, he moved with his father to Nice, France, in 1934, and some years later his mother shifted to Switzerland. In 1936, following residences in Switzerland and Italy, Helmut went to England, where he became known as Henry. Having been expelled from several boarding schools in Europe, or so he said, he completed his secondary education at Millfield, a progressive school in Somerset. An uncle, (Sir) Robert Mayer, and his parents supported him.

After Millfield, Mayer worked in London for another uncle who was an importer. In 1938, as ‘Henry Holmes’, he became a supporter of the tiny Socialist Party of Great Britain. A falling-out with his uncle followed and he lost his employment; he moved to a refugee hostel. To support himself, he later claimed, he wrote short stories for pulp magazines and scripts for the British Broadcasting Corporation, turned his hand to interpreting and fortune-telling, and became a part-owner of a night-club and a publicist for a jazz band.

On the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, Mayer was classified as an enemy alien. He was 6 feet (183 cm) tall, of fair complexion, with black hair and grey eyes. His occupation he gave as journalist and his religion as ‘none (Jewish origin)’; an atheist, he would later insist he was not a Jew. Categorised as a ‘Refugee from Nazi Oppression’, he remained free from restrictions. However, by June 1940, almost all enemy aliens had been interned. Sent to a series of holding camps, he was transferred to the Dunera, and transported with over 2,500 others from Liverpool to Australia. Maltreated and robbed by British guards during an ‘extremely unpleasant’ voyage, he was later awarded £20 in compensation. But compared to what would have befallen many of the internees in Europe, the ‘“horror”’, he insisted, ‘was minor’ (Mayer 1980, 62). Later, he would distance himself from any celebration of the Dunera men’s fortitude—or of Australia’s good fortune in receiving them. Had not so many of them been professionals and academics, he asked (Mayer 1983, 27), would their injustice ‘have been written up at all?’

Mayer disembarked in Sydney and was sent to an internment camp at Hay. To help pass the time, he taught English, demonstrating his talent for teaching, and wrote poetry. From Hay he was transferred to Tatura, Victoria. ‘Henry Holmes’, keen to introduce internees to socialism, made contact with the minuscule Socialist Party of Australia; hopeless causes would always attract him. He claimed to have been ‘beaten up regularly’ by Stalinists in Tatura (Mayer 1980, 62). Early in 1942 he was among internees released to help orchardists in Shepparton and Ardmona harvest fruit. On 8 April 1942 he enlisted in the Australian Military Forces. Attached to the 8th Employment Company with other Dunera internees, he served in Victoria and New South Wales. Late in 1942 he applied, unsuccessfully, to join the British Army. He was discharged on 25 June 1946.

In 1947 Mayer enrolled at the University of Melbourne (BA Hons, 1950; MA, 1952); as an ex-serviceman he qualified for support under the Commonwealth Reconstruction Training Scheme, his stipend being supplemented by Sir Robert Mayer. He changed his name by deed poll from Helmut to Henry in September. Among his teachers in the department of political science, Percy Partridge [q.v.18], a student of the Sydney philosopher John Anderson [q.v.7], was the most important influence. Mayer also began a long intellectual and personal association with Hugo Wolfsohn [q.v.18], another Dunera internee and tutor in the department. To Max Corden, Mayer was ‘a fully-fledged European intellectual’, who ‘seemed to have dropped from the skies on to provincial Melbourne’ (Corden in Rydon and Goot 1985, 5). With his wide reading, love of argument, and disdain for sacred cows, he had a considerable impact on his classmates. These included T. H. Rigby, who was to become Australia’s foremost Kremlinologist, and Herbert Feith, who would become a leading expert in Indonesian politics. Mayer contributed short stories, poetry, and a piece on the ‘proletariat’ to Present Opinion, published by the university’s Arts Association, and in 1949 co-edited with Corden Melbourne University Magazine. He topped the honours list in political science in 1949; the same year, he was naturalised. In 1952 he completed a massive Master’s thesis on Marx’s theory of social classes under capitalism; it, too, passed with first-class honours. It would long trouble him that he never completed a PhD.

Moving in 1950 from a tutorship at Melbourne to a teaching fellowship under Partridge in the department of government and public administration at the University of Sydney, Mayer became involved with Anderson’s libertarians—the free-thinking, sexually promiscuous intellectuals who constituted the Sydney ‘Push’. Travelling by sea to England on sabbatical leave late in 1956, he met Elaine Frances Mary Smith, an advertising copy writer. They married in the register office at Kensington, London, on 9 March 1957.

Under R. N. Spann [q.v.18], who succeeded Partridge as professor in 1954, Mayer was promoted rapidly to senior lecturer (1955), and in 1964 to associate professor. In 1969 he was appointed professor of government; the title of his chair was changed to political theory in 1970 at his request. He served briefly and reluctantly as head of department (1974–75) during a time of deep division over professorial authority and curriculum reform. On his retirement at the end of 1984 he was made an emeritus professor. From 1985 he served as visiting professor in mass communication at Macquarie University, and also from 1986 as visiting professor of sociology at the University of New South Wales.

Mayer’s first academic journal article, ‘Some conceptions of the Australian party system 1910–1950’ (1956), established his name. Disputing perceptions of the Australian Labor Party as the party of initiative and non-Labor as parties of resistance, he urged scholars to look behind the parties to the interests that moulded them, and characteristically proposed a program of research for others. His emphasis on conflict, pluralism, and the idea that parties registered the demands of interest groups signalled the beginning of a ‘Sydney School’ organised around the defence of group theory. In 1954, he collaborated with Joan Rydon in writing The Gwydir By-Election 1953: A Study in Political Conflict, the first book-length study of an Australian election. Against treating ‘non-Labor’ as one party, Mayer came to view the concept of a two-party preferred vote (Labor versus non-Labor) as anti-intellectual.

In 1961 Mayer edited Catholics and the Free Society: An Australian Symposium, a book centred on the Catholic Social Studies Movement and the Democratic Labor Party. Between 1966 and 1980 he edited five editions of a reader, Australian Politics (the last three with Helen Nelson), an innovative, imaginative, and idiosyncratic contribution to the discipline. A prolific creator of bibliographies, he also assembled ARGAP: A Research Guide to Australian Politics and Cognate Subjects (1976, with Margaret Bettison and Judy Keene), and ARGAP 2 (1984, with Liz Kirby).

After the publication of The Press in Australia (1964), Mayer came to be recognised as the founding father of the study of mass communication in Australia. He argued, against its critics and his own aspirations, that given the influences at work, Australia had the press it had to have. A wide-ranging scholar of the media, he addressed issues of diversity and control, the construction of news, and alternative media. In 1976 he established Media Information Australia (later Media International Australia). He also produced (with Pauline Garde and Sandra Gibbons) The Media: Questions and Answers: Australian Surveys 1942–1980 (1983).

A foundation member of the Australasian Political Studies Association (APSA), Mayer created and edited APSA News (1956–63), and initiated annual conferences. From 1971 to 1976 he edited Politics (from 1990 the Australian Journal of Political Science). With Spann, he founded the Sydney Studies in Politics monograph series (1962–69). His Marx and Engels in Australia (1964) was part of the series. He reached wider audiences through the university’s department of tutorial classes, Donald Horne’s Observer, and Channel 7’s Sunday morning Television Tutorial—this last with selected colleagues and students. Later he wrote a fortnightly column, ‘Speaking Freely’ (1968–76), for the Australian. Elected a fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia in 1965, he was appointed AM in 1980. He was an honorary life member of the Australian Communication Association.

Full of energy, Mayer was a prodigious reader, fascinated by ideas from all sources, and keen that they be more widely discussed. He wrote more than 100 entries for MIA on a dazzling array of books, magazines, and reports. He was renowned for notes—unpredictably typed or in a semi-legible hand—that directed students, colleagues, and others to things they should read and ponder. A striking performer in the lecture theatre, he was a redoubtable presence at conferences and seminars, where his erudition and ability to demolish arguments were fabled. That he did not write a book after 1964 was due both to his concern that somewhere there was a publication or an angle he had missed and to the constantly changing nature of his preoccupations and enthusiasms. From the late 1960s, he developed particular interests in indigenous issues, feminism, and media reform.

Survived by his wife and daughter, Mayer died on 4 May 1991 at St Leonards, and was cremated. The Henry Mayer Trust was established that year. An annual lecture was named in his honour, as were prizes offered by the University of Sydney, Macquarie University, and the Australian (and New Zealand, from 1994) Communication Association. APSA established an annual prize in his name for the best article in the Australian Journal of Political Science, and later a biennial prize for the best book on Australian politics. A large annotated collection of material he collected on the media is held by RMIT University in Melbourne.

Brett, Judith. ‘The Interwar Foundations of Australian Political Science.’ In The Australian Study of Politics, edited by R. A. W. Rhodes, 33–46. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009; Goot, Murray. Henry Mayer’s ‘Immortal Works’: Scholarly, Semi-Scholarly and Not Very Scholarly at All. Canberra: Department of Political Science, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University for the Australasian Political Studies Association, 1986, ‘Mayer, Henry.’ In The Oxford Companion to Australian Politics, edited by Brian Galligan and Winsome Roberts, 334–35. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 2007; Mayer, Elaine. Personal communication; Mayer, Henry. ‘The Dunera Affair: An Inside View.’ National Times (Sydney), 27 February – 5 March 1983, 27; Mayer, Henry. ‘Not Yet the Dunera Story.’ 24 Hours, January 1980, 62; Mayer, Henry. ‘Some Conceptions of the Australian Party System 1910–1950.’ Historical Studies Australia and New Zealand 7, no. 27 (November 1956): 253–70; National Archives of Australia. A367, C81213, B78, 1949/MAYER H, B884, V377470, MP1103/2, E40212, MP1103/1, E40212; Pearl, Cyril. The Dunera Scandal: Deported by Mistake. London and Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1983; Personal knowledge of ADB subject; Rydon, Joan, and Murray Goot, eds. Special issue, Politics 20, no. 2 (1985); Tulloch, John. ‘Passing of a Renaissance Man.’ Macquarie University News, May 1991, 9.

Murray Goot

K. S. Inglis*

MAYO, EDITH JANET (1915–1995), community worker, was born on 28 April 1915 in Adelaide, third of six children of Alfred Allen Simpson, manufacturer, and his wife Janet Doris, née Hübbe, both locally born. Her maternal grandmother was the renowned educator Edith Cook, and her father was a partner in the family business A. Simpson [q.v.6] & Son Ltd, and mayor of Adelaide (1913–15). Janet, as she was known, was raised at the stately home Undelcarra, in the suburb of Burnside. After attending Creveen School she studied history, French, and German at the University of Adelaide, but did not take a degree. She also worked for local branches of the Girl Guides’ and St John Ambulance associations.

At the Unitarian Christian Church, Adelaide, on 4 July 1939 Simpson married Lieutenant Eric (Rick) Elton Mayo, Royal Australian Navy. When World War II broke out in September, he was the torpedo officer of the cruiser HMAS Sydney. On the 19 November 1941, while Janet was pregnant with their second child, the ship was sunk in an action off the Western Australian coast; all on board perished. This event came to define her personal and professional life.

During 1946 Mayo became involved in the formation of the War Widows’ Craft Guild of South Australia. (As the focus of the organisation broadened to encompass advocacy, ‘craft’ would be omitted from its title.) The next year she became its president. After she expressed concerns about the task ahead, the guild’s national president, Jessie Vasey [q.v.16], advised her to ‘apportion your life correctly between the claims of your children and this work and you will be a better mother and a healthier and happier woman’ (Clark 1986, 71–72). Although Mayo was a woman of means, both born and marrying into the Adelaide establishment, she demonstrated an acute awareness of the material deprivations that attended many guild members and their children. In 1947 she criticised the Commonwealth government for its miserly and ‘illogical attitude’ (Mail, 1) to war widows, whom it expected to survive on less money than a family with a breadwinner. Forthright and articulate, she was especially incensed that war widows’ pensions were increased by only 10 per cent, while parliamentarians received a salary hike of 50 per cent.

In 1966, after the death of Vasey, Mayo was elected as the national president and would continue as State president. While acknowledging the tangible achievements of the guild, such as the acquisition of property to house older members, she considered its main work was ‘boosting morale’ and ‘bringing the laughter back’ into the lives of war widows (West Australian 1967, 23). When describing their plight, she recognised that members could be subject to sexual opportunism by unscrupulous men and that they were feared by some in the community as a discomforting reminder of the losses of war. Under her leadership, politicians gradually came to accept the political importance of war widows and their children and introduced significant improvements in the provision of housing, health, and welfare services. She was appointed OBE in 1967 and was raised to CBE in 1977.

At the biennial conference of the guild in October 1977, Mayo resigned as national president. She remained State president until December 1990 and a member until her death. In addition, she contributed to numerous organisations including as a vice-president (from 1954) of the Good Neighbour Council of South Australia, as a vice-president (by 1959) of the South Australian Council of Social Service, and as a member of the South Australian Film and Television Council. Survived by her two sons, she died on 29 July 1995 in her Burnside home and was cremated. In 2008, after the resting place of the Sydney was located, her ashes were scattered at the wreck’s coordinates.

Canberra Times. ‘Guild Chooses New President.’ 30 September 1966, 4; Clark, Mavis Thorpe. No Mean Destiny: The Story of the War Widows’ Guild of Australia 1945–85. South Yarra, Vic.: Hyland House, 1986; Graham, Ted, Bob King, Bob Trotter, and Kim Kirsner, eds. The Search for HMAS Sydney. Sydney: NewSouth Publishing, 2014; Heywood, Anne. ‘Mayo, Edith (Janet) Allen (1915–1995).’ Australian Women’s Register. Accessed 16 March 2017. Copy held on ADB file; Mail (Adelaide). ‘War Widows’ Unhappy Plight.’ 21 June 1947, 1; Ryan, Nan. ‘Tireless Battler for War Widows.’ Advertiser (Adelaide), 13 August 1995, 14; West Australian. ‘Community Fears a Widow: President.’ 19 September 1967, 23.

Catherine Kevin

MELLER, THEODOR PETER (TED) (1909–1994), shoemaker and businessman, was born on 19 September 1909 at Czernowitz, on the eastern border of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Chernivtsi in western Ukraine) and registered as Isidor, one of twin sons of Jewish parents Fischel Schajer, shoemaker, and his second wife Rosa, née Wender. Fischel’s father was Jankel Mehler; Schajer was Fischel’s mother’s family name. Isidor’s twin brother, Siegfried, died of diphtheria in 1910. By 1919 Fischel, a son and daughter from his first marriage, his wife, and their sons Isidor and Jakob (Jack) (1911–2004), had moved to Vienna, where Fischel worked as a shoemaker. The business prospered, Fischel changed his name to Philipp Mehler, and by 1936 Mehler-Schuhe had two stores, including an atelier in the fashionable Kärntnerstrasse.

Young Isidor Schajer attended Bundesrealgymnasium 4 in Vienna and in 1927 began a course in mechanical engineering at the Technical University, changing his name to Mehler in 1930. He studied until 1932 but did not sit for his final examinations, working instead in his father’s business and pursuing sporting activities, particularly water polo and skiing, and travelling widely in Europe. After Hitler’s annexation of Austria on 12 March 1938 the family resolved to seek refuge. In August Isidor arrived in England. He soon embarked for Australia, reaching Sydney aboard the MV Merkur on 25 November. Arrival documents give his occupation as shoe manufacturer. His brother Jakob, an orthopaedic bootmaker, arrived in Sydney in January 1939 and their father and mother, via Canada and Japan, in June.

Resolved to start a new life, Isidor changed his name by deed poll to Theodor Peter Meller in August 1939. In October ‘Ted Meller’ applied for the admission to Australia of his half-sister Rika and her husband and daughter, then living in Lyon, France; war delayed their arrival until 1947. Ted’s stepbrother Leopold, a salesman, had been interned in Dachau in November 1938, was released on 1 March 1939, and made his way to Shanghai. He survived the notorious ghetto there and migrated to Canada in May 1949.

Meanwhile, Meller had wasted no time setting up shop. Living at Rose Bay he, his parents, and his brother repaired shoes at the back of premises in Edgecliff Road, Woollahra. By October 1939 they sold shoes and manufactured and repaired surgical boots at 107a King Street; letterheads advertised that their products had won a ‘Golden Medal at the Paris World Exhibition 1937’ (NAA A12217).

Meller volunteered for military service in October 1942 but, being in a reserved occupation, was exempted. He was naturalised in May 1945. His brother and their parents, also naturalised, retained the name Mehler. On 10 April 1949 at the Great Synagogue in Sydney he married Trudl (Gertrud) Dames, a saleswoman, born in Nuremberg, Germany, who had reached Australia with her family in May 1939. They had met at the Trocadero dance hall.

Though the business continued to make and sell boots—including army, ski, and orthopaedic footwear—and men’s shoes ‘with continental character’ (Sun 1951, 6), it was as a manufacturer and importer of elegant, classic ladies’ fashion shoes and handbags that Meller made his mark in Sydney. Taciturn and a tough businessman, but with natural charm, he ran the shops and the company, while Jack ran the factory, which in 1947 was set up in Wattle Street, Ultimo; in 1950 manufacturing was moved to a factory at 265 Sussex Street. The architect Arthur Baldwinson [q.v.13] modified both premises. In 1950 Ted and Trudl commissioned Harry Seidler to design a house for them at Castlecrag, with a cantilevered upper floor. Willoughby Council initially rejected the modernist design, claiming it lacked aesthetic value, but the Mellers overcame these objections and it was built by 1953. Later sympathetically modified by Seidler, it won the same council’s heritage award in 2006.

In addition to manufacturing shoes locally under the ‘Edward Meller’ brand, Meller imported European brands of shoes and handbags. His main retail outlet was in King Street, later at number 89, but in addition he sold through department stores such as Farmer’s and set up boutiques elsewhere—in Castlereagh Street, Double Bay, Bondi Junction, and Chatswood—many designed by Seidler. Always on the lookout for a market, he did business in Melbourne and in the early 1950s, seizing the opportunity provided by the Snowy Mountains scheme, opened a shop selling work and ski boots in Sharp Street, Cooma.

Six feet one inch (185 cm) tall with brown hair, balding early, and blue eyes, Meller enjoyed the opportunities Australia provided him. He was an active member of the Lake Albina Ski Lodge, near Mount Kosciuszko, and continued skiing in Europe into his early eighties; owned a Cavalier 28 sailing boat; swam strongly; enjoyed tennis, theatre, and classical music; and played the violin. As well, he smoked large cigars, and loved Studebaker cars and photography. The family had a large house and garden at Katoomba, which they visited often. With a good command of languages—including German, Italian, French, Yiddish, and Russian (his mother had spent time there)—he travelled overseas frequently for his importing business. In retirement, he combined his love of classical music and travel, enjoying specialised music cruises on the Mediterranean.

Meller’s first marriage ended in divorce and at the Registrar General’s Office, Sydney, on 17 April 1969 he married Susanna Tauber, née Pesti, who had been born in Budapest. With none of the next generation interested in taking on the business, Meller Shoes was sold in 1986—in 2020, under new management, it was still operating. He died on 17 February 1994 at his home at Woolwich, Sydney, and was buried in the Jewish section of Rookwood cemetery. His wife and the three sons of his first marriage survived him. On the death of his widow in 2008 the Ted and Susan Meller memorial scholarship was established for the study of violin at the Sydney Conservatorium of Music.

Ebner, Paulus. Personal communication; Gerstl, Stephen. ‘Craftsman with a Flair for Shoes.’ Australian, 25 February 1994, 15; KZ-Gedenkstätte Dachau. Personal communication; Lebensaft, Elisabeth. Personal communication; Meller, Troy and Lesley. Personal communication; Mentschl, Christoph. Personal communication; National Archives of Australia. A435, 1944/4/3657, A12217, L5855; Sun (Sydney). [Advertisement], 30 May 1951, 6; Technical University of Vienna. Personal communication.

Chris Cunneen

MELLOY, ROBERT SYDNEY (BOB) (1897–1995), real estate agent, auctioneer, and memoirist, was born on 29 December 1897 at Kangaroo Point, Brisbane, second of six children of English-born Charles Frederick Melloy, marine engineer, and his Queensland-born wife Ada Louisa, née Crampton. Melloy senior supervised the coaling of ships in the port of Brisbane and served as secretary of the local branch of the Federated Seamen’s Union of Australasia. Educated at Kangaroo Point State School and part time at the Central Technical College, Bob worked as a telegram boy, storeman, and assistant to a mechanical engineer and gunsmith.

On 6 January 1916 Melloy enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force. He stood 5 feet 4 inches (163 cm) tall and weighed 120 pounds (54 kg). His familiarity with firearms gained him the appointment of armourer staff sergeant in the 42nd Battalion, with which he served on the Western Front from November. Following the Armistice in November 1918, he engaged in larrikin adventures in Europe and in England, where he was granted leave to study draughtsmanship and mechanical engineering. Repatriated in November 1919, he was discharged from the AIF in Brisbane on 2 October 1920.

For about three years, Melloy farmed near Woombye, north of Brisbane, growing bananas, sugar cane, and vegetables. In his mid-twenties, he was appointed secretary of the Southern Queensland Fruitgrowers’ Society Ltd, based at Nambour. The organisation sold farming requisites and received fruit for consignment to markets. On 27 December 1924 at Clayfield, Brisbane, he married, in a Catholic ceremony, Violet Marianne Heindorff (d. 1948), whose family were well-known retailers of musical instruments and jewellery in Brisbane. In 1927 he took over Arthur Martin’s Nambour auctioneering and real estate business, trading as R. S. Melloy. Moving to Brisbane in 1932, he relocated his firm (later incorporated as R. S. Melloy Pty Ltd) to premises in Queen Street.

The exigencies of World War II strengthened Melloy’s career and his position in the Queensland business community. On 25 March 1942 he was commissioned as a lieutenant, Citizen Military Forces, and appointed to the full-time position of hirings officer at headquarters, Northern Command, responsible for requisitioning property for military use. By August he had found accommodation in Brisbane for the separate headquarters of General Douglas MacArthur [q.v.15] and General Sir Thomas Blamey [q.v.13]. Thereafter, he spent most of his time at Townsville as deputy assistant director of hirings (in the rank of captain and, from December 1944, temporary major), heading a large team of realtors and office administrators who organised the rental of approximately 4,000 properties in North Queensland. His army service ended in Brisbane on 5 June 1946.

Melloy was a prominent member (from 1934) of the Real Estate Institute of Queensland (REIQ), serving on its board of management (1934–74) and becoming a life member (1966). As president between 1946 and 1949, he announced that the REIQ would seek to be involved in deciding whom the State government licensed as real estate agents. In addition, he called for a quick end to wartime controls on land sales and urged the Federal government rapidly to vacate its requisitioned offices to make way for peacetime commerce. Federal cabinet appointed him in 1950 to a committee that identified office space, owned or rented by the Commonwealth in Queensland, which could be released to meet the urgent requirements of private enterprise. From 1956 to 1959 he presided over the Real Estate and Stock Institute of Australia. In this role, he visited equivalent institutes in other countries, with the aims of promoting Australia abroad and bringing home ideas that would lift the standing of his profession.

In the early postwar years, Melloy had become a leading auctioneer in south-east Queensland. He sold surplus government equipment until 1977 and private land until his retirement in 1981. Although insisting on professionalism and ethical conduct by agents, he was nevertheless prepared to match deceptive behaviour with subterfuge when he considered it justified. For example, whenever he detected a buyers’ ring combining to keep prices low at auction, he would take bids from ‘a fly on the wall’ (Melloy 1993, 285) to break up the ring and protect the vendor’s interests.

Throughout his life, Melloy helped war veterans and their families. He was the employment committee representative (1938) of the Legacy Club of Brisbane and, as REIQ president, had been able to find accommodation for the organisation after World War II. A keen golfer when young, he was later a member (1941) and president (1953) of the Booroodabin Bowls Club, Newstead. On 6 May 1967 at St Colomb’s Anglican Church, Clayfield, he married twenty-three-year-old Diane Hunter, an REIQ secretary. In 1976 the couple moved to Southport. They collaborated in writing Time Will Tell: Memoirs of a Kangaroo Point Kid (1993). As well as giving a full account of his life and work, it reveals the sense of place he felt when living at Kangaroo Point, in the Nambour-Woombye district, and at Townsville. At commemorations of the significant anniversaries in 1990 of the three raisings (1915, 1940, and 1965) of the 42nd Battalion, and of the 75th anniversary of the Armistice in 1993, he was one of a handful of living members of the original battalion. He died on 23 January 1995 at Southport and was cremated. His wife survived him, as did the two daughters and one of the three sons of his first marriage.

Arnison, Peter. ‘Intrepid Digger Shaped by Defining Experience of Conflict.’ Australian, 21 March 1995, 16; Melloy, Robert Sydney, as told to Diane Melloy. Time Will Tell: Memoirs of a Kangaroo Point Kid. Bowen Hills, Qld: Boolarong Publications, 1993; National Archives of Australia. B884, Q140965.

Neville Buch

MENSAROS, ANDREW (1921–1991), lawyer, accountant, builder, and politician, was born on 25 November 1921 in Budapest and named Andor, son of Andor Mensaros, officer in the Royal Hungarian Infantry, and his wife Iren, née Angyal. Educated at private schools in Budapest, he completed a doctorate of law and political sciences at Pázmány Péter (Eötvös Loránd) University, and also studied law (1941–44) at the University of Vienna without gaining a degree. In addition, he obtained a diploma of accountancy in Budapest. He practised law in that city, specialising in company law and taxation, and tutored at his university, which, following World War II, he represented at the International Court of Justice in The Hague. On 5 April 1943 in Austria he had married Yvonne Julia Irene Stanek; they were childless and divorced in 1949. In his own words, he was active in anti-Nazi and anti-communist organisations, and, as a lawyer, acted for Jews under both regimes (fascist in 1944–45 and communist thereafter).

Arriving in Western Australia as a refugee in 1950, Mensaros Anglicised his name to Andrew and was naturalised in 1955. He worked as an accountant until 1958. Three years earlier he had become a partner in Mensaros & Thurzo, a firm of designers and builders, of which he was sole proprietor (1960–75). After completing a course at Perth Technical College, he was registered as a builder in 1962. Having joined the Liberal Party of Australia in 1953, he was secretary of the Subiaco branch (1960–68) and the Curtin division (1962–68), a delegate to the State conference (1960–68), and a member (1962–68) of the State Council and the education policy committee. In March 1968 he was elected to the Western Australian Legislative Assembly, representing the seat of Floreat.

In his inaugural speech, Mensaros described himself as the first member of the House not to speak English as his native tongue and throughout his career his accent and relatively soft mode of delivery were to cause him difficulties in debating. The speech was notable for his detailed analysis of the issues involved in establishing systems of administrative justice. He concluded with the assertion that he was ‘the only member who has had the misfortune to live under Governments which did not believe in democracy’ (WA Parliament 1968, 227).

From 1974 to 1980 Mensaros held the crucial industrial development, mines, and fuels and energy portfolios, and for a time was also minister for electricity, in Sir Charles Court’s government. Mensaros believed in developing the State’s resources to fund social programs. He was an able minister, whom his colleagues credited with securing the future of the North-West Shelf gas project by achieving the extension of offshore exploration permits, against opposition from the Whitlam Federal Labor government. From 1980 to 1983, under Court and Ray O’Connor, Mensaros held the works and water resources portfolios, while assisting the minister coordinating economic and regional development, and, for a short time, serving as minister for education. In Opposition (from 1983) he filled a variety of front-bench roles, including five years as shadow attorney-general.

Mensaros was a member of the senate of Murdoch University (1973–77), the board (later council) of Churchlands Teachers’ College (1976–81), the National Trust, and the Royal Commonwealth Society. He was a man of considerable intellect, who dressed meticulously, and lived alone. His experiences in Europe in the 1930s and 1940s undoubtedly accounted for his passionate lifelong dedication to the Westminster system and parliamentary democracy. He resigned from parliament because of illness thirteen days before he died of cancer on 29 May 1991 at Subiaco; following a requiem Mass at St Joseph’s Catholic Church, Subiaco, he was cremated.

Black, David, and Geoffrey Bolton, eds. Biographical Register of Members of the Parliament of Western Australia. Vol. 2, 1930–2010. Perth: Western Australian Parliament, 2010; National Archives of Australia. A12032, 933, K1331, 1955/Mensaros A, PP892/1, W1974/34200; Pendrill, Lisa. ‘Veteran Mensaros—Much to Do.’ Sunday Times (Perth), 21 April 1991, 41; Poprzeczny, Joe. ‘MPs Pay Their Last Respects.’ Sunday Times (Perth), 2 June 1991, 20; Reid, Eugenie. ‘Both Sides Pay Tribute to Mensaros.’ West Australian (Perth), 31 May 1991, 30; West Australian (Perth). ‘New Members of Parliament.’ 25 March 1968, 11–12; Western Australia. Parliament. Parliamentary Debates. 6 August 1968, 223–227, 30 May 1991, 2386–2489, 2420–2428.

David Black

MENZIES, Dame PATTIE MAIE (1899–1995), prime minister’s wife and charity worker, was born on 2 March 1899 at Alexandra, Victoria, eldest of three daughters of locally born parents John William Leckie [q.v.10], farmer, manufacturer, and politician, and his wife May Beatrice, née Johnston. Pattie rode her pony to the local one-teacher school until she was eleven when, following the death of her mother, she was sent to board at Presbyterian Ladies’ College, East Melbourne. After eighteen months she transferred (1912–17) to the smaller Fintona Girls’ School, Camberwell, where she completed her education, in her final year becoming a prefect and playing in the school tennis team. Between 1917 and 1919 her father served as Federal member for Indi as a ‘Win the War’ Nationalist. Although not interested in politics, Pattie enjoyed accompanying him on electoral tours.

In 1919 Pattie met (Sir) Robert Menzies [q.v.15], then a rising barrister; they married on 27 September 1920 at the Kew Presbyterian Church. For the following years much of her energy was devoted to raising two sons and a daughter in their Kew home, while her husband took silk (1929) and served in the Victorian legislature (1928–34). But, despite her domestic preoccupations, she demonstrated early her capacity to give him strong-minded advice on his career. She successfully urged him in 1934 to reconsider Prime Minister Joseph Lyons’s [q.v.10] offer to make him attorney-general should he agree to stand for election to the Federal parliament. He had declined, not wanting to be exiled from his family during his regular visits to Canberra.

Having lost a child at birth, Pattie became active in charity work for the (Royal) Children’s and Royal Melbourne hospitals while her husband served as member for Kooyong, attorney-general, and minister for industry. In the wake of Lyons’s death in 1939, she was in the gallery of the House of Representatives when, on 20 April, Sir Earle Page [q.v.11] made an intemperate personal attack on Menzies. She walked out and never spoke to Page again. There was a steely strength behind her slight form, smiling blue eyes, and vivacious manner.

Becoming prime minister’s wife in 1939, Pattie later admitted that she had been ‘terrified’ (Menzies 1990). She did not see it as a public role: her main duty, she believed, was to provide a restful and comfortable home for her husband at the Lodge, which, under her supervision, was substantially refurbished (1941 and 1949). Menzies’s decision to fly to Britain to discuss wartime policy prompted her again to offer politically astute advice. Following the government’s poor showing in the 1940 general election, she counselled him to stay in Australia, anticipating that dissatisfied colleagues would plot against him in his absence and that he would lose office within weeks of his return. Her predictions were accurate, and he lost office in August. Moving back to Melbourne she resumed her charity work, mainly with the Women’s Hospital; she served on the board of management (1941–49), and was president of many hospital auxiliaries.

After she again became prime minister’s wife in December 1949, Pattie accompanied her husband on almost all his domestic and overseas tours as well as to local political meetings. She had a humanising effect; one observer called her Menzies’s secret weapon. Menzies maintained that a common reaction was: ‘She can’t be Bob Menzies’ missus … she’s much too nice’ (Herald 1976, 4). She also undertook many public commitments in her own right, speaking with a naturalness and humour that engaged her audiences, but she always remained circumspect about political issues. The only interventions she acknowledged were a suggestion about housing for the elderly, which resulted in the Aged Persons’ Homes Act 1954, and a plea for footpaths in Canberra, a city to which she was fiercely loyal. Privately, she continued to offer her husband down-to-earth advice and to serve as a sounding board or, when necessary, a debunker. In 1954 she was appointed GBE. Menzies remarked: ‘No man ever had a more marvellous co-worker’ (Argus 1954, 3). Over her husband’s long second term as prime minister, she perfected the self-effacing, supportive role of prime minister’s wife, in the manner expected at the time. On Menzies’s retirement in January 1966, the head of his department, Sir John Bunting [q.v.], judged her to be ‘the classic prime minister’s wife’ (1968, 49).

Dame Pattie welcomed the return to private life at Malvern, Melbourne. From 1972 she devoted herself to caring for her ailing husband after he had suffered a stroke. On his death in 1978 she moved to Kooyong. The Dame Pattie Menzies Liberal Foundation was launched in 1987 and in 1989 she accepted an outstanding service award from the Liberal Party of Australia. In 1992 she returned to Canberra, where her daughter lived. She died on 30 August 1995 at Woden Valley Hospital and was cremated; a state memorial service was held at St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church, Forrest. Predeceased by her two sons, she was survived by her daughter.

Argus (Melbourne). ‘“She’d Replace Me …”—Menzies.’ 3 July 1954, 3; Bunting, Sir John. ‘Dame Pattie.’ Australian Women’s Weekly, May 1968, 49; Henderson, Heather. A Smile for My Parents. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2013; Herald (Melbourne). ‘Strict Rule No Talk of Politics.’ 1 December 1976, 4; Langmore, Diane. Prime Ministers’ Wives. Melbourne: McPhee Gribble, 1992; Menzies, Dame Pattie. Interview by author, 20 November 1990; Menzies, Robert Gordon. Afternoon Light. Melbourne: Cassell & Co., 1967; National Library of Australia. MS 4936, Papers of Sir Robert Menzies, 1905–1978.

Diane Langmore

MILLAR, THOMAS BRUCE (TOM) (1925–1994), army officer, and professorial fellow in international relations and strategic and defence studies, was born on 18 October 1925 at Kalamunda, Western Australia, fourth child of Scottish-born Thomas Brownlie Millar, headmaster, and his Western Australian–born wife Ellen Rowlatt, née Ward. Tom attended Kalamunda State and Guildford Grammar schools before joining the State Government Statistician’s Office. He enrolled at the University of Western Australia (UWA) part time in 1942, but entered the Royal Military College, Duntroon, Australian Capital Territory, in February 1943 to undertake the officer-training course, which was abbreviated during the war.

On 13 December 1944 Millar was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Permanent Military Forces and the next day seconded to the Australian Imperial Force. Further training and an injury delayed his arrival in New Guinea until late August 1945, after the war had ended. He joined the 67th Battalion on Morotai, Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia), in November. The unit sailed to Japan in February 1946 as part of the Australian component of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force. Millar was an early visitor to Hiroshima and was profoundly influenced by the experience of seeing the devastated city. Back in Australia in August 1947, he transferred to the Citizen Military Forces (CMF) in June 1950 as a captain and to the Reserve of Officers in June 1953 as a major.

Awarded a Hackett bursary and a Commonwealth scholarship in 1950, Millar returned to UWA (BA, 1953) where he found history and politics stimulating. On 2 January 1951 at the chapel of Guildford Grammar School, he married Frederica Ann Drake-Brockman, a fellow student at UWA. They moved to Victoria where he became a schoolteacher (1953–58) at Huntingtower School, Malvern, and studied part time at the University of Melbourne (MA, 1958). His thesis was on the military history of the colony of Victoria. Awarded a Montague Burton studentship, he then attended the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) where Charles Manning (professor of international relations) and Martin Wight (reader in international relations) were important influences. He was awarded a PhD in 1960 for his thesis, ‘The Contemporary British Commonwealth’.

As a visiting fellow (1960–62) at Columbia University, New York, Millar studied the operation of the United Nations Organization. In 1962 he returned to Australia, becoming a research fellow (1962–67) and professorial fellow (1968–90) in international relations at the Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University (ANU). He served as director (1969–76) of the Australian Institute of International Affairs and in 1979 was seconded for a year to the Department of Foreign Affairs. In 1973 he had been appointed chairman of the committee of inquiry into the CMF which, following Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War, was facing problems of numbers, morale, and relevance.

Millar was a prolific scholar and, although he wrote on broader issues in international and strategic studies, his greatest impact was through his work on Australian defence. He was perhaps the nation’s pre-eminent commentator on this subject. His most highly regarded book, Australia’s Defence, was the first attempt to survey in a single study the historical, strategic, diplomatic, and bureaucratic aspects of the topic and was deservedly influential. In the original edition Millar predicted ‘an American rescue mission in Viet Nam’ (Millar 1965, 166); in the 1969 revision he accepted the view that Australia’s by now major Vietnam commitment was consistent with Southeast Asia Treaty Organization obligations while expressing scepticism of its lasting impact upon alliance dynamics and forecasting a reduced American interest in the region in the immediate future. Though he criticised the defence establishment for its convoluted bureaucratic structure and particularly found the handling of weapons acquisitions unsatisfactory, he accepted the predominant narratives of the time—and especially the threats posed by an expansionary communist China—and therefore argued that Australia had much work to perform in order to acquire the thoroughly credible defence capability that was needed. In company with Robert O’Neill and later Paul Dibb, Millar’s influence led to much greater contestability and accountability in Australian defence policy-making.

It was largely through Millar’s efforts that the ANU’s Strategic and Defence Studies Centre (SDSC) was established; he served as its director (1966–70, 1982–84). The SDSC attracted criticism from the left that perceived it as a right-wing thinktank, as well as suspicion from those who believed that, in an academic institution devoted to disinterested inquiry, it was too close to the government and military establishments. Critics were also unhappy about its Ford Foundation funding. Nevertheless, combining military experience and academic credentials, Millar won broad acceptance for the centre. At a time when the activities and views of his colleagues in international relations at the ANU became the subject of very extensive documentation by the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation, it described Millar as adopting an ‘intelligent attitude’ to its work. In February 1966 he was granted Top Secret clearance by ASIO, his positive vetting expedited by the director-general himself.

In 1982 Millar was elected a fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia. Although in 1976 he declined appointment as OBE on nationalist grounds, he was made an AO in 1983. Seconded from the ANU, in 1985 Millar took up the position of director of the Centre for Australian Studies, then in the Institute of Commonwealth Studies, and professor of Australian studies, University of London (emeritus professor from 1990). There he pursued a vigorous program of outreach, instituting new scholarship arrangements and convening many events. When Australian government funding was withdrawn in 1988, Millar was instrumental in persuading the Menzies Foundation to make continuing support available. It subsequently adopted the name, the Sir Robert Menzies [q.v.15] Centre for Australian Studies. While in Britain he served on the councils of the International Institute of Strategic Studies (1983–92) and the Royal Institute of International Affairs (1991–94). After stepping down from the Menzies Centre he remained in London, attached first to the Centre of International Studies at the LSE and then the Centre for Defence Studies at King’s College.

Following the dissolution of his first marriage (1986), Millar married Margaret Christine Robinson, née Thorp, a widow, on 31 March 1990 at a civil ceremony in London. In Canberra he played a major role in founding Radford College, despite strong opposition, especially from education unions, and became the first chairman of the school board. He loved books and music, and was influenced by Christian Science principles; in later life he was a frequent contributor, under his own name as well as pseudonymously, to the Christian Science Monitor. Although afflicted with heart disease, as a disciple of the doctrines of the church, he did not consider surgical intervention was warranted. Survived by his second wife, and the two daughters and one son of his first marriage, he died in London on 5 June 1994. The T. B. Millar scholarships are offered annually by the SDSC, in his honour.

Bell, Coral. ‘Australians and Strategic Inquiry.’ In Nation, Region, and Context. Studies in Peace and War in Honour of Professor T B Millar, edited by Coral Bell, 49–72. Canberra Papers on Strategy and Defence no. 112. Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, 1995; Millar, Thomas Bruce. Australia’s Defence. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1965. 2nd ed., 1969; Miller, J. D. B. ‘Defence Scholar Made Strategic Advances.’ Australian, 20 June 1994, 13; National Archives of Australia. A6119, 4849, B2458, 515992; National Library of Australia. MS 8605, Papers of Thomas Bruce Millar; Times (London). ‘Professor Tom Millar.’ 2 July 1994, 19.

James Cotton

MILNE, KENNETH LANCELOT (LANCE) (1915–1995), accountant, public servant, and politician, was born on 14 August 1915 at Kensington Gardens, Adelaide, only child of Frank Kenneth Milne [q.v.15], architect, and his wife Hazel Muir, née Fotheringham, both South Australian born. Several members of his family were prominent parliamentarians. A great-grandfather, Sir William Milne [q.v.5]; a great-uncle, Sir Lancelot Stirling [q.v.6]; and an uncle, (Sir) Walter Duncan [q.v.14], between them held the presidency of South Australia’s Legislative Council for over fifty-six years. Lance was educated at the Collegiate School of St Peter and the University of Adelaide (1934–35) but left without taking a degree. He was then articled to a practising accountant.

In 1937 Milne published Ostrich Heads, a small book that warned of the challenges of the coming war and encouraged young Australians to become more engaged in public life. By the late 1930s he was a member of the Young Liberal League. He enlisted in the Royal Australian Air Force and began training as a pilot on 9 November 1940. On 3 May the next year he married Mary Hughes at St Peter’s College Chapel. Commissioned and sent to Britain in July, he flew with three Royal Air Force squadrons: No. 79 (October 1941 – January 1942), No. 452 (January–May 1942), and No. 285 (June 1942 – February 1943). As a result of eyesight problems, he performed administrative duties thereafter, rising to flight lieutenant (July 1944). He returned to Australia in March 1945 and was demobilised in October.

Milne practised accountancy in the firm Andrews & Jolly, then successively as a principal of Andrews & Milne; Milne & Burgess; and Milne, Stevens (Searcy) & Co. He became a fellow (1950) of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia and served on the State (1951–64: chairman, 1958–60) and Federal (1956–60) councils. In 1959 he published a textbook, The Accountant in Public Practice, that was well received and appeared on university reading lists. He supported various organisations including the Walkerville Church of England Boys’ Home, the Oral Kindergarten, Moral Re-Armament, and the Chiropractic Health Society of South Australia. His interest in community affairs led to his being elected to Walkerville Town Council (1960–65), where he served as mayor (1961–64) and helped to introduce a free public library. He was also president of the Municipal Association of South Australia (1964–65).

Despite Milne’s establishment background and membership of the conservative Adelaide Club, he joined the Australian Labor Party, convinced that ‘things were loaded against the average person’ (Rodda 1995, 8). He earned the displeasure of his father who threatened to disinherit him for assisting the ALP’s 1966 Federal election campaign. In 1966 the State Labor government appointed him South Australia’s agent-general in London. He was granted freedom of the City of London in 1970 and appointed CBE in 1971. On his return to Adelaide that year, he served as the inaugural chairman of the State Government Insurance Commission. His political beliefs shifting, he did not rejoin the ALP and became active in the early public meetings of the Australian Democrats.

In 1979 Milne was elected to the State Legislative Council for a six-year term. For the first three years he was the sole Australian Democrat and held the balance of power. Garnering a reputation as genial and fair, he preferred to claim that he held the ‘balance of reason’ (SA LC 1996, 768, 770). He played a major role in establishing the Select Committee on Uranium Resources (1979–81), although he was unable to prevent the passage of the Roxby Downs (Indenture Ratification) Act (1982) governing operations at the Olympic Dam mine. His views were socially conservative and his legislative interest was mainly directed to domestic and consumer issues, while his contribution to debates was concerned more with generalities than fine detail. He introduced a bill to ban cigarette advertising, supported environmental protection measures, opposed some State taxation measures, and spoke out against increases to parliamentarians’ salaries. In 1984 he announced that he would not stand for re-election. After the Democrats did not preselect his preferred candidate, he resigned from the party just days before the 1985 election.

Milne had served on several committees, including as president of the South Australian branches of the Royal Overseas League (from 1974) and the Royal Life Saving Society (from 1977). Following Mary’s death in 1980, he married Joan Constance Lee, a secretary, at Scots Church, Adelaide, on 23 January 1982. An enthusiastic and knowledgeable collector of shells, he deposited his extensive collection (principally chitons) in the South Australian Museum. Survived by his wife, and the daughter and two sons from his first marriage, he died on 27 December 1995 in Stirling District Hospital and was buried at Enfield Memorial Park Cemetery.

Kennedy, Alex. ‘Man of Many Achievements.’ Advertiser (Adelaide), 5 October 1979, 5; Macklin, Bruce. ‘Philanthropist with a Rogue Spirit.’ Australian, 12 February 1996, 15; Martin, Robert. Responsible Government in South Australia. Vol. 2, Playford to Rann 19572007. Kent Town, SA: Wakefield Press, 2009; National Archives of Australia. A9300, MILNE K L; Rodda, Rachel. ‘A Reformer Who Believed in Tradition.’ Advertiser (Adelaide), 29 December 1995, 8; South Australia. Legislative Council. Parliamentary Debates. 6 February 1996, 767–770; Stock, Jenny Tilby. ‘The South Australian Democrats.’ In Keeping the Bastards Honest: The Australian Democrats’ First Twenty Years, edited by John Warhurst, 195–212. St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 1997; Walkerville Public Library. Local Government File LHC-WAL-LG-00001-7, Milne.

Clement Macintyre

MILNER, IAN FRANK (1911–1991), public servant, academic, and alleged spy, was born on 6 June 1911 at Oamaru, New Zealand, second of four children of New Zealand–born Frank Milner, rector of Waitaki Boys’ High School, and his Victorian-born wife Florence Violet, née George. Educated at his father’s school, where he edited the school magazine and was dux in 1929, Ian won a scholarship to attend Canterbury College, University of New Zealand (BA, 1933; MA, 1934). Although he shared with his father a ‘strong will and a determination to be a success’ (Ball and Horner 1998, 254) they diverged politically: Frank was an ardent monarchist and imperialist, while Ian became a committed socialist. A cricketer and member of the dialectic society, he was awarded a Rhodes scholarship in December 1933, studying politics, philosophy, and economics at New College, Oxford (BA, 1937). He subsequently obtained Commonwealth Fund fellowships to study international relations at the University of California, Berkeley (1937–38), and Columbia University (1938–39), writing New Zealand’s Interests and Policies in the Far East (1940).

Milner returned to New Zealand in August 1939 and joined the New Zealand Institute for Educational Research in Wellington as a research officer. He campaigned against New Zealand’s involvement in World War II. In 1940 he was appointed as a lecturer in politics at the University of Melbourne, having been encouraged to apply by William McMahon Ball [q.v.17]. On 12 September at the registry office, Adelaide, he married New Zealand–born Margaret (Margot) Leigh Trafford, a schoolteacher. While in Melbourne, Milner was prominent in the Australia-Soviet Friendship League, the Council for Civil Liberties, and the Australia-India Association. The investigation branch of the Attorney-General’s Department tracked him for Communist Party associations. In 1942 he enlisted in the Australian Military Forces but, with a reserved occupation, he did not see any active service.

In February 1945 Milner was appointed a special investigation officer in the post-hostilities division (subsequently the United Nations division) of the Department of External Affairs. The division’s director, (Sir) Paul Hasluck [q.v.], who had encouraged Milner to apply, soon departed overseas, leaving Milner as acting-director for most of the next year. He later moved to New York, where he worked as a political affairs officer (1947–51) at the United Nations Secretariat, serving on the Greek Boundary Commission, the Conciliation Commission for Palestine, and the Temporary Commission on Korea.

By April 1947 Anglo-American code-breakers, working for the top-secret operation Venona, had started decrypting cables between Moscow and the Soviet Union’s embassy in Canberra, revealing Soviet infiltration of the Department of External Affairs. The decrypts suggested Milner was part of a spy ring orchestrated by a Communist Party member and fellow New Zealander, Walter Clayton. Milner had supposedly given Clayton secret British War Cabinet reports containing regional postwar security plans. He had accessed these documents in early March 1946, shortly before they were cabled to Moscow.

In February 1948 Britain’s MI5 informed Prime Minister Ben Chifley [q.v.13] of the leakages, prompting him to establish the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO). When Milner visited Australia in September 1949, ASIO closely monitored his movements. Milner took leave from the United Nations in 1950 to holiday in Europe, where Margot sought treatment for osteoarthritis in Czechoslovakia. While in Prague, Milner secured a lectureship in English at Charles University, which he took up the next year. He also renewed acquaintances with a former member of Czechoslovakia’s United Nations delegation, Jarmila Maran Fruhaufova, whom he had met in New York. Milner divorced Margot in 1956 and married Fruhaufova in 1958.

Milner’s abrupt move to Prague increased ASIO’s suspicions of his part in the Clayton spy ring. Admitting there was insufficient evidence to charge him, ASIO considered offering him immunity from prosecution in return for information. ASIO’s interest heightened with the defection of the Soviet diplomat Vladimir Petrov [q.v.] in 1954. At the subsequent royal commission on espionage (1954–55), Petrov alleged Milner was a Soviet agent and spy ring member, codenamed ‘BUR’. The commission reported that ‘other material we have seen’ (Hall 1991, vii) supported the allegations—a veiled reference to the decrypted cables. In March 1956 Milner issued a personal statement, denying the commission’s findings. He requested that it be included in the commission’s official records and distributed to the press. The secretary of the Department of External Affairs, (Sir) Arthur Tange, cautioned against this, suggesting it would ‘throw doubts on the accuracy of the Commission’s findings’ (NAA M1505).

Milner subsequently had a successful academic career and was promoted to associate professor in 1964. He translated Czech poetry into English, championed Australasian literature in Eastern Europe, and wrote The Structure of Values in George Eliot (1968). In 1971 he was awarded a doctorate in literature by Charles University and travelled to the University of Otago, New Zealand, as a visiting professor. He retired in 1976.

Survived by his wife, Milner died in Prague on 31 May 1991. Honourable and serious, but idealistic, he was defended by supporters as a Cold War victim. With the opening in 1996 of relevant files in the Czech archives, however, evidence emerged that he had worked for Czechoslovakian security while at the United Nations and at Charles University. The same year his reputation as a scholar and public servant was further tarnished with the public release of the Venona decrypts.

Ball, Desmond and David Horner. Breaking the Codes: Australia’s KGB Network, 1944–1950. St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 1998; Cain, Frank. The Australian Security Intelligence Organization: An Unofficial History. Richmond, Vic.: Spectrum Publications, 1994; Deery, Phillip. ‘Cold War Victim or Rhodes Scholar Spy? Revisiting the Case of Ian Milner.’ Overland, no. 47 (Winter 1997): 9–12; Hall, Richard. The Rhodes Scholar Spy. Milsons Point, NSW: Random House, 1991, Milner, Ian. Intersecting Lines: The Memoirs of Ian Milner. Edited by Vincent O’Sullivan. Wellington: Victoria University Press, 1993; National Archives of Australia (NAA). A6119, 17, 18, 342, 343, M1505, 825, B884, V350815.

Tom Heenan

MISSINGHAM, HAROLD (HAL) (1906–1994), artist and gallery director, was born on 8 December 1906 at Claremont, Western Australia, seventh of eight children of New South Wales–born parents David Missingham, engineer, and his wife Anne Florence, née Summers. In 1920 his father was killed in a mining accident. As the family were hardly well off, Hal left Perth Boys’ School and in 1922 became apprenticed to J. Gibbney & Son Pty Ltd, a firm of process engravers, to use his talent in drawing and painting. He studied part time at the Perth Technical College under James W. R. Linton [q.v.10] and A. B. Webb [q.v.16] (1922–26).

In 1926 Missingham travelled to England, following his friend Jamie Linton [q.v.10] (son of James), who had gone ahead in 1925. He worked as a hospital steward during his passage and an uncle’s gift of £40 provided him with a start: he studied at the Académie Julian and the Académie Colarossi in Paris (1926), and then at the Central School of Arts and Crafts, London (1926–32). There he studied under Bernard Meninsky and A. S. Hartrick. On 24 July 1930 at the register office, Holborn, London, he married Esther Mary Long, a draper’s saleswoman and the sister of a colleague at art school. That year he was awarded a London County Council senior art scholarship. Relinquishing the grant in 1932, he worked as a commercial artist and taught at the Central School (1933–39).

Returning to Western Australia in 1940, Missingham worked as an artist and photographer for J. Gibbney & Son. The next year he moved to Sydney. In World War II he enlisted in the Citizen Military Forces and from 27 November 1942 performed full-time duty as a wireless operator at Volunteer Defence Corps headquarters, Sydney. Having transferred to the Australian Imperial Force on 14 September 1943, he served with the Signals Training Battalion, Bonegilla, Victoria (1943–44), and then with the Military History Section, New South Wales, until his discharge from the army on 3 July 1945. Earlier that year, together with Rod Shaw, Bernard Smith, James Cant [q.v.17], Roy Dalgarno, and Dora Chapman [q.v.], he had established the Studio of Realist Art (SORA) in Sydney.

Encouraged by Sydney Ure Smith [q.v.11], with whom he had worked as an illustrator for Ure Smith Pty Ltd publications, Missingham applied for the position of director of the National Art Gallery of New South Wales (later Art Gallery of New South Wales). He was appointed in September 1945, and would hold the post until he retired in 1971. In spite of early opposition from the board of trustees, he instigated more progressive attitudes to contemporary art, including the acquisition of modern Australian works. He arranged major retrospectives on (Sir) Russell Drysdale [q.v.17] (1960), (Sir) William Dobell [q.v.14] (1964), and (Sir) Sidney Nolan [q.v.] (1967), and organised several international exhibitions, the two most influential being French Painting Today (1953) and Italian Art of the 20th Century (1956), both of which travelled to all State galleries. During his tenure the gallery became a popular institution supported by a professional staff. From 1968 he oversaw the construction of the Captain Cook wing. This extension would help to transform the gallery into a modern art museum. A gregarious and generous person, he was always ready to lecture, teach, open exhibitions, and help and advise artists.

Although unable to maintain his own painting career, Missingham drew when he could, and pursued his passion for photography. From 1952 to 1955 he was president of the Australian Watercolour Institute. He produced eleven books: Australian Alphabet (1942); An Animal Anthology (1948); A Student’s Guide in Commercial Art (1948); Good Fishing: A Handy Guide for Australia (1953); Hal Missingham Sketch Book (1954); My Australia (1969); Australia Close Focus: The Colour and Texture of a Continent (1970); Like a Bower Bird (1977); Design Focus (1978); and Grass Trees of Western Australia: Blackboys & Blackgins (1978). After his retirement he published They Kill You in the End (1973), which recounts some of his frustrations while director, and his aversion to those bureaucrats whom he perceived to be short-sighted.

Moving back to Western Australia following his retirement, Missingham resumed painting watercolours. He held numerous exhibitions, particularly at the Greenhill Galleries, Perth. In 1978 he was appointed AO; he had been awarded Queen Elizabeth II’s coronation medal (1953), and had been appointed chevalier of the French Legion d’honneur (1953), ufficiale ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana (1957), and knight first class in the Norwegian Order of St Olav (1971). From 1947 to 1971 he was a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, London.

A disastrous fire in 1986 destroyed Missingham’s studio in Darlington, including many of his works, negatives, cameras, and private papers. A book that had been presented to him on his retirement—containing drawings, etchings, and photographs, as well as poems and tributes by his many famous friends and colleagues in Australia and overseas—survived because he had donated it to the National Library of Australia. His health declined after the fire, and a series of strokes eventually robbed him of his sight. Survived by his wife and two sons, he died on 7 April 1994 at Midland, and was cremated. His work is represented in the National Gallery of Australia and all State galleries, the British Museum, and many private collections. William Dobell, Judy Cassab, and Vladas Meskenas painted his portrait.

Hal Missingham Review Exhibition 1973–1984. Curated by Barbara Chapman. Fremantle: Fremantle Arts Centre, 1985–86. Exhibition catalogue; Klepac, Lou. Hal Missingham, Artist, Author, Photographer. Roseville, NSW: Beagle Press, 2017; Missingham, Hal. Interview by Diane Dunbar, 1981–86. National Library of Australia; Missingham, Hal. Interview by Hazel de Berg, July 1962. Transcript. Hazel de Berg collection. National Library of Australia; National Archives of Australia. B883, NX202304, B884, N444421; National Library of Australia. MS 3940, Papers of Hal Missingham, 1899–1989; Van Nunen, Linda, and David Van Nunen. Brushes with History: Masters of Watercolour: Ninety Years of the Australian Watercolour Institute. [Roseville, NSW]: Australian Watercolour Institute, 2015.

Lou Klepac

MOODIE HEDDLE, ENID OLIVE (1904–1991), author, editor, and publisher of children’s books, was born on 10 March 1904 at Elsternwick, Melbourne, second of six children of Scottish-born Robert Cospatrick Dunbar Moodie-Heddle, master mariner, and his Victorian-born wife Ethel Olive, née Paterson. In 1907 and 1908 Enid sailed around the world aboard her father’s ship, the barque Loch Ness. Both her parents encouraged an early interest in storytelling. She attended Sydney Girls’ High School (1919–20) before completing her education in Melbourne. Matriculating in 1923, she enrolled at the University of Melbourne (MA, 1928; DipEd, 1928), where she studied English and philosophy. Following her degree, she taught literature, history, and geography at Woodlands Church of England Girls’ Grammar School, Adelaide (1927–28, 1931–33), and Ruyton Girls’ Grammar School at Kew, Victoria (1929–30). She later recalled that ‘very little Australian literature was read by children’, which motivated her to ‘do what I could to make it more easily available’ (McVitty 1989, 94).

During a year in the United Kingdom in 1934, Moodie Heddle visited schools and children’s libraries, and secured an appointment as an educational representative for two British publishers, Longmans Green & Co. Ltd and William Collins, Sons & Co. Ltd. Returning to Australia in February 1935, she visited Perth then drove up and down the east coast of Australia displaying educational books at schools, universities, and training colleges. She was an advocate for children’s sections in regional public libraries with trained librarians to staff them.

Settling in Melbourne, Moodie Heddle worked for the Australian branch of Longmans, serving as general manager during World War II and subsequently as education manager (1946–59). Her work as a woman in the publishing industry was seen as ‘unusual at that time’ (Nicholson 2000, 294). She did much to develop Australian children’s book publishing, particularly through her editorship of anthologies focused on national literature and history. Her early collections included Some Australian Adventurers (1944) and Action and Adventure: A Book of Australian Prose (1954), which featured extracts from novelists such as Henry Handel Richardson [qv.v.11]. Most significantly, she edited the ‘Boomerang’ series of school readers, in collaboration with the South Australian education department.

Published by Longmans, the Boomerang series was inaugurated in 1952 with Girdle Round the World, followed the next year by four titles: Near and Far, Now and Then, Here and There, and New and Old. Featuring a selection of English, European, and Australian literature, the books were targeted at children between seven and twelve years of age and sought to foster wider reading and the acquisition of home libraries. Designed and illustrated by Harold Freeman, a teacher at Melbourne Technical College, the books were so well regarded that copies were presented to Queen Elizabeth II on her visit to Australia in 1954 for use by Prince Charles and Princess Anne.

In 1955 Moodie Heddle wrote a Teachers’ Handbook to accompany the series. The Boomerang Book of Legendary Tales (1957), in which she collected Indigenous folklore as adapted by white authors—including Katherine Langloh Parker—won the Children’s Book Council’s Book of the Year award in 1957, while The Boomerang Book of Australian Poetry (1956) was highly commended. With Iris Millington, Moodie Heddle also sought to introduce children to the history of Australian literature from white settlement through the publication of How Australian Literature Grew (1962).

Though best known for her work in children’s publishing, Moodie Heddle also wrote and edited for adult readers. She authored two books of poetry, Solitude: And Other Vagaries (1937) and Sagitta Says (1943), and adapted the Australian versions of British anthologies, among them The Poet’s Way (1942, 1943, 1944), Discovering Poetry (1956, 1957), and A Galaxy of Poems Old and New (1962). She contributed to journals including Meanjin, Walkabout, and the Jindyworobak Review, and wrote a history of the Victorian winery Chateau Tahbilk, first published in 1960. Retiring that year, she remained an educational adviser to Longmans, editing More Australian Adventurers (1970) and Seasons of Man: Poets of Seven Centuries (1973, with John Curtain). She was a member of the Australian College of Educators and the Lyceum Club, and enjoyed gardening and conversation. Moodie Heddle never married. She died on 11 December 1991 at Glen Iris, Melbourne, and was cremated.

Austlit. ‘Enid Moodie Heddle.’ Accessed 29 November 2017. Copy held on ADB file; Australian Women’s Weekly. ‘What Women Are Doing: Travelled 8000 Miles Showing New Educational Books.’ 31 August 1935, 23; Lees, Stella, and Pam Macintyre, eds. The Oxford Companion to Australian Children’s Literature. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1993; McVitty, Walter. Authors & Illustrators of Australian Children’s Books. Sydney: Hodder & Stoughton, 1989; Messon, Mercia. ‘Book Series for Children Making History.’ Argus (Melbourne), 31 October 1953, 16; National Centre for Australian Children’s Literature, University of Canberra. Walter McVitty Research Collection, Folder 66, ‘Personal Data—Enid Moodie Heddle’; Nicholson, Joyce. A Life of Books: The Story of D.W. Thorpe Pty. Ltd., 1921–1987. Middle Park, Vic.: Courtyard Press, 2000; West Australian. ‘English Education: An Elastic System.’ 8 February 1935, 6; Wilde, William H., Joy Hooten, and Barry Andrews, eds. The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature. 2nd ed. South Melbourne, Vic.: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Michelle J. Smith

MORA, GEORGES (1913–1992), gallery director and restaurateur, was born on 26 June 1913 at Leipzig, Germany, and named Günther, son of Jewish parents Maximillian Morawski, company director, and his wife Suzie, neé Fuchs. In the early 1930s, when a medical student, Günther fled from Germany owing to Nazi persecution. Arriving in Paris, he found steady work as a patents clerk. The fall of France (1940) in World War II saw him change his Polish-Jewish name to evade detection by the authorities. Georges Morat or Mora, as he now called himself, became involved with the Resistance, smuggling refugees and Allied airmen across Europe. Danger was palpable and left him a troubled sleeper for the rest of his life, springing awake at the slightest noise.

Following the liberation, Mora worked for Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants, an association that assisted orphaned Jewish children. In Paris in mid-December 1947 he married Mirka Madeleine Zelik, a French-born Jewish refugee. Their belief that a devastated Europe was no place to raise a family and mounting fears of an atomic war prompted their migration to Australia in 1951.

Settling in Melbourne, the Moras rented a large, disused sculptor’s studio in Collins Street as accommodation and Georges began work at a noodle factory. Their address brought them into contact with modern artists, and the couple was asked if the Contemporary Art Society could exhibit in their basement flat. Works by (Sir) Sidney Nolan [q.v.], Arthur Boyd [q.v.7], John Perceval, Albert Tucker, Charles Blackman, Roger Kemp [q.v.17], Fred Williams [q.v.18], and Danila Vassilieff [q.v.16] were included in the Anti-Royal Tour Exhibition (1954). Georges was drawn into the CAS, forming close friendships with painters, as well as with the collectors John [q.v.18] and Sunday Reed [q.v.18]. He served as CAS president (1956–59), and in 1958 became a councillor of its offshoot, the Museum of Modern Art of Australia.

In the meantime Mora had entered the hospitality business. After briefly running a café in Exhibition Street (known to friends and artists as Mirka’s Café), he opened the celebrated East Melbourne bistro Café Balzac which introduced Melburnians to authentic French provincial cooking. Dining was conjoined with art. He hired a French-trained English chef and commissioned Boyd and Perceval to produce the crockery, while the artists Mike Brown, Colin Lanceley, and Ross Crothall made works for a feature wall. In 1965 he relocated, purchasing the Tolarno Hotel in Fitzroy Street, St Kilda, to accommodate their home, a restaurant, a private hotel, and a gallery. The restaurant’s décor was striking, as Mirka—assisted by Martin Sharp—painted the walls with images of angels and magical creatures reminiscent of Eastern European folk arts.

By 1967 Mora had converted a spacious room at the hotel’s rear into a splendid exhibition venue. Tolarno Galleries had an instant impact on the local art scene. He mixed exhibitions of established artists with shows by young painters, exhibiting in his first months Dale Hickey, John Peart, and Robert Hunter. As a rising art dealer, he also travelled to Europe to organise annual displays of graphic work by modern masters, beginning with lithographs by Renoir. Usually attired in an understated—but tailored—dark suit, Mora sported a flamboyant necktie carefully knotted in the Continental manner with a five-move ‘nicky’. Exhibitions drew artists to Tolarno, although Mora’s buoyant personality was the real hook. His eyes ever sparkled mischievously and, with a warm grin that some thought too innocent to be true, he exuded generosity. If you were young, broke, and an artist, he offered a meal on the house.

Mora sold the private hotel at Tolarno in 1969. Five years later fellow restaurateur Leon Massoni took over the dining room allowing Mora to concentrate on the gallery. In 1979 he relocated Tolarno Galleries to South Yarra. He was now a key figure on the national art scene, becoming advisor to corporations, including the National Australia Bank, on their collections. He helped found the Australian Commercial Galleries Association in 1976, serving as its first chairman. With his deputy chairman, the Sydney art dealer Frank Watters, he oversaw the adoption of a code of ethics for member galleries, and steered the development of artist-gallery contracts. He also lobbied Federal arts ministers and the Australia Council for the Arts on matters of concern to the industry.

Early in 1970 Georges and Mirka separated and they were later divorced. He married the contemporary painter Caroline Marsh Williams in 1985. Tolarno Galleries was prominent in the 1980s. Besides representing leading figures such as John Brack and Albert Tucker, he mounted controversial shows by the young artists Howard Arkley and Juan Davila. In 1988 he achieved his ambition to establish a commercial art fair in Australia. He served on the organising committee of the Australian Contemporary Art Fair, and Tolarno took a large stand. That year he was appointed chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French government.

Still running Tolarno Galleries, Mora was planning a third art fair when he was diagnosed with a brain tumour. Survived by his wife and their son, and the three sons from his first marriage, he died on 7 June 1992 at South Caulfield and was buried in Cheltenham cemetery. That year a biennial lecture was established in his name and in 2006 the Georges Mora Foundation was formed to provide artist fellowships. Portraits of him were painted by Charles Blackman (1956), and by his wife (1988).

Heathcote, Christopher. A Quiet Revolution: The Rise of Australian Art, 1946–1968. Melbourne: Text Publishing, 1995; Heathcote, Christopher. Inside the Art Market: Australia’s Galleries: A History 19561976. Port Melbourne: Thames & Hudson, 2016; Mora, Georges. Interview by the author, 20 May 1988; Mora, Mirka. Wicked but Virtuous: My Life. Ringwood: Penguin Books, 2000; Mora, William. Interview by the author, 14 May 2008; National Archives of Australia. B78, 1956/MORA G, MT848/1, V1955/35021.

Christopher Heathcote

MORRIS, IVOR GRAY (1911–1995), woollen manufacturer, philanthropist, and community leader, was born on 14 March 1911 at Ipswich, Queensland, younger son of Welsh-born John Morris, engineer and later woollen manufacturer, and his Victorian-born wife Anna, née Gray. Following their mother’s death in 1913, the boys lived with relatives in Melbourne. Ivor attended Errol Street State School, North Melbourne, and Scotch College (1923), Hawthorn. Having returned to Queensland, he continued his education at Ipswich Grammar School (1924–25) and Scots College, Warwick (1925). He started work with Ipswich Woollen Mills, of which his father was a co-owner. In 1930 Morris senior sold his interest in the firm in order to start a new business. Two years later he took his family to Britain, primarily to purchase textile machinery. While there, Ivor completed (1933) a two-month course in textiles and dyeing at the University of Leeds.

Back home, John established Morris Woollen Mills (Ipswich) Pty Ltd at Redbank in 1933. Ivor assumed management of the firm when his father suffered a stroke the following year. He expanded it from an enterprise of five personnel to over 1,000 at its peak in the 1950s; by that time he was the largest private employer in Ipswich. A fully integrated manufacturer, the business processed raw wool through to the production of yarns and the weaving and knitting of fine-apparel fabrics. In World War II the mill had operated around the clock to meet large contracts for supplying uniform materials and blankets to the military. On 19 February 1944 at St Stephen’s Presbyterian Church, Ipswich, Morris married Jessie Josephine Halley (d. 1983), a member of the Australian Army Medical Women’s Service.

After the war, Morris Woollen Mills continued to expand, opening a wool-scouring and carbonising plant at Belmont in Brisbane. Reflecting his strong technical bent, Morris invested heavily in the most modern processing technology; the firm was the first commercial undertaking to adopt the Lo-Flo process developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation in 1977 to reduce contaminants in wool-scouring effluent.

The company’s semi-processed carbonised and scoured wools comprised half its product and were exported; its yarns and fabrics—the latter under the brand names Highlander, Harlech, and Cambrian—supplied the local and interstate markets. Morris led or participated in five overseas trade promotion missions and, for six years from 1974, served on the Commonwealth government’s Trade Development Council. The government’s action in cutting protective tariffs in 1973 had adversely affected the domestic textile industry, however, and Morris Mills quickly lost market share to cheaper imports. He sold the business to Primac Holdings Ltd in 1980 and retired. The plant ceased operating in 1983.

Morris was a generous philanthropist. In 1957 his firm became a company member of the University of Sydney’s Nuclear Research Foundation (Science Foundation for Physics from 1966); although granted life membership in 1967 and thus exempted from further fees, the company continued its financial support until 1975. Morris held office as vice-chairman (1971–90) of the Queensland Museum’s board of trustees and in 1973 donated an orrery to the museum to mark the 500th anniversary of the birth of Nicholas Copernicus. He was the main benefactor in 1993 of the first stage of a new dormitory at the Scots PGC College (formed by the amalgamation in 1970 of his alma mater with the Presbyterian Girls’ College), Warwick; the facility was named the Morris Wing in his honour.

Engaged in the Ipswich community from an early age, Morris was a founder (1938) and president (1941) of the Ipswich Apex Club and district governor of the organisation (1945). He served as sometime president of the East Ipswich Progress Association and as junior (1943–46) and senior (1946–47) vice-president of the Ipswich Chamber of Commerce and Industry. In 1943 he stood unsuccessfully as an independent candidate for election to the Ipswich City Council. Proud of his heritage, he was patron (1969–94) of the St David’s Welsh Society of Brisbane. From 1970 to 1980 he chaired the trustees of Ipswich Grammar School. In 1974 he was appointed CMG for services to industry and the community.

During his working life, Morris had been fully absorbed in his company’s operations. Living next to the mill at Redbank, he had been prepared to rise at any hour of the night to assist with machinery breakdowns. He prided himself on his good labour relations, recalling: ‘We were a happy family. We went for 46 years without a strike’ (Queensland Times 1990, 17). A journalist attributed to him a `stately demeanour … and robust views of self-worth’ (Lape 1985, 10). Six feet (183 cm) tall and well built, he played grade cricket and enjoyed rowing on the Bremer River until early middle age. In retirement, he visited relatives in Wales annually. He died at Kangaroo Point, Brisbane, on 1 August 1995 and, following a Presbyterian service, was cremated. His two daughters survived him.

Jansen, Danni, Pamela Lamb, and Michael Cuthill. Mines, Mills & Shopping Malls: Celebrating the Identity of Ipswich. Ipswich, Qld: University of Queensland Boilerhouse Community Engagement Centre, 2009; Lape, Dan. ‘“Life is Great in the Wool Business”.’ Queensland Times (Ipswich), 20 April 1985, 10; Prather, Dr Ann. Personal communication; Queensland Times (Ipswich). ‘Mill Employees Reunite in Park.’ 3 August 1990, 17.

Les Henning

MORRISON, HEDWIG MARIE (HEDDA) (1908–1991), photographer, was born on 13 December 1908 at Stuttgart, Germany, elder of two children of Richard Hammer, merchant, and his wife Hannchen, née Grosser. At the age of three Hedda contracted polio. Despite a surgical procedure as a teenager, she walked with a limp for the rest of her life. She acquired her first camera when she was eleven and became a keen photographer. After completing her secondary education at Queen Katherine Convent, she was sent by her parents to the University of Innsbruck, Austria, to study medicine. Having no interest in becoming a medical practitioner, she persuaded them to allow her to study (1929–31) at the Bavarian State Institute for Photography, Munich, Germany, where she completed a certificate course. Hammer gained experience in the commercial studios of Adolf Lazi at Stuttgart, and the Olga Linckelmann Photographische Werkstatte, Hamburg.

Influenced by a horoscope for the coming year that indicated she would undertake a voyage to a distant land, and alarmed by the rise of Nazism, she secured a job as manager of the German-run Hartung’s Photo Shop in Peking (Beijing), China, after answering an advertisement in a German photographic journal. She worked in the shop for five years, learning Mandarin in the process. After 1938 she remained in the then Japanese-occupied city as a freelance photographer. Being a German citizen she occupied a privileged position, at least until World War II spread to the Pacific late in 1941. Her sensitively observed and beautifully composed photographs of cultural sites and the daily life of Chinese people, taken between 1933 and 1946, featured in a series of books, beginning with Alfred Hoffman’s Nanking (1945) and her own Hua Shan (1974). A Photographer in Old Peking (published in 1985 but based on her manuscript written in 1946) and Travels of a Photographer in China 1933–46 (1987) followed.

In 1940 Hammer had met Alastair Robin Gwyn Morrison, an ornithologist and son of the notable G. E. ‘Chinese’ Morrison [q.v.10]. The couple married on 5 July 1946 in a Church of England ceremony at the British consulate, Peking. In 1947 Alastair entered the British colonial service and was appointed a district officer in Sarawak where they lived for the next twenty years. Hedda accompanied her husband on his official journeys and made numerous independent photographic tours. She published Sarawak (1957), Life in a Longhouse (1962), and later—with Leigh Wright and K. F. Wong—Vanishing World: The Ibans of Borneo (1972). Her work was included in The Family of Man exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (1955). Between 1960 and 1966 she worked part time in the Sarawak government’s information office, taking photographs, training photographers, and establishing a photographic library. The Sarawak government recognised her services to the country by appointing her an Officer of the Order of the Star of Sarawak (1965).

In 1961 the Morrisons had driven around Australia in anticipation of where they would eventually live. Six years later they settled in Canberra where they enjoyed the city’s intellectual life and surrounding landscape. At weekends they ‘went bush’ where Alastair bird-watched. Hedda took photographs for the Australian Information Service and at numerous National Press Club luncheons. In 1990 she was made a life member of the Canberra Photographic Society. She was a quiet but determined and alert observer. ‘A perky sparrow with a wonderful dry wit and a touch of wickedness’ (Waterford 1991, 7), she died in Canberra on 3 December 1991, survived by her husband, and was cremated. They had no children. Her archive of negatives and photographs, widely recognised for its rich artistic and documentary value, was bequeathed to institutions in Australia and the United States of America: Harvard-Yenching Library, Harvard University; Cornell University; and the National Library of Australia. Smaller collections were gifted to the Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, and the National Gallery of Australia.

Lum, Raymond. ‘Hedda Morrison and Her Photographs of China.’ In Treasures of the Yenching: Seventy-Fifth Anniversary of the Harvard-Yenching Library. Exhibition Catalogue, edited by Patrick Hanan, 297–300. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2003; Roberts, Claire, ed. In Her View: The Photographs of Hedda Morrison in China and Sarawak 1933–67. Sydney: Powerhouse Publishing, 1993, ‘China Bound: Hedda Hammer.’ Harvard Library Bulletin 23, no. 3 (2012): 50–51; Waterford, Jack. ‘Photographic Chronicler of Pre-Communist China.’ Canberra Times, 5 December 1991, 7.

Claire Roberts

MUIR, ERNEST JACK (JOCK) (1914–1995), boatbuilder and yachtsman, was born on 22 October 1914 in Hobart, eldest of five children of locally born parents Ernest Jenkins Muir, labourer and seaman, and his wife Elsie Minnie, née Haigh. ‘Jock’, as he was known, attended Albuera Street State School and trade classes at the former Battery Point Model School. In 1926 he won a scholarship to attend Hobart State High School. He gained a love of the ocean from his father who had worked as a seaman. As a schoolboy he watched builders of wooden boats in the Battery Point shipyards, learning especially from Percy Coverdale [q.v.13]. His passion for designing boats and sailing competitively originated with making and racing model yachts. By the early 1930s he was competing in the 12-foot (3.7 m) cadet dinghy class and regularly contested Royal Yacht Club of Tasmania (RYCT) pennant races. After he won the 1933 Stonehaven Cup in Adelaide, experts predicted a ‘brilliant’ future (Mercury 1933, 6).

During the Depression Muir served a sheet metal apprenticeship. He studied tinsmithing at the Hobart Technical College and won the Cadbury-Fry-Pascall Pty Ltd prize in 1933 before working in the metal trade. In his spare time, working in his parents’ backyard, he designed and built the 36-foot (10.9 m) ketch Westwind. At its helm he won several events including the 1938 Bruny Island and 1940 Betsy Island races. On 25 April 1941 at the Wesley Church, Hobart, he married his neighbour Mollie McAllister, an upholsteress. Soon after, the couple moved to Sydney. Having sold Westwind, he used the proceeds to buy a skiff-hiring business and later a boatbuilding shed. Among other projects, he made high-quality wooden lifeboats for the United States Army. Prosperity beckoned until he contracted poliomyelitis, which ‘almost paralysed’ his left thigh and right arm (Muir, Hudson, and Fogagnolo 1991, 23). By 1946 he had sold up and returned to Hobart with his family.

While recovering, Muir designed the fishing cruiser Westward, which he built in a paddock at Sandy Bay and converted into a racing yacht for George Gibson. In 1948 he established Muir’s Boatyard at Battery Point. He would design over 100 vessels and become known for building ‘easy-to-handle, sea-kindly, safe, off-shore cruising boats’ (Muir, Hudson, and Fogagnolo 1991, 27) capable of winning ocean races. Although not fearing the sea, he gave it ‘maximum respect’ and erred ‘on the side of extra strength’ (Muir, Hudson, and Fogagnolo 1991, 62) to ensure his boats were structurally sound. He preferred to use Huon and King Billy pines for their elasticity and durability. In September 1951 the Menzies government increased sales tax on pleasure boats from 10 to 33 per cent. Muir responded by diversifying the business; he built fishing boats and constructed (1953) a second slipway. He would prepare more than 1,000 slipping plans for vessels up to 75 feet (22.9 m) in length.

Muir’s reputation as ‘one of Australia’s bluewater aces’ (Mercury 1953, 16) was built on his success in Sydney to Hobart yacht races. He first sailed in the race in 1946. The following year, as sailing master of Westward, he was second across the line and the winner on corrected time. In 1948, Westward again finished first on corrected time, making him the first Tasmanian to have won two Sydney–Hobart races. Another Muir design, Waltzing Matilda, which he co-skippered with ‘skill and local knowledge’ (Muir, Hudson, and Fogagnolo 1991, 77), won line honours and came second on handicap in 1949. His fellow yachtsman John Bennetto claimed that Muir was ‘a natural sailor’ with ‘saltwater in his veins’ (Bresnehan 1995, 47), who could ‘smell’ where he was in relation to the coast.

In the 1953 Sydney–Hobart Muir took line honours and was placed fourth on handicap with Wild Wave, a yacht he had designed. This was ‘the first Tasmanian owned, built, and skippered boat to finish first across the line’ (Mercury 1954, 1). His elation was short lived, however, as the boat was disqualified for infringements at the starting line. He made amends in 1955 by co-skippering Even to a line honours victory. He failed to finish only once when Kurrewa IV incurred a hull leak in 1958, but won line honours in the same vessel in 1960. In 1971 he completed his nineteenth and last Sydney–Hobart, but expressed his concern that the race had become more about ‘performance derived from wealth’ than ‘a test of skill’ (Muir, Hudson, and Fogagnolo 1991, 35).

Stockily built, calm, and resilient, Muir won the Maria and Bruny Island races, securing the Point Score plaque, in his last offshore racing season (1972–73). He retired as managing director of the boatyard in 1987. In 1991 he co-authored Maritime Reflections, revisiting his boats and races. Survived by his wife, daughter, and three sons, he died on 29 November 1995 in the Royal Hobart Hospital and was cremated following a service at ‘the Mariner’s Church’, St George’s Church, Battery Point. Fellow yachtsmen remembered him as ‘a master craftsman’, ‘a fantastic seaman’ who was ‘uncanny with tactics’, and ‘a true gentleman’ (Bresnehan 1995, 47). The RYCT inaugurated the E. J. (Jock) Muir Memorial trophy for seamanship in 1996 and he was inducted into the Tasmanian Yachting Hall of Fame in 2011. His yacht Westward was donated by its final owner, Stan Field, to the Maritime Museum of Tasmania for its floating exhibition at Constitution Dock, Hobart.

Bresnehan, James. ‘Jock’s Voyage Over.’ Mercury (Hobart), 30 November 1995, 47; Mays, Nicole. Industrious, Innovative, Altruistic: The 20th Century Boat Builders of Battery Point. Hobart: Navarine Publishing, 2017; Mercury (Hobart). ‘His First Cup.’ 15 February 1933, 6, ‘Race Against Time to Complete Cruiser.’ 13 November 1953, 16, ‘Vintage Yachts Etched Forever in Muir’s Mind.’ 2 January 1995, 12, ‘Wild Wave Gives Tasmania Great Victory.’ 1 January 1954, 1; Muir, Jock, Chris Hudson, and Jocelyn Fogagnolo. Maritime Reflections. Sandy Bay: E. J. Muir, 1991; Swinson, Mike. Blood, Sweat and the Sea. Lindisfarne: Forty South Publishing, 2017.

Stefan Petrow

MULLER, DESMOND OTTO (DOOLEY) (1913–1994), engineer, army officer, and public servant, was born on 17 August 1913 at Albury, New South Wales, only son of Victorian-born parents Henry Otto Muller, agriculturalist, and his wife Lillian Idalia May, née Osborn. Desmond was educated at Bendigo High School (1927) and Melbourne Boys’ High School (1928–30), before studying engineering at the University of Melbourne (BCE, 1934). He was employed at the university as a testing officer before moving to the design and testing branch of the Munitions Supply Laboratories, Maribyrnong.

On 10 December 1938 Muller was commissioned in the Royal Australian Engineers, Citizen Military Forces. When World War II broke out in September 1939, he was an early volunteer for the Australian Imperial Force. Lieutenant Colonel (Sir) Clive Steele [q.v.16] arranged his appointment as a lieutenant in November. Posted to the 2/3rd Field Company, he sailed for Britain in May 1940 and, promoted to captain in July, arrived in the Middle East in December. While in Britain the 2/3rd Field Company had been assigned to the 9th Division.

Known as ‘Dooley’, Muller adapted to the change from civil to military engineering well, using his professional skills and developing his ability to command his men. The field company served at Tobruk, Libya, from April to October 1941 and for most of that period he was its acting commander. On the evening of 11–12 April the 2/3rd achieved the remarkable and hazardous feat of laying 5,000 anti-tank mines, an event celebrated in verse by one of its sappers, Frank Bingham:

‘Dooley’ scratched his tousled locks and racked his puzzled brain …

Then called his long lieutenant in, to ease his mental strain.

He said, ‘Now listen, Ray, we must strengthen all our lines

So tonight you will take 9 Section and lay Five Thousand Mines;

And when you get them finished, report straight back to me

In the meantime I’ll have more work from the acting C.R.E. (Maughan 1966, 138)

For his initiative and courage in leading dangerous night operations at Tobruk, Muller was awarded the Military Cross and mentioned in despatches (both 1942). He was promoted to temporary major in December 1941 (substantive, April 1942) and placed in command of the field company, which saw action in Egypt from July 1942, culminating in the battle of El Alamein (October–November). Back in Australia in February 1943, the following month he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and appointed commander of the 1st Divisional Engineers, but assumed that role in the 9th Division in July. He was mentioned in despatches (1944) and awarded the Distinguished Service Order (1945) for his management of the division’s engineering operations at Lae and Finschhafen, New Guinea, between September 1943 and January 1944, during which his ‘excellent command and drive’ included ’constantly moving well forward making engineer reconnaissance frequently under enemy observation and fire’ (AWM 88). On 3 March 1944 at St Philip’s Church of England, Sydney, he married Marion Lucas, a nurse in the Australian Army Medical Women’s Service, who later took the names Maryanna Elisa Catherine. From May to August 1945 he took part in the liberation of Borneo, before returning to Melbourne, where he transferred to the Reserve of Officers on 26 October.

In 1946 Muller entered the Commonwealth Department of Transport, dealing at first with rail standardisation. He was appointed assistant director of civil engineering in 1948 and in 1950 visited Bangkok to attend a United Nations Organization conference on transport systems. During the 1960s he was an adviser for the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization and in the 1970s the government of Malaysia. He was then appointed construction manager with the Department of Works, Darwin. In December 1974 he transmitted the first news of the destruction wrought by Cyclone Tracy, by driving south to find a functioning radio transmitter. Suffering poor health, he retired in 1977. Respected for his service decorations, he was a man for whom others came first. He was a stalwart of his regimental association and he strongly encouraged the writing of its history. In later years he suffered from Parkinson’s disease and dementia. Survived by his wife and their son and two daughters, he died on 2 November 1994 at Heidelberg, Victoria, and was cremated.

Australian War Memorial. AWM 88, AMF O/A 21; Herald-Sun (Melbourne). ‘Others Came First for This Engineer, Soldier, Diplomat.’ 10 November 1994, 59; McNicoll, Ronald. The Royal Australian Engineers. Vol. 3, 1919 to 1945: Teeth and Tail. Canberra: Corps Committee of the Royal Australian Engineers, 1982; Maughan, Barton. Tobruk and El Alamein. Vol. 3 of Series 1 (Army) of Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1966; National Archives of Australia. B883, VX243; MULLER, DESMOND OTTO; Ward-Harvey, Ken. The Sappers’ War with Ninth Australian Division Engineers 1939–1945. Newcastle, NSW: Sakoga in conjunction with 9th Division RAE Association, 1992.

Michael O’Brien

MUMBLER, PERCY (1907–1991), Aboriginal elder and activist, was born on 20 July 1907 at the Aboriginal Station, Wallaga Lake, New South Wales, son of Biamanga (Jack Mumbler), from the Delegate area of the Monaro, and Gunnal (Rose Carpenter), from the lower Shoalhaven. Biamanga was an elder and leader of the local Aboriginal community. In an act of colonialist misrecognition, in 1912 white authorities bestowed on him a brass breast-plate and declared him king of the Wallaga Lake tribe. Of greater importance to Biamanga’s own people was the authority vested in him to preside at the initiation of young Aboriginal men (Chittick and Fox 1997, 1). In his childhood Percy moved with his family back and forth between Wallaga Lake and Roseby Park, near Nowra. He and his siblings were under constant threat of removal and institutionalisation.

As a young man Mumbler was a member of the Wallaga Bush Leaf Band that performed at the opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge and toured southern New South Wales and Victoria. Employed mainly on bean- and pea-picking, he travelled extensively on the south coast, linking up with other itinerant Aboriginal workers and their families. In the 1950s Mumbler met and befriended poet and author Roland Robinson [q.v.] who collected and ‘translated’ many of Mumbler’s oral stories and accounts of Aboriginal life on the south coast. Mumbler’s texts appeared in several of Robinson’s published works and were circulated widely through national publications such as the Bulletin, school anthologies and in performances by Robinson himself (Healy, 1997, 53).

Mumbler began to campaign for better housing and living conditions, and for education and health reforms. In the late 1960s he collaborated with John Hatton and others to have disused cottages from the Snowy Mountains scheme relocated to accommodate Aboriginal people on Shoalhaven Shire Council land at Browns Flat, south of Nowra. He also helped to restructure the South Coast Aboriginal Legal Service at Nowra; a passionate advocate of individual civil rights for Aboriginal people, he actively supported the service well into his old age.

A branch member of Pastor Frank Roberts’s [q.v.16] Land and Rights Council, Mumbler joined other activists in pushing for Aboriginal communities to secure ownership of their land, in opposition to the formation (1973) of the New South Wales Aboriginal Land Trust, which was given title to all remaining reserves. He played a prominent role when the New South Wales Aboriginal Land Council was formed in 1977. With his ability to inspire and unify people, he delivered a clear message: ‘This is our land and we want the rights to our land so we can go where we want and get what we want’ (Chittick and Fox 1997, 177–78).

In February 1979 the Select Committee of the Legislative Assembly upon Aborigines conducted its first public meeting, at the Wallaga Lake reserve. Mumbler used this platform to voice his concerns over two interrelated topics: the threat to sacred sites on Mumbulla (or Biamanga) Mountain from logging, and the community’s land claim around Wallaga Lake. He emphasised the importance of land ownership to the spiritual and cultural well-being of his people. In 1984 Wallaga Lake became the first Aboriginal community in the State to receive title to what remained of its traditional lands. That year the State government gazetted 7,500 hectares of land at Mumbulla Mountain as Biamanga Aboriginal Place.

One of ‘the most revered, respected and loved’ Aboriginal people on the State’s south coast, Mumbler was endowed with many endearing personal qualities, among them warmth, humour, and charm; as Lee Chittick recalled, ‘everyone sort of bubbled to see him’ (Chittick and Fox 1997, 1, 85). Mumbler acquired the nickname ‘Bing’ for his penchant for Bing Crosby songs, and he was remembered as an adroit and animated vocalist. Late in his life, he married Isabelle Perry, becoming a stepfather and mentor to her six children.

Throughout his long life Mumbler maintained an intimate connection to the land for which he so actively fought. He was a skilled hunter, fisherman, and practitioner of traditional bushcrafts, and he kept up many of the time-honoured spiritual and cultural beliefs of his people, firmly interwoven with his Christian faith. Through language, story, and song, he imparted much traditional knowledge. He played golf and fossicked obsessively for gold, hoping for a find that would enrich his people (he had no interest in personal wealth). After residing for six years at the Shoalhaven Nursing Home, Bomaderry, he died there on 17 June 1991 and was buried at Nowra cemetery. As an influential spiritual and cultural leader to the Yuin people, Mumbler left an enduring legacy of strength, determination, and cultural survival.

Chittick, Lee, and Terry Fox. Travelling with Percy: A South Coast Journey. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 1997; Feary, Sue. ‘Indigenous Australians and Forests.’ In Australian and New Zealand Forest Histories: No. 1: Short Overviews, edited by John Dargavel, 9–17. Kingston, ACT: Australian Forest History Society Inc., 2005; Healy, Chris. From the Ruins of Colonialism: History as Social Memory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997; McKenna, Mark. Looking for Blackfellas’ Point: An Australian History of Place. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2002.

Jodie Stewart

MURPHY, HUGH JOSEPH (1917–1995) and MURPHY, KEVIN PETER (1913–1969), journalists and public servants, were born at Carlton, Melbourne: Hugh on 22 March 1917, and Kevin on 9 January 1913. They were the two surviving sons of Irish-born Matthew Murphy, journalist, and his Victorian-born wife Margaret Jane, née Purves. Their father was a foundation member of the Australian Journalists’ Association, a sports writer with the Melbourne Herald, and the sporting editor of the Weekly Times. The brothers were educated at St Patrick’s College, East Melbourne, and the University of Melbourne, where Kevin studied humanities (BA, 1949), and Hugh pursued a course in journalism.

From 1933 Kevin worked on the editorial staff of the Herald. In January 1942 he enlisted in the Citizen Military Forces but in March took leave without pay to join the Department of Information’s (DOI) Melbourne editorial staff. On 4 April, at St Christopher’s Cathedral, Forrest, Canberra, he married Bernadette Marie Veronica Carroll. She was the daughter of Jim Carroll, the Australian Broadcasting Commission’s (ABC) pioneer Melbourne racecaller from the early 1930s. Kevin was appointed editor in the DOI’s Canberra office in 1944, and then chief publicity officer; in 1948 he became director-general. After the department was reduced in status to the Australian News and Information Bureau (ANIB) within the Department of the Interior, he was appointed director of the bureau’s London office for four years. When he returned to Canberra in 1954 he resumed as director of ANIB. His wife died in 1959 and, on 24 May 1962, at St Christopher’s Cathedral, Canberra, he married Sheila Moon. He was chairman of the Australian National Film Board (1948–50, 1963–69), and a member of the Australian Road Safety Council (1962–69).

Described by a colleague as ‘one of the finest and most distinguished journalists’ whose relegation from departmental head was ‘a cruel blow’ (McKernan 1978), Kevin was regarded by (Sir) Richard Kingsland, his permanent head after 1963, as ‘an extremely good journalist, but he had a biting tongue’ and a ‘chip on his shoulder’ (Kingsland 2010, 164). He enhanced ANIB’s effectiveness through increased representation overseas, targeted media campaigns, films designed to implement government policies on European immigration, and promotion of the Colombo Plan. Kevin was a member of the high-level Department of External Affairs overseas planning committee.

He was widely known in official, diplomatic and sporting circles. As well as being a member of the Canberra Club, his interests included lawn bowls, swimming, tennis, and Australian Rules football. He died suddenly in Canberra on 12 May 1969, survived by his wife and their daughter, and was cremated. Two sons of his first marriage, Paul and Justin, became well-known ABC journalists and broadcasters.

Hugh Murphy began contributing to the Melbourne Herald as a stringer while a student at the University of Melbourne. Having served (August 1940 – January 1942) with the Melbourne University Regiment, he was discharged to join the wartime DOI. He was press relations officer (March 1942 – September 1943) to Edward (Eddie) John Ward [q.v.16], minister for labour and national service. On 25 April 1942, at St Brigid’s Catholic Church, North Fitzroy, Melbourne, he married Eileen Elizabeth Cummins, a stenographer. In July 1944 he was posted to DOI’s New York office for three years.

On his return to Australia Hugh was seconded to the Department of Immigration. Placed in charge of the publicity section, he was responsible for organising departmental media coverage in Australia and overseas, scripting films to attract overseas migrants, and liaising with community and government organisations for major events such as citizenship conventions and the arrival of the 100,000th postwar migrant. Described as a ‘powerful publicity force behind the founding of Australia’s postwar immigration program’ (Canberra Times 1995, 5), he became public relations officer at the Australian embassy in West Germany (1955–60) providing immigration publicity for several European countries.

Returning to Australia, Hugh was a journalist in ANIB before twice becoming director of the bureau’s office in London (1964–68, 1972–75). There he was responsible for Australian public relations in Britain. His wife died in London in January 1968 and in the following year he married Elizabeth Marian Manning, a former staff training officer with Qantas Airways Ltd. Back in Australia, he was editor at ANIB’s head office. Passionate about all sports, he was a supporter of Carlton football club and a fan of Canberra Raiders rugby league club. ‘A warm, charming and humorous man’ (Canberra Times 1995, 5), he died in Canberra on 17 May 1995 and was cremated. He was survived by his wife and by the daughter and son of his first marriage.

Canberra Times. ‘News, Information Director Dies.’ 13 May 1969, 3, ‘A Powerful Force behind Australian Immigration.’ 22 May 1995, 5; Clarke, Patricia. ‘Government Propaganda in the 1950s: The Role of the News and Information Bureau.’ Media Australia International, no. 139 (May 2011): 64–72; Kingsland, Richard. Into the Midst of Things. Canberra: Air Power Development Centre, 2010. Accessed 8 August 2019. Copy held on ADB file; McKernan, Thomas James. Interview by Mel Pratt, 6 February 1978. Transcript. Mel Pratt Collection. National Library of Australia; National Archives of Australia. CP815/7/1, Personal Papers of Hugh Murphy, B884, Q112207, MURPHY HUGH, B884, Q141213, MURPHY KEVIN.

Patricia Clarke

MURRAY, BENNO (BEN) (1893–1994), stockman, cameleer, linguist, and storyteller, was, by his own written account, born on 21 December 1893 at Hergott Springs (later Marree), South Australia, son of Bejah Dervish [q.v.7], Afghan cameleer, and Annie Murray. His mother was an Arabana-Thirari woman whose European name derived from the family for whom she worked as a maid. His father would achieve distinction as the leading cameleer on the Calvert Scientific Exploring Expedition (1896–97). The town’s Aboriginal camp was within sight of the Frome Creek’s tree line, where a Rain History or Dreaming site was the source of his totemic identity and his Arabana name, Parlku-nguyu-thangkayiwarna (‘Bank of Clouds Settling Down’). To Europeans he was then known as ‘Johnny Murray’.

In about 1897 Annie took her family to Muloorina station where her parents, ‘King Walter’ and ‘Queen Annie’, lived. Here Johnny began his working life, strapped to a horse driving the rotating mechanism for a water pump, for two or three hours a day. His grandfather shared with him knowledge of the country and its mythology, taking him by foot as far as Stuart Creek to the north-west and Birdsville, Queensland, to the north. By the age of ten he had moved to Clayton station, part of (Sir) Sidney Kidman’s [q.v.9] expanding pastoral empire, where Kidman’s daughters taught him the finer points of horsemanship. In 1906 he and his younger brother Ern went to Cannatalkaninna station. Paid just two shillings a week, they were overworked and badly mistreated. Their mother, who had moved to the adjoining Lutheran mission at Killalpaninna, convinced the boys to seek refuge there in 1908.

Baptised as Benno by Pastor Wolfgang Riedel, but known as Ben, he began a new life, learning to read and write and becoming a committed Christian. He would retain and read his copy of the Testamenta Marra, the first translation of the New Testament into an Aboriginal language (Diyari/Dieri, closely related to Thirari), for the rest of his life. At the mission one of his first assignments was as a rabbit catcher. From 1912 he was given increasing responsibility for the mission’s camel team, making and repairing saddles, and leading monthly supply journeys to Hergott Springs. His future seemed assured; it was a shock when the mission closed in 1915 for financial reasons. He had also observed anti-German sentiment as World War I began and felt some pressure to enlist.

After leaving Killalpaninna, Murray was sustained by his network of mission contacts. From 1915 he worked on several German-owned farms on the Eyre Peninsula, Yorke Peninsula, and the Murray River near Waikerie. During the Depression he became an overseer on road-making gangs in the Murray Mallee, joining the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes lodge at Alawoona. By 1934 he felt the pull of the north, and sought a position. Turned down by the Kidmans, with characteristic directness he visited (Sir) Tom Barr Smith [q.v.16] in Adelaide and secured a job patrolling the dingo fence on Murnpeowie station. Before leaving the city he visited an old mission friend, Ted Vogelsang, employed as an attendant at the South Australian Museum. He joined Vogelsang in assisting the ethnologist Norman Tindale [q.v.] with the translation of J. G. Reuther’s manuscripts; Murray’s first foray into linguistics.

On Murnpeowie Murray was among Diyari speakers again. He constructed a bush hut, but was away for months at a time on patrol with his brother-in-law, Gottlieb Merrick, and accompanied by three or four camels. In 1948 the fence became too difficult to maintain and his job ended. Murray recalled taking a mob of horses to Darwin at this time, via Alice Springs. He returned to Murnpeowie, where he was employed to shoot dingoes from horseback, but left the station in disgust after a year or two when a new manager shot his camels and horses. During the 1950s he worked successively at Mundowdna, Witchelina, and Myrtle Springs stations, primarily as a dingo shooter.

Murray had not married, although by his account he had resisted several offers. He valued his own company and his freedom. Technically he was subject to South Australia’s Aborigines Act (1934) and although never constrained by it, he applied for and was granted exemption on 10 September 1947. Retiring in 1959, he settled in the deserted town of Farina, soon becoming its sole resident. The old police station was his home and the rail link enabled him to ‘jump on the rattler’ and visit friends and family in Marree, to the north.

During this period Murray corresponded in Diyari and English with the mission fraternity and participated in several return visits to Killalpaninna. In 1965 at Marree and at Wilpoorina station he met the linguists Bernhard Schebeck and Luise Hercus. Impressed by his easy grasp of the Arabana and Wangkangurru languages and his storytelling ability, Hercus introduced Murray to the linguist Peter Austin (who was studying Diyari) in 1974, and to the historian Philip Jones in 1981. The result of their collaborations was a remarkable corpus of linguistic and historical data. Murray accompanied Hercus and Austin on several bush trips, identifying important sites and linking them with the mythological knowledge he had retained. Murray’s status among his own people was founded partly on that knowledge, but mostly on his integrity, good humour, and acute sense of justice.

Murray still worked occasionally as a dingo-shooter until a fall from a horse in 1974 put an end to his working life. After living with a nephew, Arthur Warren, in Marree for several years, he took up residence in his own cabin at the Wami Kata home for aged Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people at Port Augusta in 1979. The home provided him with the independence he relished. He continued to work with anthropologists, linguists, and historians, flying to Canberra in 1977 to assist Hercus and Austin with their work on the Diyari, Thirrari, and Arabana languages.

In his nineties Murray became popular for his storytelling, particularly for his tales of Gallipoli, which can be traced back at least to the 1940s. Unlike his bush tales though, these war stories seem to have emerged as a way of dealing with his close alignment with the German missionaries; he may have internalised graphic radio accounts of the Gallipoli campaign, relating these as his own experiences. He became known for these exploits, even leading an Anzac Day march (in a vehicle) at Port Augusta as he approached his centenary. On 26 August 1994 he died at Wami Kata, aged 101. He had spent his last years there among a fading generation of proud Aboriginal stockmen and women whose labours and goodwill had underpinned the bush economy.

Austin, Peter, Luise Hercus, and Philip Jones. ‘Ben Murray (Parlku-Nguyu-Thangkayiwarna).’ Aboriginal History 12, no. 2 (1988): 114–187; Murray, Ben. Interviews with Philip Jones, Port Augusta, 1988. Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island Studies Library; Murray, Ben. ‘Killalpaninna.’ Lutheran, 11 November 1985, 3; Personal knowledge of ADB subject; Stevens, Christine. White Man’s Dreaming: Killalpaninna Mission, 1866–1915. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Philip Jones

MURRAY, Sir BRIAN STEWART (1921–1991), naval officer and governor, was born on 26 December 1921 at Glenhuntly, Melbourne, second of five children of Victorian-born Alan Stewart Murray, surveyor and valuer, and his Egyptian-born wife Lily Astria, née Fenton. Educated at Hampton High School, Brian entered the Royal Australian Navy as a special entry cadet midshipman in 1939, and was posted immediately to the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, England. During World War II he served in RAN ships in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans, and in the North Sea. In January 1945 he was a lieutenant on board the heavy cruiser HMAS Australia, when kamikaze aircraft attacked the ship at Lingayen Gulf in the Philippines. After the war Murray qualified as a navigating and air direction officer before exchange service with the Royal Navy in the Far East.

Tall, handsome, socially adept, and an all-round sportsman, Murray was marked out early as a potential leader. In 1952, as a lieutenant commander aboard HMAS Sydney, he was mentioned in despatches for his service in Korean waters. On 15 October his captain, H. J. Buchanan [q.v.13], described him as an ‘outstanding’ officer, who possessed ‘a forceful character tempered with sound common sense’ (NAA A3978). He was promoted to commander in 1955 and by 1958 he was executive officer of the aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne, whose captain, O. H. Becher [q.v.13], described him as ‘amongst the real stars in the R.A.N’. (NAA A3978). During 1958–59 he attended the Royal Staff College, Greenwich, England. Promoted to captain on 30 June 1961, he commanded the frigates HMAS Queenborough (1961–62) and HMAS Parramatta (1963). From 20 December 1962 he was an honorary aide-de-camp to the governor-general.

Murray had married Elizabeth Amy Malcolmson on 10 September 1954 at Kew, Melbourne. She died in January 1962, three months after the birth of their third child. The demands of office and responsibility for three young children during sea commands weighed heavily. On 29 January 1965 he married Susan Hill-Douglas at St Jude’s Church of England, Bowral, New South Wales, but in 1966 he successfully petitioned for an annulment on the grounds the union was not consummated. He later described the marriage as ‘a terrible mistake’ (Barker 1991, 13).

Following two years as director of plans at Navy Office, Canberra, Murray completed the 1966 course at the Imperial Defence College, London. The next year he commanded the fleet oiler HMAS Supply. At this time, Rear Admiral (Sir) Richard Peek believed that Murray’s ‘intensely ambitious’ character might lead him ‘to use almost any means of attaining his aim’ (NAA A3978). From 1968 he was services attaché at the Australian embassy in Tokyo. On his return in 1970 he commanded HMAS Sydney, which transported troops to Vietnam. Rear Admiral (Sir) David Stevenson, who knew Murray well, observed in 1971 that he had become ‘a somewhat remote character’ and noted a ‘lack of positiveness’ in his work (NAA A3978).

From February 1971 to January 1974 Murray was director, joint policy, Department of Defence, also serving as a naval aide-de-camp to the Queen. On 12 April 1973 in Melbourne he married Janette Paris, a schoolteacher and former Sacre Coeur nun. Stevenson wrote in 1976 that the death of Murray’s first wife and his ‘most unfortunate second marriage’ had ‘affected his career markedly. His present marriage has been a great success and his service improved accordingly’ (NAA A3978). He was naval officer-in-charge, Victoria (1974–75), and, promoted to rear admiral, served with distinction as deputy chief of naval staff from November 1975 until his retirement on 31 August 1978. He was appointed AO in 1978.

The Murrays purchased land at Murrumbateman, New South Wales, intending to breed thoroughbred horses, but they also established a winery, Doonkuna, which was well reputed for the quality of its table wines. Late in 1981 Murray was chosen by the Thompson Liberal government to succeed Sir Henry Winneke [q.v.18] as governor of Victoria. He was appointed KCMG in February 1982 and sworn in on 1 March. Provision was made for the governor’s salary—which had not been increased for fourteen years—to be doubled from May 1982.

Sir Brian soon found himself dealing with a new premier, John Cain junior, whose Australian Labor Party won the election of 3 April 1982. Their relationship was blighted from the outset when Cain rejected the Queen’s Birthday honours list drawn up by the previous government. Murray’s personal tastes and his style—‘imperious of bearing and resplendent in his navy whites and regalia’—jarred with Cain’s ascetic and ‘resolutely egalitarian’ character (Strangio 2006, 217). Murray described himself as ‘middle of the road’ in politics (Strangio 2006, 215), but to Cain he was a ‘shocking Tory’ (Strangio and Costar 2006, 336). Murray later recalled ‘continual harassment’ from the Premier, notably during Victoria’s 150th celebrations’ (Murray 1990). There was also a more fundamental source of anxiety for the government: Victorian Labor governments had never commanded the numbers in the Legislative Council, and Cain and his colleagues feared that in the event of a conflict with the Upper House, Murray might dismiss the government.

Early in August 1985 Murray told Cain that he and his wife had been offered free overseas travel on an ‘inaugural flight’ (Vic. LA 1985, 712). Cain later told the Legislative Assembly that he had ‘cautioned’ Murray against accepting free travel (Vic. LA 1985, 713); in 1987 Murray claimed that the premier had given him no clear advice on the subject. On 20 August 1985 the Murrays flew out of Australia with Continental Airlines for a privately funded overseas trip. Their itinerary included complimentary tickets on an inaugural flight between Houston and London. Some of their expenses for travel in the United States of America and Europe were met by the businessman Lindsay Fox, who was chairman of Continental’s international advisory board. Shortly before the departure of the governor and his wife, the media had reported a police investigation into the alleged acceptance by senior public servants and police officers of free or discounted air tickets. The investigation was sparked by the arrest of a Continental Airlines manager, Robert Tanfield, who was charged with thirty-two counts of fraud. While the Murrays were away, Cain learnt that the investigation had linked their names to the receipt of free air tickets.

When the governor returned, Cain sought further details about the trip, which Murray initially refused to provide. Murray also said that he would seek the advice of the leaders of the Liberal and National parties; he was told by Cain that this would be ‘quite improper’ (Strangio 2006, 221). Cain had received advice that Murray’s acceptance of the gift of tickets and ‘other largesse’ (Clarke and Willox 1987, 1) during the trip breached conventions relating to the conduct of governors, and that his position was untenable. He advised the governor to ‘reflect’ on his position (Vic. LA 1985, 714). During the crisis, the Victorian government was in close touch with the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office; the Hawke Federal government also became involved, warning that two impending royal visits would not take place if Murray remained in office.

Murray resigned on 3 October 1985; by way of settlement he received a full pension and other payments. In a statement, Sir Brian wrote that he had accepted the invitation for the inaugural flight ‘in the belief that there was nothing untoward in doing so’, but that his ‘overriding concern is, and always has been, to preserve the integrity of the office of Governor’ (Age 1985, 1). Two weeks later, the Bulletin published a story suggesting that Cain had acted because he was aware of regular contacts between the governor, the Liberal leader, Jeff Kennett, and the National Party leader, Peter Ross-Edwards, and feared that Kennett and Ross-Edwards were plotting to block supply. In 1987 Ross-Edwards, Kennett, and Murray were each awarded substantial damages as a result of separate libel actions against the Bulletin. Survived by his wife and the two daughters and son of his first marriage, Murray died of cancer on 4 June 1991 at Murrumbateman. He was cremated after a state funeral with full naval honours at St Paul’s Cathedral, Melbourne.

Age (Melbourne). ‘Governor Murray Quits.’ 4 October 1985, 1; Clarke, Simon, and Innes Willox. ‘Cain Says Murray Set Himself Up.’ Age (Melbourne), 8 December 1987, 1; Barker, Geoffrey. ‘Author of His Own Downfall: Sir Brian Murray, 1921–91.’ Age (Melbourne), 6 June 1991, 13; Murray, Brian. Interview by Heather Rusden, 20 June 1990, 19 October 1990. Transcript. National Library of Australia; National Archives of Australia (NAA). A6769, MURRAY B S, A3978, MURRAY B S; Strangio, Paul. ‘A Constitutional Crisis Averted? The Demise of Governor Sir Brian Murray.’ Victorian Historical Journal, 77, no. 2 (November 2006): 212–228; Strangio, Paul, and Brian Costar. The Victorian Premiers 1856–2006. Annandale, NSW: Federation Press, 2006; Twomey, Anne. The Chameleon Crown: The Queen and Her Australian Governors. Annandale, NSW: The Federation Press, 2006; Victoria. Legislative Assembly. Parliamentary Debates, 3 October 1985, 711–29, 16 October 1985, 890–92, 903–34, 6 June 1991, 3073–89.

Geoff Browne

MURRAY, Sir KEITH (1903–1993), chairman of the Committee on Australian Universities, was born on 28 July 1903 in Edinburgh, third son of London-born Charles David Murray, advocate, later lord advocate of Scotland, and his Scottish-born wife Annie Florence, née Nicolson. He was educated at the Edinburgh Academy and the University of Edinburgh (BSc, 1925). The recipient of a Commonwealth Fund fellowship (1926), he attended Cornell University (PhD, 1929), New York State, United States of America, before undertaking further study at the University of Oxford (BLitt, 1931; MA, 1932). Later he joined the Agricultural Economics Research Institute at Oxford University, his research culminating in the agricultural volume in the official history of World War II edited by (Sir) Keith Hancock [q.v.17].

In 1937 Murray was appointed fellow and bursar of Lincoln College, Oxford. He was commissioned in the Royal Air Force in 1941 as an officer in the Administrative and Special Duties Branch. Elected rector of Lincoln College (1944–53), he rebuilt the college and rearranged its finances before being appointed chairman of the University Grants Committee in Britain (1953–63). He was knighted in 1955. As chairman of the UGC, he oversaw a program of national expansion; seven new universities were established and capital grants grew fifteen-fold. Sensitive to university independence, he ensured that universities could exercise autonomy in all key areas.

Sir Keith’s achievements attracted attention in Australia. As a result of burgeoning student numbers in the immediate postwar period, Australian universities were overcrowded and underfunded. Following the report of a special committee chaired by R. C. Mills [q.v.10] in 1951, Commonwealth legislation provided for grants to the States to meet some of the needs of universities. However, Prime Minister (Sir) Robert Menzies [q.v.15] remained reluctant to involve the Commonwealth in their internal affairs. After being briefed on funding arrangements for universities in the United Kingdom, Menzies met Murray in London in March 1956 and asked him to undertake a ‘widely cast’ (Martin 1999, 396) enquiry into the future of Australian universities.

Murray arrived in Australia in June 1957 to chair the Committee on Australian Universities. The other members were Sir Ian Clunies Ross [q.v.13], Sir Charles Morris, (Sir) Alexander Reid [q.v.16], and Jack Richards [q.v.16]. The committee toured the country, visiting all seven Australian universities. Completed in September 1957, the Report of the Committee on Australian Universities recommended that £22 million be granted to universities over the next three years as an emergency measure; proposed ways to cope with the projected expansion of students over the next decade, such as providing Commonwealth funds for new buildings and equipment, including residential colleges; and suggested that a permanent committee be established to advise on university policy and development. The bulk of its recommendations were adopted. It led to the establishment of the Australian Universities Commission in 1959, which created the basis for Commonwealth funding over the next two decades.

While completing the report, Murray took time out to visit the Melbourne Cricket Ground and watch the Victorian Football League series finals. He later visited Australia several times. A large sociable man, he was imbued with the ethic of public service, his Scottish Presbyterian aristocratic background easing his access to institutions of influence and privilege. His research interests in planning and development, formed in transatlantic contexts and then in wartime, fostered the idea of governments supporting and modernising universities. He was appointed KCB in 1963, and made a life peer in 1964. After retirement from public service, Lord Murray of Newhaven served as director (1965–72) of the Leverhulme Trust, and a trustee (1965–73) of the Wellcome Trust. Never married, he spent his last years alone in a modest London flat. He died on 10 October 1993 at Putney. His estate was valued at £1,173,780. A portrait of him by A. C. Davidson-Houston hangs at Lincoln College.

Australia. Report of the Committee on Australian Universities. Canberra: Government Printer, 1957; Australian Vice-Chancellor’s Committee. Conference of Australian Universities, 1961. Melbourne: AVCC, 1961; Canberra Times. ‘Key Developer of Our Universities.’ 27 October 1993, 14, ‘Murray Report Adopted.’ 29 November 1957, 1; Caston, Geoffrey. ‘Murray, Keith Anderson Hope, Baron Murray of Newhaven.’ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Accessed 17 May 2018. Copy held on ADB file; Forsyth, Hannah. A History of the Modern Australian University System. Sydney: NewSouth Publishing, 2014; Martin, A. W. Robert Menzies: A Life. Vol. 2, 1944–1978. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1999; Menzies, Robert Gordon. The Measure of the Years. London: Cassell, 1970.

G. E. Sherington

MURRAY, KEVIN ROSS (1930–1991), barrister and citizen-soldier, was born on 17 June 1930 at Casino, New South Wales, elder of two sons of New South Wales–born William Henderson Murray, schoolteacher, and his wife Josephine Agnes, née Ford, a Queenslander. Educated at Swansea Public and Newcastle Boys’ High schools, Kevin studied arts and law at the University of Sydney (BA, 1950), but did not finish his law degree. He was an active union debater. Joining the Sydney University Regiment (SUR) in 1949, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in December 1952. The following year he went on full-time duty with the regular army to help ease an officer shortage. Although disappointed at not serving in the Korean War, he gained valuable experience before returning to the SUR in June 1955. On 3 September 1955 at St Mary’s Catholic Cathedral, Sydney, he married Noela Joan Drury, a public servant with an arts degree from the University of Sydney.

Murray completed articles with the Sydney firm Abram Landa [q.v.18], Barton & Co. and was admitted to the New South Wales Bar in November 1957. He developed an extensive courtroom practice, initially in the common law and industrial jurisdictions, then focusing on criminal law, where his flair and energetic style soon made him prominent. He was a master tactician and consummate cross-examiner, who could captivate a jury and even have a magistrate spellbound. He could also bully: one prosecutor described his experience opposing Murray as unpleasant. When Murray represented Geoffrey Chandler at a coroner’s inquest into the deaths of Dr Gilbert Bogle [q.v.13] and Margaret Chandler [q.v.13] in 1963, the coroner, J. J. Loomes, reminded Murray that he was not conducting the inquiry.

Murray became counsel of choice for high-profile defendants. He represented Peter Kocan, who shot the Opposition leader, Arthur Calwell [q.v.13], in 1966, and the next year he appeared for the television personality Charles (Chuck) Faulkner on a charge of being an accessory before the fact to a robbery at Channel 10 at North Ryde. Meanwhile, his military career prospered: on 1 July 1964 he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and appointed commander of the SUR. He was ‘a colourful, sometimes abrasive figure’ in the SUR, but gave the regiment ‘three vigorous, successful years’ (Chapman 1996, 787). When the SUR expanded during the Vietnam War, he started a vacation training camp for officers, aiming to bring standards as close as possible to those of the regular army. He later recalled: ‘I had the ambition to just literally train the arse off those fellows—to extend them’ (Chapman 1996, 787). In 1965 he was awarded the Australian Efficiency Decoration and took it upon himself to form an SUR company at The Australian National University. In 1968 he served for fourteen days in Vietnam as a Citizen Military Forces observer. Though demanding high standards of conduct and discipline from his soldiers, he professionally defended those accused of erring; in 1970 he was counsel for Leslie Edward Lewis, charged with conspiracy to dope racehorses, including Big Philou before the 1969 Melbourne Cup.

Appointed OBE (military) in 1971, Murray was promoted to colonel in May 1972. He took silk in November 1973. The next year he was counsel for a Croatian crane driver, Angelo Maric, on bombing charges, and appeared for Kevin Humphreys, who had been charged with fraud. He was promoted to brigadier in 1976 and appointed as commander of the Royal New South Wales Regiment. In July 1978 the newly promoted Major General Murray assumed command of the 2nd (New South Wales) Division of the Army Reserve. In court, he appeared for two company directors, Francis [q.v.15] and Kenneth Nugan, charged with conspiracy to defraud; for a former New South Wales police officer, Murray Riley, on conspiracy to import cannabis; and for Arthur Stanley ‘Neddy’ Smith on a goods-in-custody charge.

Appointed AO (civil) in January 1982, Murray was named chief of the Army Reserve on 1 April. He retired from the military in 1985 and became an honorary colonel, SUR. He again represented Humphreys, this time at the 1983 (Street) royal commission into committal proceedings against him. In 1989 he appeared at the first hearing by the New South Wales Independent Commission Against Corruption, representing the property developer Tibor Balog. In 1990 he represented a former police superintendent, Harry Blackburn, at the royal commission into Blackburn’s arrest and charging. Appearing with a cannula in his arm while dying of melanoma, he represented tactical response officers at a New South Wales Police Tribunal inquiry into a bungled operation.

Murray’s marriage to Noela had been dissolved in 1978. On 31 October 1987 at Goulburn, New South Wales, he married Lynette Jean Shannon, née Gorton, an economist, becoming stepfather to her two children. Survived by his wife, and two daughters and a son from his first marriage, he died on 31 March 1991 at his home in Newtown, Sydney. One daughter had predeceased him. Following a military funeral at St Mary’s Cathedral, Sydney, he was buried in Northern Suburbs Lawn Cemetery, North Ryde. In a eulogy Barry O’Keefe, QC, observed that Murray was ‘a dominant character … whose presence was always felt’. Murray had ‘a gift with words, a sense of fun, an ability to laugh at himself and the world … He was big and tough, yet at the same time gentle and soft hearted’ (O’Keefe 1991, 16).

Chapman, Ivan. Sydney University Regiment: The First 80 Years. Pymble, NSW: Playbill, 1996; McNaught, Janet. The History of the Haning Murrays from Roxburghshire, Scotland. Lismore, NSW: Janet E. McNaught, 1986; Murray Papers. Private collection; National Archives of Australia. B2458, 279192; O’Keefe, B. S. J. ‘Major-General Kevin Murray AO, OBE, RFD, ED, QC.’ Bar News: The Journal of the NSW Bar Association, Winter 1991, 16; Selth, Philip. ‘Kevin Ross Murray: Barrister and Citizen Soldier.’ Bar News: The Journal of the NSW Bar Association, Winter 2013, 68; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘Lawyer, Soldier and Raconteur: Obituary, Kevin Murray, QC.’ 1 April 1991, 2.

P. A. Selth*

MYER, KENNETH BAILLIEU (KEN) (1921–1992), businessman, philanthropist, and patron of the arts and sciences, was born on 1 March 1921 at San Francisco, United States of America, eldest of four children of Russian-born Sidney (Simcha) Baevski Myer [q.v.10], merchant and philanthropist, and his second wife, Victorian-born (Dame) Marjorie Merlyn, née Baillieu [q.v.18]. Ken and his siblings’ early years were divided between the United States and Melbourne. The family returned permanently to Victoria in 1929 and Ken was enrolled as a border at Geelong Church of England Grammar School. There he came under the influence of the headmaster Dr James Darling [q.v.], a Christian socialist whose belief in social responsibility became embedded in Ken’s consciousness along with his father’s philanthropy. When his father died suddenly on 5 September 1934, his life changed dramatically. Aged thirteen, he assumed his place as head of the family and joint heir to the Melbourne retail empire founded by Sidney in 1911.

Conscientious, hardworking, and fiercely competitive, Myer was on his way to New College, Oxford, United Kingdom, to read Modern Greats in 1939 when World War II broke out. Enrolling instead at Princeton University, New Jersey, United States, he studied liberal arts for one year until his mother demanded he return to Australia. On 17 February 1941 Myer was appointed as a sub-lieutenant, Royal Australian Naval Volunteer Reserve. Having trained and then instructed in the Anti-Submarine School at HMAS Rushcutter, Sydney, he joined the destroyer HMAS Arunta in February 1942, as anti-submarine control officer. The ship patrolled eastern Australian waters and escorted convoys to Papua and New Guinea. Off Port Moresby on 29 August, Arunta attacked the Japanese submarine RO 33 with depth charges. Myer’s accurate reporting of the submarine’s movements ensured its destruction; he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.

Sent to Britain in 1943 for service with the Royal Navy, Myer spent three months as a trainee submariner but discovered it was not for him. In September he was promoted to lieutenant and the next month posted to the destroyer HMS Tenacious, operating in the Mediterranean. On 21 May 1944 Tenacious and two other destroyers sank the German submarine U 453 off Cape Spartivento, Sardinia. For his prominent part in the action, Myer was mentioned in despatches. He went to England in November to qualify as a navigation officer. From February he served in the frigate HMS Louis in the eastern Atlantic. In May he transferred to the destroyer HMS Ursa in the British Pacific Fleet. He was demobilised in Australia on 27 February 1946. Throughout his service, he had been liked and respected by his superiors, peers, and subordinates.

On 12 March 1947 in an Anglican service at Christ Church, St Kilda, Myer married Prudence Marjorie, née Boyd (1925–2005), a student at the University of Melbourne (LLB, 1947). To inherit his portion of his father’s estate, Myer was required to be a senior executive by age thirty. The added responsibility of marriage saw him launch into retailing. He became a director of the Myer Emporium in 1948, a month before travel to the United States inspired his most significant contribution to the company’s corporate strategy and Australian retailing. California’s postwar retail and urban planning environment showed him the future: great shopping centres linked to booming suburbs by expressways, demonstrating the interdependence of shopping, customers, and automobiles. Back in Melbourne and bursting with ideas, he joined the Town and Country Planning Association of Victoria (president, 1953–58) and enthusiastically lobbied organisations, businessmen, engineers, town planners, and architects. Privately, he and his brother Baillieu (born 1926), known as ‘Bails’, funded traffic engineering scholarships to Yale University and retained planners and estate agents to identify development sites. However, their cousin and chairman of Myer, (Sir) Norman Myer [q.v.15], favoured regional development by acquisition. After Norman’s death in 1956, Ken became deputy chairman and joint managing director and embarked on building Chadstone, Australia’s first American-style regional shopping centre. Eventually, Myer stores ringed Melbourne and dominated Australian retailing.

Honorary secretary (1948–58) of the National Gallery Society of Victoria, Myer was also a member of the Victorian Arts Centre Building Committee (later Victorian Arts Centre Trust) (1958–89; chairman 1965–89). A visit to China during the first year of Chairman Mao’s Great Leap Forward (1958) alerted him to Asia’s importance for Australia. This was the catalyst for founding, with Baillieu, the Myer Foundation (1959) and funding the establishment of the Department of Oriental Studies at the University of Melbourne (1959). As president of the Myer Foundation (1959–92), he enjoyed the rare privilege of backing his own judgement and ideas with money beyond what he required for his needs.

Impressed by Myer’s widening business and civic responsibilities, Prime Minister (Sir) Robert Menzies [q.v.15] appointed him to the interim National Library Council in 1960. Menzies called on him twice more; he was appointed to the Universities Commission (1962–65) and the Committee of Economic Enquiry (1963), known as the ‘Vernon Committee’ after its chairman Sir James Vernon. Myer’s long absences from Melbourne were welcome escapes from the family business and a deteriorating marriage; however, the government’s rejection of the Vernon Committee report soured him against further such exercises.

Fulfilling his mother’s ambitions, Myer became chairman of the family business in 1966. He felt thwarted by his inheritance and described his life as ‘programmed’; responsibility for the ‘biggest retailing chain below the equator’ (Prudence Myer Papers) was a burden. Finding an escape in nature, with the architect (Sir) Roy Grounds [q.v.17] he had purchased 544 acres at Tanja, New South Wales, in 1965. Grounds and Myer donated the restored and replanted forest and several dwellings to the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service in 1976. Known as ‘Penders’, it was later added to Mimosa Rocks National Park and listed on the New South Wales Heritage Register (2013).

Myer experienced a technological epiphany at the opening of the National Library of Australia (1968) when a visiting librarian observed that the building’s information retrieval systems were mired in the eighteenth century. Subsequently he became a passionate, well-informed advocate for information technology, seizing every opportunity to position the NLA in the vanguard of computer-driven technology. He personally funded travel and research by senior staff that resulted in the purchase of software infrastructure leading to the online Australian Bibliographic Network. As the NLA’s fourth chairman (1974–82), he was ‘meticulous, hard-working and utterly exhausting … He was completely in control … and remorseless in eliciting all the facts’ (Thomson 1992, 8).

Professor Derek Denton’s experiments on merino sheep, specifically the control of aldosterone (the salt-retaining hormone) secretion, at the University of Melbourne triggered Myer’s fascination for science. With Baillieu and the stockbroker and financier (Sir) Ian Potter [q.v.], he helped to underwrite the costs of building the Howard Florey [q.v.14] Institute of Experimental Physiology and Medicine at the university (1971) and served as its first president (1971–90). He served as a member of the Australian National Capital Planning Committee (1971–82). In 1972 he took long service leave in Japan where he met and fell in love with twenty-seven-year-old Yasuko Hiraoka. That year, as one of sixteen signatories of a controversial letter to the press calling for a change of Federal government, he provoked public outcry, family division, and angry repercussions by Myer customers. His influence with government increased when Gough Whitlam became prime minister. Whitlam asked him to consider succeeding Sir Paul Hasluck [q.v.] as governor-general, but Myer refused; his undisclosed reason was Yasuko, who was living with him by 1974.

Myer was appointed AC in 1976. He resigned as chairman of Myer that year, untethering himself from his mother and family responsibilities, and married Yasuko on 5 September 1977 in Sydney. He was the first chairman of the restructured Australian Broadcasting Corporation in 1983–86. To his regret, he regarded it as ‘one of his principal failures’ (Myer 1990–92) as a chairman. The ABC board and staff were initially enchanted by their tall, charming chairman with laser-like intelligence and piercing blue eyes, but he came into conflict with members of the board over access to documents and resigned in anger and frustration.

In 1989 the Australian Libraries and Information Association recognised Myer’s ‘outstanding service to the promotion of a library and to the practice of librarianship’ (Whitlam, quoted in Thompson 1992, 8) with its Redmond Barry award. His generosity brought other unsought honours, including foundation honorary fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities (1969); life member, National Gallery of Victoria (1975); honorary LLD (1971), University of Melbourne; and, by special election of people who are not scientists but have rendered conspicuous service, fellow of the Australian Academy of Science (1992).

Myer was known for his sense of humour, his generosity with time, friendship, and money, and his modesty. However, conflict could swiftly turn his exuberance into bleak melancholy. Wes Walters’s portrait (1990) captures his cool, patrician stare that some recipients found unnerving. A baptised Anglican, Myer was often identified in the public mind as Jewish. When rejected for membership of the Melbourne Club, he concluded the cause was anti-Semitism. Gardening, the natural environment, and fishing were lifelong loves. From fishing as a small boy in California, he graduated to angling with dry fly, or spinning on the coast at Penders, sharing these activities with Yasuko. They would travel to the wilds of Alaska when the salmon were running, and they died there in a light aircraft crash on the way to a fishing camp on 30 July 1992. Their ashes are interred in Tokyo, in the handsome Myer Memorial designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens at Box Hill Cemetery, and scattered at Penders. Myer was survived by one daughter and four sons from his first marriage. He left the bulk of his substantial estate to the Myer Foundation.

Barber, Stella. Sydney Myer: A Life, A Legacy. Prahran, Vic.: Hardie Grant Books, 2005; Canberra Times. ‘Arts Patron, Lovely Bloke.’ 3 August 1992, 14; Denton, Derek. ‘Kenneth Baillieu Myer 1921–1992.’ Historical Records of Australian Science 18, no. 1 (2007): 97–111; Ebury, Sue. The Many Lives of Kenneth Myer. Carlton, Vic.: Miegunyah Press, 2008; Myer, Ken. Interview by Heather Rusden, 23 November 1990–13 February 1992. National Library of Australia; National Archives of Australia. A6769, MYER K. B.; Prudence Myer Papers. Private collection; Thompson, John. ‘Kenneth Baillieu Myer: An Appreciation.’ National Library of Australia News, November 1992, 7–10; University of Melbourne Archives. 2011.0092, Kenneth Bailleu Myer Papers.

Sue Ebury*

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