Australian Dictionary of Biography Volume 19: 1991–1995 (A–Z)
The Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB) is a project that, since the late 1950s, has been supported by the Research School of Social Sciences (RSSS) at The Australian National University (ANU). The university was founded in 1946 with a charter to ‘encourage, and provide facilities for, research and postgraduate study, both generally and in relation to subjects of national importance to Australia’. The ADB is an ANU-led national history project and thus an important realisation of the university’s charter. Special thanks are due to the former Chancellor, Professor Gareth Evans, and the Vice-Chancellors, Professor Brian Schmidt and his predecessor Professor Ian Young, who have maintained the commitment of the university to the recurrent funding of the ADB. Similarly, the former Dean of the College of Arts and Social Sciences, Professor Toni Makkai, and her successors Professor Paul Pickering, who acted in the role until 2018, and Professor Rae Francis, as well as the current director of RSSS, Professor Catherine Waldby, have all continued to support the ADB. Successive heads of the School of History, Professor Angela Woollacott, Dr Douglas Craig, Professor Nicholas Brown, and Professor Frank Bongiorno, have also been strong advocates.
The ADB is hosted by the National Centre of Biography in the School of History, which serves to distinguish the school from other Australian history departments. Those who shaped the ADB over its 60-year life have been acknowledged in earlier volumes. Professor Melanie Nolan, general editor since 2008, has been responsible for preparing this volume. She has been supported by a capable and committed team of research editors and research assistants, as well as computing, technical and administration staff (listed below). Since the publication of Volume 18 in 2012, the ADB has boasted a remarkably stable staffing complement with very few departures: Dr Paul Arthur was Deputy General Editor from 2010 until 2013 when he took up another university appointment; Dr Brian Wimborne, who had filled various staffing roles since his commencement in 1996, most recently as a research editor, retired at the end of 2019; Dr Rani Kerin was ‘small States’ research editor between 2010 and what was to be a temporary departure in 2013; Dr Kylie Carman-Brown was employed on contract as a research editor in 2016 and 2017; Max Korolev was digitisation officer from 2010 until 2015; and Scott Yeadon filled the position of computer programmer and web developer from 2010 until February 2020. Tessa Wooldridge, Yasmin Rittau, Joy McCann, and Mary Anne Jebb also undertook research editing on a sessional basis. The ADB maintained a network of State-based part-time research assistants until tightening finances dictated that these useful roles should cease in 2018; we acknowledge the contributions of Margaret Robertson and Isabel Smith (WA); Fay Woodhouse (Victoria); Pat Stretton (SA); Rachel Graeme and Yasmin Rittau (NSW); and Judith Nissen (Queensland).
We acknowledge the Australian historical community’s continuing support of the ADB, the success of which has rested on the voluntary contribution of historians and other scholars throughout the country. We place on the record our appreciation of Emeritus Professor Tom Griffiths, chair of the ADB Editorial Board, who has filled the role with distinction since 2006 and is only the fifth of an eminent group of previous chairs (after Professor Sir Keith Hancock, Professor John La Nauze, Professor Ken Inglis, and Professor Jill Roe). Thanks are due also to the members of the Editorial Board and the members of the working parties, listed below, who have guided this current volume. The ADB Editorial Fellows review and provide invaluable advice on each article; we acknowledge the late Emeritus Professor John Molony, Dr John Nethercote, Ian Hancock, Emeritus Professor Tim Rowse, Dr Diane Langmore, Emeritus Professor Pat Grimshaw, Dr Bob Clements, Dr Stephen Foster, Emeritus Professor David Carment, and Dr Peter Gifford. The working party section editors (listed below) also provide essential guidance on each article; we acknowledge their contribution to Volume 19.
The ADB is indebted to the wider community for helping to ensure that the entries in Volume 19 are as comprehensive and accurate as possible. In an environment in which the internet and digital resources have vastly increased the capacity of historical and biographical research and allowed the ADB to do more with fewer staff than in times past, we still depend on the support and goodwill of libraries, archives, schools, colleges, universities, research institutes, historical and genealogical societies, and many other organisations throughout Australia, and indeed the world. There are of course, too many to list by name. Nonetheless, the staff and authors of the ADB are particularly indebted to the National Library of Australia, the Australian War Memorial, the National Archives of Australia, the National Gallery of Australia, the National Portrait Gallery, the National Film and Sound Archives, the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Essential assistance accessing the all-important records of births, marriages and deaths has been provided by the various State and Territory-based registrars-general. International cooperation obtaining such certificates has also been provided by the general register offices in the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and a number of other countries. We thank the network of libraries and archives that has been a vital source of information at the State and Territory levels, as well as overseas repositories. Smaller collecting institutions and archives have frequently been willing contributors to the work of the ADB; they are often maintained by dedicated volunteers who are driven by an interest in their fields.
The bibliographies to articles, although they are select, give an indication of the raft of repositories and sources consulted for this volume, again too many to repeat here. We thank each of the universities, learned societies and colleges, professional institutes and associations, companies and businesses, guilds, clubs, and community-based organisations that have responded positively to our requests for information. Thanks are also due to management and staff of other dictionaries of biography, who share our commitment to the production of succinct and accurate biographical entries that help to illustrate the stories of the nation. We acknowledge the staff of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography; the Dictionary of Canadian Biography; the American National Biography; and the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Locally, AustLit, the Dictionary of Sydney, the Australian Women’s Register, the Biographical Dictionary of the Australian Senate, and the Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography, amongst many others, are invariably useful resources.
Melbourne University Press published the ADB since its inception; this is the first volume to be published by ANU Press. We thank MUP for supporting the ADB over its first 18 volumes (as well as the Supplementary Volume), and acknowledge the quality of production it has brought to the venture. As much as the vast throng of volunteers behind the ADB, MUP is a part of its history and its success. We are grateful for its cooperation in transferring publication to ANU Press, particularly its generosity over the cover design and layout. ANU Press has done a terrific job taking on this major venture and, at 660,000 words, this volume is a challenging undertaking. We thank the former manager Lorena Kanellopoulos, the deputy manager Emily Tinker, and the production staff for their contribution to the successful publication of this volume.
The ADB has benefited from the voluntary contributions of well over 4,000 authors since its inception. Their willingness to contribute is the bedrock of the ADB enterprise and makes the entire venture possible. Over 450 authors (listed below) contributed to this volume, many for the first time: we thank them all. They are conspicuous among authors of contemporary national biography projects in the English-speaking world in that they do not receive any payment for their efforts. Our warmest thanks go to them for the gift of their time and talents.
It is always a melancholy duty to record the deaths of the authors who have contributed not only to this volume, but to the 18 before it, as well as the Supplementary Volume. We deeply regret the deaths of such notable contributors as:
Carolyn Allport, C. R. Ampt, Hugh Anderson, Joe Baker, J. C. Bannon, Alan Barcan, Theo Barker, Weston Bate, William G. Bell, C. G. Billing, P. O. Bishop, Leslie Bodi, John F. Bodycomb, S. J. Boland, J. D. Bollen, G. C. Bolton, D. H. Borchardt, W. Boyan, David Bradley, J. H. Brodie, Malcolm D. Broun, Elspeth Browne, Harry Buckie, John N. Button, E. J. Cameron, Keith Campbell, Freda Vines Carmody, V. J. Carroll, Ian Cathie, Alfred H. Chate, George M. Chippendale, Donovan Clarke, H. J. Coates, Keith Cole, Hal G. P. Colebatch, Peter Coleman, Michael D. de B. Collins Persse, Jill Conway, Judith Cornell, Peter Corris, Betty Cosgrove, Yvonne Cossart, R. E. Cowley, Louis R. Cranfield, G. H. Crawford, Bill Crowley, F. K. Crowley, Alan D. Crown, John S. Cumpston, Ross Curnow, D. R. Curtis, K. M. Dallas, John A. Daly, P. A. Davidson, P. M. De Burgh, Greg Dening, Brian Dibble, David Dolan, Keith Dunstan, Tom Dyster, John Earnshaw, Arthur Easton, Sue Ebury, W. H. Edwards, W. A. G. Enright, Wilson P. Evans, John Farquharson, Thomas Faunce, B. H. Fletcher, Bethia Foott, Charles Francis, G. T. Franki, Graham Freudenberg, Brian Galligan, John Garrett, Joyce Gibberd, R. M. Gibbs, L. A. Gilbert, Mollie Gillen, Margery Godfrey, Harry Gordon, R. M. Green, Louis Green, Joel Greenberg, Jeffrey Grey, P. D. Groenewegen, Murray Groves, Earle Hackett, J. Hagan, Jean Hagger, Joan Hancock, Grant Harman, J. N. D. Harrison, John E. Hassall, Margaret Henry, Luise Hercus, Les Hetherington, C. C. Heyde, Edna Hickson, J. B. Hirst, Theodore Hobbs, W. G. Hoddinott, R. F. Holder, Robert A. B. Holland, Ross Holland, Mollie E. Holman, Jack Horner, Harold Hort, Allan Horton, David J. Hough, Graham Howard, Arthur Hoyle, Arnold D. Hunt, John Hurst, Judith Iltis, Stuart Inder, K. S. Inglis, Amirah Inglis, Victor Isaacs, R. Ian Jack, S. J. Jacobs, R. St. C. Johnson, Helen Jones, R. A. Joske, K. H. Kennedy, James Semple Kerr, C. J. King, Lucy Miniam Kinloch, Richard Kingsland, R. L. Knight, Diana Large, John Laverty, Sylvia Lawson, J. D. Legge, Marjorie Lenehan, Paul Edwin Le Roy, Michael C. I. Levy, M. L. Loane, Allan W. Lockwood, A. R. Love, F. D. McCarthy, Samuel Clyde McCulloch, Leith G. MacGillivray, Barry McGowan, Sophie McGrath, Mary McHugh, Judy Mackinolty, Ailsa McPherson, Albert B. McPherson, A. R. Main, W. F. Mandle, K. W. Manning, Bruce E. Mansfield, Ian Marsh, John Stanley Martin, Peter Menzies, J. D. Merralls, J. D. B. Miller, Hans Mincham, John N. Molony, Adrian Monger, Tim Moroney, John Morris, Ann Moyal, D. J. Mulvaney, Catherine O’Carrigan, Jillian Oppenheimer, Vilma Page, George Parsons, L. K. Paszkowski, Barbara Payne, Peter Pierce, Kerry Pink, Graham Pizzey, Phillip E. Playford, Annette Potts, Margaret M. Press, A. N. Preston, Arthur Pryor, John S. Purdy, Heather Radi, Margery C. Ramsay, R. W. Rathbone, T. T. Reed, W. D. Refshauge, Lionel E. W. Renfrey, Eric Richards, Jack E. Richardson, Jill Roe, Deirdre Rofe, Heather B. Ronald, Jack Royans, Martha Rutledge, Peter Ryan, Joan Rydon, M. J. Saclier, A. M. Sargeson, Arthur Schwieger, P. A. Selth, Jessie Serle, Christopher Sexton, J. P. Shanahan, Martin Sharp, A. G. L. Shaw, Margot Z. Simington, L. A. Simpson, Edna M. Skewes, J. J. C. Smart, F. B. Smith, Betty Snowden, Ngaire M. Souter, Don Spearritt, G. H. Stancombe, Tom Stannage, Graham Starmer, Robin Stewardson, Hugh Stretton, Ian Stuart, T. L. Suttor, Barbara Thorn, John C. Tolley, Cecile Trioli, P. N. Troy, Ruth Tuck, J. Neville Turner, Peter J. Tyler, L. C. Viney, R. B. Walker, Bruce Wall, G. P. Walsh, Jean Waterhouse, K. H. Waters, D. B. Waterson, A. K. Weatherburn, C. G. T. Weickhardt, T. C. R. White, J. Whitelaw, E. J. Whitlam, Evan Whitton, B. W. Wicks, John P. Wilkinson, Morris S. Williams, M. L. Yaxley, Coralie Younger.