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France in the South Pacific

Glossary and acronyms

Glossary

broussard

European long-term resident of New Caledonia living mainly on farms or in rural villages

Caldoche

European long-term resident of New Caledonia, often second and third generation

Indigénat

(native code) system confining Kanaks to designated areas, taxing them, subjecting them to punishment by administrators rather than judges, and requiring them to work on government projects, from 1887 to 1946

événements

(events) term used by the French for the civil disturbances in New Caledonia from 1984 to 1988

Kanak

indigenous people of New Caledonia, Melanesians

metropolitan

expression deriving from the French métropolitain meaning from the métropole or continental France

Mwâ Kâ

(big house) totemic monument in central Noumea

outre-mer

(overseas France) collective expression referring to all French departments, territories and collectivities overseas

régalien

(regalian) sovereign, pertaining to the French sovereign state, often referred to in the context of the Noumea Accord as the five powers retained solely by the French State by the end of the Accord (2018); i.e., defence, foreign affairs, currency, justice and public order

Acronyms

French and historic institutions

ADECAL

Agence de Développement Économique de la Nouvelle-Calédonie (New Caledonia Economic Development Agency)

AFD

Agence Française de Développement (French Development Agency)

CEP

Centre d’Expérimentation du Pacifique (Pacific Experimentation Centre): name for the French nuclear testing facility in French Polynesia

CFP

Currency of the French Pacific entities, variously translated in the early years as ‘Colonies Françaises du Pacifique’ or ‘French Pacific colonies’; ‘Change Français du Pacifique’ from 1947; and, in recent years, ‘Cours’ or ‘Comptoir’ ‘Français Pacifique’. It has a fixed value relative to the Euro, CFP1 = Euro.00838.

COM

Collectivités d’Outre-Mer (overseas collectivities)

COMSUP

Commandant Supérieur (commander of French armed forces)

DOM-TOM

Départements d’Outre-Mer, Territoires d’Outre-Mer (overseas departments and territories)

EFO

Établissements Français d’Océanie (French Pacific establishments, the former name for French Polynesia)

EUR

Euro

FANC

Forces Armées de la Nouvelle-Calédonie (New Caledonian armed forces (French))

IFREMER

Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer (French Research Institute for Marine Exploitation)

INCO

now Vale INCO, multinational nickel company operating in New Caledonia

INERIS

Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risk)

INSEE

Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies)

IRD

Institut de recherche pour le développement (Institute for Development Research)

ISEE/ ITSEE

Institut de la statistique et des études économiques/Institut territorial de la statistique et des études économiques (Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies/Territorial Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (New Caledonia))

ISPF

Institut de la statistique de Polynésie Française (Statistics Institute of French Polynesia)

LMS

London Missionary Society

RFO

Radio France Outre-Mer, France’s overseas broadcasting service

SLN

Société le Nickel (The Nickel Company), French-owned nickel company in New Caledonia

STSEE

Service Territorial de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (Territorial Service for Statistics and Economic Studies) (Wallis and Futuna)

Regional Pacific institutions

ADB

Asian Development Bank

CRISP

Coral Reef Initiative for the South Pacific

CROP

Council of Regional Organisations of the Pacific

EDF

Economic Development Fund

FFA

Forum Fisheries Agency

FRANZ

France, Australia, New Zealand Arrangements

MSG

Melanesian Spearhead Group

NFIP

Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific, anti-nuclear NGO

OCO

Oceania Customs Organisation

PACER

Pacific Agreement on Closer Economic Relations

PECC

Pacific Economic Cooperation Council

PICTA

Pacific Island Countries Trade Agreement

PIDP

Pacific Islands Development Program

PIF

Pacific Islands Forum (formerly South Pacific Forum (SPF), 1971–2000)

PITA

Pacific Islands Telecommunications Association

PPA

Pacific Power Association

PREPARE

Pacific Regional Endeavour for an Appropriate Response to Epidemics

RAMSI

Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands

SOPAC

Secretariat of the Pacific Applied Geoscience and Technology Division

SPC

Secretariat of the Pacific Community (formerly South Pacific Commission, 1947–1998)

SPF

South Pacific Forum

SPNWFZ

South Pacific Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Treaty

SPREP

Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Program

SPTO

South Pacific Tourism Organisation

International and Australian institutions

ACP

EU Africa–Caribbean–Pacific developing country assistance program

ANSTO

Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation

C24

Committee of 24, or Special Committee on Decolonisation within the Fourth (Political) Committee of the United Nations

CSIRO

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

EC

European Commission

EEZ

Exclusive Economic Zone

EU

European Union

FAST

French Australian Science and Technology program

FAUST

French–Australian Seismic Transect, program exploring offshore resources around New Caledonia

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

OCT

Overseas Countries and Territories of the EU members

OECD

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

STABEX

EU support for agricultural exports

SYSMIN

EU financing for mining products

UNCLOS

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

UNGA

United Nations General Assembly

New Caledonian institutions

ADCK

Agence de développement de la culture kanak (Agency for Kanak Cultural Development)

ADRAF

Agence de développement rural et d’aménagement foncier (Rural Development and Land Management Agency)

ALK

Académie des Langues Kanak (Academy of Kanak Languages)

Cadres d’Avenir

(‘future executives’) or 400 cadres (‘400 executives’) positive action program for training and placement of Kanak executives

NMC

Nickel Mining Company, company involved in nickel mining in the north of New Caledonia

SLN

Société Le Nickel (The Nickel Company), French-owned nickel company

SMSP

Société Minière du Sud Pacifique (South Pacific Mining Company)

SNNC

Société du Nickel de la Nouvelle-Calédonie (New Caledonian Nickel Company), company involved in nickel mining in the north of New Caledonia

SOFINOR

Société d’Économie Mixte de Développement Contrôlée par la Province Nord (Mixed Economy and Development Company of the Northern Province)

SPMSC

Société de Participation Minière du Sud Calédonien (South [New] Caledonian Mining Participation Company)

STCPI

Société Territoriale Calédonienne de Participations Industrielles ([New] Caledonian Territorial Company for Industrial Participation)

Zonéco

Program for resource assessment of New Caledonia’s EEZ

Vanuatu political groups, pre-independence

MANH

Mouvement Autonomiste des Nouvelles-Hébrides (Autonomist Movement of New Hebrides)

UCNH

Union des Communautés des Nouvelles-Hébrides (Union of the Communities of New Hebrides)

UPNH

Union de la Population des Nouvelles-Hébrides (Union of the New Hebrides Population)

New Caledonian political groups

AE

Avenir Ensemble (Future Together), pro-France party

AICLF

Association des Indigènes Calédoniens et Loyaltiens Français (Association of Indigenous Caledonians and French Loyalty Islanders), 1946–1953

APLC

Alliance pour la Calédonie (Alliance for [New] Caledonia), pro-France party

CE

Calédonie Ensemble ([New] Caledonia Together), pro-France party

CNDPA

Conseil National des Droits du Peuple Autochtone (National Council for Indigenous Peoples Rights), Kanak rights party

FCCI

Fédération des Comités de Coordination des Indépendantistes (Federation of the Independentist Coordination Committees), grouping of pro-independence parties

FI

Front Indépendantiste (Independence Front), pro-independence group

FLNKS

Front de Libération Nationale Kanak et Socialiste (Kanak Socialist National Liberation Front), pro-independence group

FN

Front National (National Front), pro-France group

FNSC

Front National pour une Nouvelle Société Calédonienne (National Front for a New Caledonian Society), pro-France group

FULK

Front Uni de Libération Kanak (United Kanak Liberation Front), pro-independence

GFKEL

Groupe des Femmes Kanak et Exploitées (Group of Kanak and Exploited Women)

LKS

Libération Kanak Socialiste (Socialist Kanak Liberation) pro- independence party

MCF

Mouvement Calédonien Français (French Caledonian Movement) pro-France party

MDD

Mouvement de la Diversité (Diversity Movement), pro-France party

Palika

Parti de libération Kanak (Kanak Liberation Party) pro-independence party

PFK

Parti Fédéral Kanak (Kanak Federal Party) pro-independence party

PSC

Parti Socialiste Calédonie ([New] Caledonian Socialist Party), pro-independence party

PT

Parti Travailliste (Labour Party), pro-independence party

RDO

Rassemblement Démocratique Océanien (Democratic Oceanic Party), pro-independence party

Rheebu Nhuu

(‘eye of the land’) Kanak-based movement to protect the environment in the wake of nickel production

RPC

Rassemblement Pour la Calédonie (Rally for [New] Caledonia), pro-France party formed by Jacques Lafleur in 2006

RPCR

Rassemblement Pour la Calédonie dans la République (Rally for [New] Caledonia within the Republic), pro-France party formed by Jacques Lafleur in 1977 and re-named R-UMP in 2004

R-UMP

Rassemblement – UMP (Rally – Popular Union Movement), pro-France party

UC

Union Calédonienne ([New] Caledonian Union), pro-autonomy 1953–1977; pro-independence party from 1977

UC Renouveau

Union Calédonienne Renouveau (Renewed [New] Caledonian Union), pro-independence party

UICALO

Union des Indigènes Calédoniens Amis de la Liberté dans l'Ordre (Union of Indigenous [New] Caledonian Friends of Liberty in Order), 1946–1953

UNCT

Une Nouvelle-Calédonie pour Tous (A New Caledonia for All)

UNI

Union Nationale pour l’Indépendance (National Union for Independence), pro-independence party

UPAE

Union Pour un Avenir Ensemble (Union for a Future Together) pro-France party

UPM

Union Progressiste Mélanésienne (Melanesian Progressive Union), pro-independence party

USTKE

Union Syndicale des Travailleurs Kanaks et des Exploités (Federation of Unions of Kanak and Exploited Workers)

French Polynesian political groups and expressions

Ai’a Api

(New Homeland), pro-autonomy party of Emile Vernaudon, in various alliances

Fetia Api

(New Star), pro-France party of Philip Schyle,

FLP

Front de Libération de la Polynésie (Polynesian Liberation Front), pro-independence party; precursor to Oscar Temaru’s Tavini

Here Ai’a

Centre-left party

Ia Mana Te Nunaa

(Power to the People), early pro-independence party

Iorea Te Fenua

(Land and Heart), pro-France party of Jean-Christophe Bouissou

O Porinetia to Tatou Ai’a

(Polynesia is Our Country), pro-France party of Gaston Song

Rautahi

(Unity), pro-France party of Jean-Christophe Bouissou

RDPT

Rassemblement démocratique des populations tahitiennes (Democratic Assembly of the Tahitian Peoples)

Tahiti Nui

(Greater Tahiti), proposal for a Noumea-type accord for French Polynesia, and a proposed alternative name for French Polynesia

Tahoeraa Huira’atira

(People’s Assembly), pro-France party led by Gaston Flosse

Tavini Huira’atira no Te Ao Maohi

Serviteur du Peuple (Polynesian People’s Servant Party) pro-independence party led by Oscar Temaru

Te Aia Api

(New Fatherland), early pro-autonomy party

Te E’a Api

(New Way), early pro-autonomy party

Te Here Ai’a

(Love of Fatherland), early pro-autonomy party

Te Tiarama

pro-France party of Tahoeraa dissidents

To Tatou Ai'a

(Our Land), pro-France coalition led by Gaston Tong Sang

UPLD

Union pour la Démocratie (Union for Democracy), coalition led by Oscar Temaru comprising pro-independence and pro-autonomy parties

UT-UDR

Union Tahitienne — Union pour la Défense de la République (Tahitian Union — Union for the Defence of the Republic), early pro-France party; precursor to Flosse’s Tahoeraa

UT-UNR

Union Tahitienne — Union pour la Nouvelle République (Tahitian Union — Union for the New Republic), early pro-France party


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