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Australian Dictionary of Biography Volume 19: 1991–1995 (A–Z)


NAIRN, RICHARD CHARLES (1919–1995), professor of pathology, was born on 18 November 1919 at Liverpool, England, eldest of three sons of Richard James Nairn, joiner, and his wife Annie, née Snowdon, both English-born but of Scottish descent. Following schooling at the Liverpool Institute, he graduated with honours from the University of Liverpool medical school (MB, ChB, 1942). After residency (1942–43) at the Walton Hospital, Liverpool, he saw service in World War II as a surgeon lieutenant in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (1944–46). His experiences in the Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, and English Channel (1944–45) and in the Indian Ocean (1945–46) as medical officer of the fleet minesweeper HMS Gozo honed his ‘keen sense of duty, discipline and effective organisational skills’ (Herald Sun 1995, 84). On 8 February 1946 in Colombo, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), he married Barbara Kemp, a naval nurse.

After the war, Nairn embarked on a career in pathology, commencing as assistant pathologist (1946–47) at the Walton Hospital and Liverpool Royal Infirmary. He continued his studies at the University of Liverpool (MD, 1947; PhD, 1952), where he was lecturer in pathology (1948–52) and wrote his doctoral thesis on the pathogenesis of oedema. In 1952 he was appointed as a lecturer at the University of Aberdeen (senior lecturer from 1960) and an honorary consultant pathologist for the north-eastern region of Scotland. In 1963 he took up the foundation chair of pathology at Monash University’s medical school, Alfred Hospital campus, Melbourne. He also became honorary consultant pathologist at the Alfred Hospital, Prince Henry’s Hospital, Royal Southern Memorial Hospital, and the Queen Victoria Medical Centre.

Nairn first organised the undergraduate pathology course for medical students, recruiting an outstanding staff from around the world and initiating an invaluable collection of pathology specimens. He served on university governing bodies and strongly influenced the shaping of the faculty of medicine. His prophetic vision of immunology as a burgeoning area of biomedical research led him to establish additional teaching and research programs for both science and medical students. The department of pathology was renamed the department of pathology and immunology in 1975. He was a demanding but committed and inspiring graduate research student supervisor and staff mentor.

Successfully combining his heavy administration and teaching commitment with a large and productive research program, Nairn was at the forefront of the emerging discipline of immunopathology, demonstrating that immune reactions could contribute to pathological processes and not only to defence against infections. He studied autoimmune diseases, especially of the gastrointestinal system, and investigated changes in cellular antigens during neoplasia, appreciating the potential for manipulating the immune system to prevent transplant rejection and to target cancer cells. Pivotal to this research were his skills in developing immunofluorescence technology, using fluorescent dyes to trace antibody binding to cells and tissues, analysed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.

Nairn’s research was well supported by research grants and resulted in 176 publications including articles, books, and chapters. He edited the seminal text on Fluorescent Protein Tracing, which was published in four editions between 1962 and 1976, as well as the nine-volume Practical Methods in Clinical Immunology series from 1980 to 1985. He served on several editorial boards for journals including Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Journal of Immunological Methods, and Immunological Communications, and was also an associate editor of Pathology, the journal of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA).

In 1964 Nairn established a clinical immunology and immunopathology diagnostic service in his department, one of the first in Australia. He played a pivotal role in the emergence of clinical immunology as a specialist medical discipline in Australia. A fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists, London (1963), the RCPA (1963), the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1965), and the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (1974), he was awarded the Crawford Mollison [q.v.10] prize in pathology (1972–74) by the Australian Medical Association. In 1974 the RACP and the RCPA established a joint specialist advisory committee in immunology, which Nairn chaired. He was also chief examiner (1975–80) in clinical immunology for the RCPA and a foundation member of both the British Society of Immunology (BSI) and the Australasian Society for Immunology.

His first marriage having ended in divorce, Nairn married June Alison Fordyce, a secretary, on 11 June 1980 at the register office, New Forest, Hampshire, England. After his retirement in 1984, he was made professor emeritus by Monash University, and became a director and consultant (1984–88) for Wild Leitz Australia Pty Ltd, a manufacturer of optical instruments. His recreations included chess, theatre, and literature. In 1989 he returned with his wife to England, settling at Colwall, Worcestershire. He became a member of the Edward Jenner Educational Trust and archivist for the BSI. Survived by his wife, and the two daughters of his first marriage, he died on 1 August 1995 at the Royal Infirmary, Ronkswood. The Nairn prize in immunology at Monash University is awarded annually to the top immunology honours student.

Fraser, Kenneth B. ‘Richard Charles Nairn.’ Royal Society of Edinburgh. Copy held on ADB file; Glynn, L. E. ‘Obituary: Professor Richard Nairn.’ Bulletin of the British Society for Immunology, November/December 1995, 209; Herald Sun (Melbourne). ‘Richard Nairn, Leader in Immunology.’ 12 October 1995, 84; Muller, H. Konrad. ‘Richard Charles Nairn, Foundation Professor of Pathology and Immunology at Monash University.’ Pathology 31 (August 1999): 295–99; Personal knowledge of ADB subject.

Jennifer M. Rolland

NASR, SAMI NICOLAS (1913–1995), geologist and oil executive, was born on 4 October 1913 at Jerusalem, youngest child of Arab parents Elias Nicola Nasr and his wife Afifeh. Sami was baptised into the Greek Orthodox Church. Graduating from the Collège Des Frères, Jerusalem, with an International Baccalaureate in 1931, Sami completed further studies at the University of London. In 1935 he commenced studies in geological engineering at the New Mexico School of Mines, Albuquerque, United States of America (BSc, 1938).

Returning to the Middle East, Nasr began work as one of the few Arab geologists for the Iraq Petroleum Company Ltd (IPC), a powerful British, Dutch, French, and American joint venture that owned numerous oil concessions in the Middle East. He rose swiftly through the organisation, surveying in Palestine and Jordan, and becoming IPC’s divisional geologist. On 10 September 1948 he married Constance (Connie) Mary Sittlington (d. 1988), a matron at the Quaker hospital at Gaza, in a civil ceremony at the British Legation, Amman; they were to have no children. From 1949 he was posted to Iraq, first as resident geologist at Ain Zalah for Mosul Petroleum Ltd, and then as divisional geologist for Basrah Petroleum Ltd. He became King Faisal II of Iraq’s scientific advisor and was regularly called to the palace to give advice.

Between 1954 and 1959 Nasr was responsible for the technical departments of Mosul and Basrah Petroleum’s oilfields. During the 1958 revolution most of the Iraqi royal family were murdered and a nationalist government took power. In March 1959 Nasr, now exploration manager for IPC in Baghdad, was arrested and pressured to implicate IPC in a failed counter-insurgency. He refused to cooperate. Interned for a month and destined to be hanged, he was released as a result of his determined wife’s haranguing of the revolutionary leader Abd al-Karīm Qāsim and financial incentives from IPC.

With his real estate, shares, and bank accounts confiscated, Nasr and his wife fled from the country. Unable to return to Palestine, at Baghdad airport he encountered Turkey’s ambassador, with whom he pleaded for help, securing safe passage via Istanbul to his wife’s homeland of Ireland. While remaining on the IPC payroll he studied at Trinity College Dublin (MSc, 1961); his thesis was titled ‘The Economic Geology of the Oil Fields of Northern Iraq, Ain Zalah and Butmah Fields’. The changed political climate made his monarchist links a liability, and IPC terminated his contract, although arranging a generous pay-out and lifelong pension.

‘Suave and urbane, dignified and courteous’ (Flower 1995, 14), and fluent in both English and Arabic, Nasr had extensive global oil connections. However, after failing in 1961 to secure an alternative senior role in the Middle East, he begrudgingly accepted a two-year contract in Australia with the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, spearheading geological surveying. Soon he moved to Ampol Exploration Ltd as exploration manager and chief geologist. Always inspired by ‘the thrill of the … chase’ (Flower 1995, 14), he stimulated Ampol’s oil and gas discoveries and commercialisation in Western Australia, New South Wales, and north Queensland. In May 1964 he officiated at the spudding (initial drilling) ceremony on Barrow Island, off the north-west coast of Australia. Before long, oil flowed—the first of dozens of wells that would produce millions of barrels.

Nasr joined the board of Ampol Exploration Ltd in 1965. A founding member (1966) of the Sydney branch of the Institute of Petroleum, he was chairman from 1968. The same year he was promoted to general manager (exploration and production) of the Ampol Group. In the next decade he oversaw petroleum exploration in the Pacific Ocean, north Queensland, and Tonga, and encouraged Ampol to invest in asbestos mining in New South Wales and minerals exploration in Western Australia. He led the Australian delegation at the four-yearly World Petroleum Congresses from 1967 to 1991.

In 1973 Nasr was awarded honorary life membership of the Institute of Petroleum’s Sydney branch. Departing from Ampol in 1978, he founded Cluff Oil (Australia) NL with Algy Cluff, becoming managing director and a board member in 1979. Within two years, the company’s share price had quadrupled and the business was sold. He continued his association with Cluff, who with Nasr formed Cluff Oil (Pacific) Ltd, and played a leading role in negotiating ultimately unviable oil leases for Cluff off the coast of China in the early 1980s; Nasr was also a member of the board of the British parent company. With Cluff Resources he was involved in exploration and development of gold resources in New South Wales prior to his retirement in 1989.

Among the organisations to gain from Nasr’s expertise was the Earth Resources Foundation within the University of Sydney (council member, 1978–81). In his final years he suffered dementia and heart disease. He died on 17 November 1995 at home at Balgowlah Heights, survived by his second partner, Judith Helen Andrews; he was buried in Frenchs Forest lawn cemetery. Never naturalised as Australian, he had maintained his Irish citizenship. A wily and prolific offshore share investor, he had been able in 1993 to donate more than 2.3 million euros to Trinity College Dublin, which led in 2001 to the opening of its multidisciplinary Sami Nasr Institute of Advanced Materials.

Australian Women’s Weekly. ‘The Quiet Irish Nurse.’ 30 May 1962, 9; Flower, John M. ‘Slick “Cat” Gave Us the Drum When It Came to Oil.’ Australian. 30 November 1995, 14; Nasr Papers. Private collection; Petroleum Gazette. ‘Sami Nasr: Australia’s One-Man “Multinational”.’ 30, no. 4 (1995): 39; Wilkinson, Rick. Where God Never Trod: Australia’s Explorers Across Two Centuries. Windsor, Qld: Christopher Beck Books, 2000.

Sam G. Everingham

NAVE, THEODORE ERIC (1899–1993), naval officer, code-breaker, security specialist, and supporter of naval veterans, was born on 18 March 1899 in Adelaide, eldest child of Thomas Henry Theodore Nave, clerk, and his wife Ethel Sophefia, née Petterson. After leaving Hindmarsh District High School, where he was a good scholar and fine cricketer, at sixteen Eric joined the South Australian Railways as a clerk. Keen to serve in World War I, he obtained an appointment in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) on 1 March 1917 as a paymaster’s clerk, with the rank of midshipman, and served at sea in the Pacific. He chose Japanese to demonstrate a required foreign language proficiency and discovered an instinctive affinity for the language. This seemingly trivial decision determined the course of his life. He was promoted to paymaster sub-lieutenant in 1920 and lieutenant in 1921.

While studying in Japan (1921–23), Nave surprised officers at the British embassy with his grasp of the language. The British were concerned that Japan had designs on their Far East and Indian interests, but their intelligence-collection efforts were hampered by a lack of linguists and code-breakers. After Nave returned to Australia, the British Admiralty asked the RAN that he be lent to their China Fleet as an interpreter and (with the RAN’s knowledge) for secret code-breaking duties. While on the China Station (1925–27), he succeeded in breaking two Japanese naval codes. Impressed, the Admiralty then asked that Nave be lent to work in London; in January 1928 he joined the Government Code and Cipher School, Britain’s signals intelligence headquarters. His progress was spectacular. Made head of the naval section, he deciphered two more Japanese codes, one being the naval attaché code, enabling the British access to Tokyo’s exchanges with its attachés in Europe. He was promoted to paymaster lieutenant commander in 1929.

Keen to retain Nave, the Admiralty offered him generous employment terms, which he accepted. His appointment with the RAN was terminated on 29 August 1930 and he transferred to the Royal Navy (RN) the next day. His career thenceforward comprised postings to the Far East and London; in 1937 Nave became head of the code-breaking section of the all-source Far East Combined Bureau in Hong Kong. He was promoted to paymaster commander that year. Japanese incursions southwards in China created demands for more intelligence and threatened the bureau’s existence. Nave’s health deteriorated in the tropical climate and he was admitted to hospital late in 1938. In August 1939 the bureau was evacuated to Singapore where, on 2 September at the Anglican Cathedral, he married Helena Elizabeth Gray, a nurse who had cared for him in hospital.

In London and Singapore the code-breakers struggled with the Japanese Navy’s new main fleet code. Although they broke some code groups by Christmas 1939, nearly 40,000 remained unsolved. At this juncture Nave’s health collapsed and he was sent to Australia to recuperate. There the RAN applied his skills to enhance its own code-breaking capabilities, despite Admiralty demands for his return. In May 1941 he formed the joint Army-Navy Special Intelligence Bureau in Melbourne, where his team made considerable progress against Japanese codes. United States Navy code-breakers, whom the Japanese had forced from the Philippines, arrived in Australia where, together with Nave’s organisation, they formed the Fleet Radio Unit, Melbourne. Differences in philosophy and command relationships, however, doomed their cooperation and, after contributing to successes against the Japanese in the Coral Sea and Solomon Islands, in October 1942 Nave was ejected from the organisation he had founded.

Nave’s return to Britain seemed inevitable until, at the request of the Australian Military Forces, he was posted to General Douglas MacArthur’s [q.v.15] Central Bureau in Brisbane in December. Placed in charge of the section dealing with Japanese naval material, he quickly made his mark, particularly in training field units to break codes in forward areas. In 1944 he was promoted to acting captain. He helped ensure that Australia’s wartime code-breaking experience and expertise were preserved in a permanent Australian organisation, later known as the Defence Signals Bureau.

Nave was placed on the RN Retired List on 18 March 1949, having ceased duty with the RAN the previous day. On 20 October he became a senior officer in the newly formed Australian Security Intelligence Organisation based in Melbourne. In October 1950 he was promoted to assistant director, ‘C’ branch, investigation and research, and in 1957 became regional director for Victoria. He developed procedures for security vetting, and was responsible for security during the 1954 royal visit and the 1956 Melbourne Olympic Games. Nave retired in March 1959.

He was a gregarious and charming man who had many friends. Active in the Naval Association of Australia, he became its first national president in 1960. Following the death of his wife in 1969, he married Margaret McLeish Richardson in December 1970. In 1972 he was appointed OBE for services to ex-servicemen. An enthusiastic gardener, he was president and life member of the Brighton Horticultural Society.

In 1991 Nave was named as co-author of James Rushbridger’s controversial book, Betrayal at Pearl Harbor: How Churchill Lured Roosevelt into World War II. The book argued, without evidence, that Churchill withheld from Roosevelt decoded Japanese messages about its planned attack on Pearl Harbor, to ensure America’s entry into the war. Nave later repudiated the claim and denied any part in making it. Survived by his wife, two of the three daughters, and the son, of his first marriage, he died on 23 June 1993 at Mooloolaba, Queensland, and was buried in Brighton cemetery, Victoria.

Elphick, Peter. Far Eastern File: The Intelligence War in the Far East 1930–45. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1997; Funch, Colin. Linguists in Uniform: The Japanese Experience. Clayton, Vic: Monash University, 2003; Jenkins, David. ‘Our War of Words.’ Sydney Morning Herald. 19 September 1992, 37; National Archives of Australia. A6769, NAVE T E, A3978, NAVE T E, A6119, 3576; Pfennigwerth, Ian. A Man of Intelligence: The Life of Captain Eric Nave, Australian Codebreaker Extraordinary. Dural, NSW: Rosenberg Publishing Pty Ltd, 2006; Smith, Michael. The Emperor’s Codes: Bletchley Park and the Breaking of Japan’s Secret Ciphers. London: Bantam Press, 2000.

Ian Pfennigwerth

NAYLOR, BERNARD GEORGE (BERNIE) (1923–1993), Australian Rules footballer, was born on 19 April 1923 at Fremantle, Western Australia, tenth surviving child of locally born William Alfred Naylor, baker, and his Victorian-born wife Annie Elizabeth, née Harken, both prominent in the Catholic community. Registered as George Andrew, he was baptised Bernard. Bernie was educated at the Christian Brothers’ College, Fremantle, where he demonstrated talent in the high jump. After passing his junior certificate (1939) he left school and started work as a clerk. Joining his brother Thomas, Bernie played with the Fremantle CBC Old Boys’ Football Club in the amateur association. In 1941 he was recruited by the South Fremantle Football Club in the Western Australian National Football League (WANFL). That year he kicked sixty goals as the club’s ‘goal sneak’ (full forward).

In 1942 the WANFL suspended the senior competition for the duration of World War II. Mobilised for full-time duty in the Citizen Military Forces on 10 January 1942 and transferring to the Australian Imperial Force in July, Naylor served as a signalman, mainly at the headquarters of the 13th Brigade. In Darwin (1943–44) and New Britain (November 1944 to January 1946) he played in army football matches and ‘practised kicking a football between palm trees to improve his accuracy’ (Lauge 1993, 74). He was promoted to lance corporal in May 1945, and was discharged from the AIF on 13 February 1946 in Perth. On 29 March 1948 at the Sacred Heart Church, Highgate, Perth, Naylor married Patricia Loyola Slattery. That year he began working as a clerk at the Fremantle branch of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CBA).

Naylor was a major force in six South Fremantle premierships (1947–48, 1950, and 1952–54). A right-footer, he kicked more than 100 goals in each of five seasons and headed the league aggregates in six of them (1946–48, 1952–54). His record 167 goals in 1953 included twenty-three in one game and equalled the national record. West Perth’s Ray Schofield rated him second only to the ‘all-time best’ full forward, Essendon’s John Coleman [q.v.13], and ‘a better, more reliable kick’ (Sunday Times 1953, 24). That year Naylor won South Fremantle’s A. W. Walker medal for the best and fairest player. He attributed the length and accuracy of his torpedo punting to an unconventional grip on the ball with the lace on the right, rather than uppermost. Although his 6 feet 2 inches (188 cm) and 182 pounds (83 kg) made him one of the biggest WANFL players of his era, leaping high was less important to his success than exceptional speed to take uncontested marks. His method depended on fellow team members such as the rover Steve Marsh, who possessed a ‘bullet-like drop-kick and stab-pass’ (Hagdorn 2014). The ability of Victorian teams to stifle such support explained Naylor’s lack of success in State representative games (1946–­48, 1950, 1952–54).

At the age of thirty-one Naylor retired from football. The needs of his growing family demanded that he develop his CBA career for, while expenses were paid, the only remuneration for players was small payments into a provident fund. In 1962 he transferred to the Palmyra branch and was later school liaison officer (1966–67) attached to the CBA administration, Perth. He retired in 1983. Survived by his wife, four daughters and son, he died of cancer on 26 September 1993 and was buried in Fremantle cemetery. The Bernie Naylor medal for the player who kicked most goals in the season was instituted in 1996. He was inducted into the West Australian Football Hall of Fame in 2004.

Barker, Anthony J. Behind the Play: A History of Football in Western Australia from 1868. Perth: The West Australian Football Commission, 2004; Christian, Geoff. The Footballers: From 1885 to the West Coast Eagles. Perth: St George Books, 1988; Hagdorn, Kim. ‘Steve Marsh, 89, Fires Great Derby Wrangle in Wanting to be Traded Back to South Freo.’ PerthNow, 8 March 2014. Accessed 29 October 2014. Copy held on ADB file; Lauge, Steve. ‘Bulldog Superstar Dies.’ West Australian (Perth), 27 September 1993, 74; National Archives of Australia. B883, WX30892; Sunday Times (Perth). ‘Played 160 Games with Club.’ 17 May 1953, 24; West Australian Football Commission. ‘Hall of Fame Inductee: Bernard George NAYLOR.’ 2004. Accessed 24 October 2014. Copy held on ADB file.

Anthony J. Barker

NEASEY, FRANCIS MERVYN (FRANK) (1920–1993), judge and author, was born on 13 September 1920 at Latrobe, Tasmania, elder of two sons of Tasmanian-born Herbert Henry Neasey, carter, and his wife Elsie Beatrice, née Tyler. Frank was educated at Burnie Convent School and Burnie High School, where he was a senior prefect.

In 1939 Neasey became a student teacher at Hobart’s Philip Smith Teachers’ College. He taught at Elizabeth Street Practising School until 16 September 1941 when, mobilised for service in World War II, he began full-time duty in the Citizen Military Forces (Australian Imperial Force (AIF) from July 1942). He served as a sergeant (1942) in anti-aircraft batteries—the 13th in Hobart (1941–43) and the 32nd and 23rd in Port Moresby (1943–44)—and with the 1st Naval Bombardment Group on Morotai (1945). While on leave, on 7 January 1943 he married Patricia May Killalea at Launceston’s Catholic Church of the Apostles.

Having been discharged from the AIF on 15 January 1946, Neasey doubted that his temperament was suited to teaching, and thought that a legal career would better secure his future. From 1946 to 1949 he studied law at the University of Tasmania under the Commonwealth Reconstruction Training Scheme (LLB, 1949). Admitted as a legal practitioner in September 1949, he joined the firm Murdoch, Cuthbert and Clarke, where he had been an articled clerk. He became a partner in June 1950. A formidable trial lawyer, he excelled at advocacy, mainly taking on civil cases. At the University of Tasmania, he lectured part time in evidence and procedure (1956–62). He served terms as president of the Southern Tasmanian Bar Association (1961–62), of which he had been a founding member in 1952, and as president of the Medico-Legal Society of Tasmania.

Elevated to the Supreme Court of Tasmania in 1963, Neasey became renowned for ‘his independence, scholarship, intellectual integrity and articulate exposition of his reasons’ (Kirby 2004, 6). He supported reforms to the profession, including dispensing with wigs, using technology to secure accurate transcriptions of proceedings, videotaping police evidence, and simplifying legal language. Ending his judicial career in September 1990 as one of Tasmania’s longest-serving Supreme Court judges, he was praised by the president of the Tasmanian Bar Association, Pierre Slicer, for his ‘great intellectual understanding of legal concepts’ and for his ‘humanity’ (Leary 1990, 29).

Neasey recognised that the law had to evolve to meet the needs of a changing society. In 1969 he had become part-time chairman of the Law Reform Committee and then chaired the Tasmanian Law Reform Commission (1974–75). In this role he took pride in introducing compensation for accident victims, and in modernising the Criminal Code. He was a member of the Australian Law Reform Commission (1980–84), where his major contribution was in reforming evidence law; he lamented that very little of what the commission recommended was implemented. The government appointed him chair of the Royal Derwent Hospital’s board of management (1968–73), and of a royal commission into urban public passenger transport (1974). For service to the law and law reform, he was appointed AO in 1987.

His athletic build made Neasey a fine tennis player. A reserved man with a scholarly disposition, he loved classical music and was a keen student of biography. He began writing a book on his judicial hero Andrew Inglis Clark [q.v.3], which was completed by his son Lawrence in 2001. Survived by his wife, two sons, and two daughters, he died on 6 August 1993 in Hobart and was cremated. The Neasey scholarship at the University of Tasmania assists students studying for a higher degree in law.

Hunt, Ann. ‘Neasey Ends 27 Years on the Supreme Court Bench.’ Advocate, 15 September 1990, 18; Kirby, Michael. ‘Three Tasmanian Law Reformers.’ University of Tasmania Law Review 23, no. 1 (2004): 1–14; Leary, Angela. ‘Humanity Marked Rise to the Top.’ Mercury, 12 September 1990, 9; National Archives of Australia. B883, TX10342; ‘Personalia.’ Australian Law Journal 37, no. 1 (1963): 29; Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office. ED 190/1/1726, Personal Files of Teachers, SC207/1/693, Documents Relating to the Admission of Legal Practitioners.

Stefan Petrow

NELSON, THOMAS (TOM) (1908–1995), union leader and political activist, was born Charles Andrew Smith on 29 July 1908 at Wilcannia, New South Wales, second child of New South Wales–born parents Charles Norton Smith, station manager, and his wife Elizabeth Bridget, née Dugan. Following his mother’s death when he was still young, Catholic nuns raised Charles at White Cliffs. Leaving school early, he was employed as a shearer during his teen years.

Moving to Sydney in the second half of the 1920s he began working on the waterfront, joining the Waterside Workers’ Federation (WWF) in 1927. On 23 March 1934 he married New Zealand–born Hazel Josephine Buckley at St David’s Church of England, Surry Hills. Adopting the name Thomas (Tom) Nelson, he would remain with the union for the next forty-six years, holding office as Sydney branch president (1942, 1944–45, and 1947) and branch secretary from 1948. State representative on the union’s federal committee of management (later federal council) from 1941, he was defeated for election as national general secretary by Charlie Fitzgibbon in 1961, after the death of Jim Healy [q.v.14].

The 1930s and 1940s were difficult times for workers and unions in Australia. The Depression led to high unemployment, declining wages and conditions, and falling union membership. Nelson’s 1957 book, The Hungry Mile, captured some of the hardships, describing how hungry and desperate waterfront workers were hired on a daily basis according to the so-called ‘bull’ system, which he compared to a slave market: the physically strongest but least militant workers—the ‘bulls’—were chosen first for shifts while the less able or more union-conscious were given the worst jobs or ignored altogether. He was frequently overlooked owing to his union activities, and was sometimes physically attacked. Little attention was paid to safety precautions, and there were often injuries. In 1940 he was sacked and fined for refusing to work longer than twenty-four hours straight.

Nelson combined the struggle for workers’ rights on the waterfront with engagement in efforts to relieve human suffering everywhere. In 1931 he joined attempts to prevent the eviction by police of tenants who were unemployed. He was involved in the pig-iron conflict of 1938 and 1939, when the WWF’s Port Kembla branch opposed Japanese military aggression by banning pig-iron shipments to Japan. Following floods in 1955, he assisted in organising teams of ‘wharfies’ to aid people in affected country towns; the WWF would go on to help fund a refuge for Aboriginal people in Dubbo after one team reported on their abysmal living conditions. An advocate of Indonesian independence after World War II, he disapproved of both the First Indochina War in the 1950s and the Vietnam War in the 1960s and 1970s, in addition to opposing South African apartheid.

In 1930 Nelson had joined the Communist Party of Australia and helped to form its waterfront branch, becoming branch leader in 1935. That decade he was involved in clashes with the New Guard. He became the subject of investigations by police and intelligence services, and one of his associates in the 1930s was subsequently revealed to have been a police agent. In 1971, after the CPA had distanced itself from the Soviet Union following the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia, he and others broke off to form the Socialist Party of Australia. However, in the wake of the Soviet Union’s collapse, he lamented that he and those like him had been deceived by the Soviets.

A keen rugby league fan, Nelson promoted sporting activity, including national sports carnivals, within the WWF. In 1953 he played a leading role in establishing the WWF film unit, with Keith Gow and Jock Levy; fellow wharf labourers and communists, they were also New Theatre members. They recruited Norma Disher, another New Theatre member. Workers were involved as actors in the unit’s productions, which focused on the experiences of workers and their communities, addressing subjects such as workers’ rights and industrial conflict. It went on to make films for other unions, including the Miners’ Federation, before being dissolved in 1958. He published a second book, A Century of a Union, in 1972.

On retirement in 1973 Nelson surmised that he had been involved in leading a greater number of strikes than other unionists in the country, and perhaps the world. By this time, the ‘bull’ system was long gone and the ‘Mile’ was much less hungry: the activism of his union had helped win conditions for wharfies such as paid holiday and sick leave, more permanent employment, a thirty-five-hour work week, redundancy payments, and pensions. A tough and tenacious fighter for causes he considered just, he was also a committed family man. His wife, two sons, and two daughters survived him when he died on 20 February 1995 at Arncliffe; he was cremated. Tom Nelson Hall is named in his memory.

Aarons, Laurie. ‘Tireless Battler for Waterfront Reform.’ Australian, 9 March 1995, 10; Beasley, Margot. Wharfies: A History of the Waterside Workers’ Federation of Australia. Sydney: Halstead Press in association with Australian National Maritime Museum, 1996; O’Brien, Geraldine. ‘When Sydney’s Wharfies Had a Starring Role.’ Sydney Morning Herald, 17 November 2003, 15; State Library of New South Wales. MLMSS 6138, Tom Nelson—Papers, 1928–1992, mainly concerning the Waterside Workers’ Federation of Australia; Wells, Fred. ‘Iron Man of the Waterfront: Union Veteran Recalls Battles of Long Ago.’ Sydney Morning Herald, 2 August 1973, 7.

Ray Markey

NEWMAN, JOHN PAUL (1946–1994), politician, was born Johann Grauenig on 8 December 1946 at Villach, Austria, son of John Arch and Helene Grauenig. After his father’s death, his mother married Peter Naumenko. The family migrated to Australia in 1950 and settled at Cabramatta, western Sydney, where John lived for the rest of his life. He attended Cabramatta Public and Liverpool Boys’ High schools, before beginning work as a clerk at the engineering firm Borg-Warner (Australia) Ltd.

Newman became a local delegate for the Federated Clerk’s Union of Australia in 1969. He worked as a State organiser for the union from 1970 to 1986, anglicising his name by deed poll in 1972. On 12 October 1973 at the Sacred Heart Catholic Church, Cabramatta, he married Mary Kosabudsky, a typist-clerk. He joined the Canley Heights branch of the Australian Labor Party (ALP), and served on Fairfield City Council between 1977 and 1987 (and as deputy mayor 1985–86). In December 1979 his pregnant wife and son were killed in a car accident.

A fifth-dan karate master, Newman trained young people at his local club for many years. Among several leadership roles in Australian sports organisations, he was president (1978–87) of the Federation of Australian Karate-do Organisations. Within the Labor Party, he chaired the New South Wales policy committee for sport, recreation, and tourism.

In February 1986 Newman entered the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as member for Cabramatta after a by-election caused by the resignation of the Labor minister Eric Bedford. On 12 March, in his inaugural speech, he detailed the needs of his disadvantaged, multicultural electorate, themes that he would pursue relentlessly over the next eight years. His contributions to parliamentary debates focused on crime and traffic safety. He served on the joint standing committee on road safety from 11 May 1989.

A tenacious correspondent in pursuit of local constituency matters, Newman publicly criticised ministers, bureaucrats, and police when he thought their responses were inadequate. He developed few friendships among fellow parliamentarians. Colleagues and friends described him as generous but abrasive.

By 1994 Newman had established a reputation as a crime fighter, particularly against local Asian gangs. He received death threats and had his property vandalised. On 5 September 1994 he was shot dead in the driveway of his house after returning from a local ALP meeting. He was survived by his fiancée, Xiao Jing (Lucy) Wang, a Chinese-born interpreter. Unusual for a backbench parliamentarian, he was accorded a state funeral, which was held at Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church at Mount Pritchard, where he had regularly attended Mass. The mourners included Prime Minister Paul Keating, New South Wales Governor Peter Sinclair, and Premier John Fahey. He was buried in Liverpool cemetery. In 2002 a swimming pool at Prairiewood was named after him.

Although various motives for the crime were canvassed, his murder was quickly labelled Australia’s first political assassination. The story was reported internationally and intensified Australian debate about multiculturalism, immigration, and organised crime. The Cabramatta businessman and Fairfield city councillor Phuong Ngo was convicted of Newman’s murder by joint enterprise in June 2001; the shooter and the driver have not been established. Ngo had joined the ALP after the 1991 State election and built a local power base. Newman had repeatedly accused him of links with criminal activity. A 2009 judicial inquiry, ordered in response to a submission raising questions about evidence in his trial, found no ‘unease or disquiet’ (Patten 2009, 209) about Ngo’s conviction.

‘The Newman Murder.’ Four Corners. Television program. Chris Masters. Australian Broadcasting Corporation, first broadcast 19 September 1994.; New South Wales. Legislative Assembly. Parliamentary Debates, vol. 242, 13 September 1994, 2888–2907; Parliament of New South Wales. ‘Mr John Paul NEWMAN (1946–1994).’ Accessed 13 September 2016. Copy on ADB file; Patten, David. Report to the Chief Justice of New South Wales (The Hon JJ Spigelman AC) of the Inquiry Held Under Section 79 of the Crimes (Appeal and Review) Act 2001 into the Conviction of Phuong Canh Ngo for the Murder of John Newman. 14 April 2009; Priest, Tim. On Deadly Ground: The Assassination of John Newman MP. Sydney: New Holland, 2010; Wang, Lucy. Blood Price. Melbourne: William Heinemann Australia, 1996.

Rodney Smith

NEWTON-JOHN, BRINLEY (BRIN) (1914–1992), university administrator and professor of German literature, was born Brinley Newton John on 5 March 1914 in Cardiff, Wales, son of Welsh parents Oliver John, council schools manual instructor, and his wife Daisy, née Newton. Educated at Canton Municipal Secondary School, Cardiff, Brin won a scholarship to Gonville and Caius College, University of Cambridge (BA, 1935; MA, 1939), where he achieved a double first in the modern and medieval languages tripos. After graduating, he became assistant master at Christ’s Hospital (1936–38), then at Stowe School (1938–40). On 5 April 1937 at the register office, Kensington, he had married Irene Helene Käthe Hedwig Born, daughter of the physicist Max Born.

Commissioned in the Royal Air Force on 30 September 1940, Newton-John (as he would come to write his name) was drafted into intelligence. He spent two years interrogating captured German pilots, using his language skills and familiarity with upper-class German society to gain their confidence and elicit information. He was involved in authenticating the identity of Rudolf Hess in May 1941. In 1942 he was seconded to the top-secret Ultra project at Bletchley Park, the intelligence unit that, among other things, broke the German Enigma codes, frequently giving the Allies advance knowledge of enemy plans. Located in Hut 3, he was engaged in interpreting and analysing the information decoded in Hut 6. He was part of the team that supplied General (Sir) Bernard (Viscount) Montgomery with crucial information about the disposition of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel’s forces and supply lines a week before the battle of El Alamein in October 1942. On 5 September 1945 he was promoted to war substantive flight lieutenant.

After demobilisation late in 1945, Newton-John returned to teaching as headmaster of Cambridgeshire High School for Boys. In 1954 he came to Australia with his family as master of Ormond [q.v.5] College, University of Melbourne. He served Ormond College for five years. During his liberal regime, he initiated an extensive building program and contributed widely to the college, the university, and the general community through committees and activities as an actor, singer, and television host.

Following the breakdown of his marriage in 1958, Newton-John successfully applied for the position of associate professor of German and head of the department of arts at the youthful Newcastle University College, then part of the University of New South Wales. He married Valerie Ter Wee (née Cunningham), bookshop manager and pianist, and later clinical psychologist, on 28 June 1963 at the district registrar’s office, Hamilton. Remaining at the university until his retirement in 1974, he became in turn deputy warden of the college (1963), vice-principal of the new university (1965), and deputy vice-chancellor (1968). He frequently acted as vice-chancellor in place of J. J. Auchmuty [q.v.17], as the college achieved independence and then grew in stature as the University of Newcastle, rapidly expanding throughout the following decade.

In the early days when the vice-chancellor and his deputy were giving the university a profile in the Newcastle community, Newton-John’s easy social skills complemented the forthright drive of Auchmuty. At his farewell speech in 1973, using words borrowed from the Jesuit superior general Claudio Acquaviva, Newton-John said that he had developed a ‘habit … of acting suaviter in modo to supplement the Vice-Chancellor’s fortiter in re’. Eloquent and elegant, he brought a version of Oxbridge tradition to the fledgling institution, wrote its by-laws, and provided the university’s motto: ‘I look ahead’. During the years of radical student protest in the late 1960s and 1970s he made a major contribution to good governance through the establishment of a staff–student consultative committee, opening the way for better channels of communication within the university. Provision of student accommodation was another long-time concern. A history of the first forty years of the university noted ‘the enormous amount of work’ he did for students, observing that ‘when he retired early in 1974, the students lost a real friend’ (Wright 1992, 118).

Although administrative duties, particularly in preparation for autonomy, claimed much of his attention, Newton-John continued to teach and was remembered by former students not only for the brilliance of his instruction but also for the sense that he took them seriously and treated them without condescension. When a chair of German was established in 1966, a personal chair of German literature was established for him. He had a special interest in student activities and welfare, establishing the first university choir, participating in productions by the Student Players, and encouraging student revues. There were public readings of Dylan Thomas’s Under Milk Wood by Newton-John and other members of staff, several of them like him proud of their Welsh heritage. This repeated the success of previous performances in Melbourne. An ambassador for the cultural value of higher education, he was popular in the wider community as an occasional speaker. In 1972 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts. On his retirement, the university conferred on him the title of professor emeritus and convocation named an award for creativity and innovation in his honour.

During his retirement Newton-John was able to pursue more closely a long-standing involvement with classical music. His mother had been a singer in the Royal Welsh Ladies Choir and he played the violin during his school years. For a time he had considered a career as a professional singer. At Bletchley Park he sang in performances of opera, gave recitals of German lieder, and took part in revues. Throughout his career he lectured on music from Bach to Wagner, and after moving to Sydney in 1981 he served as a regular presenter on the fine music radio station 2 MBS-FM and was a member of its board. He was also a pioneer in television broadcasting in Australia, as moderator of the 1958 Australian Broadcasting Commission program Any Questions, and as deviser and presenter of a popular but short-lived program Forum for Newcastle TV station NBN 3 in 1962.

After divorcing his second wife, on 21 August 1983 at Manly, Sydney, Newton-John married Gay Mary Jean Holley (née McOmish), a journalist. As well as his love of classical music, he was a skilled photographer and keen squash player in younger days. Survived by his wife, the son and two daughters of his first marriage, and the daughter and son of his second marriage, he died on 3 July 1992 at Manly; he was cremated. His daughter Olivia, from his first marriage, became such a world-famous pop star that Brin attained fame as ‘the father of Olivia’. A portrait painted by Bill Leak hangs in Ormond College, University of Melbourne.

Cairnes, Joan. ‘Professor Tells Secrets of Hut 3.’ Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate, 21 December 1974, 7; Ewbank, Tim. Olivia: The Biography of Olivia Newton-John. London: Piatkus Books, 2008; ‘Farewell, Vice-Principal.’ University News (University of Newcastle), no. 78 (28 February 1974), 1–3; Personal knowledge of ADB subject; University of Newcastle Archives. Newton-John, Brinley. Papers; Wright, Don, assisted by Rhonda Geale. Looking Back: A History of the University of Newcastle. Callaghan, NSW: University of Newcastle, 1992.

Jill Stowell

John Stowell

NOBLE, RODNEY (1921–1995), air force officer, was born on 5 September 1921 at Randwick, Sydney, youngest of four children of Montague Alfred Noble [q.v.11], dentist and test cricketer, and his wife Elizabeth Ellen, née Ferguson, both Sydney-born. Rodney attended Randwick High and Sydney Grammar schools until 1939, before studying aeronautical engineering at the University of Sydney (BEng, 1944). Following the death of his father in 1940, a committee of friends was formed to finance the continuation of Rodney’s studies. He played first-grade cricket and rugby union and from December 1941 served for two months in the Sydney University Regiment. On 23 October 1943 he enlisted in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and began aircrew training.

Commissioned on 25 March 1944, Noble completed flying training in August and next month was promoted to flying officer. Until the end of World War II he tested aircraft at No. 1 Aircraft Performance Unit, Laverton, Victoria. Promoted to flight lieutenant in March 1946, he was demobilised on 18 July. He became a planning and performance engineer for Trans-Australia Airways, but on 11 March 1947 was commissioned in the Technical Branch of the RAAF with his former rank being confirmed in the Permanent Air Force on 23 September 1948. While employed on staff duties at Air Force Headquarters, Melbourne, he married Bette Lorraine Pedler on 25 November at Kew Presbyterian Church.

In July 1949 Noble was posted to the Aircraft Research and Development Unit at Laverton. Promoted to squadron leader in July 1952, he undertook the RAAF Staff College course in January 1954. In the following January he was promoted to officer-in-charge of No. 482 Maintenance Squadron at Amberley, Queensland. He won the respect of his engineering staff by always being first to fly aircraft on which maintenance had just been completed. In May he accompanied five Canberra bombers on a goodwill mission to Washington—the first time the RAAF had sent jet aircraft overseas, other than to New Zealand. On the return flight he remained in Honolulu, Hawai‘i, to supervise the dismantling of a Canberra that had been damaged in a crash landing.

Promoted to wing commander in January 1957, Noble served on the directing staff of the Staff College, where he was known for allowing students to divert discussion to cricket, his lifelong passion. He was posted to the Department of Air in April 1959, where he produced a report on the value of electronic data processing to the RAAF, particularly for managing aircraft maintenance. In May 1960 he became the senior engineering officer in the air attaché’s office at the Australian embassy, Washington. Following his return to Australia in October 1962, he undertook a period of staff duties at Support Command, Melbourne, until being appointed commanding officer of the RAAF School of Technical Training at Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, on 27 July 1964. From August 1966 he also took over temporary command of the Wagga base, with substantive promotion to group captain on 1 January 1967. The next year he attended the Imperial Defence College, London.

Returning to Australia in February 1969, Noble was posted as director of maintenance policy in the Department of Air, Canberra, then director-general of technical plans in January 1971 with promotion to air commodore. In 1973 he was made director-general of aircraft engineering, subsequently working on projects involving the introduction of Neptune maritime reconnaissance aircraft, new model C-130 Hercules transports, and the F/A-18 tactical fighters. Promoted to air vice marshal on 28 January 1975, he became controller of the service laboratories and trials division in the Department of Defence. Praised as an extremely capable officer with a long record of outstanding leadership and managerial skill, who excelled in his willingness to accept responsibility and make far-sighted decisions, Noble was appointed AO in January 1976. He was chief of air force technical services from 26 February 1979 until he left the RAAF on 4 September 1981 and was placed on the Retired List.

In retirement, Noble managed (1982–85) the Canberra office of the international electronics firm, Rockwell Collins (Australasia) Pty Ltd. He also chaired the Royal Aeronautical Society, Canberra branch (1982–84), then the Australian division (1991–93). Establishing his own engineering and management consultancy, in 1986 he became president of the Defence Manufacturers Association of Australia, as well as chairman of the Canberra division of the Institution of Engineers, Australia. A member of the Canberra and Royal Canberra Golf clubs, he was also a keen swimmer. While in Perth to visit family and watch the fifth Ashes cricket test he suffered a heart attack. He died on 4 February 1995 and, following a full military service, was cremated. Predeceased by his wife, known as Betty, he was survived by their daughter and two sons.

Canberra Times. ‘From Propellers to Jets and Missiles.’ 10 February 1995, 5; Coulthard-Clark, Chris. ‘Engineer Enjoyed Top-Flight Career.’ Australian, 14 February 1995, 15; Jacobs, John. Up and Away: Memoirs of a Pilot in the Royal Australian Air Force 1950–1981. Canberra: Air Power Studies Centre, 1999; National Archives of Australia. A12372, R/22173/H, A12372, R/22173/P, B884, N275643; Sydney Morning Herald. ‘M. A. Noble’s Son.’ 29 June 1940, 16.

Chris Clark

NOFFS, THEODORE DELWIN (TED) (1926–1995), Methodist and Uniting Church minister and social activist, was born on 14 August 1926 at Mudgee, New South Wales, second of three children of German-born Theodore Erwin Bernhardt Noffz, travelling salesman, hunter, and artist (and an atheist), and his wife Leila Eva Mary, née Roth, who was from an immigrant-German winegrowing family at Eurunderee, near Mudgee (and a devoted Anglican). With his parents moving to Sydney to escape poverty in the bush during the Depression, Ted completed his primary school education at Parramatta, and went on to Parramatta High School (1939–41). He frequently returned to his roots at Eurunderee, which he would later describe as ‘Henry Lawson Country’ (Noffs 1983). Gaining a job in sales at the engineering company McPherson’s [q.v.10] Ltd, he studied engineering and for his Leaving certificate at night at North Sydney Technical College.

Although brought up Anglican, by 1943 Noffs had joined the Methodist Church, which he had attended during holidays with his maternal grandmother. An anti-modernist evangelical with limited book learning, he served enthusiastically as a youth leader and local preacher around North Sydney. Deciding to become a Methodist minister, in 1946 he entered the Evangelists’ Institute, Leigh [q.v.2] Theological College, Strathfield South, to finish his schooling to qualify to enter university, gain pastoral experience (at Glen Davis, near Mudgee), and earn a licentiate of theology, awarded by Melbourne College of Divinity (1950). He also began studying towards a bachelor of arts through the University of Sydney, but did not complete the degree. On 17 March 1951 at the Methodist Church, Crows Nest, he married Margaret Lorraine Tipping, a deaconess who had also worked ‘outback’. He was ordained as a minister in 1952, and the Noffs were posted to Wilcannia, a large circuit with a sizable Aboriginal population, and which involved long desert visitations. From 1953 to 1957 he served at Lockhart, in the Riverina. The young, discerning churchman sensed depths in Aboriginal spirituality, and conceded ordinary piety lost relevance in the realities of survival in the bush.

In 1957 Noffs travelled with his family to study at the Garrett Biblical Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States of America (MA, 1959). During this time his parish duties included inner suburban Chicago. He returned to Australia to become the new associate minister of Central Methodist Mission, Sydney. From 1959 to 1963 he worked with its superintendent, (Sir) Alan Walker, who was already renowned for his Mission to the Nation campaigns. By 1961 Noffs had better organised the highly patronised teenage cabaret at the mission.  1963 he helped Walker found the Lifeline counselling service.

Now maturing in his analytical skills and troubled by old-style evangelism, Noffs began to develop a critique of Walker’s methods, deciding public mission evangelism was too manipulative (and eventually opposing Billy Graham’s crusades). Social disintegration had to be solved by reaching beyond denominational borders hardened by ‘do-gooders’ (Noffs 1979, 70), and through trusting alienated individuals’ potential for self-discovery. The first practical consequence was his daring initiative in 1964 to set up the Wayside Chapel of the Cross in flats owned by the Methodists in Hughes Street, Kings Cross, aiming to minister independently in Sydney’s most seamy district, which was home to bohemians and disaffected inner-city youth. Services held in the simply designed, small chapel downstairs could be seen via closed circuit television throughout the building. The ‘Upper Room’ coffee shop in the flat’s second storey became a haven for the distressed, while a poets’ corner provided a space for creative expression. An aluminium caravan functioned as a mobile chapel and counselling service. With Charles Perkins and others, he co-founded the Aboriginal Affairs Association (later the Foundation for Aboriginal Affairs), which started a cultural centre near Sydney’s central business district. He helped Perkins and others to organise the Freedom Ride bus tour to counter racism in country towns in 1965.

Other experiments at the chapel included a recording studio, theatrical productions, and journals, as well as special centres and foundations. The chapel initiated the country’s first drug referral centre (1967); 24-hour crisis centre (1968); and Life Education Centre (1979), all providing models for other cities and countries in handling and preventing drug addiction. Addressing the West’s looming drug epidemic humanely and spiritually made Noffs world famous. He published several books, including The Wayside Chapel: A Radical Christian Experiment in Today’s World (1969), By What Authority? (1979), The Summit of Daring (writings selected by Marilyn Stacy, 1981), and The Mark of God: Towards a New Australian Spirituality (1984). His ideas coalesced into a vision of a supra-religious ‘family of humanity’.

Noffs had established the Wayside Foundation in 1970 as a means to provide a formal structure for the chapel’s services and to aid fundraising. Coordinating the work, fundraising, conducting funerals after tragic overdoses, wrangling with policy-makers over ‘drug offensives’, and undertaking overseas consultancies all brought Noffs mounting stress. He also faced charges of unfaithfulness to the doctrines of the church (in 1975, for watering down Christ’s atoning efficacy) and sacramental irregularity (in 1982, for ‘naming’ rather than baptising children); both were dismissed. In 1985 he was named Australian Humanist of the Year by the Council of Australian Humanist Societies and Australian Humanitarian of the Year by the National Australia Bank, and in 1986 he received the Advance Australia Foundation’s Advance Australia award.

The ‘wild man of welfare’ and the church’s ‘bucking bronco’ (Jarrett 1997, 1) suffered a stroke in 1987, which disabled him and left his wife and his son Wesley and daughter-in-law Amanda to carry on the work. He retired from the Wayside Chapel in 1991 and died on 6 April 1995 at Paddington. After a funeral at St Andrew’s Anglican Cathedral, he was buried in Northern Suburbs Methodist cemetery; his wife and three sons survived him. His chief legacies are the Wayside Chapel’s continuing work; the Ted Noffs Foundation (as the Wayside Foundation was renamed in 1992); and the drug rehabilitation residential care it provides (Program for Adolescent Life Management, or PALM).

Clark, Jennifer. ‘Methodism and the Challenge of “the Sixties”.’ In Methodism in Australia: A History, edited by Glen O’Brien and Hilary M. Carey, 149–64. Farnham, UK, and Burlington, VT, USA: Ashgate, 2015; Jarratt, Phil. Ted Noffs: Man of the Cross. Sydney: Macmillan, 1997; Noffs, Ted. By What Authority? Sydney: Methuen of Australia, 1979; Noffs, Ted. Childhood Memories of Henry Lawson Country. Sydney: Wayside Foundation, 1983; Ward, Winifred. Men Ahead of Their Time: Bill Hobbin, Dudley Hyde, Ted Noffs, Charles Birch, Norman Webb. Collingwood, Vic.: Joint Board of Christian Education, 1996.

Garry W. Trompf

NOLAN, Sir SIDNEY ROBERT (SID) (1917–1992), artist, was born on 22 April 1917 at Carlton, Melbourne, eldest of four children of locally born parents Sidney Henry Nolan, military policeman, and his wife Dora Irene, née Sutherland. Sid’s parents considered themselves Irish and lived in an Irish-Australian enclave in Melbourne. In 1853 William Bedford Nolan, Sid’s great grandfather, had migrated from Cork to Adelaide and worked as a mounted policeman in Victoria. His son, also William, farmed poor land around Rushworth and Seymour before moving to Melbourne. Sid would later delight in presenting himself as Irish in opposition to the Australian and British establishments, while seeking entry into both. In 1919 his parents settled at St Kilda. His father was by then a tram driver and ran an illegal starting-price betting ring for which Sid became a runner. Dora, his two sisters, and his brother were pleased for the extra cash and the car the bookmaking operation enabled the family to purchase, but kept the ‘Saturday job’ a secret. A preference for ready cash—no questions asked—would stay with young Sid.

Nolan’s schooling befitted a working-class youth who would take up a manual trade. He attended the local State school on Brighton Road and Brighton Technical School before moving to Prahran Technical College. Attached to the department of design and crafts, he studied lettering and drawing, including for dressmakers and milliners. His spare time was spent larking about at St Kilda’s funfair, Luna Park, swimming, and bike racing. He relished the suburb’s raffish reputation, and he would later reference imagery from his childhood and adolescence in his art. From the early 1930s he worked in several jobs including painting glass signs at Solaflex Illumination Pty Ltd and designing layouts for advertising at United Felt Hats Pty Ltd (known as the Fayrefield factory, after the company’s best known hat). During his employment he became intrigued by the properties of commercial paints, including gloss and spray enamel.

While at Fayrefield Nolan enrolled in drawing classes at the National Gallery School of Design (1934, 1936), but rarely attended. Next door was the Melbourne Public Library where he and fellow students—Max Smith, John Sinclair, Francis Brabazon, and Howard Matthews—steeped themselves in the poetry and views of Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud, Rainer Maria Rilke, and Paul Verlaine. They read modernist literature in philosophy, poetry, and art. Through their reading they came to believe that myths provided an essential emotional response that enhanced historical facts. They believed that, as seers and outsiders, artists could link myth to history.

In early 1938 Nolan unsuccessfully sought the patronage of Sir Keith Murdoch [q.v.10] to fund further study in Europe. His search led him to the solicitor John Reed [q.v.18], who was a supporter of modernist art. Nolan became a regular visitor to Heide, Reed’s farmhouse at Heidelberg, outside Melbourne. There Reed and his wife, Sunday [q.v.18], encouraged talented writers and painters to treat their home as a place of emotional openness and artistic growth. In July Nolan became a foundation member of the Contemporary Art Society (CAS), established to promote modernist art.

At the Swedish Church, South Melbourne, on 16 December Nolan married Elizabeth Paterson. She was the grandniece of the artist John Ford Paterson [q.v.5] and had studied at the Gallery School of Painting before becoming a graphic designer. Nolan and Elizabeth lived briefly at Ocean Grove on the Bellarine Peninsula where he continued to be influenced by the Reeds, who visited frequently. Following the assistance of Peter Bellew (a member of the New South Wales branch of CAS), he was commissioned to design the backdrops and costumes for the Ballet Russes production Icare, which opened in Sydney in February 1940. Encouraged by its favourable reception, in June he held his first solo exhibition at his studio in a condemned tenement in Russell Street, Melbourne, but it yielded no sales. He was already living apart from Elizabeth, and the couple separated soon after their daughter, Amelda, was born in 1941; they would later divorce. At Heide, Sunday became Nolan’s lover and encouraged him to focus on painting.

On 15 April 1942 Nolan was mobilised for full-time duty in the Citizen Military Forces (CMF). He served mainly in the Western and Wimmera districts of Victoria, attached to the 22nd Supply Depot Company, guarding stores. In February 1943 he was promoted to corporal. As a result of an accident in August, two of the finger tips on his left hand were crushed and subsequently amputated. Sent art supplies by Sunday, he continued to paint, taking on the challenge of depicting the flat wheat country in a modernist idiom. The artist John Olsen would later credit Nolan’s Wimmera works, along with his other depictions of the outback, as ‘shaking up Australian painting’ (2008). He also became involved in John Reed and the poet Max Harris’s [q.v.] publishing venture, providing designs and illustrations for several publications, including the journal Angry Penguins. Later he would help edit the broadsheet of the same name. In July 1944 he was granted a month’s leave to take up employment with Reed and Harris. Fearing that he would be sent to the front line, he failed to return when his leave ended on 20 August and was declared an illegal absentee. In June 1946 he was discharged in absentia for his misconduct.

Nolan had returned to Melbourne and adopted the name ‘Robin Murray’. In early 1945 he began his first depictions of the bushranger Edward (Ned) Kelly [q.v.5]. His paintings were based on a close reading of historical and current texts, including Kelly’s letters. They were also redolent with autobiographical references. As a boy Nolan had seen Kelly’s armour on exhibition in Melbourne and heard his grandfather’s account of chasing the Kelly gang. William Nolan had joined the Victorian police force in August 1879, soon after the reward for the apprehension of the gang increased to £8,000, and absconded in March 1881. During 1946 Sid’s memories were reinforced by a visit, with Harris, to Kelly locations across north-eastern Victoria. His paintings, while stylistically radical, continued traditions begun by earlier painters such as Tom Roberts [q.v.11] by providing visual imagery to enrich the national ethos. Of his Burke and Wills [qq.v.3,6] paintings (from 1948), Nolan would later tell the writer Geoffrey Dutton that he commenced the series to ‘freshen history’ (Nolan 1967).

In July 1947, viewing life at Heide as stale, Nolan left for Queensland; he would never live in Melbourne again. Exploring the landscape, he travelled up the coast, including to Fraser Island, and read accounts of the nineteenth-century shipwreck survivor Eliza Fraser [q.v.Supp]. He then went to Sydney and prepared his first commercial gallery exhibition, which was held at the Moreton Galleries, Brisbane, in February 1948. On 25 March at St Stephen’s Presbyterian Church, Sydney, he married Cynthia Hansen [q.v.15], John Reed’s sister. Their marriage ruptured Nolan’s already fragile relationship with the Reeds. Cynthia was worldly: she had managed an interior design shop in Melbourne, lived overseas, and later wrote respected autobiographical travel novels. Her support and contacts would be crucial to his success, but she was not robust and gained a reputation for jealously protecting Nolan from himself and his friends. He adopted her young daughter Jinx in 1949.

During December the Reeds exhibited Nolan’s Kelly paintings at Maison de l’Unesco in Paris. They were praised by Jean Cassou, director of the Musée National d’Art Moderne, as ‘the work of a true poet and a true painter’ (Argus 1949, 3). By the end of the decade Nolan had undertaken a series of outback tours, including to Central Australia, the far North, and Western Australia, and completed his earliest aerial landscape paintings. In 1950 he made his first trip out of Australia and he won the Dunlop Australian art contest for his painting, Inland Australia. The work was purchased by the Tate Gallery, London, in 1951. Becoming conscious of his growing profile overseas, two years later the family moved to Europe, where he would base the remainder of his career. From 1954 to 1956 he completed a further series of Kelly paintings. The works were well received and sold to collectors, as well as institutions, including the Arts Council of Great Britain, and the Museum of Modern Art, New York. Although the family settled in London, Jinx was sent to boarding school and he and Cynthia travelled often. In 1955 they went to the Greek island of Hydra. There he began a series of paintings on the Trojan War and became interested in exploring connections between that war and the Gallipoli campaign. Unlike his earlier narrative paintings, his Gallipoli works furrowed the psyche of war. They also drew on his experience of wartime loss, his brother having accidentally drowned while attached to the 15th Small Ship Company in Queensland during World War II.

In mid-1957 a retrospective exhibition of over 150 of Nolan’s works from the previous decade was shown at London’s Whitechapel Art Gallery. The exhibition was well received by critics and confirmed his place as a painter of note. The accompanying catalogue, however, presented an airbrushed account of his life, omitting his training as a commercial artist, his first marriage, his life with the Reeds, and his dishonourable discharge from the army. When promoting his exhibitions Nolan carefully controlled how he was portrayed. In accounts directed to an Australian audience he ensured that little credit was given to John and Sunday Reed’s influence over his life and art.

Travel became Nolan’s weapon against creative and personal depression. He had journeyed to Italy in 1954 and again on an Italian government scholarship (1956), to the United States of America supported by a two-year Commonwealth Fund Harkness fellowship (1958), and to Canberra for a fellowship in the Creative Arts from The Australian National University (1965). He also made trips to Africa (1962), Antarctica (1964), and China (first in 1965), among other places. Throughout his painting career it was the exploration of materials, techniques, scale, and, above all, the challenge of placing an object in front of a background, that obsessed him. This sense of discovery is often obscured by chronologically mapping his career by subject matter.

In Europe Nolan began to paint classical myths and other subjects that were familiar to northern hemisphere tastes. Some critics considered that the works revealed an artist who had lost sight of his inspiration. Yet his 1960 London exhibition Leda and the Swan and Other Recent Work followed by Sidney Nolan: African Journey in 1963 were popular with the public and sold well. Their success enabled Nolan to take on stage design projects such as Rite of Spring, London (1962); The Display, Adelaide (1963); and Il Trovatore, Sydney (1983). He also undertook time-consuming installations, including his Riverbend series (1964–65 and 1965–66), Inferno (1966), and the vast Oceania triptych: Shark (1972–73), Paradise Garden (1968–70), and Snake (1970–72).

Throughout his career Nolan depended on the emotional and financial support of others. Among his companions and correspondents were the composer Benjamin Britten, the author Patrick White [q.v.18], the printmaker Gordon House, and the artists Arthur Boyd and Albert Tucker. At their best, these friendships were a productive exchange: House designed his catalogues and oversaw most of his printmaking projects; he held joint exhibitions with Boyd and Tucker; Britten’s music inspired a number of his artworks; and he designed the covers of several of White’s novels. Those who funded or promoted his art included the former director of London’s National Gallery Kenneth (Lord) Clark, and the businessman and art collector Alistair (Lord) McAlpine. He relied on the latter’s backing to publish his self-illustrated volume of poetry Paradise Garden in 1971—its contents unflatteringly reflecting on his relationship with John and Sunday Reed. For a time, the London art gallery Marlborough Fine Art Limited also allowed him to draw large sums on future exhibitions. This funding abruptly stopped in 1975 after his poorly reviewed and financially disastrous Notes for Oedipus exhibition.

From the 1960s Nolan had gained increasing recognition. The earliest Australian retrospective of his work was mounted at the Art Gallery of New South Wales in September 1967 and later shown in Melbourne and Perth. He was awarded honorary doctorates by The Australian National University (1968), the University of London (1971), the University of Leeds (1974), and the University of Sydney (1977). He was made an honorary fellow of the University of York (1971); a fellow of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (1971); a life member of the National Gallery of Victoria (1983); and an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York (1985); and was elected to the Royal Academy of Arts, London (1991). In 1981 he was knighted. He was also appointed CBE (1963), OM (1983), and AC (1988).

A prolific artist, Nolan gave several collections of his works to Australian museums and galleries. In 1974 he presented artworks in his Ern Malley and the Paradise Garden exhibition to the Art Gallery of South Australia. Later the same year, he gave twenty-four works to be housed in a purpose-built gallery at the property Lanyon, outside Canberra (later moved to the Canberra Museum and Gallery). In 1978 he donated 252 of his Gallipoli drawings and paintings to the Australian War Memorial in memory of his brother. Public holdings of his artworks were further enhanced that year by Sunday Reed’s gift of twenty-five early Kelly paintings to the National Gallery of Australia.

During the 1970s Nolan’s relationship with Cynthia had become increasingly distant. On 24 November 1976 she committed suicide in a London hotel. Her estate, which included a collection of his artwork and private papers, was left to Jinx. At the register office, Westminster, on 20 January 1978 Nolan married Mary Elizabeth A’Beckett Perceval, an artist. Mary was a sister of Arthur Boyd and a daughter of the potter Merric Boyd [q.v.7]. She had previously been married to the artist John Perceval and had met Nolan at Heide. In 1981 Patrick White published his memoir Flaws in the Glass, revealing that he believed Nolan had remarried too soon after Cynthia’s death. Nolan considered that White had acted as ‘the sole judge and executioner’ (Kinnane 1982, 4). Embarking on a public vendetta, he retaliated by painting the diptych Nightmare (1982), a distasteful portrait of White and his partner Manoly Lascaris.

Earlier in 1981 Nolan had purchased land adjacent to Arthur Boyd’s on the Shoalhaven River in New South Wales, hoping to build a house and set up a study centre for a trust. Instead he remained overseas and bought The Rodd, a large manor on the Welsh border, in 1983, where he maintained his archive and created large spray paintings. They were a return to abstract art and recalled the techniques he had used when he worked as a commercial artist in the early 1930s. In 1985 the Sidney Nolan Trust was established to preserve The Rodd as a farm and a creative space.

Nolan’s seventieth birthday in 1987 brought a flurry of celebratory media attention and events. Most notably, in June the National Gallery of Victoria opened its Sidney Nolan, Landscapes & Legends: A Retrospective Exhibition: 1937–1987, which later toured to Sydney, Perth, and Adelaide. Also that year Brian Adams published his biography Sidney Nolan: Such is Life and released a film of the same name. At that time Nolan was Australia’s most distinguished living artist, although he remained an elusive personality and controversial man. He was applauded for his ability as an artist to recreate and manage myths, but was criticised for his high-volume and sometimes uneven output. Survived by his wife, Amelda, and Jinx, Sir Sidney died on 27 November 1992 in Westminster Hospital, London, and was buried in Highgate cemetery. Memorial services were held at the National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, and at St James’s Church, Piccadilly, London. His estate was valued for probate at £2.3 million but his long-standing disregard for financial accounting meant that, when he died, he left a large, unpaid British tax bill. In 2001 an auction held in Melbourne of artworks from the estate realised $4.42 million.

For many people Nolan’s Ned Kelly (1946) epitomises the myth of Kelly as an outsider and white man’s alienation in the Australian landscape. The work is arguably Australia’s best-known painting.

Adams, Brian. Sidney Nolan: Such is Life. Milsons Point, NSW: Vintage, 1987; Argus. ‘Natives’ Art “Best in World”.’ 17 December 1949, 3; Clark, Jane. Sidney Nolan, Landscapes & Legends: A Retrospective Exhibition: 19371987. With an essay by Patrick McCaughey. Sydney: International Cultural Corporation of Australia and Cambridge University Press, 1987. Exhibition catalogue; Clark, Kenneth, Colin MacInnes, and Bryan Robertson. Sidney Nolan. London: Thames and Hudson, 1961; Gosling, Lorna. Interview by the author, Melbourne, 13 August 2008; Kinnane, Gary. ‘The Artist and Two Authors.’ Age (Melbourne), 10 April 1982, Saturday Extra 4; National Archives of Australia. B884, V206559; Nolan, Sidney. Letter to Geoffrey Dutton, 28 April 1967. Papers of Geoffrey Dutton (1922–1998), MS 7285, Series 2, Folder 52. National Library of Australia; Nolan, Sidney. Notebook entry, 22 October 1990. Private collection; Nolan, William. Register No. 3051. Record of Conduct and Service, Book 27, 1881. Victorian Police Museum; Olsen, John. Interview by the author, Bowral, 22 June 2008; Pearce, Barry. Sidney Nolan. With an introduction by Edmund Capon and contributions by Frances Lindsay and Lou Klepac. Sydney: Art Gallery New South Wales, 2007. Exhibition catalogue; Underhill, Nancy, ed. Nolan on Nolan: Sidney Nolan in His Own Words. Camberwell, Vic.: Viking, 2007; Underhill, Nancy. Sidney Nolan: A Life. Sydney: NewSouth Publishing, 2015.

Nancy D. H. Underhill

NOONUCCAL, OODGEROO (KATH WALKER) (1920–1993), black rights activist, poet, environmentalist, and educator, was born Kathleen Jean Mary Ruska on 3 November 1920 at Bulimba, Brisbane, second youngest of seven children of Edward (Ted) Ruska, labourer, and his wife Lucy, née McCullough. Ted was a Noonuccal descendant, and Lucy was born in central Queensland, the daughter of an inland Aboriginal woman and a Scottish migrant. Lucy, at ten years of age, was removed and placed in an institution in Brisbane, and at fourteen years of age, without the skills to read or write, was consigned to work as a housemaid in rural Queensland.

Ruska’s childhood home was One Mile on North Stradbroke Island or Minjerribah—as it was known by the island’s traditional owners, the Noonuccal. The settlement, on the outskirts of Dunwich, was the setting for Kath’s earliest memories of hunting wild parrots, fishing, boating, and sharing in the community dugong catch. In 1934, at thirteen, she completed her formal education at Dunwich State School. The family, like many enduring the Depression, could not afford the nurses’ training her older sister had received. She left home for Brisbane to work as a domestic for board and lodging, and less pay than white domestics received, but armed with the ability to read and a talent for writing.

In World War II, after her brothers Edward and Eric were captured by the Japanese at the fall of Singapore in February 1942, Ruska enlisted in the Australian Women’s Army Service on 28 July. After initial training as a signaller, she undertook administrative duties and was promoted to lance corporal in April 1943. In June she transferred to the district accounts office where she remained until being discharged on 19 January 1944. She enjoyed team competition, founding a women’s cricko (later vigoro) team, the Brisbane All-Blacks; she would later twice represent Queensland at cricko. On 8 May 1943 at the Methodist Church, West End, she had married Bruce Walker, a childhood friend and a descendant of Aboriginal clans from Queensland’s Logan and Albert rivers region; he was an electric welder. Their union did not last and as a single parent she struggled to provide and care for her son, Denis. A course in stenography led to an office job but, needed at home, she returned to the flexible hours of taking in ironing and cleaning for professional households. She worked for the medical practitioners (Sir) Raphael and Phyllis (Lady) Cilento [qq.v.17], whose worldly outlook, spirited family, and book-lined rooms encouraged her own artistic sensibilities. In 1953 she had a second son, Vivian; his father was Raphael Cilento junior (Cochrane 1994, 23).

In the 1940s the Communist Party of Australia—the only political party without a White Australia policy, and which opposed racial discrimination—had attracted Walker. Through the party she gained skills in writing speeches, public speaking, committee planning, and political strategy, which ‘stood me in good stead through life’, but she left because ‘they wanted to write my speeches’ (Mitchell 1987, 197). Writing prose and poetry, she joined the Brisbane Realist Writers Group. James Devaney [q.v.13] encouraged the reluctant writer and sent a selection of her poems Mary Gilmore [q.v.9]. Ninety-four at the time of their meeting, Gilmore said, as Walker later recalled: ‘These belong to the world. Never forget you’re the tool that wrote them down only’ (Mitchell 1987, 198).

At Jacaranda Press in Brisbane, Walker’s poems found an advocate in submissions reader Judith Wright, who recommended publication. In 1964 We Are Going became the first poetry publication by an Aboriginal Australian. Despite the success of that book and The Dawn Is At Hand, which followed two years later, her work was dismissed by many critics as protest poetry. She would nevertheless win the Jessie Litchfield [q.v.10] award for literature (1967), a Fellowship of Australian Writers award, and the Dame Mary Gilmore medal. Sales of her poetry were claimed to rank second to Australia’s best-selling poet, C. J. Dennis [q.v.8].

Two years before her first book, in 1962, Walker had been elected Queensland State secretary of the Federal Council for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Advancement, while also a member of the Queensland Aboriginal Advancement League executive. She rose to the call for Aboriginal leadership and, in the early 1960s, travelled around Australia with FCAATSI delegates, among them Faith Bandler, (Sir) Douglas Nicholls [q.v.18], and Joe McGinness. Campaigning for equal citizenship rights, she met with cabinet ministers, led with Bandler a delegation to Prime Minister (Sir) Robert Menzies [q.v.15], and wrote and delivered speeches. The struggle culminated in the landmark 1967 referendum to empower the Federal government to legislate on Aboriginal affairs. This victory was particularly momentous in her home State, where the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations lived under the all-encompassing authority of ‘The Queensland Acts’.

Walker stood for the Australian Labor Party in the Liberal stronghold of Greenslopes in the 1969 State election, but lost. Her hard-fought campaign for Aboriginal land rights, despite personal assurances of action by a succession of politicians, was slow to gain political support. London’s 1969 World Council of Churches consultation on racism was the first of many international invitations, which over the years would take her to Fiji, Malaysia, Nigeria, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America. My People (1970), a collection combining her two previous books, would be her last poetry for a decade and a half.

Aged fifty, in 1971, suffering ill health and facing challenges for power from younger Aboriginal leaders, Walker returned to Minjerribah. Near One Mile, she assembled a gunyah—a traditional shelter—on negotiated leasehold land, the beginnings of a learning facility, and named it Moongalba (the sitting-down place). Her teaching of Aboriginal culture on country inspired thousands of school children—whom she saw as the bright future—as well as teachers and other visitors who made the barge trip across Moreton Bay. She published two children’s books, Stradbroke Dreamtime (1972) and Father Sky and Mother Earth (1981). In 1983 she stood as a candidate for the Australian Democrats in the State election, without success.

During a tour of China—as part of an Australia-China Council cultural delegation—in 1984 Walker’s enthusiasm to write poetry revived, resulting in the simultaneous publication in Australia and China of Kath Walker in China (1988). She received prestigious awards, including honorary doctorates from Macquarie University (1988), Griffith University (1989), Monash University (1991), and Queensland University of Technology (1992). In 1977 she appeared in a film biography, Shadow Sister; her performance won the 1977 Black Film Makers’ award in San Francisco. She also advised on and acted in Bruce Beresford’s 1986 film The Fringe Dwellers. A veteran environmental campaigner, she spoke against uranium mining and opposed sand mining on Minjerribah. In 1987, in protest at the bicentennial celebration of Australia Day, she famously returned the MBE to which she had been appointed in 1970.

With her son Vivian in 1988 she wrote the script for The Rainbow Serpent Theatre, produced at World Expo ‘88, Brisbane; they wrote under their newly chosen Noonuccal names Oodgeroo (paperbark tree) and Kabul (carpet snake). These last few years together ended in 1991 with Kabul’s AIDS-related death at thirty-eight. Heartsick but resolute, Oodgeroo served as a judge of the David Unaipon [q.v.12] award for Indigenous writers, as adviser on a national Aboriginal studies curriculum for teachers, and as patron of Queensland’s first Writers Centre. She died of cancer on 16 September 1993 at the Repatriation General Hospital, Greenslopes, Brisbane. At her funeral on Minjerribah hundreds came to farewell the nation’s much loved poet and activist, who was buried at Moongalba beside Kabul.

In 2006 Queensland University of Technology renamed its Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Support Unit the Oodgeroo Unit. Direct, charismatic, quick-witted, and dignified, Oodgeroo taught the spirituality of her ancestors, responsibility for the earth, and the connection of all people. Her poetry and stories continue to inspire. She chose ‘a long road and a lonely road, but oh, the goal is sure’ (Walker 1970, 54).

Cochrane, Kathie. Oodgeroo. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland Press, 1994; Collins, John. ‘Obituary: Oodgeroo of the Tribe Noonuccal.’ Aboriginal History 18, no. 1–2 (1994): 1–4; Collins, John. ‘A Mate in Publishing.’ In Oodgeroo: A Tribute, edited by Adam Shoemaker. Special issue, Australian Literary Studies 16, no. 4 (1995): 9–23; Mitchell, Susan. The Matriarchs: Twelve Australian Women Talk About Their Lives to Susan Mitchell. Ringwood, Vic.: Penguin, 1987; Oodgeroo. Stradbroke Dreamtime. Revised ed. Pymble, NSW: Angus and Robertson, 1993; Shoemaker, Adam. ‘Performance for the People.’ In Oodgeroo: A Tribute, edited by Adam Shoemaker. Special issue, Australian Literary Studies 16, no. 4 (1995): 164–77; Walker, Kath. My People: A Kath Walker Collection. Milton, Qld, Jacaranda Press, 1970.

Sue Abbey

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