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Dictionary of World Biography

C

Caballero, Francisco Largo see Largo Caballero, Francisco

Cabot, John (Giovanni Caboto) (c.1450–c.1498). Italian navigator, probably born in Genoa. He lived in Venice from about 1461 and became a citizen in 1476. Between 1484 and 1490 he came to England and lived in Bristol. Commissioned by *Henry VII, in May 1497 he sailed westward in the Mathew, reached Nova Scotia in June, explored the coast of Newfoundland and returned in August, claiming to have reached China (Cathay). He began a second voyage with four ships in May 1498 and disappeared.

His son, Sebastian Cabot (?1476–1557), was born in Venice. He probably accompanied his father on the 1497 voyage and later became map maker to *Henry VIII and Ferdinand V of Spain. An attempt to find the Northwest Passage (1509) failed owing to a mutiny of the crew. In 1518 he was appointed pilot major by the emperor *Charles V (Carlos I of Spain). He led an expedition that explored the coast of South America (1526–30), seeking a passage to the Pacific. In 1548 he returned to England and founded a company of merchant venturers, for which he organised an expedition (1553) under Willoughby and *Chancellor to search for a northeast passage from the Arctic Ocean to the China coast. In 1544 Cabot published a map showing his own and his father’s discoveries.

Williamson, J. A. (ed.), Cabot Voyages and Bristol Discovery under Henry VII. 1962.

Cabral, Pedro Alvares (c.1460–c.1520). Portuguese navigator. In 1500 he was made leader of an expedition to the East Indies with 13 ships, but while on the way he was forced westward by adverse currents (some say he deliberately altered course) and landed on the north east coast of Brazil, in Bahia, near Monte Pascoal, and he formally claimed possession on behalf of Portugal. During his resumed voyage to the east he lost seven ships with their crews (including the famous navigator Bartolomeo *Diaz) before reaching Mozambique and eventually Calient (near Madras) in India. Having made the first commercial treaty between India and Portugal, he returned to Lisbon in July 1501 with much booty.

Amado, J. C., Pedro Alvares Cabral. 1968.

Cabrini, St Frances Xavier (1850–1917). American religious, born in Lodigiano, Italy. She lived in the US from 1889 and was naturalised in 1909. She founded the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart, and schools, hospitals and orphanages. She became the first saint of the US when Pope *Pius XII canonised her in 1946.

Cadbury, George (1839–1922). English manufacturer and social reformer. With his brother Richard (1835–1899) he assumed control of his father’s Birmingham cocoa business in 1867, and when it expanded in 1879 he transferred the enterprise to Bournville. Being greatly interested in housing, he integrated the factory in a planned housing project and so organised the first modern ‘model’ village. A Quaker and a liberal, George Cadbury owned two London newspapers, the Daily News and the Star, which were active in all campaigns for social reform.

Cade, Jack (d.1450). English rebel. He led the Kentish rebellion of 1450 during the reign of *Henry VI. Misgovernment and financial oppression were the main causes of the rising which soon became formidable. Cade headed and managed to keep together a host which swelled to many thousands as it moved towards London, overcoming such resistance as it met on the way. Once they had reached the city the authorities induced them to disperse, partly by a show of force but mainly by concessions and promises. Cade was hunted down and killed at Heathfield in Sussex while resisting arrest.

Cadillac, Antoine de la Mothe, Sieur (1656–1730). French administrator and soldier. He settled a colony on the site of modern Detroit (1701) and later governed Louisiana 1713–16 before retiring to Gascony.

Cadogan, Sir Alexander Montague George (1884–1968). English diplomat. Son of the 8th Earl Cadogan, educated at Eton and Oxford, he joined the diplomatic service in 1908 and became Permanent Undersecretary for Foreign Affairs 1938–46. A strong opponent of appeasement, he worked closely with Winston *Churchill and wrote important diaries. British Ambassador to the United Nations 1946–50 and awarded the OM in 1951, he was Chair of the BBC 1952–57. The Diaries of Sir Alexander Cadogan, 1938–45 (1972) are a valuable research tool.

Cadogan, William Cadogan, 1st Earl (1675–1726). British general. The Duke of *Marlborough’s most trusted subordinate in the campaigns of the War of the Spanish Succession, he was known as his ‘maid of work’ from the variety of tasks he undertook. At Oudenarde (1708) he commanded the Allied vanguard. He was ennobled for his success in suppressing the Jacobite rising of 1715.

Churchill, W. S., Marlborough. 1933–38.

Cadorna, Luigi, Conte (1850–1928). Italian soldier. Commander-in-Chief of the Italian armies in World War I from 1915 to November 1917, after the disaster at Caporetto he ordered summary executions of his own soldiers, and was replaced by Armando *Diaz. *Mussolini promoted him to Marshal in 1924.

Cædmon (d.c.680). Anglo-Saxon poet. According to *Bede he was a herdsman who was granted a vision and received the gift of song. Of his poems, most of which were said to be metrical paraphrases of the Bible, only a single hymn (‘Nu scylun hergan hefaenricaes uard / Now [we] must honour the guardian of heaven’), translated into Latin by Bede is regarded as an authentic survival. Cædmon spent the last years of his life as a lay brother in Whitby Abbey, Yorkshire.

Caesar, (Caius) Julius (c.100–44 BCE). Roman soldier and statesman, born in Rome. Although born into one of the oldest and noblest Roman families he supported the democratic faction of *Marius (who had married his aunt) against the senatorial oligarchy under *Sulla. Sulla’s triumph in 81 threatened his life and forced him to live abroad until 78, when, Sulla having died, he returned to Rome and resumed his political career as a leader of the democratic party, greatly increasing his popularity by lavish expenditure during his year (65) as aedile (organiser of games and festivals). A new political situation was now taking shape. Caesar, back from a year’s campaigning in Spain, had formed a political association with Marcus *Crassus, an ambitious intriguer and the richest man in Rome; *Pompey had returned a national hero and was seeking political support for the terms of his settlement of Asia and especially for the provision of land for his returning veterans. The possibility of a bargain was evident, and in 60 the first ‘triumvirate’ between the three men was formed. It was in effect an unofficial division of spoils. Caesar, as Consul in 59, was able to meet Pompey’s demands and obtained what he most wanted for himself—a great military command in Gaul covering northern Italy and the conquered lands beyond the Alps. During the next eight years (58–50) Caesar in a series of brilliant campaigns raided Britain twice (55 and 54), conquered much of Gaul, defeating Vercingetorix (52) with savage killings, and advanced the Roman frontiers to the Rhine. Meanwhile a rift between Crassus and Pompey threatened not only stability in Rome but the survival of the triumvirate. Caesar made a hasty return in 56 to meet his partners at Luca; he patched up the quarrel and renewed the triumvirate on fresh terms. This time each was to have a military command. Pompey’s was in Spain, but he exercised control from Rome, through deputies. Crassus commanded the east where he started a war against Parthians and was killed in battle in 53. Caesar’s command in Gaul was extended and his relationship with Pompey became increasingly strained. Pompey, having few troops in Italy to oppose him, withdrew with the government to Epirus (Albania). This gave Caesar time to enforce the surrender of Pompey’s troops in Spain and consolidate his own position in Rome, before crossing the Adriatic, luring Pompey out of his entrenched camp by marching into Thessaly. The issue was finally decided by his great victory at Pharsalus (48), and he was given the title of Imperator (‘Supreme Commander’). He described his victory over the king of Pontus at the battle of Zela (in Anatolia), with the famous words ‘Veni, vidi, vici’ (‘I came, I saw, I conquered’). Pompey fled to Egypt and was murdered on landing. Caesar then landed in Egypt and in 47 confirmed *Cleopatra, on the disputed throne. She soon became his mistress and bore him a son. *Plutarch blamed Caesar for burning the library of Alexandria, but *Gibbon thought the charge was groundless. In 46 in North Africa Caesar crushed the remaining leaders of Pompey’s faction at Thapsus. He returned to Rome, now dictator and tribune for life, to celebrate four triumphs and distribute gifts. In January 45 BCE he introduced a 365¼ day calendar, based on Egypt’s. The Julian calendar was further modified by *Augustus in 8 CE, with the month of Caesar’s birth, Quintilis, renamed ‘Julius’ (July), Caesar extended eligibility for citizenship and made other liberal reforms. In 44 he was at the peak of his power and appointed dictator for life. Republican senators who feared (probably wrongly) that he intended to proclaim a monarchy, organised a conspiracy against him. He was assassinated on the Ides (15th) of March 44, at the Senate, meeting temporarily in the Hall of Pompey in the Campus Martius (now lying under the via di Torre Argentina, just south of the Pantheon). The conspirators were headed by *Brutus and *Cassius, his erstwhile friends. His will left all he possessed to his grandnephew Octavian, later to become *Augustus.

Though motivated by great personal ambition, Caesar was more than a self-seeking demagogue. He succeeded in winning stability for Rome and the provinces, and his dictatorship represented the crushing of an oligarchy and paved the way for the empire. He was among the greatest generals of history, a superb military narrator and commentator (his De bello Gallico stands supreme), a statesman of liberal thought and instantaneous and perfectly executed action, and a man of great personal charm. He was epileptic.

Gelzer, M., Caesar: Politician and Statesman. 1968; Meier, C., Caesar. 1982; McCullough, C., Caesar: a novel. 1998.

Caesarion (Ptolemy XIV or XV Caesar) (47–30 BCE). Egyptian pharaoh. The son of *Cleopatra and Julius *Caesar, he was nominal co-ruler with his mother. After her death he was lured from refuge by agents of Octavian (*Augustus) and murdered.

Caesarius, St (c.470–543). Gallic prelate. Bishop of Arles (now in Provence), France (from 502), at a time when Visigoths, Ostrogoths and Franks were contending for mastery of the old Roman province, he gained a great reputation not only for his sermons and for his staunch support of orthodox doctrines but for the statesman like qualities that enabled him to safeguard the communities of monks and nuns under his care.

Cage, John (1912–1992). American composer, philosopher, poet, music theorist and print maker, born in Los Angeles. A pioneer of ‘indeterminism’ in music, he studied with *Schoenberg and *Varèse, and began to experiment in composition in the late 1930s. Influenced by Zen Buddhism and I Ching, he became a pioneer of chance music (that is, with random, unexpected outcomes) and non-standard use of musical instruments. He used sounds of indeterminate notation and duration, produced by a variety of means (including, but not limited to, musical instruments). He aimed to encourage audience response to all sound; he did not intend to present a selected musical structure as a personal expression. His most discussed work was 4’ 33” (1952), catalogued as ‘tacet [i.e. silent] for any instrument’. His impact on other creative artists was exceptional, and he experimented with percussion, electronics and the ‘prepared piano’ in which extraneous objects are placed between the strings. Because no two performances were to be alike, relatively little of Cage’s work is available on CD. Roaratorio: An Irish Circus on Finnegans Wake (1976–79) is published on the Wergo label.

Cagliostro, Alessandro, Count de (1743–1795). Italian adventurer (possibly Giuseppe Balsamo of Palermo). He travelled widely in the east, picked up some knowledge of chemistry and occult science. He claimed to be able to transmute base metals into gold and made a fortune in Europe selling love philtres and elixirs of youth. In 1776 he came to England. In Paris he was involved (1784–85) in the affair of the diamond necklace (*Marie Antoinette) and briefly imprisoned in the Bastille. Throughout this period his reputation as a man of mystery who could foretell the future (e.g. the execution of *Louis XVI) was immense. He was condemned by the Inquisition and died in a Roman prison while serving a life sentence for founding a Masonic lodge.

Cai Lun (50?–118?). Chinese inventor, born in Guizhou. A eunuch and official at the court of the Han emperor Hodi, he is credited as the inventor of paper (about 105), and was an actual rather than legendary figure. Paper remained a Chinese monopoly until about 750 when the Arabs began manufacturing it in Baghdad and Samarkand.

Caillaux, Joseph (1863–1944). French radical politician. A deputy from 1898, he was Finance Minister 1899–1902, 1906–09, 1911, 1925, 1935 and campaigned for a progressive income tax. As Premier 1911–12 he negotiated with Germany a settlement of the Moroccan crisis, but his political life was abruptly interrupted when in 1913 his wife shot and killed Gaston Calmette, editor of Le Figaro, who had made various accusations against her husband (she was later acquitted of murder). Caillaux favoured the ending of World War I by a peace of negotiation, and in 1918 he was imprisoned after being convicted of corresponding with the Germans. Amnestied in 1924, he played an important part in war debt negotiations.

Caillaux J., Mémoires. 1942–48.

Caillebotte, Gustav (1848–1894). French painter and collector. A naval architect, he became a significant patron and collector and organised the first Impressionist exhibition in Paris in 1877. His best known work, Paris, a Rainy Day (1877), now in Chicago, combines Impressionist techniques with the classical tradition.

Cain, James M(allahan) (1892–1977). American author and journalist. He achieved great success with his novels The Postman Always Rings Twice (1934) and Mildred Pierce (1946), both filmed.

Cain, John (1882–1957). Australian Labor politician. With little formal education, he became a union organiser and municipal councillor, then a Member of the Victorian Legislative Assembly 1917–57 and Leader of the ALP 1937–57. In a gerrymandered parliament, Labor supported a minority Country Party Government in office 1935–43, 1943–47, 1950–52. Cain was Premier three times, for four days in 1943, in a minority government supported by Independents 1945–47, then with a massive majority in its own right 1952–55. However, a major split within the ALP over attitudes to Communism (H. V. *Evatt) began in 1954 and forced Cain from office. The Party remained in opposition until 1982. His son, John Cain (1931–2019), a lawyer and Law Reform Commissioner 1975–77, was MP 1976–92, and Premier of Victoria 1982–90, initiating many reforms, including freedom of information and equal opportunity legislation, development of the Melbourne Docklands, and increased investment in education and the environment.

Caine, Sir (Thomas Henry) Hall (1853–1931). English novelist. He was best known for a series of romantic, religious and melodramatic novels, one of which, The Deemster (1887), sold over 1,000,000 copies. Others include The Bondman (1890), The Manxman (1894), The Prodigal Son (1904) and The Woman Thou Gavest Me (1913). His Recollections of Rossetti (1882) was inspired by a friendship with the poet from 1881 until his death (1882).

Cairns, Jim (James Ford) (1914–2003). Australian Labor politician, born in Melbourne. An athlete and policeman, he took up a late vocation as an academic economist, and was a Member of the House of Representatives 1955–77. Handsome and charismatic, he led the anti-Vietnam War campaign and challenged Gough *Whitlam for the Labor leadership in 1968. In Whitlam’s Government he served as Minister for Trade 1972–74, Deputy Prime Minister and Treasurer 1974–75, and Minister for the Environment 1975. Dismissed for careless handling of sensitive overseas loans and for misleading the House, after politics he became a prolific author, promoting non-violence and alternative life styles.

Ormonde, P., A Foolish Passionate Man. 1981; Strangio, P., Keeper of the Faith. 2002.

Caitanya (1485–1533). Hindu mystic, also called Gauranga. His worship of Krishna in ecstatic dancing and singing inspired a form of Hinduism named after him. In 1510 he was initiated as an ascetic and afterwards settled in Puri, where a school of disciples grew up around him. His ecstatic trances and frenzies are thought to have undermined his health and hastened his death. His followers continued to follow his practices until the present day. They held that pure religious ecstasy was superior to all other forms of worship. An articulate theology, never established by Caitanya himself, who was not a teacher and did not intentionally establish an organised sect, was worked out by six of his disciples.

Caius (or Keys), John (1510–1573). English physician. He obtained his medical doctorate at Padua, returning in 1544 to England, where he lectured on anatomy in London. He became a fellow of the College of Physicians in 1547 and later was nine times president. He was in turn physician to *Edward VI, *Mary and *Elizabeth and in 1557 endowed and enlarged Gonville Hall, Cambridge, where he had been a student, renaming it Gonville and Caius (pronounced ‘Keys’) College. He published A Boke of Counseill against the Sweating Sickness (1552) and wrote on a range of medical, scientific and antiquarian topics.

Calas, Jean (1698–1762). French merchant. A Huguenot, victim of a notorious French miscarriage of justice exposed by *Voltaire, he was a clothier in Toulouse. He was falsely accused of hanging one of his sons, who had committed suicide, to prevent his conversion to Roman Catholicism. The father was tried, tortured and executed, but Voltaire, suspecting priestly and official prejudice, took up the case and in 1765 the verdict was reversed.

Calder, Alexander (Stirling) (1898–1976). American sculptor, born in Philadelphia. He studied engineering in New Jersey and art in New York, moved to Paris (1926) and was influenced by *Miró and (after 1930) *Mondrian. After making sculptures and models of wood and wire, in 1931 he began to design and construct ‘mobiles’, moving abstract shapes (originally motor driven) of metal, plastic or wood, connected by wires, depending on air currents for movement, and (from 1933) ‘stabiles’, which were fixtures. He also worked as a painter, lithographer and jewellery designer. His mobiles and stabiles, many of them monumental, were exhibited in open spaces in New York, Washington, Los Angeles, Paris, Madrid, Stockholm, Spoleto and Jerusalem.

Calder, A., An Autobiography with Pictures. 1966.

Calderón de la Barca, Pedro (1600–1681). Spanish dramatist and poet, born in Madrid. He was educated at Alcalå and Salamanca universities, and was soon writing plays so successfully that after the death of Lope de *Vega in 1635 his position as leading dramatist was undisputed. He was made a knight of the Order of Santiago in 1636. After a period of distinguished army service (1640–42) he took holy orders (1651) on the command of King Philip IV, but he continued to write religious plays. He wrote in verse and, like *Shakespeare, with whom he has been compared, wrote both comedies and tragedies. His plays were concerned with themes of marital honour and with religious and philosophical ideas. They suffer, however, from the stylised conventions of the period, and are seldom now produced outside Spain. Over 100 have survived, one of the best known, El mågico prodigioso (The Prodigious Magician), in some respects anticipating Goethe’s Faust, others are El alcalde de Zalamea (The Mayor of Zalamea), La vida es sueno (Life is A Dream) and El gran teatro del mundo (The Great Theatre of the World). In addition there are some 70 of the so-called autos saeramentales, a special form of religious drama concerned with the mysteries of the Holy Eucharist.

Parker, A. A., The Allegorical Drama of Calderón. Repr. 1968.

Caldwell, Erskine Preston (1903–1987). American novelist and screenwriter. His Tobacco Road (1932) and God’s Little Acre (1933) are the two best known of a series in which the degraded conditions of ‘poor whites’ in the southern states are described with humour and indignation; both were successfully filmed. He also wrote works of autobiography, criticism and travel.

Calhoun, John Caldwell (1782–1850). American politician, born in South Carolina. A lawyer, he served in the state legislature 1808–10 and in the US House of Representatives 1811–17. A ‘War Hawk’ (ultranationalist) during the War of 1812, he also campaigned for protective tariffs. *Madison’s Secretary of War 1817–25, he was twice elected as Vice President, first with J.Q. *Adams (1824), then with Andrew *Jackson (1828), serving 1825–32. He became the first vice president to resign (1832), breaking with Jackson on the issue of ‘nullification’, the doctrine that states could declare federal laws (e.g. on slavery or tariffs) unconstitutional where they felt themselves fundamentally threatened. Elected US Senator 1832–43, 1845–50, he served as *Tyler’s Secretary of State 1844–45. Calhoun is regarded as one of the greatest American orators.

Current, J. C., John C. Calhoun. 1963.

Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) (12–41 CE). Roman Emperor 37–41. Son of Germanicus Caesar and *Agrippina, he owed his nickname Caligula (Little Boots) to his popularity as a child with his father’s soldiers. At first he ruled with moderation but a serious illness, possibly epilepsy, a few months after his accession is believed to have affected his sanity. Thenceforth he behaved as an increasingly bloodthirsty and vicious tyrant. The story that he made his horse ‘Incitatus’ a consul is typical of many anecdotes indicating his irresponsibility. After only four years’ rule, and having declared himself a god, a palace conspiracy brought about his assassination.

Calixtus III see Callistus III

Callaghan, (Leonard) James, Baron Callaghan (1912–2005). British Labour politician, born in Portsmouth. Son of a naval chief petty officer, he joined the Inland Revenue in 1929. He served in the navy, became MP for South Cardiff 1945–87, was Parliamentary Secretary in the Ministry of Transport 1947–50 and Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty 1950–51. He was Chancellor of the Exchequer 1964–67 and Home Secretary 1967–70 under Harold *Wilson, and when Labour was re-elected he was Foreign and Commonwealth Secretary 1974–76. When Wilson retired, he was elected Leader of the Labour Party, defeating Michael *Foot in the third ballot, serving as Prime Minister 1976–79. His small majority depended on continuous support from the Liberals and the minority groups. After the notorious ‘winter of discontent’, marked by economic stagnation, strikes and a savage freeze, he lost the 1979 election to Margaret *Thatcher and the Conservatives, but continued as leader of the Labour Party until 1980. He retired with a KG and peerage (1987). He was the longest lived British Prime Minister.

Callas (née Kalogeropolous, later Kalos), Maria (Anna Cecilia) (1923–1977). Greek-American dramatic soprano, born in New York. She studied in Athens and made her debut there in 1941. In 1949 she married Giovanni Battista Meneghini, appeared at La Scala, Milan, in 1950, at Covent Garden in 1952 and at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, in 1956. Among her most famous roles were *Bellini’s Norma, and Amina in his La Sonnambula, while her magnetic stage presence and great gifts as an operatic actor yielded memorable portrayals of Violetta in *Verdi’s La Traviata and in the title role in *Puccini’s Tosca. From 1959 until her death she had an intense relationship with Aristotle *Onassis.

Calles, Plutarco Elias (1877–1945). Mexican soldier and politician. He took an active part in the revolution which in 1911 overthrew President *Diaz, and later served under *Carranza and *Obregón. He was President of Mexico 1924–28. He continued to control events from behind the scenes until in 1936 President *Cárdenas asserted himself and had him deported. By the vigour with which he carried out the policy of land distribution and other reforms Calles did much to benefit the peasants, and his attacks on the Church and the oil companies were in line with revolutionary tradition, but as his rule proceeded he became increasingly dictatorial and conservative. He thus alienated many of his former supporters, and his deposition was popular.

Callimachus of Cyrene (c.310–240 BCE). Greek poet and librarian, born in North Africa. Working in the Alexandrian Library at the time of *Ptolemy II, his most important work, Aetia (Causes), which survives in fragmentary form, tells a series of episodes purporting to reveal the origins of ancient customs. He began a systematic catalogue of the library’s holdings and originated alphabetical listing.

Callisthenes (c.360–327 BCE). Greek historian. Said to have been *Aristotle’s nephew, he accompanied *Alexander the Great on his campaigns but was put to death for allegedly being involved in a plot. The real reason may have been his opposition to Alexander’s assumption of divine honours. Only fragments of his writings survive.

Callistus III (Alonso de Borja. Borgia in Italian) (1378–1458). Pope 1455–58. Born in Valencia, he was a papal lawyer and diplomat. After the fall of Constantinople (1453), he attempted to organise a crusade against the Turks, aided *Hunyadi and *Skanderbeg but had little support from France and Germany. He was deeply anti-Jewish and inclined to nepotism—Rodrigo Borgia, later *Alexander VI, being the main beneficiary. He annulled (posthumously) the sentence of excommunication passed on *Joan of Arc.

Calment, Jeanne Louise (1875–1997). French centenarian, born in Arles. She married a cousin, never worked and smoked until she was 117. In October 1995 she became the oldest person in geriatric records.

Calmette, Albert Léon Charles (1863–1933). French bacteriologist. With Alphonse Guerin he developed the BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis.

Calonne, Charles Alexandre de (1734–1802). French financier. An administrator of wide experience, he was one of the ablest of those who, in the hectic years of unrest before the French Revolution, were called in by *Louis XVI to try to rescue French finances from the chaos that threatened disaster. Appointed Controller General of Finance in 1783, he was at first successful in raising loans to meet immediate needs, but his proposals for taxing the privileged classes put before the Assembly of Notables in 1787 roused such indignation among those affected that Louis felt himself forced to dismiss his adviser. Calonne spent the revolutionary years in England as Finance Minister to the emigré government. He returned to France, poverty stricken, in the year of his death.

Calvé, Emma (Rosa Calvet) (1858?–1942). French operatic soprano. She performed with great success in France, England and America. Her greatest role was Carmen in *Bizet’s opera.

Calvin, John (English form of Jean Cauvin) (1509–1564). French religious reformer, born at Noyon in Picardy. The son of an ecclesiastical lawyer, he went at the age of 14 to Paris University. Originally intended for the priesthood, he was attracted by the new humanism. Acting on his father’s advice he began legal training at Orléans, and later at Bourges. His aptitude proving greater than his interest, so in 1531, after his father’s death, he returned to Paris and devoted himself to classical scholarship, also beginning Hebrew. Already sympathetic to the attacks made on traditional theology by *Luther and *Bucer, Calvin experienced what he called ‘instant conversion’ about 1533. Under threat of arrest as a Protestant, he spent the next two years constantly on the move, but at last took refuge in Basle, Switzerland, where he continued his Hebrew studies and worked on Institutes of the Christian Religion, completed in 1536 with a prefatory letter to King *François I of France in which he foresaw the destruction of any kingdom ‘not ruled by the sceptre of God’. This, his greatest work, bears the imprint of St *Augustine’s teaching, especially in its emphasis on the doctrine of predestination and the supreme sovereignty of God. Calvin taught that certain souls (‘the elect’) are predestined for eternal life and the remainder are damned, salvation being the free gift of God and good works being the sign of salvation, not its cause. Whether Christ’s death was an act of atonement for the benefit of all or only of the elect is not always clear and was a subject of much controversy in the Reformed Churches. When passing through Geneva in 1536 Calvin accepted what was virtually a challenge from Guillaume *Farel to take over his work of directing the religious and political life of the city and he used his organising ability to create a system of theocratic government. He prescribed a profession of faith, banned all public entertainment, emphasised the need for unbending puritanism in private life and even issued regulations on dress. Such austerity soon proved unpopular and Calvin was expelled from the city in 1538 after riots organised by a faction called the Libertines. The three years that elapsed before he was recalled were spent mainly at Strasbourg where he entered upon a brief but happy marriage (his wife died in 1549, their son having already died in infancy), continued his studies and renewed contact with Bucer and other reformers. Back in Geneva he resumed where he had left off and organised a Presbyterian system of government. He wanted Geneva to be a ‘city of glass’, and many informers helped to enforce his imposition of social discipline and puritan morality. The burning of *Servetus demonstrated his rigid intolerance in religious matters. The regime lasted during his lifetime and at least the hard work, thrift and sobriety enjoined brought trade and wealth to the city. The college which later became Geneva University was founded to provide an educated clergy. Calvinism spread before and after its founder’s death and shared with Lutheranism the allegiance of the greatest part of the Protestant world. It provided a pattern for Presbyterian Churches in Scotland and elsewhere: it was the faith of the Huguenots in France, of the Dutch Reformed Church and of several German states. The relationship (if any) of Calvinism to the rise of capitalism has been a matter of considerable historical controversy, as has the suggestion that Calvinism encouraged rebellion.

Wendel, F., Calvin: The Origin and Development of his Religious Thought. 1963; Parker, T. M., Calvin. 1976.

Calvino, Italo (1923–1985). Italian writer, born in Cuba. He began work in Turin, on the magazine L’Unita, and from 1959 he was co-editor of Il Menabo di letteratura. He began to write realistic stories of the Italian Resistance (in which he had served), but during the 1950s turned to fantasy, some of it allegorical. He gained a wide reputation with Il visconte dimezzato (1952), Il barone rampante (1957), and Il cavaliere inesistente (1959). All his work shows a concern with what he considers to be the dehumanising influence of contemporary society. His If on a winter’s night a traveller. . . (1979) was widely acclaimed in translation.

Woodhouse, J. R., Italo Calvino: A Reappraisal and an Appreciation of the Trilogy. 1968.

Calwell, Arthur Augustus (1896–1973). Australian politician. As Minister of Immigration 1945–49 he initiated a scheme which brought 1,000,000 Europeans to Australia within a decade. He succeeded H. V. *Evatt as Leader of the Labor opposition 1960–67.

Camargo, Marie Anne de Cupis de (1710–1770). French dancer, born in Brussels. One of the most famous figures in the early history of ballet, she came from an influential family and received early encouragement. Her whole career from her first appearance in Paris in 1726 to her retirement in 1751 was a series of triumphs. She appeared in about 80 ballets and her fame was perpetuated by the celebrated artists and writers (including *Voltaire) of her time. She is said to have introduced the characteristic short ballet skirt. The Camargo Society was founded in London in 1930 (*Ashton, *Lambert).

Cambacérès, Jean Jacques Regis de, Duc de Parma (1753–1824). French politician. In the violent phase of the Revolution, he played a placatory role. In November 1799, he helped to organise the ‘coup of 18 Brumaire’ which overthrew the Directory and installed *Napoléon Bonaparte as First Consul. Cambacérès became Second Consul in 1800. His great interest was jurisprudence and he became principal architect of the Code Napoléon. Under the empire he was Archchancellor 1804–14, holding second place in the state hierarchy, receiving a dukedom in 1808. After the restoration of *Louis XVIII he was expelled but allowed to return in 1818.

Cambridge, George William Frederick Charles, 2nd Duke of (1819–1904). British prince and field marshal, born in Hanover. A grandson of *George III, and briefly (1819) heir presumptive to the throne, he married morganatically in 1847 but was also loyal to his mistress. He devoted his life to the army and served in the Crimean War. Having been mildly sympathetic to reform, as Commander-in-Chief 1856–95 he became increasingly hostile and the army became ossified until, despite loyal support from his cousin, Queen *Victoria, he was forced out by Henry *Campbell-Bannerman.

Cambyses (Kambusiya) (d.522 BCE). King of Persia 529–22 BCE. Son of *Cyrus the Great, he added Phoenicia, Cyprus, and Egypt to the Persian empire but his subsequent expeditions to the south (Nubia) and west were partial or total failures, as a result of which, according to a tradition related by *Herodotus, Cambyses became a cruel, drunken and capricious tyrant. He died while returning to Persia to deal with a usurper who claimed to be his murdered brother.

Olmstead, A. T., History of the Persian Empire. 1948.

Camden, Charles Pratt, 1st Earl (1713–1794). English judge. As Chief Justice of the Common Pleas 1762–66 he pronounced against the legality of ‘general warrants’ in the case of John *Wilkes and became extraordinarily popular. He became Lord Chancellor in 1766, but his support of Wilkes and opposition to the government’s unyielding American policy caused him to resign in 1770. He served under *Rockingham and *Pitt as Lord President of the Council 1782–94 and was created an ear1 in 1786.

Camden, William (1551–1623). English antiquarian, historian and schoolmaster. Educated at Christ’s Hospital, St Paul’s School and Oxford, he became a master at Westminster in 1575 and was headmaster 1593–97. His professional occupation allowed him time to travel up and down England and collect material for his great antiquarian survey Britannia, the original Latin version of which appeared in 1586. His Annals of Queen *Elizabeth’s reign were published posthumously. Most of his many works, which include an account of the trial of the Gunpowder Plotters (*Fawkes) are in Latin. His name is commemorated by the Camden professorship at Oxford.

Trevor-Roper. H., Queen Elizabeth’s First Historian. 1971.

Cameron, David William Donald (1966– ). English Conservative politician, born in London. Son of a stockbroker, descendent of *William IV, educated at Eton and Oxford, he worked in the Conservative Party’s Research Department, then for a public relations firm. He was MP 2001–16, Shadow Minister for Education 2005 and Leader of the Opposition 2005–10. He became Prime Minister May 2010 as head of a Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition. Conservatives won an outright majority in May 2015 and the Coalition ended. Under pressure from anti-EU Conservatives, he imprudently called a referendum (June 2016) to decide on Britain’s continued membership. The vote to leave (‘Brexit’) was unexpected, and Cameron, who had led the ‘Remain’ campaign, felt obliged to resign as Prime Minister. Theresa *May succeeded him.

Cameron, D., For the Record. 2019.

Cameron, Julia Margaret (née Pattle) (1815–1879). English photographer, born in Calcutta. Influenced by G.F. *Watts, after 1864 she made remarkable portraits of *Tennyson, *Darwin, *Herschel, *Carlyle, *Browning, *Hooker and *Eyre. A great-aunt of Virginia *Woolf, she died in Ceylon (Sri Lanka).

Cameron, Verney Lovett (1844–1894). British naval officer and explorer. Much of his service was spent in African waters in the suppression of the slave trade. Sent in 1873 to relieve *Livingstone, he met the party carrying his body to the coast. Proceeding westwards, he found some of Livingstone’s papers and then surveyed Lake Tanganyika, arriving at the correct conclusion that its outlet flowed to the Congo. He eventually reached Portuguese Benguela (1875) and so was the first European to cross equatorial Africa from east to west. He wrote accounts of his travels and adventure stories for boys, including Across Africa (1877).

Camilleri, Andrea Calogero (1925–2019). Italian (Sicilian) novelist and director, born in Porto Empedocle. After a successful career writing and directing in film and theatre he wrote 27 crime novels about Inspector Salvo Montalbano, which were brilliantly translated, became a television series, transformed Sicily’s tourism potential and, apparently, weakened Mafia influence.

Camões (or Camoens), Luis de (1524–1580). Portuguese poet, born in Lisbon. From a poor family of the minor nobility, he received his education at Coimbra University and gained early recognition for his gifts as a lyric poet and dramatist. After he left the university it is surmised that he had many love affairs and that he was exiled from Lisbon as a result of one of these (supposedly with Caterina de Ataide, a lady of the court). He served in the army in North Africa (1547–49) and lost his right eye there, returned to Lisbon, was again exiled and went to Goa in India, where he served with military expeditions in the Far East. After further adventures and misadventures he left Goa in 1567 for Mozambique, but it was not until 1570, after his debts and passage money had been paid by friends, that he reached home. He lived in poverty on a small pension from the king until he died in hospital of the plague. While in the East he worked on his masterpiece, As Lusiadas (The Lusiads i.e. the Portuguese), a national epic, broadly modelled on *Virgil’s Aeneid, and largely inspired by the discoveries and heroic exploits of da *Gama and his fellow navigators and soldiers in the East. The work was published in 1572 and was an immediate success, with 36 editions published between 1580 and 1640. Camões also wrote three verse comedies, many lyric poems of great poignancy (some to a favourite Chinese slave girl) and philosophical sonnets.

Freitas, W., Camões and his Epic. 1963.

Campanella, Tommaso (1568–1639). Italian astronomer and philosopher, born at Stilo in Calabria. He entered the Dominican order and early intellectual influences on him included the writings of Telesio (who advanced atomistic views of nature). In 1592 he was denounced to the Inquisition for heresy. Between then and 1629 he spent much of his time in internment. He passed his last few years in safety in France. Campanella was one of the foremost champions of the Copernican view that the sun was the centre of the planetary system. He may have held such views because of his independent conviction of the truth of natural magic and astrology, which led him to see the sun as the source of great spiritual powers. Throughout his life he defended the right of philosophers and scientists to speculate freely in matters relating to the natural world. In his view, Scripture did not pronounce on such matters and the Church should not dogmatise. Of importance as a political utopian, he conceived of a perfect state (the Civitas solis, the Commonwealth of the Sun) in which work and wealth were equally shared, and men perfected themselves by coming to a spiritual understanding of God through his creation.

Campbell. Scottish noble family, the heads of which have been earls (from 1457) and dukes (from 1701) of *Argyll.

Campbell, Alexander (1788–1866). American religious leader, born in Ireland. He was a Presbyterian then a Baptist preacher, before forming his own group, which, merged with others, became the ‘Disciples of Christ’, a body with over 1,000,000 members in the US. Campbell, who founded Bethany College in 1840, believed that Christianity should rest solely on biblical authority and that forms of worship should resume the simplicity of New Testament times. He produced his own translation of the New Testament and was a prolific writer.

Campbell, Beatrice (Stella, née Tanner) (known as Mrs Patrick Campbell) (1865–1940). English actor. She created the role of Eliza in Bernard *Shaw’s Pygmalion (1912) and was earlier successful in the plays of *Pinero (notably in the title role of The Second Mrs Tanqueray), and *Ibsen. Her close friendship with Shaw led to a lively and fascinating correspondence, later published.

Peters, M., Mrs Pat. 1984.

Campbell (originally Macliver), Colin, 1st Baron Clyde (1792–1863). British field marshal. Son of a carpenter, he adopted his mother’s family name, and as a young man served in the Peninsular War. Fame, knighthood (KCB) and experience of Indian conditions came in the second Sikh War (1848–49), followed by much frontier fighting. In the Crimea (at Alma and Balaclava) he proved himself the most effective of the British generals and when the Indian Mutiny broke out (1857) he became Commander-in-Chief 1857–60. He relieved Lucknow and suppressed the rising.

Campbell, Joseph (1904–1987). American author, born in New York. Educated at Columbia University, he taught at the Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville 1934–72 and became a prolific (and controversial) author of books on mythology and folklore, including The Masks of God (4 volumes: 1959–67) and The Historical Atlas of World Mythology (1983–87). Television and radio programs with Bill Moyers helped to popularise his ideas.

Campbell, Kim (Avril Thaedra) (1947– ). Canadian Progressive Conservative politician. Educated at the University of British Columbia, she became a lawyer and academic, was elected MP 1988–93, and served as Attorney-General 1990–92 and Minister for Defence 1992–93. She succeeded Brian *Mulroney as party leader and Prime Minister of Canada 1993. In October 1993 her Conservative Party was overwhelmingly defeated. She became Consul-General in California and also taught at Harvard.

Campbell, Sir Malcolm (1885–1948). British sportsman. In 1935 his famous car Bluebird reached 301 mph (484 kph), on Bonneville Flats, Utah, US. In 1939 he captured the world water speed record on Coniston Water, in the English Lake District, by reaching 141.7 mph (228 kph) in his motor boat, also named Bluebird. His son, Donald Malcolm Campbell (1921–1967), broke the world water speed record again at Coniston in 1955 by travelling at 202 mph (325 kph), a speed which he had raised to 260 mph (418 kph) by 1959. In 1964 he also established a land speed record of 403 mph (648 kph) at Lake Dumbleyung, Western Australia. His boats and cars were also named Bluebird. In an attempt to attain a water speed of 300 mph (483 kph) his boat disintegrated and he was killed.

Campbell, (Ignatius) Roy (Dunnachie) (1901–1957). South African poet, born in Durban. His poems have a vigorous ‘outdoor’ quality, often mixed with sharp satire, and reflect the interests of Campbell himself, who was accomplished at bull tossing, jousting and steer throwing. He fought for General *Franco in the Spanish Civil War. His poetic works include The Flaming Terrapin (1924), Wayzgoose (1928), Adamaster (1930) and Flowering Rifle (1939), which was inspired by his experiences in the Spanish war. Light on a Dark Horse (1951) is autobiographical. He was killed in a motor accident in Portugal, where he had lived since 1947.

Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry (1836–1908). British Liberal politician. Son of a lord provost of Glasgow, he was educated at Glasgow University and Trinity College, Cambridge and sat as MP 1868–1908. A strong supporter of *Gladstone’s Irish policy, he became Chief Secretary for Ireland 1884–85. As Secretary for War 1886; 1894–95 he reformed the army and managed to remove the apparently immovable George, Duke of Cambridge (1819–1904) as Commander-in-Chief in 1895. He succeeded Sir William *Harcourt as party leader in 1899. He read widely, supported votes for women and had a gift for languages. Prime Minister 1905–08, his ministry was outstanding, including *Asquith, *Grey, *Haldane, *Lloyd George and *Churchill, and was one of the most brilliant in history. The Prime Minister was responsible for granting self-government to the defeated Boer republics, the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, from which stemmed the Union of South Africa. Heart disease forced his resignation and he died in 10 Downing Street 17 days later.

Wilson, J., CB: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman. 1974.

Campin, Robert (c.1378–1444). Flemish painter. Active in Tournai, he is now identified as the previously misdescribed ‘Master of Flémalle’, regarded as the founder of Flemish Realism and a major influence on Jan van *Eyck and Rogier van der *Weyden.

Campion, Edmund (c.1540–1581). English priest, born in London. He was educated at Christ’s Hospital and Oxford, and later studied for the Roman Catholic priesthood at Douai and Rome. He joined the Jesuits (1573) and in 1580 returned to England on a mission to revive the spirit of the Roman Catholics suffering under Queen *Elizabeth’s Anglican rule. With his eloquence and the qualities of a brilliant mind he was proving most successful when within a year he was captured. Despite torture he refused to recant and argued persuasively with his accusers. Nevertheless he was condemned on charges of sedition and hanged, drawn and quartered. Campion was beatified in 1886.

Waugh, E., Edmund Campion. 1936.

Campion, Thomas (1567–1620). English poet and musician. By profession a physician, he is best known for his books of ‘ayres’ containing lyrics, some set to music (for the flute) by himself, he also wrote masques for court performances and a treatise on harmony. In his Observations in the Art of Poesie (1602) he attacked the practice of rhyming.

Camrose, William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount see Berry, W.E.

Camus, Albert (1913–1960). French writer, born in Algeria. He became a journalist and an actor and managed a theatrical company (1935–38). He went to Paris in 1939. Towards the end of World War II he worked for the resistance movement and was editor of the left wing newspaper Combat (1944–47). For a time he belonged to the Communist party, but became disillusioned, and after breaking with *Sartre abandoned public activities. In his later works he revealed himself as a humanist, discouraged by the failure of contemporary civilisation to cope with major moral issues, and unable to accept the existence of God, but constantly trying to find significant values in a meaningless world. Most of his thought is centred on the concept of the ‘absurd’—that man’s predicament in the world is absurd. He is often termed an existentialist—to which he laid no claim. Among his works are the philosophical essays in Le Mythe de Sisyphe (1942), L’Homme révolté (1951), a declaration of his own attitude to life, novels such as L’Étranger (1942) and La Peste (1947), short stories, as L’Exil et la Royaume (1957), and plays such as Le Malentendu (1944). He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1957. He was killed in a motor accident.

Todd, O., Albert Camus. 1996; Lottman, H. R., Albert Camus. 1996.

Canaletto (Giovanni Antonio Canale) (1697–1768). Italian painter. Famous for his pictures of Venice, he received his first training at Venice from his father, a scene painter, but later studied in Rome. His best pictures combine exact topographical detail with a remarkably subtle feeling for light. An English connoisseur, Joseph Smith, whose collection of over 50 Canalettos was bought by *George III, persuaded him to come to England, where he lived between 1746 and 1756, but though some of his London scenes are as skilful as the Venetian ones in reproducing detail and conveying atmosphere, it is upon the latter that his reputation finally rests.

Constable, W. G., Canaletto. 1962.

Canaris, Wilhelm (1887–1945). German admiral and spy. After long naval service, he became head of the Abwehr (German military intelligence) 1935–44, became convinced that *Hitler might destroy Germany and was involved in plots to remove him. He was hanged at Flossenbürg, on the same day as *Bonhoeffer.

Candolle, Augustin Pyrame de (1778–1841). French botanist, born at Geneva. After working in Paris, he was professor at Montpellier from 1807–16, when he returned to Geneva. He is best known for his system for classifying plants in natural categories rather than in what he held to be the artificial ones in the system of *Linnaeus.

Canetti, Elias (1905–1994). German-Jewish writer, born in Bulgaria. From a Sephardic family, he was educated in Manchester, Vienna, Zürich and Frankfurt, and became a British subject in 1935. He was awarded the 1981 Nobel Prize for Literature for a lifetime’s work, including the novel Auto da Fé (1935, originally Die Blendung), Crowds and Power (1960) and two volumes of autobiography.

Cannadine, Sir David (1950– ). English historian, born in Birmingham. He studied at Cambridge, Oxford and Princeton, held chairs at Columbia, London and Princeton, and became editor of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 2014– . His works include Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy (1990), G. M. Trevelyan (1992), Orientalism (2001), In Churchill’s Shadow (2002), Mellon (2006) and George V (2014).

Canning, Charles John Canning, 1st Earl (1812–1862). English administrator. Son of George *Canning, he was educated at Eton and Oxford, became a protégé of Robert *Peel and served as Undersecretary for Foreign Affairs 1841–46 and Postmaster General 1853–55. *Palmerston appointed him as Governor-General of India (from 1856), becoming the first Viceroy 1858–62. His skill and moderation in dealing with the Indian Mutiny (1857) and its aftermath, which earned him the nickname ‘Clemency Canning’, are much more widely recognised today than they were at the time.

Canning, George (1770–1827). English Tory politician, born in London. His father, a failed businessman, died in 1771 and his mother became an actress. Relatives saved him from destitution and paid for his education at Winchester, Eton and Oxford, where his brilliance soon attracted attention. *Pitt found him a seat in Parliament, and he was MP 1793–1827. In 1797 he founded the satirical Anti-Jacobin, in which Tories less extreme than himself, especially Pitt’s successor, *Addington, were violently attacked. The other side of his political nature was shown when, after holding minor office, he first became foreign secretary, in the Portland administration of 1807. Expert and liberal statesmanship abroad and reactionary politics at home were characteristics of his policies. In his first term as foreign secretary his promptness in obtaining control of the Danish and Portuguese fleets after *Napoléon’s reconciliation with Tsar *Aleksandr at Tilsit and his support for the Spanish insurgents against Joseph *Bonaparte’s rule had decisive effects in the struggle against Napoléon. A duel with his rival *Castlereagh in 1809, in which he was shot and wounded, caused a long interruption in his political career, during which he occupied important posts (Ambassador to Portugal, 1814–16, President of the Indian Board of Control 1816–21). Appointed to be Governor-General of Bengal, he was recalled to the government after Castlereagh’s suicide (1822), and became Foreign Secretary once more. It was during this second term that his recognition and support of the South American colonists in revolt against Spanish rule evoked the phrase ‘I called the New World into existence, to redress the balance of the Old’. His support for the Greek independence movement also proved decisive. He succeeded *Liverpool as Prime Minister in April 1827 but died of emphysema in August, after 119 days in office, the shortest tenure of any British Prime Minister.

Petrie, C., George Canning. 2nd ed. 1946; Hinde, W., George Canning. 1973.

Cannizzaro, Stanislao (1826–1910). Italian chemist. He was appointed to academic posts at Genoa (1855), Palermo (1861), and Rome (1870). He was the first to appreciate the importance of the hypothesis of *Avogadro as a means of introducing order into chemical classification, and brought it to general attention in his Sketch of a Course of Chemical Philosophy (1858). Cannizzaro also did important work in organic chemistry. The reaction of benzaldehyde with potassium hydroxide to form benzylalcohol was discovered by him and is often referred to as ‘Cannizzaro’s reaction’.

Canning, Stratford, 1st Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe (1786–1880). English diplomat. First cousin of George *Canning, most of his career was spent in Constantinople. He was First Secretary in the Embassy to the Ottoman Empire 1808–10 and Minister Plenipotentiary 1810–58. During his last period (from 1841), he exercised a very powerful influence over the Sultan’s foreign policy. He aimed to secure Turkey’s independence of Russia without war, and though he failed to avert the Crimean War he obtained enough external support for Turkey to ensure Russia’s defeat. He was also largely responsible for many internal reforms. Throughout his career he acted as a proconsul almost entirely independently of the British Government.

Cannon, Walter Bradford (1871–1945). American physiologist, born in Wisconsin. Son of a poor railroad worker, he gained admission to Harvard, and graduated in 1896. He had already developed interests in neurology and psychology, and proceeded to study at Harvard Medical School. From 1902–42 he was in the Harvard Physiology Department. Cannon’s early research was on digestion. He made pioneer use of X-rays to examine gastrointestinal action and the mechanisms of swallowing. He then directed his research to a study of the sympathetic nervous system, and developed the notion that the autonomic nervous system aims to keep the internal environment of the body in a state of constant equilibrium (homeostasis). These views he expounded in his Wisdom of the Body (1932). His later work on digestion shared many similarities with the researches of *Pavlov in Russia. During World War I he had made deep studies of the new phenomenon of shell shock. All the ways in which the nervous system operated to some degree autonomously from mental consciousness were of deep interest to him. Cannon had strong civic and political convictions, sympathised with the Russian Revolution and campaigned for the Republican cause in the Spanish Civil War. He was nominated 27 times for the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

Cano, Juan Sebastian del (d.1526). Spanish navigator. He commanded one of the five ships in *Magellan’s great expedition of 1519, and when Magellan was killed in the Philippines (1521) Cano took command. On returning to Spain (1522) he was acclaimed as the first man to circumnavigate the world.

Canova, Antonio (1757–1822). Italian sculptor, born near Venice. Trained as a sculptor from the age of 11, he settled in Rome at 24 and Vatican patronage soon made him prominent. He led the Italian neo-classical movement, famous for his idealised and sometimes sentimentalised representations of the human form. His monuments to popes Clement XIII and XIV belong to this period. Later he was patronised by the *Bonaparte family and especially *Napoléon’s sister, Pauline, Princess Borghese, presented semi-naked on a couch. In 1815 he was sent to Paris to negotiate for the return of works of art looted by Napoléon. Among his best known classical works are several versions of Cupid and Psyche and the Perseus in the Vatican.

Munoz, A., Canova. 1957.

Canrobert, (François) Certain (1809–1895). French marshal. After long and distinguished service in Algeria he succeeded Marshal *St Arnaud as French Commander-in-Chief in the Crimean War. In 1859 he commanded a division against the Austrians at Magenta and Solferino in the war for Italian independence. In the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 he was taken prisoner with his troops when Metz surrendered.

Cantor, Georg (Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp) (1845–1918). German mathematician, born in St Petersburg. Following studies in Berlin and Göttingen, he became a lecturer at the University of Halle in 1969 and professor in 1879. In 1874 he published a revolutionary paper explaining that there were at least two different kinds of infinities, the countable infinity, the common numbers of elements (‘cardinal numbers’) in the sets {1, 2, 3, 4, 5 … } and {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, … }, both of which go on ad infinitum, but can ultimately be counted to include every element, and the uncountable infinity of elements in sets such as all real numbers—the continuum—which cannot be counted. In later work, Cantor called the countable infinity symbol 1920, and defined and studied an infinity of distinct infinities symbol 1920, symbol 1921, etc. He hypothesised, but could not prove, that the cardinality of the continuum was the next largest infinity after symbol 1920, indeed that symbol 1921 = 2equation. His transfinite set theory was the first careful and precise mathematical theory of the infinite. He became obsessed with the hypothesis that Francis *Bacon wrote *Shakespeare’s plays. From 1884 he experienced periods of extreme depression and was often hospitalised.

Bell, E. T., Development of Mathematics. 1945.

Canute see Cnut

Cáo Xuěqín (originally Cáo Zhān or Mèngruǎn) (c.1715– c.1763). Chinese novelist, poet and painter, born in Nanjing. His family served the *Qing (Manchu) court, then fell from wealth and power. His novel Dream of the Red Chamber (or The Story of the Stone), circulated in manuscript from the 1760s, and first printed in 1791, is regarded as the greatest novel in the classical Chinese tradition.

Capablanca y Graupera, Jose Raúl (1888–1942). Cuban chess master. A diplomat by profession, he was the world chess champion from 1921, when he defeated Emanuel *Lasker, until he lost the title in 1927 to Aleksandr *Alekhine.

Čapek, Karel (1890–1938). Czech playwright and novelist, born in Malé Svatosnovice. He was best known as the author of the very successful satirical plays R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots) (1920) which gave the word ‘robot’ to the languages of the world and (with his brother Joseph) The Insect Play (1921), a terrifying satire on a hedonistic, acquisitive and regimented society. His play The Makropulos Case (1922) was the basis of *Janáček’s opera. His novels include the satires on misused science Krakatit (1924) and War With the Newts (1938). He also wrote books on travel, on gardening, many essays and a biography of President *Masaryk (1928).

Harkins, W. E., Karel Čapek. 1962.

Capet. French dynasty which ruled from 987 to 1328 when *Philippe IV died without male issue. Succeeding dynasties (*Valois, *Bourbon) were remote descendants of *Hugues Capet through the female line. In 1992 *Louis XVI was tried and executed as ‘Louis Capet’, a derisive name.

Capet, Hugues see Hugues Capet

Capodistrias, Ioannes, Count (1776–1831). Greek politician, born in Corfu. After service in the administration of the Ionian Islands, he went to Russia, where eventually he became Foreign Minister 1815–18. He returned to Greece in 1822 to devote himself to the national cause, and after independence from Turkey had been won was elected first president of Greece (1827), but his autocratic measures were unpopular, and he was murdered.

Capone, Al(phonse Gabriel) (1899–1947). American criminal, born in Brooklyn. His parents migrated from Salerno to New York in 1893. He became a New York gangster, and in 1920 went to Chicago, where, during the Prohibition years, he became the head of a gang controlling the gambling, vice and supply of illegal liquor of Cook County. The gang’s earnings were estimated to be in the region of $US105 million. He was responsible for numerous brutal murders, but avoided prosecution by bribery and coercion of Chicago law officers. He was eventually prosecuted by Federal authorities, but could be convicted only for tax evasion (1931). He was released in 1939 following mental and physical collapse due to syphilis.

Capote, Truman (né Truman Streckfuss Persons) (1924–1984). American novelist, born in New Orleans. He wrote much about social decay in the southern states of the US and his novels include Other Voices, Other Rooms (1948), The Grass Harp (1951) and Breakfast at Tiffany’s (1958). He wrote the dialogue for the film Beat the Devil (1953). In Cold Blood (1966), a powerful ‘non-fiction novel’, described the murder of a farming family in Kansas, the trial and hanging of two young men. It was his last major work but collected essays appeared in Music for Chameleons (1980). He conducted bitter and protracted literary feuds with *Mailer and *Vidal.

Clarke, G., Capote. 1986.

Capra, Frank (1897–1991). American film producer and director. Of Italian parentage, among his many successes were It Happened One Night (1934), Mr Deeds Goes to Town (1936) and Lost Horizon (1937).

Capra, F., Frank Capra: The Name Above the Title. 197l.

Caprivi, Georg Leo, Graf von (1831–1899). German soldier and politician, born in Berlin. A successful chief of staff in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71), he then directed the administration of the German navy 1883–88 until *William II appointed him Chancellor and Foreign Minister 1890–94, after the dismissal of *Bismarck. He negotiated the treaty with Britain (1890) under which German claims in Zanzibar were abandoned in return for the cession of Heligoland. He was dismissed in 1894 after negotiating a commercial treaty with Russia.

Caracalla (popular name of Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus) (188–217). Roman Emperor 211–17. Born in Lyon, of mixed Punic and Syrian descent, son of the emperor *Septimius Severus, he was given the nickname Caracalla from the long-hooded Gaulish tunic he wore. On his father’s death, he and his brother Geta became joint rulers but Caracalla seized power by murdering Geta and his supporters. He secured his popularity with the troops by a 50 per cent increase in pay. His reign was notorious for cruelty, assassination and extravagance. He pacified the German frontiers and was unsuccessfully attempting to emulate the achievements of *Alexander the Great in the East when his assassination in (modern) Turkey was contrived by the prefect of his praetorian guards. During his reign Roman citizenship was extended to all free men in the empire (probably to increase the number of taxpaying citizens) and the colossal baths of Caracalla were constructed at Rome.

Mackenzie, D. C., The Reign of Caracalla. 1949.

Caratacus (known also as Caractacus/Caratācos/ Caradog/Karadeg) (d.c.54 CE). British chieftain of the Catuvellauni tribe. Son of *Cunobelinus, after fighting bravely against the Romans, he was defeated and in 51 handed over by Cartismandua, queen of the Brigantes, and taken to Rome, where his bravery before the emperor *Claudius secured him honourable treatment.

Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da (1573–1610). Italian painter, born in Milan. His break with the conventions of the Mannerists created a resurgence of art in the 17th century and exercised enormous influence on e.g., *Rubens, *Velázquez and *Rembrandt. A revolutionary technique was the setting of brightly lit figures against a dark background (e.g. in his St Matthew series in the church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome). Moreover he offended against accepted convention in his sacred pictures by depicting ordinary people in everyday surroundings. Another innovation was the introduction of ‘still life’ as a separate branch of painting. The dramatic nature of his painting may have reflected the violence of his own life. In 1606 he was banished from Rome after killing a man in a fight. From Naples he reached Malta, where he insulted a knight, was imprisoned but escaped to Sicily. When disembarking in Italy on his way to Naples he was arrested in error but on release found that his boat with all his belongings had sailed away. There was an attempt on his life in Naples and his death was prematurely reported three times. On his way to Rome to receive a papal amnesty, he seems to have died in Porto Ercole, Tuscany, and in 2010 remains found there were identified as Caravaggio’s.

Famous in his lifetime, he was forgotten soon after and interest was revived only in the 1920s. About 80 works can be safely attributed to him. Some of his greatest masterpieces are in Rome: Boy with a Bowl of Fruit (1593), St Jerome Writing (1605–06), David with the Head of Goliath (1609–10) at the Borghese, Rest on the Flight into Egypt (1597) at the Doria Pamphilj, Judith Beheading Holofernes (c.1598) and Narcissus (c.1599) at the Barberini. Three Martyrdoms of John the Baptist at the Pro-Cathedral of St John, Valletta, Malta, are also outstanding. Caravaggio is now in the highest rank of Renaissance painters.

Berenson, B., Caravaggio: His Incongruity and his Fame. 1953; Jullian, R., Caravage. 1961; Robb, P., M. 1999; Langdon, D., Caravaggio: A Life. 1999.

Cardano, Geronimo (also known as Jerome Cardan or Hieronymus Cardanus) (1501–1576). Italian mathematician and physician. Although professor of medicine at Pavia 1543–59 and Bologna 1562–70, he is best known for his work in mathematics, particularly algebra. His Ars Magna (1545) was the first algebraic text to be printed. His academic career at Bologna ended with imprisonment for heresy (astrology was one of his interests). He spent his last years in Rome and is said to have starved himself to death to prove the accuracy of a prediction. He was a polymath who wrote prolifically in science, history and music.

Cárdenas, Lazaro (1895–1970). Mexican general and politician. Of mixed Tarascan and Spanish descent, he was a follower of *Carranza and *Calles and became Minister of War 1933–34. President of Mexico 1934–40, he expanded Calles’s revolutionary policy of breaking up large estates and redistributing the land among the peasants. He was strongly anti-clerical. A temporary breach with the US and Great Britain was caused by his nationalisation of the oil fields in 1938. He served as Secretary for Defence 1943–45 and later supported *Castro’s rule in Cuba.

Scott, R. E., Mexican Government in Transition. Rev. ed. 1964.

Cardigan, James Thomas Brudenell, 7th Earl of (1797–1868). English soldier, born in Buckinghamshire. He sat in the House of Commons 1818–29, first representing a rotten borough, and then 1832–37, after the Reform Bill, when he spent a fortune to win the seat. He was leader and survivor of the famous charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava (October 1854) during the Crimean War.

Woodham-Smith, C., The Reason Why. 1953.

Cardin, Pierre (1922– ). French couturier, born in Italy. He worked with Christian *Dior, established his own fashion house in 1949, extending his brand name to men’s and women’s clothing and accessories. He bought Maxim’s and established it as a worldwide restaurant chain.

Cardoso, Fernand Henrique (1931– ) Brazilian sociologist and politician. He taught in France, became Minister for Foreign Affairs 1992–93, Minister for Finance 1993–94 and President of Brazil 1995–2003.

Cardozo, Benjamin Nathan (1870–1938). American judge, born in New York. From a Sephardic Jewish family, he was a judge from 1913 and Chief Justice of the New York Court of Appeals 1927–32. President *Hoover appointed him to succeed Mr Justice *Holmes on the US Supreme Court 1932–38. A liberal, he supported *Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation and his views on law as a force in effecting social changes were highly influential. As well as several authoritative legal works Cardozo wrote Law and Literature and Other Essays (1931).

Carducci, Giosuè (1835–1907). Italian poet. Son of a physician, educated at Pisa University, he became a school teacher until appointment as professor of Italian literature at Bologna (1860). Elected to the Italian parliament as a Republican in 1876, in 1890 he became a senator. His poems, representing a reaction from Romanticism, were written in strict classical form in a style and language of great distinction. His main works include Rime (1857), Nuove poesie (1873) and Rime e ritmi (1898). He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1906.

Cardus, Sir (John Frederick) Neville (1888–1975). English cricket and music critic. Brought up in poverty and essentially self-educated, he wrote on music and cricket for the Manchester Guardian, then lived, wrote and broadcast in Australia 1940–47. He wrote many books on cricket and music and an Autobiography (1947).

Cardwell, Edward Cardwell, 1st Viscount (1813–1886). British politician. A Liberal MP 1842–74, he carried out important army reforms as Secretary of State for War 1869–74 under *Gladstone. These included the abolition of the purchase of commissions (1870), the reorganisation of the regiments of the line on a county basis, and the system by which one battalion of a regiment served abroad while the other remained in support and reserve at home. He also established the supremacy of the minister over the Commander-in-Chief.

Carew, Thomas (c.1594–1639). English poet. Having left Oxford without a degree, he accompanied diplomatic missions abroad. On his return his wit and pleasant manner made him a favourite of *Charles I, before whom his masque Coelum ritannicum was produced in 1633. A friend and admirer of *Donne and *Jonson, he also wrote short, polished lyrics in the Cavalier tradition, the well known Elegy on the Death of Dr Donne, and The Rapture.

Carey, George Leonard, Baron Carey of Clifton (1935– ). English cleric. Educated at a secondary modern school, and at King’s College, London University, he served in the RAF, then lectured in theology in London, Nottingham and Bristol. He was Bishop of Bath and Wells 1987–91 and Archbishop of Canterbury 1991–2002.

Carey, Peter (1943– ). Australian novelist, born in Bacchus Marsh. He dropped out of Monash University and worked in advertising. His novels included Bliss (1981), Illywhacker (1985), Oscar and Lucinda (1988, which won the Booker Prize over Salman *Rushdie’s Satanic Verses), The Tax Inspector (1991), Jack Maggs (1997), True History of the Kelly Gang (2000, which won him a second Booker Prize in 2001), My Life as a Fake (2003), Theft: A Love Story (2006) and Parrot and Olivier in America (2010).

Carey, William (1761–1834). English Baptist missionary and scholar. One of the first Baptist missionaries to go to India (1793), he began, almost at once, the translation of the Bible into Bengali. In 1799 he set up at Serampore not only a church and school but also an establishment for printing and publishing the Bible and other educational books in many Indian languages. In 1801 he became professor of Indian languages at Fort William College, and produced dictionaries of Sanskrit, Bengali, Marathi etc.

Carl XVI Gustaf (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus Bernadotte) (1946– ). King of Sweden 1973– . He succeeded his grandfather *Gustaf VI Adolf, becoming the first Swedish monarch with purely symbolic duties, without Constitutional responsibilities, and the longest reigning. Deeply interested in science and the environment, he received more foreign honours than any person living or dead.

Carleton, Guy, 1st Baron Dorchester (1724–1808). British soldier and administrator. He was first appointed to a command in America in 1758 where he served in the French and Indian Wars. As Governor of Québec 1766–77 he worked for the Quebec Act (1774) to better relations between English and French Canadians. He successfully defended Canada against American attacks during the American Revolution, he was briefly in command (1782) of the British forces towards the end of the fighting and was skilful in helping Loyalists to withdraw safely to Canada. He had a second term as Governor of Québec 1786–96.

Carlo Alberto (Charles Albert) (1798–1849). King of Sardinia and Piedmont 1831–49. He supported liberal causes as a young man, believed in Italian unity but he was no crusader. He shrank from *Mazzini’s extremism and harshly punished those of his followers who had taken part in a revolt. In 1848, ‘the year of revolutions’, however, having given the country a liberal constitution, he marched against the Austrians then ruling much of northern Italy. Defeated at Custozza and Novara he abdicated in favour of his son, *Vittorio Emanuele II, he died in Portugal.

Carlos I (1863–1908). King of Portugal 1889–1908. His suspension of the constitution provoked civil disturbances and led to the assassination of himself and his son while driving in Lisbon. The abdication of his younger son *Manõel II in 1910 initiated the Portuguese republic. He was an able painter.

Carlos (Charles) I. King of Spain see Charles (Karl) V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain.

Carlos (Charles) II (1661–1700). King of Spain 1665–1700. An epileptic of weak intelligence, who succeeded his father *Felipe IV at the age of four, and so spent the first years of his reign under his mother’s regency. As he was childless he was induced to name in his will Philippe, grandson of *Louis XIV of France, as his successor (*Felipe V). This provoked the War of the Spanish Succession (1700–13).

Carlos (Charles) III (1716–1788). King of Spain 1759–88 and of Naples and Sicily 1735–59. Son of *Felipe V by his second wife Elizabeth (Isabella) Farnese, by her intrigues he secured the throne (as Carlo IV) of Naples and Sicily (1734). When he succeeded to the Spanish throne on the death of his half-brother Fernando (Ferdinand) VI, since his eldest son (Felipe) was incompetent to rule, he proclaimed his second son (*Carlos IV) his Spanish heir, and the third (Ferdinando) king of Naples. Carlos III was an able administrator and is considered the most successful Bourbon ruler of Spain, and showed some interest in education and science.

Herr, R., The Eighteenth Century Revolution in Spain. 1958.

Carlos (Charles) IV (1748–1819). King of Spain 1788–1808. Son of *Carlos III, during most of his disastrous reign he was dominated by Manuel *Godoy, lover and favourite of his queen, Maria Luisa. *Goya made unforgettable portraits of his family. He was induced to abdicate (and was suitably pensioned) by Napoléon in 1808 and after four years in France spent his last years in Rome.

Carlos, Don (1545–1568). Spanish prince. Eldest son of *Felipe II of Spain and Maria of Portugal, he was suspected of treason, imprisoned by his father and shortly after died in prison. Carlos showed signs of insanity and was clearly an inadequate heir to the vast Spanish empire, but there is no real evidence for the legend that Philip II had him murdered. He is the subject of a tragedy by *Schiller and an opera by *Verdi.

Carlos, Don (1788–1855). Spanish prince. Son of *Carlos IV of Spain, he was deprived of the right of succession to the throne when the Salic Law was revoked in 1833 and *Isabella, the daughter of his brother *Ferdinand (Fernando) VII, became queen. The first Carlist War then broke out and lasted until 1840. A second Carlist revolt (1873–76) was equally unsuccessful and the last pretender in the direct line died in 1936.

Carlos (‘the Jackal’) (Illich Ramírez Sánchez) (1949– ). Venezuelan mercenary and terrorist. Believed to have executed many assassinations in the Middle East and Europe, he was arrested in 1994 and taken to France for trial. In December 1997 he was convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment. In 2011 and 2017, he received two more life sentences for assassinations. He wrote Revolutionary Islam (2003).

Carlota (née Charlotte von Wettin, later von Habsburg-Lothringen) (1840–1927). Empress of Mexico 1864–67. Daughter of *Leopold I of Belgium, she married the Austrian Archduke *Maximilian in 1857. When he became Mexican emperor in 1864, she accompanied him, returning to Europe in 1866 seeking help for his doomed empire and went mad after his execution (1867).

Carlson, Chester Floyd (1906–1968). American inventor. A patent attorney, he invented the process of dry photocopying known as xerography (1938). The first copier was not marketed until 1959.

Carlsson, Ingvar Gösta (1934– ). Swedish Social Democratic politician. Educated at Lund University and in the US, he worked in the party machine and entered the Riksdag in 1964. He was a Minister 1969–76, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Research 1982–86. On Olof *Palme’s murder he succeeded as Prime Minister 1986–91 and served again 1994–96.

Carlstadt (or Karlstadt) (Andreas Rudolf Bodenstein) (c.1480–1541). German religious reformer. A professor at Wittenberg University, he became an adherent of *Luther (1517), until Luther repudiated his extreme iconoclasm. Accused of being involved in the Peasants’ War, he fled to Switzerland and from 1534 preached and taught in Basle.

Carlyle, Thomas (1795–1881). Scottish essayist and historian, born in Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire. Son of a stonemason, at the age of 15 he went to Edinburgh University, intending to be a clergyman. Religious doubts ended this ambition, and after some years as a schoolmaster and private tutor (during which time he formed a close friendship with and was much influenced by Edward Irving, later the founder of the Irvingite sect) his true vocation had become manifest. His earliest works stemmed from his interest in German literature—a Life of Schiller (1825), and a translation of *Goethe’s Wilhelm Meister (1824), which won the author’s praise. In 1826 he married Jane Welsh, whose wit could wound as well as delight, and whose letters still sparkle as brightly as when they were written. Her strong personality and her husband’s produced one of the strangest love stories, a blend of irritation and mutual dependence, in literary history.

In 1828 the Carlyles withdrew to Craigenputtock where he set to work on Sartor Resartus (The tailor retailored), which appeared in Fraser’s Magazine in 1833–34. It purports to reveal the philosophical speculations of a Professor Teufelsdrockh, and concludes that all institutions, political, religious etc., are in fact clothes constantly in need of repair and renewal. The life of the professor, which forms the second part, is based on that of Carlyle himself. He had already begun his most famous work, The History of the French Revolution, when he and his wife moved in 1834 to Cheyne Row, Chelsea, their permanent home. Disaster came when the manuscript was accidentally burnt in the flat of his friend J. S. *Mill—‘we must try and hide from him how very serious this business is’ was Carlyle’s generous comment. He rewrote the book and it was published in 1837. It is not strictly factual history but an inspired interpretation: its rhetorical style is highly eccentric but the sheer dynamism of the work is inescapable and the character descriptions (e.g. the ‘seagreen Incorruptible’ *Robespierre) memorable. From the point of view of Carlyle’s development it is interesting that he, who believed himself a radical and welcomed revolutionaries such as *Mazzini to his home, was beginning to feel and see history in terms of the hero or superman. In The French Revolution (3 vols, 1837), the chief characters, *Danton especially, are already larger than life, and in On Heroes, Hero Worship and the Heroic in History (1841) he expands the theme, which is implicit also in Oliver Cromwell’s Letters and Speeches (1845) and his great biography Frederick the Great (1858–65). He appears to disregard the corruption of character by power. Past and Present (1843) contrasts the ordered society of feudalism with the unordered confusion of modern times. The death of his wife in 1865 virtually ended his creative period. His influence on contemporary thought in many fields—religious and political especially—was immense. Carlyle should be seen as more of a prophet than a historian or commentator.

Kaplan, F., Thomas Carlyle. 1983; Heffer, S., Moral Desperado. 1995.

Carmichael, Hoagy (1899–1981). American songwriter, singer and actor. Originally a lawyer, his many songs include Stardust (1931) and he appeared in several films, generally playing himself.

Carmona, Antonio Oscar de Fragoso (1869–1951). Portuguese soldier and politician. A general with distinguished military service, he had almost no political experience when called upon in 1926 to join the ruling triumvirate. He was Premier 1926–28 and President 1928–51, with all effective power held by Antonio *Salazar.

Carnap, Rudolf (1891–1970). German-American philosopher. A pupil of *Frege at Jena, he was an original member of the ‘Vienna circle’ which expounded and developed logical positivism, and he concerned himself with such problems as the structure and meaning of utterances and the nature of statements of probability. He was professor of philosophy at Chicago University 1936–52 and UCLA 1954–62.

Schilpp, P. A. (ed.), The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap. 1963.

Carnarvon, George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert, 5th Earl of (1866–1923). English aristocrat. An enthusiastic amateur Egyptologist, from 1906 he financed Howard *Carter’s excavations in the Valley of Kings near Thebes, culminating in Carter’s discovery of the tomb of *Tutankhamen (1922). He died in Cairo from the effects of a mosquito bite.

Carné, Marcel (Albert Cranche) (1906–1996). French film director. Trained as a technician, his 19 films include Quai des Brumes (Port of Shadows, 1938) and Le Jour se leve (Daybreak, 1939) both typical of romantic pessimism in French cinema in the late 1930s. The latter had a strong influence on Hollywood direction in the 1940s. His masterpiece was Les Enfants du Paradis (Children of the Gods, 1943–44) starring Jean-Louis *Barrault and Arletty, shot during the German occupation. He was elected to the Académie française in 1980.

Carnegie, Andrew (1835–1918). American industrialist and philanthropist, born in Dunfermline, Scotland. The family emigrated to Pittsburgh in 1848 and Andrew then began work as a bobbin-boy in a cotton mill, was a messenger for Ohio Telegraph from 1850 and in 1853 a secretary/telegrapher for the Pennsylvania Railway. He started to invest in oil in 1864 and a year later entered the iron and steel industry. By the judicious merging of companies, he gradually built up a chain of interests not as a financier but as an industrialist mainly concerned with steel (but also with coal and iron fields, rail and steamship lines). Carnegie Hall in New York (1891) remains an outstanding monument to his philanthropy and music. In 1901 he sold his vast interests to the US Steel Corporation for $250 million. He asserted, ‘To die rich is to die disgraced.’ His remaining years, most of which were spent in Scotland in retirement, he devoted to philanthropic ends to which he gave more than $300 million, e.g. the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the endowment of libraries in Britain and the US, and gifts to Scottish and American universities. His Autobiography appeared in 1920.

Wall, J. F., Andrew Carnegie. 1971; Nasov, D., Andrew Carnegie. 2007.

Carnot, Lazare Nicolas Marguerite (1753–1823). French military engineer and politician, born in Burgundy. An army captain in 1789, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly 1791–92 and the National Convention 1792–95, becoming one of the 12 members of the Committee of Public Safety 1793–95. As de facto minister of war 1793–95 he received the title ‘Organiser of Victories’ for his achievement in raising, clothing, feeding, and training 14 armies—more than 1,100,000 men—to defend revolutionary France against intervention by foreign troops, also proving a resourceful and original strategist. (Claude Antoine *Prieur de la Cote d’Or shares credit for producing the armaments.) He served on the Directory 1795–97 after *Robespierre’s overthrow, fleeing to Nuremberg in 1797 under an accusation of royalist sympathies. He returned after *Bonaparte’s seizure of power and as Minister of War 1799–1800 provided the organisational skill necessary for the success of the Italian and Rhineland campaigns. He remained, however, a sincere republican, and retired when he understood *Napoléon’s aims. The disasters that followed the retreat from Moscow induced him to offer his services once more. Napoléon made him Governor of Antwerp in 1814 and he defended it bravely against Allied attack. He was Minister of the Interior during the Hundred Days. He ended his days in exile and died at Magdeburg. He wrote mathematical treatises as well as The Defence of Fortified Places (1810).

His son (Nicolas Leonard) Sadi Carnot (1796–1832), named in honour of the Persian poet, was born and educated in Paris, became an army officer and after 1819 devoted himself to the study of the steam engine. Regarded as the founder of thermodynamics, his book Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire (1824) first stated the principle that the efficiency of a heat-engine in operating a thermal cycle depended on the relative temperature of its hottest and coldest parts. This led to the formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics by *Clausius and *Kelvin nearly 20 years after he died of cholera. Lazare Hippolyte Carnot (1801–1888), his brother, was a journalist and radical politician, a consistent opponent of *Napoléon III, his son (grandson of the Revolutionary leader), (Marie François) Sadi Carnot (1837–1894), was an engineer and local administrator before being elected deputy in 1871. Minister of Public Works 1880 and Finance 1880–81, 1885–86, regarded as notably free from corruption, he was elected as President of the Republic 1887–94. Assassinated in the last year of his term by an Italian anarchist, Sante Caserio, he was popularly regarded as having the evil eye.

Caro, Sir Anthony (1924–2013). British sculptor, born in London. Educated at Charterhouse, Cambridge, the Regent St Polytechnic and the Royal Academy School, he worked with Henry *Moore 1951–53 but was heavily influenced by the American David *Smith. He lectured at St Martin’s College 1953–79 and in Vermont 1963–65. His large, ground-based metal sculptures, often using prefabricated materials, then painted, were intended to create a new aesthetic and he was recognised as the most important sculptor of his generation. He won prizes at the Biennales in Paris 1959, Venice 1967 and São Paulo 1969. He received the OM in 2000.

Carol I (Karl Eitel Friedrich) (1839–1914). First king of Romania (1866–1914). A prince of the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen family, he was invited by the major European powers in 1866 to become ruler of the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, still under the nominal suzerainty of Turkey. The Congress of Berlin (1878) made these territories independent (1881) under the name of Romania. In 1869 he married Princess Elizabeth of Wied (1843–1916), a well-known novelist and poet under the pen name Carmen Sylva. He was succeeded by his nephew *Ferdinand II.

Carol II (Karl von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen) (1893–1953). King of Romania 1930–40. Son of *Ferdinand I, after divorcing Zizi Lambrino, he married (1921) Princess Helen of Greece, mother of his son *Michael. His association with Magda *Lupescu created a scandal which forced his renunciation of the throne and when Ferdinand died in 1927, Michael succeeded. In 1930 Carol supplanted his son and became king. In 1938, he was torn between Romania’s long-standing alliance with France and the prospect of economic support from Germany, and he faced the rising power of the authoritarian, xenophobic and populist ‘Iron Guard’ led by Ion *Antonescu. Carol proclaimed Romania’s neutrality in World War II, then signed a treaty with *Hitler, after the USSR occupied Bessarabia. Antonescu forced his abdication in September 1940. He went into exile in Mexico, then Brazil, where he married Lupescu in 1947, and, finally, to Estoril, Portugal, where he died.

Caroline of Anspach (1683–1737). British queen consort 1727–37. Daughter of the Margrave of Brandenburg-Anspach, she married the future *George II of Britain in 1705. Her skill in managing an often obstinate king was a factor in maintaining Sir Robert *Walpole in power. She befriended *Pope, *Gay, and *Chesterfield, was a patron of *Händel, took a keen interest in ecclesiastical patronage and was an amateur botanist and gardener.

Caroline of Brunswick (1768–1821). British queen consort 1820–21. Daughter of the Duke of Brunswick, she married the future *George IV of Britain in 1795. After the birth of Princess Charlotte (1796) he deserted her and went to live with Mrs Maria *Fitzherbert. Caroline’s indiscretions and eccentricities in Italy provided George with an excuse to seek divorce as soon as he became king, but when, in 1820, a bill was introduced into the House of Lords, a brilliant defence by the queen’s counsel Henry (later Lord) *Brougham caused the bill to be dropped. Her forcible exclusion from Westminster Abbey at the coronation (1821) caused much resentment among the populace of London, and when she died a month later her funeral procession was accompanied by rioting in the London streets.

Carothers, Wallace Hume (1896–1937). American polymer chemist. The inventor of nylon, in 1929, after long research he found that adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine would condense together to form a tough polymer that could be drawn into a fibre. This plastic, which was called nylon, could be made into tough fabrics, cords and mouldings. There is now a family of nylons derived from slightly different starting materials. He committed suicide.

Carpaccio, Vittore (c.1460–1526). Italian painter, born in Venice. A follower of Gentile *Bellini, his subtle treatment of light and the warm humanity of his interpretations anticipate the work of the major painters of the Venetian High Renaissance. He is a painter of pageantry, of architectural vistas and of details of contemporary life. His major achievement is the illustration of the story of St Ursula in a series of large, teeming and charmingly decorative compositions. Another cycle illustrates the lives of St George and St Jerome. The Presentation in the Temple is his outstanding altar-piece. All the above are in Venice. He was much admired by *Proust.

Carpenter, Edward (1844–1929). English writer. He gave up Anglican orders in 1874 to become a socialist follower of William *Morris and a literary disciple of Walt *Whitman. He rejected all existing norms of Victorian, Edwardian and Georgian society, lived by writing and craft work and deeply influenced E. M. *Forster.

Carpentier y Valmont, Alejo (1904–1980). Cuban novelist. Of French descent, he was an architect, journalist, professor of literature and composer, whose passionate novels include The Lost Steps (1953), Explosion in a Cathedral (1962) and Reasons of State (1974).

Carpentier, Georges (1894–1975). French boxer. He was light heavyweight champion of the world (1919–22), and in 1921 an unsuccessful contender with Jack *Dempsey for the world heavyweight title.

Carpini, Giovanni de Piano (c.1182?–1252). Italian friar, born in Perugia. He entered the Franciscan order, taught in Germany for many years and was sent by Pope Innocent IV as missionary and explorer to the Mongols. He set out from Lyon in April 1245, reaching Karakoram in July 1246. On his return, he wrote an account of the journey, Liber Tartarorum.

Carr, Bob (Robert John) (1947– ). Australian Labor politician, born in Sydney. After graduating in history, he became a journalist, with a passionate interest in political science, foreign affairs and the environment, reluctantly entering the New South Wales Parliament in 1983, serving as Premier 1985–95. A Senator 2012–13, he was Minister for Foreign Affairs. He wrote several books, including Thoughtlines (2002), My Reading Life (2008) and Diary of a Foreign Minister (2014).

West, A., and R. Morris. Bob Carr: A Self-Made Man. 2003.

Carracci, Annibale (1560–1609). Italian painter, born in Bologna. With his brother Agostino (1557–1602) and cousin Ludovico (1555–1619), Annibale led a reaction against the prevailing exaggerated Mannerism and worked in the style of the High Renaissance masters *Michelangelo, *Raphael and *Titian. In Bologna they decorated the Palazzo Fava and founded an academy of fine arts: pupils included *Domenichino and Guido *Reni. From 1595 Annibale worked in Rome, painting frescos for the Farnese Palace. The ceiling of the great gallery, with its mythological scenes in settings painted to imitate architectural or sculptured work, became famous throughout Europe and greatly influenced the development of the Baroque decorative style. His most famous paintings include The Butcher’s Shop (1583), Domine, Quo Vadis? (1601), Flight into Egypt (1604) and Pietà (1607). Annibale was buried near *Raphael and became a major influence on *Poussin and *Claude.

Agostino was a masterly engraver, famous for his anatomical studies and portraits. Ludovico anticipated the Expressionists. *Ruskin deeply disliked the work of the Carraccis.

Carranza, Venustiano (1859–1920). Mexican politician. As Governor of Coahuila 1910–15, he supported Francisco *Madera’s overthrow of Porfirio *Diaz’s long dictatorship (1911), and opposed Victoriano de la *Huerta who murdered Madera and seized power himself. Carranza led the ‘Constitutionalists’ who favoured political but not economic reform. In 1915 he became provisional president. As President under the Constitution 1917–20, he accepted some measures of land and labour reform, was anti-American and kept Mexico out of World War I. In 1923 Alvaro *Obregón led a revolt and Carranza was murdered while escaping to Vera Cruz.

Carrel, Alexis (1873–1944). French biologist and surgeon, born in Lyon. From 1904 he worked in Montréal, Chicago and New York (at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research 1912–14, 1919–39) and was an army surgeon in France during World War I. He won the 1912 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work on the surgery of blood vessels and his techniques for transplanting arteries and suturing (i.e. joining) veins which during World War I reduced the number of amputations. Carrel devised equipment for keeping animal organs alive outside the body and he was able to keep a chicken heart alive for 32 years. Later he devoted himself to cancer research. He wrote Man the Unknown (1935), The Culture of Organs (1938) with Charles A. *Lindbergh, a close friend, and Reflections of Life (1943). He returned to France in 1939, had links to Jacques *Doriot, and worked for the Vichy regime. He supported eugenics, proposed gassing of the criminally insane, and was successively Catholic > agnostic > Catholic. He won awards from the USSR but not Britain.

Carreño (García de Sena), (Maria) Teresa (1853–1917). Venezuelan pianist, singer, composer and conductor, born in Caracas. Her family migrated to New York in 1862. She had a phenomenal technique and declined an offer of tuition from *Liszt. She recorded player piano rolls in 1905 and toured Australia and New Zealand 1907–08. A crater on Venus is named for her.

Carreras, José (1947– ). Spanish tenor, born in Barcelona. He made his operatic debut in Spain in 1970 and in the US in 1972. He sang all the great *Verdi and *Puccini tenor roles and appeared in the films Don Carlos (1980) and West Side Story (1985). He founded a leukaemia research foundation in Melbourne (1992).

Carrier, Willis Haviland (1876–1950). American engineer, born in Angola, New York. He designed the first air-conditioning system in 1902, published an important paper on internal climate control in 1911 and founded the Carrier Corporation (1915).

Carrington, Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, 6th Baron (1919–2018). British Conservative politician. Educated at Eton and Sandhurst, he served as High Commissioner to Australia 1956–59, First Lord of the Admiralty 1959–63, Secretary of State for Defence 1970–74 and Foreign Secretary 1979–82, resigning over criticism that the Foreign Office had not anticipated the invasion of the Falkland Islands by Argentina. He was chairman of General Electric 1983–84, Secretary-General of NATO 1984–88 and received a KG and CH.

Carroll, Lewis (pen name of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) (1832–1898). English author and mathematician, born in Daresbury, Cheshire. The son of a clergyman, he was educated at Rugby and Oxford, and lectured in mathematics at Oxford 1855–81. His life was generally uneventful and he never married. His most famous children’s books Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland (1865) and Through the Looking Class (1872) both written for Alice Liddell, the daughter of Carroll’s friend, the Dean of Christ Church, are full of subtle and almost surrealist humour, and the many fantastic characters have become familiar to millions of readers. Both books were illustrated by *Tenniel. Other favourites were The Hunting of the Snark (1876) and Sylvie and Bruno (1889 and 1893). Among his mathematical studies (written under his real name) was Euclid and His Modern Rivals (1879). He was also a skilful photographer.

Cohen, M. N., Lewis Carroll. 1995.

Carson, Ben(jamin Solomon) (1951– ). American neurosurgeon and Republican activist, born in Michigan. An African-American, educated at Yale, he became a surgeon at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, and in 1987 was the first to successfully separate twins joined at the back of the head. After initial strong support from evangelicals and conservatives in the Republican contest for the 2016 Presidential nomination, his campaign collapsed. He was *Trump’s Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 2017– .

Carson, Edward Henry Carson, 1st Baron (1854–1935). Anglo-Irish lawyer and Conservative politician. Educated in Dublin, he became a barrister and won fame as the defender of the Marquess of *Queensberry in the action for criminal libel brought by Oscar *Wilde. In parliament, where he sat as Unionist MP 1892–1918 he bitterly fought Liberal proposals to grant Irish Home Rule and organised the Ulster Volunteers, a military group which planned to oppose home rule by force and was diverted from this by the outbreak of World War I during which Carson was Attorney-General in the first coalition and in *Lloyd George’s war cabinet was First Lord of the Admiralty 1916–17 and Minister without Portfolio 1917–18. He was a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary 1921–29.

Carson, Kit (Christopher) (1809–1868). American trapper, guide and scout, born in Kentucky. He acted as a guide for J. C. *Fremont 1842–44 and helped to settle and explore California 1845–46. Although almost illiterate, he became a prominent and effective Indian agent 1853–61 and served as a brigadier of volunteers in the American Civil War.

Carson, Rachel Louise (1907–1964). American biologist, writer and environmental activist. Working for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, she wrote Silent Spring (1962), an apocalyptic warning about the contamination of the environment by fertiliser and pesticides. The book was extremely influential.

Carte, Richard D’Oyly (1844–1901). English impresario. He won fame by staging the Gilbert and Sullivan operas. His background was a family music-publishing and instrument-making business, from which he progressed to become a concert agent and impresario. His success with Gilbert and Sullivan’s Trial by Jury in 1875 inspired him to form a syndicate for the performance of future productions. In 1881 he built the Savoy Theatre for this purpose. His later venture the building of the Palace Theatre for serious opera, was not a success. The rights of the D’Oyly Carte family over the Gilbert and Sullivan operas ended only in 1961, when the libretto contract expired.

Carter, Elliott Cook (1908–2012). American composer, born in New York. Educated at Harvard and in Paris with Nadia *Boulanger, he worked with Charles *Ives and taught at Columbia, Yale, the Juilliard School and Cornell. His works include concertos for piano, violin, oboe, cello, horn, clarinet and flute, Concerto for Orchestra (1969), Symphony for Three Orchestras (1977), quintets for brass and woodwind and five string quartets. He was the longest-lived major composer in musical history.

Schiff, D., Carter. 2019.

Carter, Howard (1873–1939). English Egyptologist. A pupil of Sir Flinders *Petrie, he worked in Egypt for many years, and in 1922, when working with Lord *Carnarvon, found the tomb of *Tutankhamen in the Valley of the Kings, near Luxor.

Carter, Jimmy (James Earl Carter, Jr) (1924– ). 39th President of the US 1977–81. He was born in Plains, Georgia, and educated at public schools and Georgia Southwestern College. He graduated from the US Naval Academy in Annapolis (1946) and served as an electronics instructor and engineering officer in Hyman *Rickover’s atomic submarine project. In 1953 he left the navy and returned home to manage the family peanut business. He became involved in community and church affairs and was elected to the Georgia State Senate 1963–67. In 1970 he won the Democratic primary for Governor as a moderate conservative by defeating the liberal ex-governor Carl Sanders. As Governor of Georgia 1971–75 Carter introduced ‘zero base budgeting’, urged reforms in environmental controls, schools and prisons and tried to ease racial tensions. In July 1976 he won the Democratic presidential nomination and was elected President in November. During his term of office he failed to work with his Democratic Congress and his only significant success was in negotiating the Egyptian-Israeli accord between *Sadat and *Begin. The continued captivity of 52 hostages in the US Embassy in Teheran (kept for 444 days and not released until he had left office) was politically very damaging, because Carter’s extraordinary restraint was attacked as weakness by his opponents and he lost heavily in 1980 to Ronald *Reagan. Out of office, he devoted himself to the problems of urban poverty and housing, world peace and observing elections in the Third World. In 1994 he was a peace negotiator in Korea, Haiti and Bosnia-Herzegovina. He received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 2002 and became the longest-lived US President.

Carteret, John see Granville 2nd Earl

Cartier, Jacques (1491–1557). French explorer, born at St Malo, Brittany. He made three voyages to North America in search of a northwest passage linking the Atlantic to the Pacific. On his first voyage (1534) he explored and claimed for France the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador and the gulf of the St Lawrence, on his second (1535) he ascended that river (hoping it was a passage to China) and reached the site of Montréal. The third voyage (1541), also to the St Lawrence, provided much information but brought no new discoveries.

Cartier-Bresson, Henri (1908–2004). French photographer. He worked as an assistant to the film director Jean *Renoir, was a prisoner of war, escaped to the US and founded Magnum-Photos. His evocative compositions, loaded with context and history, were exhibited internationally and he published books of photographs, including The Decisive Moment (1952), and studies of China, Russia, France and the US.

Cartland, Dame (Mary) Barbara Hamilton (1901–2000). British author. She wrote popular romantic fiction, and according to The Guinness Book of Records her 540 books had global sales of 600 million, translated into 25 languages. Her books also include poetry, biography and an autobiography.

Cartwright, Edmund (1743–1823). English inventor. Educated at Wakefield Grammar School and Oxford, he became a clergyman but having married a rich woman was able to give time and money to his inventions. In 1785 he invented a power loom which became the parent of the modern loom. He also invented rope-making and wool-combing machinery. In 1793, having been forced by debt to sell a mill he had set up in Doncaster, he went to London and worked with Robert Fulton on steam engines. His money troubles were eased when in 1809, in response to a petition to the Prime Minister from 50 firms which had benefited by his inventions, he was awarded £10,000.

Caruso, Enrico (1873–1921). Italian operatic tenor, born in Naples. He came from a poor family, sang in church choirs and had a relatively late debut in Naples in 1894, appearing in Milan (1898), Buenos Aires (1899), Rome (1899), London (1902) and New York (1903). His voice had unusual range, power and flexibility, he became a pioneer recording artist and was acclaimed as the greatest tenor of his time. Leading tenor at the Metropolitan Opera, New York 1903–20, he retired after bursting a blood vessel in a performance of Halévy’s La Juive.

Carver, (Richard) Michael Power, Baron Carver (1915–2001). British field marshal. Educated at Winchester and Sandhurst, he was Chief of the General Staff 1971–73 and Chief of Defence Staff 1973–76 and achieved a new reputation as an incisive writer on military and geopolitical affairs.

Carver, George Washington (1864–1943). American agricultural chemist, born in Missouri. Son of slaves, he was kidnapped with his mother by slave raiders and redeemed with the exchange of a racehorse by his owner, Moses Carver, who then adopted him. He became the first black student at Simpson College, Iowa (1889) and from 1896 taught at the Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, where he gained a PhD and directed agricultural research. He promoted the planting of sweet potatoes and peanuts to replenish the soil, denuded of minerals by cotton and tobacco farming, developing 300 new products from peanuts, including fibres, dyes and soap. He declined offers to work for *Edison and *Ford.

Holt, R., George Washington Carver: An American Biography. Rev. ed. 1963.

Carver, John (c.1576–1621). English merchant, born in Nottinghamshire. Organiser of the London contingent of the Pilgrim Fathers, he emigrated to Holland in 1609. His preparations for the voyage to America included the hiring of the Mayflower, on which he sailed in 1620 with his wife and members of his household. He was chosen as governor of the Plymouth plantation but died the following year.

Carver, Raymond (1938–1988). American writer, born in Oregon. He fought alcoholism, poverty and cancer, producing magnificent short stories, in Chekhovian vein, including Cathedral (1984) and Where I’m Calling From (1988).

Cary, (Arthur) Joyce (Lunel) (1888–1957). British novelist, born in Ireland. Educated at Oxford, he fought in the Balkan Wars (1912–13) and World War I and was for a time in the colonial service in Africa, where he found inspiration for Mr Johnson (1939). His best known novel, The Horse’s Mouth (1944), successfully filmed in 1958, is part of a trilogy with Herself Surprised (1941) and To be a Pilgrim (1942). Rich characterisation and feeling for the complexities of human emotions distinguish his work.

Wright, A., Joyce Cary. 1958.

Casabianca, Louis (1762–1798). Corsican French sailor. As commander of the French ship Orient, he was burnt to death when his ship was destroyed at the Battle of the Nile. The heroism of his young son, who perished with him, is the theme of a poem by Mrs Felicia Hemans (‘Casabianca’).

Casadesus, Robert (Marcel) (1899–1972). French pianist, born in Paris. Of Catalan descent, he was a great *Mozart, *Chopin and *Ravel interpreter, often appearing in concerts with his wife Gaby and son Jean.

Casals, Pablo (or Pau) (1876–1973). Spanish (Catalan) cellist and conductor, born in Vedrell. Son of an organist, he studied music at Barcelona and Madrid, and made his concert debut as a cellist in Paris in 1899. He revived interest in *Bach’s works for unaccompanied cello, and developed improved cello techniques, gaining great popularity for this instrument with concert audiences. Active in his support of the government in the Spanish Civil War, he left Spain after *Franco’s victory (1939). From 1950 he organised a series of music festivals at Prades, in the French Pyrenees, and he continued these from 1956 at San Juan in Puerto Rico.

Casanova de Seingalt, Giovanni Giacomo (1725–1798). Italian adventurer, born in Venice. He spent most of his life travelling through Europe in the varying capacities of preacher, gambler, journalist, violinist, lottery director, police spy, alchemist and cabbalist and met most of the famous men and women of his time. He was a man of intelligence and learning, his famous Memoirs—12 volumes written in the last years of his life, when (from 1785) he was secretary and librarian to Count Waldstein in Bohemia, though largely concerned with his love affairs, throw much light on the manners and morals of the time.

Casaubon, Isaac (1559–1614). French-Swiss scholar, born in Geneva. He became professor of Greek at Geneva (1581), at Montpellier (1596) and royal librarian in Paris (1604). As a Protestant he felt unsafe after the death of *Henri IV and came to England, where he found himself in sympathy with the middle position of the established Church and able to be of help in matters both of religion and scholarship. His religious writings display his tolerance, and his gifts as a classical commentator are shown by his editions of *Aristotle, *Theophrastus, *Suetonius etc. His son, Méric Casaubon (1599–1671), also a classical scholar and controversialist, settled into a living in the Church of England.

Casella, Alfredo (1883–1947). Italian composer, conductor and music critic, born in Turin. A pupil of *Fauré in Paris, he worked there until World War I when he went to Rome. In 1924 he joined d’Annunzio and others in founding a society to encourage contemporary Italian music, but he was a notable experimenter and retained an international outlook. His range of composition was wide and included two symphonies, concertos, songs, chamber music and lesser pieces.

Casement, [Sir] Roger David (1864–1916). Irish nationalist and diplomat, born in Dublin. He worked for H. M. *Stanley in the Congo, joined the British foreign service in 1901, exposed the exploitation of natives in the Congo and Brazil, and was knighted (1911) for his work on slavery in Peru. He retired in 1913 and became active in promoting Irish nationalism and culture. In Germany during World War I he attempted to form an ‘Irish Brigade’ of Irish prisoners of war which he hoped would invade Ireland and free it from British rule. On his return to Ireland by submarine (1916) he was captured by the British and tried for treason. He was convicted, deprived of his knighthood, and hanged at Pentonville. In 1960 his ‘black diaries’ revealing homosexual practices were made available for study in the Public Records Office in London. Casement’s remains were restored to Ireland in 1965.

MacColl, R., Roger Casement. 1956; Lacey, B., Terrible Queer Creatures. 2008; Mitchell, A., Roger Casement. 2013; Dudgeon, J., Roger Casement’s German Diary. 2016.

Casey, Richard (Gavin) Gardiner, Baron Casey of Berwick (1890–1976). Australian Liberal politician, born in Brisbane. Son of a mining magnate, educated at Melbourne University and Trinity College, Cambridge, he served in World War I, winning a DSO and MC. His wife Maie Casey (Ethel Marian Sumner; 1892–1983) was a poet, librettist, aviator and patron of the arts. Casey was a Member of the Australian House of Representatives 1931–40 and 1949–60, was Commonwealth Treasurer 1935–39, a strong supporter of appeasement, and first Australian minister to the US 1940–42. Winston *Churchill appointed him Minister of State in the Middle East 1942–43, with a seat in the War Cabinet, and Governor of Bengal 1944–46, at a time of famine. In Australia after the war, under *Menzies, he was Minister of National Development 1949–51, Minister in charge of CSIRO 1950–60 and Minister for External Affairs 1951–60. Patronised by Menzies (and disparaged by *Hasluck), he became the first Australian life peer (1960), was Governor-General 1965–69 and the first Australian Knight of the Garter (KG) in 1969.

Hudson, W. J., Casey. 1986.

Casimir III (Kazimierz) (the Great) (c.1310–1370). King of Poland 1333–70. Knowing that his first task would be to unify Poland he learned western politics and secured help from his brother-in-law, Charles Robert, the Angevin King of Hungary, to whose son, Louis, he promised the Polish throne. He also came to terms with Bohemia and the Teutonic Knights. Later he enlarged his kingdom in the east and, thus secured, could concentrate upon internal reforms. Brigandage was suppressed, the liberty of the peasants protected and the nobles curbed. Jews were tolerated and encouraged to settle. In 1364, he founded the University of Kraków (later renamed Jagiellonian), which made the city not only an administrative and commercial centre but one of the great cultural centres of Europe.

Casimir (Kazimierz) IV Jagiełłon (1427–1492). Grand Duke of Lithuania 1440–92, King of Poland 1447–92. Son of *Władysław II, he belonged to the Lithuanian *Jagiellon dynasty which, linked by marriage with the Polish royal family, had brought the two countries under one ruler. He reigned during one of Poland’s greatest periods. After failure against Turkey he turned against the old enemy, the Teutonic Knights in the north. After 13 years of war he destroyed their power and in 1466 by the peace of Thorn (or Torun) he annexed Pomerania with Danzig and much of south and west Prussia. To achieve these successes Casimir conceded representative government to the lesser gentry and so a parliament (Sejm) was created. He encouraged the growth and influence of the Jagellonian University in Kraków and was made a KG in 1450. In 1973, his tomb was opened by 12 researchers, of whom 10 died prematurely due to exposure to fungi, which produced deadly aflatoxins.

Casimir-Perier, Jean-Paul-Pierre (1847–1907). French politician. He served as a deputy 1877–94, was President of the Chamber 1893 and 1894, and Premier 1893–94, being elected President of the Third Republic 1894 on the assassination of *Carnot. He resigned unexpectedly in 1895 and went into business.

Caslon, William (1692–1766). English type founder. A broadsheet of 1734 gave examples of 12 different sizes of his roman and italic types, which at the time were recognised as the best in Europe. Caslon Old Face (1726), revived in 1840 after a temporary decline in fashion, remained among the most popular types in the first half of the 20th century, being favoured by printers because of its simplicity and legibility.

Cass, Lewis (1782–1866). American Democratic politician, born in New Hampshire. He became a lawyer, served in the 1812 war and as Governor of Michigan Territory 1813–31 opened new territories in the west for settlement. He was US Secretary of War under President *Jackson 1831–36, US Minister to France 1836–42, and a US senator 1845–48, 1849–57. Democratic candidate for the presidency in 1848, he was defeated by Zachary *Taylor when he lost the support of the Free-Soil wing of his party. He resumed his work in the Senate, but was too old to be effective when Secretary of State under President *Buchanan 1857–60.

Cassatt, Mary (1845–1926). American artist. Whilst young she went to Paris, and under the influence of Camille Pissarro, her teacher, *Degas and *Manet, joined the Impressionists. Neglected at first in America, her pictures, which show the Impressionist techniques applied to domestic subjects such as mothers with children or ladies at the tea table, have won her posthumous fame. She was an ardent campaigner for women’s rights.

Watson, F., Mary Cassatt. 1932; Matthews, N. M. Mary Cassatt. 1998.

Cassel, Sir Ernest Joseph (1852–1921). Anglo-German financier, born in Cologne. He lived in London from 1870, and raised state loans for China, Egypt and South American governments. From an immense fortune he gave away about £2 million to hospitals, educational institutions etc. He became a friend of *Edward VII, and his granddaughter, Edwina Ashley, married Lord Louis *Mountbatten.

Cassin, René (1887–1976). French jurist. He won the 1968 Nobel Prize for Peace, for his work as author of the UN Declaration of the Rights of Man, and as President of the European Court of Human Rights.

Cassiodorus, Flavius Magnus Aurelius (c.477–570). Roman writer and administrator. Only about 20 years old when he joined the secretariat of the emperor *Theodoric, he rose to high office, in which he continued after Theodoric’s death. In 540 he retired from the Ravenna court to a monastery he had built on the Calabrian coast, and there set himself the task of creating a compendium of learning, pagan and Christian alike, almost encyclopaedic in its scope. This he achieved by getting his monks to copy and amend ancient manuscripts and by his own voluminous works on history, theology and grammar. His Variae, collections of edicts, documents, etc., issued during his period of office, are of great importance for the study of the history of the Ostrogothic empire.

Cassius (Gaius Cassius Longinus) (d.42 BCE). Roman soldier and politician. An adherent of *Pompey, he became reconciled to *Caesar but was a principal in the conspiracy to assassinate him. He left Italy with *Brutus and after their defeat by Mark *Antony at Philippi ordered one of his freedmen to kill him.

Cassivellaunus (fl. 54 BCE). British ruler. As chief of the Catuvellauni he offered strong resistance to *Caesar’s advance across the Thames during his second invasion (54). The loss of his capital (now Wheathampstead, Herts.), forced him to make peace. His later history is unknown.

Casson, Sir Hugh Maxwell (1914–1999). English architect. One of the leading exponents in Britain of the contemporary style, he was chief designer (1951) for the Festival of Britain exhibition buildings on the south bank of the Thames in London and knighted in 1952. He wrote Homes by the Million (1947). He was President of the Royal Academy 1976–84 and made a CH (1984).

Castiglione, Baldassare, Conte (1478–1529). Italian humanist writer, born near Mantua. The son of a nobleman, he served more than one Italian duke, but it was the court of Urbino that provided the background for his great book, the Libro del cortegiano (The Courtier, 1518), a prose dialogue defining the attributes of the ‘perfect gentleman’, and discussing etiquette, hunting, social problems, the significance of the arts and Platonic love. It was translated into English in 1561 and widely read in Europe.

Castle, Barbara Anne (née Betts), Baroness Castle (1910–2002). English Labour politician. Married to a journalist, she was MP for Blackburn 1945–79 and a member of the Labour Party’s National Executive 1950–79. She was Minister of Overseas Development 1964–65, of Transport 1965–68, Secretary of State for Employment and Productivity 1968–70, and for Social Services 1974–76. She was a member of the European Parliament 1979–89.

Castlemaine, Countess of see Cleveland, Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of

Castlereagh, Robert Stewart, Viscount (afterwards 2nd Marquess of Londonderry) (1769–1822). Anglo-Irish politician, born in Dublin. Son of a landowner, he entered the Irish parliament (then separate) as a Whig (1790), but turned Tory in 1795. As Chief Secretary for Ireland 1799–1801, he was instrumental in securing the passage of the Act of Union of Ireland with England, which, as he realised, was likely to fail unless Catholic emancipation was granted. *George III’s veto on such concessions was crippling. He became Secretary of State for War and the Colonies 1805–06, 1807–09, being responsible for choosing Sir Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of *Wellington, for the peninsular command. But equally he must take some responsibility for the selection of the incompetent Earl of Chatham for the disastrous Walcheren campaign. In 1809 Castlereagh fought a duel with and slightly wounded his political rival George *Canning, who had been intriguing against him. He left office but returned in 1812 to begin his great period as Foreign Secretary 1812–22, when he was responsible for forming and holding together the anti-French alliance in the late stages of the Napoléonic Wars. After the French defeat he represented England at the Congress of Vienna and the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1815). He opposed vindictive peace terms and was instrumental in keeping Alsace-Lorraine French. Later he was opposed to the Holy Alliance being exploited as a means of suppressing all liberal movements in Europe. Little interested in domestic politics, he had to defend and bear censure for the government’s repressive policies. This, combined with strain and overwork, and threats of blackmail about his homosexuality caused him to cut his throat. One of the ablest statesmen of his time and a man of character, he did not deserve the great unpopularity of his last years, expressed in the cheering which broke out at his burial in Westminster Abbey.

Bew, J., Castlereagh. 2013.

Castro Ruz, Fidel (1926–2016). Cuban politician. The son of a rich sugar planter, he studied law at Havana University and became a violent opponent of the repressive and dictatorial *Batista regime. Sentenced to five years’ imprisonment for an attack on an army barracks in 1953 he was released under an amnesty two years later and went into exile. He returned in 1956, landing secretly in the Oriente province, where he gradually built up a guerrilla force which, by January 1959, proved strong enough to overthrow Batista. He was Prime Minister 1959–76. The US refused to recognise his government and supported the abortive ‘Bay of Pigs’ invasion by Cuban exiles (April 1961). Construction of a Russian missile base in Cuba led to a confrontation between *Kennedy and *Khrushchev in October 1962 and the base was dismantled. He was First Secretary of the Communist Party (based on his United Revolutionary Socialist Party) 1965– and President of Cuba 1976–2008. Cuba became increasingly dependent on Soviet aid which declined under *Gorbachev. Castro’s regime actively intervened in Angola and Central America. He maintained his ideology despite the collapse of the USSR without making any concessions to political freedom or democratic practice. Pope *John Paul II visited Castro in January 1998. His brother, Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (1931– ) was first vice president of Cuba 1976–2008 and President 2008–18, but remained as First Secretary of the Communist Party.

Matthews, H. L., Castro: A Political Biography. 1969.

Catesby, Robert (1573–1605). English conspirator. A Roman Catholic gentleman, embittered by a fine imposed for joining Essex’s rebellion, he took a leading part in the gun powder plot. After the arrest of Guy *Fawkes he fled to Warwickshire but was pursued and killed.

Cather, Willa Sibert (1876–1947). American novelist, born in Virginia. She grew up in Nebraska, where she was taken at the age of nine, and whose pioneering history is the subject of some of her best books. After graduating at the University of Nebraska, she went to Pittsburgh as a teacher and journalist. In 1904 she moved to New York, where her career as a professional writer began. Her first major success was O Pioneers (1913). Other major works include One of Ours (Pulitzer Prize, 1922), Death comes for the Archbishop (1927) and Shadows on the Rock (1933).

Catherine (Yekaterina) I (1684–1727). Tsarina (Empress) of Russia 1725–27. Marta Skowronska was born in Poland to a Lithuanian peasant family, became a servant and the mistress first of Prince *Menshikov, then of *Peter the Great. She married Peter in 1712, became Empress Consort in 1724 and succeeded to the throne on his death.

Catherine (Yekaterina) II (known as ‘the Great’) (née Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, later Yekaterina Aleksayevna von Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov) (1729–1796). Tsarina of Russia 1762–96. Born in Stettin (now Szczecin, Poland), daughter of Prince Christian of Anhalt-Zerbst, and a cousin of two Swedish kings, *Gustav III and Karl XIII, her family life was relatively frugal but she was lively and curious, encouraged by a French governess. In 1744 she joined the Orthodox Church and in 1745 married a distant cousin, the future Tsar *Peter (Pyotr) III. Their only child, later *Paul (Pavel) I was born in 1754. Catherine hated her degenerate and feeble-minded husband but realised that marriage could be a path to power. Peter became tsar in 1762 but six months later a military coup led by two of Catherine’s many lovers, Count Grigori *Orlov and Prince Grigori *Potemkin, deposed him, and he was murdered some days later. In taking the throne Catherine supplanted her own son. Though in her zeal for self-education she read and corresponded with *Voltaire and others and practised and patronised art and literature, she ruled as an autocrat. She appointed *Diderot as her (absentee) librarian in 1766 and he visited her in St Petersburg in 1773–74. She was inoculated against smallpox in 1768 and encouraged the practice. Catherine bought most of Robert *Walpole’s collection of paintings for the Hermitage Museum in 1779. An enlightened despot she may have been, but a despot none the less, and she never forgot her political dependence on the nobility and gentry who had set her on the throne. Although she abolished capital punishment (except for political crimes), and prepared comprehensive schemes of educational, legal and administrative reform, little was actually accomplished. The number of serfs increased and the military and economic burdens on the peasantry grew worse. Following the revolt (1773–75) led by Emelian *Pugachev, a pretender who claimed to be her dead husband, her domestic policy became increasingly repressive. She pursued an imperialist foreign policy and in two wars with Turkey (1768–72 and 1787–92) expanded her territories near the Black Sea and annexed the Crimea. The Ukraine was fully absorbed and when Poland was obliterated by the three partitions of 1772, 1793 and 1795 Russia took the largest share.

Grey, I., Catherine the Great: Autocrat and Empress of all Russia. 1961; Troyat, H., Catherine the Great. 1977; Massie, R.K., Catherine the Great: Portrait of a Woman. 2012.

Catherine de’Medici (de Medicis) (1519–1589). French queen consort 1547–59. Born in Florence, daughter of Lorenzo de’*Medici, she married *Henri II of France in 1533 and was the mother of three kings *François II (first husband of *Mary, Queen of Scots), *Charles IX and *Henri III. She became regent in the reign of Charles IX, her aim was to increase the independence and power of the crown by maintaining a balance between the Roman Catholic extremists (under the Guises) and the Huguenots (Protestants). It was because the balance appeared to be endangered by the marriage of her daughter, Marguerite de Valois, to the Protestant leader *Henri of Navarre that she obtained the agreement of Charles IX to the ‘massacre of St Bartholomew’ of the Huguenot guests gathered in Paris for the wedding. Under Henri III, Catherine’s influence waned. She was much hated and traduced, but stood for a policy of moderation in general, in the interests of the survival of the monarchy which she saw as the basis of French stability.

Sutherland, N. M., Catherine de’Medici and the Ancien Regime. 1986.

Catherine (Catalina) of Aragon see Katherine of Aragon

Catherine of Braganza (Catarina de Bragança) (1638–1705). Queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland 1660–85. British queen consort 1660–85. Daughter of *João IV of Portugal, she married *Charles II in 1662. She brought Bombay and Tangier to England as her dowry. No children survived, but, though he was notoriously unfaithful, Charles treated her with dignity and kindness. She finally returned to Portugal in 1692.

Catherine (or Katherine) (Howard) (1521–1542). Queen consort of England and Ireland 1540–42. A granddaughter of the 2nd Duke of Norfolk and related to Anne *Boleyn, she married *Henry VIII as his fifth wife in 1540. Less than two years later she was beheaded for adultery with Thomas Culpeper and a young kinsman, Francis Dereham.

Catherine (or Katherine) (Parr) (1512–1548). Queen consort of England and Ireland 1544–47. Sixth and last wife of *Henry VIII, and daughter of a controller of the royal household, she had been widowed twice before marrying the king in 1544. After his death in 1547 she soon married Lord Thomas Seymour, a brother of *Jane Seymour, the mother of *Edward VI. The young Princess *Elizabeth lived briefly with Catherine, but Thomas’ attentions were unwelcome. She died in childbirth and her funeral was the first conducted in Protestant forms.

Catherine of Siena, St (Caterina Benincasa) (c.1347–1380). Italian nun and mystic, born in Siena. Daughter of a dyer, she became a Dominican tertiary and attracted a group of followers, nursing and healing the sick. Although illiterate, she dictated hundreds of letters and the famous Dialogue or Treatise on Divine Providence. She helped to persuade Pope Gregory XI to return from Avignon to Rome in 1376. She negotiated peace between Florence and the papacy and supported Rome in the Great Schism. A stigmatic, she was canonised in 1461, became patron saint of Italy in 1939 and a doctor of the Church in 1970.

Catherine of Valois (1401–1437). Queen consort of England 1420–22. Daughter of *Charles VI of France, and younger sister of Isabella, *Richard II’s queen, in 1420 she married *Henry V of England. After his death (1422) and the accession of their baby son *Henry VI, she married Owen *Tudor, a Welsh landowner, and her grandson, Henry Tudor, became King *Henry VII in 1485.

Catherine Swynford see Swynford, Catherine

Catiline (Lucius Sergius Catilina) (c.108–62 BCE). Roman conspirator. A supporter of *Sulla as a young man, he later professed extreme democratic opinions to further his interests. The events that brought about his ruin originated from his belief that he was being unfairly deprived of the consulship, which he felt was his due. Thus his first conspiracy (65) was intended to help his own candidacy for 64. The plot was mismanaged and Catiline escaped conviction, but when he again sought election in 63, it was *Cicero, a man of lower rank than himself but with conservative backing, who was preferred. A second plot was then contrived to bring about the death of Cicero and other hostile senators. News of it had reached Cicero, who took emergency measures and in one of his most famous orations denounced Catiline in the Senate. Catiline himself gained a short respite by flight, but in January 62, he was hunted down and killed, with many of his followers, at Pistoia, while those conspirators who had stayed in Rome were arrested and executed.

Cato, Marcus Porcius (known as Cato the Elder) (234–149 BCE). Roman politician. As a young man he served against the Carthaginians in the second Punic War. As Consul (195) he fought in Spain, but it was as ‘censor’ (184) that he showed the zeal for moral reform by which he is best remembered. He denounced extravagance, tried to restore a sense of high moral values in public life, and strongly resisted Greek cultural influences, which he regarded as corrupting. His visit to Africa in 153 convinced him that Carthage could still be dangerous and for many years he ended every speech in the Senate with the words ‘Carthage must be destroyed’. He wrote books on the history of Roman towns (Origines) and on farming. His great-grandson, also named Marcus Porcius Cato (Cato the Younger) (95–46 BCE), supported *Pompey against Julius *Caesar in the Civil Wars, and after Pompey’s defeat at Pharsalus (48) escaped to Africa, where he defended Utica. When news of Caesar’s victory at Thapsus (46) reached him he committed suicide. His daughter, Portia, married *Brutus. As a patron of the Stoic school of philosophers Cato was famed for his unbending rectitude. He was seen by his enemies as an obstructive, old fashioned and inflexibly doctrinaire politician; his admirers saw him as upholding the ancient Roman virtues in a corrupt age.

Catullus, Gaius Valerius (c.84–c.54 BCE). Roman lyric poet, born in Verona. He lived mainly at Rome and at his villas at Tibur and Sirmio. His surviving works consist mainly of love poems, some passionate, some playful, and scurrilous, witty or satirical verses written probably in the last years of his short life. They show his command of lyric metres and ability to express the tenderest and most personal emotions. His poems were lost until an early manuscript was found in Verona in 1305.

Wiseman, T. P., Catullan Questions. 1969; Quinn, K., Catullus: The Poems, edited with Commentary. 1970.

Cavafy, C. P. (Constantinos Petrou Kavaphes) (1863–1933). Greek poet, born in Alexandria. He lived in Liverpool 1870–77, then his family returned to Egypt where he worked as a minor civil servant and journalist in Alexandria, rarely visited Greece and wrote 154 poems, terse, ironic and pessimistic, skilfully evoking the past. The first publication in book form (1935) was posthumous. An English translation by John Mavrogordata (1951) led to international critical acclaim, aided by the advocacy of his friend E. M. *Forster, and he was admired by W. H. *Auden, Leonard *Cohen and Marguerite *Yourcenar. Among his greatest poems are ‘Waiting for the Barbarians’ (1904) and ‘Ithaca’ (1911). The translations by George Barbanis are particularly effective.

Cavaignac, Louis-Eugène (1802–1857). French soldier and politician. Son of a revolutionary lawyer, when *Louis Philippe was deposed (1848) he became Minister of War in the provisional government, and armed with dictatorial powers suppressed an extremist rising in Paris with great loss of life. But for his republican principles he might have assumed supreme power, in fact he laid aside his dictatorship to become President of the Council of Ministers. A new constitution was promulgated under which Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (later *Napoléon III) was elected president with about 5,500,000 votes, against less than 1,500,000 for Cavaignac. The latter, after refusing to take the oath, retired into private life.

Cavaillé-Coll, Aristide (1811–1899). French organ builder. He belonged to a dynasty of organ builders in France and Spain, and his company made nearly 500, noted for their astringent but exhilarating timbre, including Notre Dame, La Madeleine, La Trinité, St Sulpice and Ste Clotilde in Paris, the basilica of St Denis and cathedrals in Caen, Rouen, Bayeux and Toulouse. *Franck, *Saint-Saëns, *Fauré, *Widor and *Messaien wrote specifically for Cavaillé-Coll organs. Asteroid 5184 Cavaillé-Coll was named for him.

Cavalcanti, Guido (c.1255–1300). Florentine poet. A friend of *Dante, his sonnets and other poems reveal a philosophic and introspective temperament. His active support of the Ghibelline (imperial) cause led to his exile in the last year of his life. English translations were made by *Rossetti and Ezra *Pound.

Cavalli, Francesco (Pietro Francesco Caletti di Bruno) (1602–1676). Italian operatic composer, born at Crema. Son of Gian Battista Calettidi Bruno, he later took the name of his Venetian patron Federico Cavalli. At 15 he became a singer in the choir of St Mark’s, Venice, where he was trained by Claudio *Monteverdi. He became maestro di cappella at St Mark’s in 1668. He wrote 42 musical dramas, of which 27 survive. They use a small orchestra and show the beginnings of the use of recitative and aria, the music complemented extravagant sets and costumes.

Worsthorne, S. T., Venetian Opera in the Seventeenth Century. 1954.

Cavallini, Pietro (c.1250–c.1330). Italian fresco painter and mosaic artist. Working mainly in Rome, his first authenticated work is known to have been painted over a fifth century Christian fresco in which the Roman classical tradition had survived. It is this tradition which seems to have influenced him in his departures from the contemporary Byzantine style. His paintings reject the stiffness of Byzantine art, and they re-introduce sculptural modelling of figures and drapery, assisted by directed light. His best known works are probably The Last Judgment (fresco) in Sta. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, and Six Scenes from the Life of Mary (mosaics) at Sta Maria in Trastevere. He strongly influenced *Giotto.

Toesca, P., Pietro Cavallini. 1960.

Cavell, Edith Louisa (1865–1915). English nurse, born near Norwich. A clergyman’s daughter, she was a governess, then had a late vocation for nursing. She worked in Brussels from 1907. When Belgium was overrun by the Germans during World War I, she remained in Brussels to nurse the wounded of both sides and assisted over 200 Allied soldiers to escape into neutral Holland, an act of treason in the German military code, for which she was condemned and shot. Her execution caused widespread outrage, especially in Britain, the US, Canada and Australia. She was widely memorialised, with statues, coins, a mountain in Canada and in plays, early films and music. She was reburied at Norwich Cathedral. Her statue in St Martin’s Lane, London, carries her words: ‘Patriotism is not enough. I must have no hatred or bitterness towards anyone.’

Hochling, A. A., Edith Cavell. 1958; Souhami, D., Edith Cavell. 2010.

Cavendish, Henry (1731–1810). English scientist, born in Nice. Son of Lord Charles Cavendish, an able experimenter, Henry’s elder brother became 3rd Duke of Devonshire, and he inherited two large fortunes, making him one of England’s richest men. Educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge, unmarried, and devoid of any passion but science, he lived in London, either in Bloomsbury or at a villa at Clapham, in eccentric seclusion. His waking hours were devoted to scientific research. In 1766 he isolated hydrogen, realised that it was an element, and investigated many of its properties and received the Copley Medal of the Royal Society. He was the first to determine accurately the chemical composition of water and air. Like *Priestley, he supported the phlogiston theory later disproved by *Lavoisier. He also conducted many experiments in heat and electricity, and measured the constant of gravitation, from which he estimated the mean density of the earth (accurate to within 1 per cent). The Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge is named after him.

Berry, A. J., Henry Cavendish: His Life and Scientific Work. 1960; Jungnickel, C. and McCormmach, R., Cavendish. The Experimental Life. 2016.

Cavour, Camillo Benso di, Conte (1810–1861). Italian politician, born in Turin. The main architect of Italian unity and independence, he was the son of a nobleman. He found army life alien to his liberal ideas and turned to scientific agriculture as a means of showing that, to prepare a country for freedom, practical improvements were more important than political agitation. His search for the newest techniques, which eventually brought him a fortune, took him abroad and introduced him to many influential people who shared his liberal views and moderate approach. In 1847 he founded Il Risorgimento, a liberal journal aimed at securing the political unification of Italy but at the same time advocating such steps as the construction of railways, free trade, and democratic constitutions, which would tend to bring unity naturally about. Meanwhile, political events were helping him. In 1848 *Carlo Alberto, the king of Sardinia (and ruler of Piedmont) went to war with Austria (which then held the rest of northern Italy), and, though defeated, he was prepared to grant a democratic constitution, which provided a means by which Cavour could bring about his aims. In 1852 under the new king, *Vittorio Emanuele, he became Premier of Piedmont-Sardinia. By reforms of the army and administration, expanding the economy and strengthening the financial situation by reducing debt, he steadily built up the idea in Europe that the supporters of Italian unification were no longer reckless revolutionaries but sober serious politicians. He gained further goodwill by sending Sardinian troops to aid the British and French in the Crimea. Finally in 1858, accord with *Garibaldi having already been reached, came the secret deal with *Napoléon III by which Nice and the Savoy duchy were promised to France in return for French aid. When war broke out with Austria in 1859 the French victories at Magenta and Solferino secured northern Italy (except Venice). Garibaldi landed in Sicily in May 1860 and a few weeks later he and Vittorio Emanuele rode through Naples together. In March 1861 Cavour became first Prime Minister of the almost united Italy. He died in June.

Mack Smith, D., Cavour. 1985.

Caxton, William (c.1422–1491). English printer, born in Kent. He became a prosperous silk merchant, and was a prominent member of the English commercial community at Bruges (1463–69). From 1471 to 1476 he was attached to the court of Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, sister of England’s *Edward IV. During this time he learned the art of printing, probably at Cologne, and began printing at Bruges, where he published the Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye, which he had translated from the French. This is the first known book to have been printed in the English language. In 1476 he set up the first English press, at Westminster. His first publication there was The Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophers (1477), a translation from the French by the 2nd Earl Rivers. He also printed the works of *Chaucer, *Malory and *Gower and was active until his death as translator and editor. His first illustrated work was the Myrrour of the World (1481) and his most elaborate the Golden Legend, lives of the saints illustrated with woodcuts. In all he published about 100 volumes, of which roughly one third survive.

Cayley, Arthur (1821–1895). English mathematician. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, he supported his research by practising as a barrister for 14 years. Elected FRS at the age of 31, he became first Sadleiran professor of mathematics at Cambridge 1863–95. He published 300 papers, received the Copley Medal in 1882 and became President of the British Association 1883. He made important contributions to abstract geometry and theoretical dynamics, his best known book (his collected papers alone fill 13 volumes) being Elementary Treatise on Elliptic Functions (1876).

Bell, E. T., Men of Mathematics. Repr. 1961.

Cayley, Sir George, 6th Baronet (1773–1857). English engineer, inventor and aviation pioneer, born in Scarborough, Yorkshire. Privately educated, as early as 1799 he proposed an aircraft with a fuselage, fixed cambered (i.e. asymmetrical) wings, a rudder and separate power source. He experimented with model balloons, then built a series of large gliders, and in 1810 published a paper identifying the four aerodynamic forces in flight: weight, lift, drag and thrust, rejecting *Leonardo da Vinci’s concept of bird-like flight for humans. Now often described as ‘the Father of Aviation’, he was the first to explain the problems of flight mathematically. He invented a hot air engine in 1807, forerunner of the internal combustion engine, improving it in 1837. He also invented an artificial limb, a tension spoke wheel, safety belts and self-righting lifeboats. He was a Whig MP 1832–34 and was elected FRS. In 1853 he built a large glider, claiming ‘steadiness, safety and steerage’, which carried a passenger.

Fairlie, G. and Cayley, E., The Life of a Genius. 1965; Dee, R., The Man who Invented Flight. 2007.

Ceauşescu, Nicolae (1918–1989). Romanian Communist politician. He was imprisoned for political offences 1936–38, 1940–44, and became Minister of Agriculture 1947–50 in the first Communist Government, Deputy Minister of the Armed Forces 1950–54 and a Politburo member 1955–89. On the death of his patron Gheorge Gheorghiu-Dej (1901–1965), he succeeded as Secretary-General of the Romanian Communist Party 1965–89. With his wife Elena Petrescu (1919–1989), he built up a powerful family network and was President of the Romanian State Council 1967–74 and President of the Socialist Republic of Romania 1974–89. While pursuing a repressive policy at home, marked by extravagant expenditure on public buildings, he won international support by pursuing a foreign policy independent of Moscow, cultivating good relations with China, Israel, Britain (where he received an honorary GCB) and the US. With the collapse of Communism in eastern Europe, Ceauşescu’s use of force in Timisoara led to an army revolt and in December he was overthrown and executed with his wife.

Cecchetti, Enrico (1850–1928). Italian ballet dancer and trainer. One of the strongest influences in the development of modern ballet, both his father and his mother were dancers, and he, by a blend of vigour and precision with French grace, produced the style of male dancing which came to be known as Russian. In 1902 he became Director of the Imperial School at Warsaw, but later took *Pavlova, at her special request, as his sole pupil. A long association with *Diaghilev followed, and in 1919 he started his own school in London, where Ninette *de Valois and Marie *Rambert were among his pupils.

Cecil. For members of this family other than those below, see Burghley, 1st Baron, Salisbury, 3rd Marquess of, and Salisbury, 1st Earl of

Cecil, Lord (Edward Christian) David (Gascoyne) (1902–1986). English literary critic and biographer. Son of the 4th Marquess of Salisbury, he was professor of English literature at Oxford University 1948–69. He wrote biographies and studies of Walter *Scott, Lord *Melbourne, Jane *Austen, William *Cowper and Thomas *Hardy, and a critical study, Early Victorian Novelists (1964).

Cecil of Chelwood, 1st Viscount, (Edgar Algernon) Robert Gascoyne Cecil (1864–1958). British politician. A son of the 3rd Marquess of *Salisbury, educated at Eton and Oxford, he became a barrister and QC (1889). After World War I, although a minister in *Baldwin’s Government 1923–24, 1924–27, his main preoccupation was the League of Nations, where he represented Britain 1919–32 and at its last session in 1946. He served as President of the League of Nations Union 1923–45 and later of the United Nations Association. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1937 and a CH in 1956.

Celestine I, St (d.432). Pope (from 422). A Roman deacon, as Pope he attacked the teachings of *Nestorius, which argued that the human and divine natures of Jesus were independent, and of *Pehagius, who rejected predestination and the doctrine of original sin. He sent Palladius (431) as the first bishop to Ireland.

Celestine III (Giacinto Bobo-Orsini) (c.1106–1198). Pope 1191–98. A student and friend of *Abelard, sympathetic to *Becket, he was a diplomat until election to the papacy at the age of 85. His attempts to restore papal influence were thwarted by the emperor *Henry VI.

Celestine V, St (Pietro di Morrone) (c.1215–1296). Pope 1294. He lived for many years as a hermit in the Abruzzi and gathered round him an ascetic group, later known as the Celestines. After the death of Nicholas IV in 1292 the cardinals were unable to agree on a new pope, and after a two-year delay Celestine, now old and incompetent, was elected. Finding himself a political pawn he abdicated after five months, but was kept in captivity by his successor, *Boniface VIII, to prevent him becoming a centre of faction. He was canonised in 1313, though *Dante sets him at the gateway of Hell.

Celibidache, Sergiu (1912–1996). Romanian conductor. He studied in Paris and Berlin and was Chief Conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra 1948–52 during its post-war rebirth. He made a few recordings 1945–50, but his international reputation depended exclusively on concerts. Like the pianist *Michelangeli, he remained an intensely controversial figure. He was musical director of the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra 1979–96.

Céline, Louis-Ferdinand (né Louis Ferdinand Destouches) (1894–1961). French novelist. His major novels, Journey to the End of the Night (1932) and Death on the Instalment Plan (1936), are autobiographical, describing his experiences during World War I, his work as a doctor in Paris slums, and his childhood and youth. Born a petit bourgeois, his writings reveal a pathological loathing for capitalist society and its products. Celine, assumed to be a leftist, was invited to the USSR in 1936 but hated what he saw. His visit made him first an anarchist and soon after a fascist. His anti-Semitism became so virulent that even the French fascist press rejected his writings. He fled to Denmark, went into hiding in 1945 and was sentenced to death in absentia. Broken in health, he was amnestied and returned to France in 195l.

Cellini, Benvenuto (1500–1571). Italian artist, born in Florence. His life, according to himself, was as colourful as his work. His father was a musician and he studied music until the age of 15. Later he was apprenticed to a goldsmith, and it was during his apprenticeship that he was banished after fighting a duel. Making his way to Rome, he was employed by Pope *Clement VII as a musician, but soon attracted notice by his gold and silver craftsmanship. He claimed, too, to have killed the Constable of Bourbon and the Prince of Orange during the sack of Rome by the imperial forces in 1527. After a short absence he was back in Rome in 1529, designing coins for the papal mint. Pardoned by Pope *Paul III for the murder of a rival goldsmith, he was again in trouble in 1538 when he was charged (falsely, it is said) with having stolen papal jewels during the sack. After escaping from prison, he served *Francois I of France until 1545, when he returned to Florence, where he enjoyed the patronage of Duke Cosimo de’*Medici for the rest of his life. Cellini’s Autobiography (1558–62), a lively and boastful account of his adventurous life, also gives much valuable information about the goldsmith’s craft. It is indeed for their intricate and ingenious craftsmanship rather than for their artistic sensibility that his works, such as his statue of Perseus in Florence, are most praised.

Parker, D., Cellini. 2004.

Celsius, Anders (1701–1744). Swedish astronomer. Nephew of Olaf Celsius (1670–1756), the botanist and patron of *Linnaeus, and grandson of Magnus Celsius who deciphered the Helsing runes, he was professor of astronomy at the University of Uppsala 1730–44 and was a member of the expedition which, in 1736, visited Lapland to measure an arc of the meridian and investigate the Aurora Borealis. In 1742 he introduced the Celsius, or centigrade, temperature scale.

Cenci, Beatrice (1577–1599). Italian noblewoman. To escape the cruelty and the incestuous attentions of her father, she arranged with her stepmother and brother to have him assassinated. Put on trial with her accomplices, she confessed under torture and was beheaded. Her story was the basis of *Shelley’s verse tragedy The Cenci.

Cerdic (Ceretic?/Caraticos?) (d.c.534). King of the West Saxons (Wessex) 519–34. Everything about his antecedents is contested, and his claimed descent from Wotan is unlikely. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle describes him as a Saxon adventurer who defeated the Britons, but the name is not Germanic, and he may have been a Roman-Briton. He established a line that included *Egbert and *Alfred (the Great).

Cernuda (y Bidón), Luis (1902–1963). Spanish poet, born in Seville. A member of the ‘Generation of 1927’, he was a friend of *Lorca. He left Spain in 1938 during the Civil War and remained an exile until his death in Mexico City. His reputation has grown since his death with two collections of translations in English, The Poetry of Luis Cernuda (1977) and Selected Poems of Luis Cernuda (1999).

Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de (1547–1616). Spanish novelist, born in Alcalá de Hernares, near Madrid. Fourth child of Rodrigo Cervantes, a barber-surgeon from Córdoba, and Leonor Cortinas, little is known of his childhood or education but he was an avid reader and a lover of the theatre. He borrowed the name of Saavedra from a relative.

He may have fled after wounding a man in a duel, and in Rome became chamber assistant in the household of Giulio Acquaviva, later cardinal, 1569–70.

In 1571 he served at the Battle of Lepanto, suffering three gunshot wounds, one of which crippled his left hand. Later he rejoined his regiment and served in Corfu and Tunis. While returning to Spain with his brother Rodrigo, Moorish pirates captured his ship and he was imprisoned as a slave in Algiers (1575–80), finally ransomed after several abortive attempts to escape. In Madrid he tried to support himself by writing plays, poems, and a pastoral novel, La Galatea (1585). In 1584 he married Catalina de Palacios Salazar y Vozmediano (1565–1626). The marriage was unhappy and they had no children, though Cervantes had a daughter, Isabel, from an earlier liaison. Employed (1587) in raising provisions for the Armada, he was confirmed as a civil servant (1588), but was finally dismissed (1597) and imprisoned for three months because of discrepancies in his accounts.

He lived in Seville, in great poverty, from 1595 to 1603, and occupied himself with poetry, unsuccessful plays and writing the first part of his masterpiece, Don Quixote, in full El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha (The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha). A satire on medieval romances of chivalry, Don Quixote recounts the adventures of an elderly and confused hidalgo, Alonso Quixano, who reinvents himself as Don Quixote, a knight (‘The knight of the doleful countenance’), who tours the countryside on his steed Rocinante (just a nag), with his princess Dulcinea del Toboso (in reality a peasant girl) in his heart and his faithful squire Sancho Panza (a peasant) in his wake, ‘to defend the oppressed and to undo wrongs’. Part I of Don Quixote was published in 1605 and won immediate success, being reprinted four times in the same year.

Translated into English by John Shelton in 1612, there were early versions in French, German and Italian.

Don Quixote is built around a long-running joke—the absurd obsolescence of romantic fiction with its implausible events, exaggerated emotions and self-delusion, and also has the characteristics of the ‘buddy’ story, very familiar in modern novels and films. Simon *Leys (Pierre Ryckmans) wrote: ‘It is bizarre to observe how a literary masterpiece which was to exert such universal appeal—transcending all barriers of language, culture and time—could, from the start, have been entirely predicated upon such a narrow, tedious and pointless literary quarrel.’

In 1605, Cervantes was arrested on suspicion of conspiracy to murder, when the body of a notorious rake, believed to be a lover of his daughter, Isabel, was found in his house; the charge was, however, dropped. Isabel was again mixed up in some sort of mysterious imbroglio (1608–12). Fame seems, however, to have brought him some happiness, though he remained poor. Among Cervantes’ last works were some short plays, a collection of Exemplary Novels (1613) in the manner of *Boccaccio, and The Trials and Peregrinations of Persiles and Sigismunda, a linked series of about 20 short novels, published posthumously.

In 1614, a spurious Part II was published over the name of Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda—the author has never been identified but the successful playwright Lope de *Vega may have organised the deception. The effect was catalytic and provoked Cervantes to complete an authentic Part II in 1615.

Cervantes became a member of the Order of San Francisco in 1613 and died, aged 68, probably of dropsy (edema, leading to chronic heart failure) in Madrid on 23 April 1616, the same date as *Shakespeare (but 10 days earlier in the Gregorian calendar). In March 2015, it was claimed that his remains, long lost, were found at the Convent of the Barefoot Trinitarians, Madrid.

Don Quixote is repeatedly listed as one of the world’s greatest novels many critics place it first. The lost play Cardenio (1613?) by *Shakespeare and *Fletcher is based on a character in Part I of Don Quixote. *Telemann wrote an opera (1761), as did *Salieri (1771), *Mendelssohn (1825), *Massenet (1910) and de *Falla (1923). Several ballets have been based on Don Quixote, the first in 1719, the most performed version (1869) to music composed by Ludwig Minkus; but at least four more are in the repertoire. Richard *Strauss wrote a memorable tone-poem Don Quixote (1898), for cello and orchestra. The novel has been dramatised many times. There have been 24 films or television series based on Don Quixote: the Russian version (1957) directed by Grigori *Kozintsev is the best. Orson *Welles tried and only partly succeeded. Terry Gilliam’s attempt in 2000 was a magnificent failure, as recorded in the documentary Lost in La Mancha (2002), available on DVD. From 1965 the musical Man of La Mancha was immensely successful internationally.

Grismer, R. L., Cervantes: A Bibliography. 1946–63; Byron, W., Cervantes, a biography. 1978; Canavaggio, J., Cervantes. 1991; McCrory, D. P., No Ordinary Man. 2006.

Cetewayo (Cetshwayo) (c.1836–1884). Zulu king. After he had gained the throne by killing his brother his hostile attitude to the British settlers in Natal brought on the Zulu War of 1879. The results of early successes, including the victory of Isandllwana, were wiped out by the decisive defeat of Ulundi. After imprisonment he was restored to part of his kingdom in 1883 but failed to secure the allegiance of his subjects, and was driven out.

Cézanne, Paul (1839–1906). French post impressionist painter, born in Aix-en-Provence. Son of a rich banker, he wrote poetry, and had as one of his boyhood friends Émile *Zola, who persuaded him, against his father’s wishes, to take up art in Paris. From 1863 he joined the group round *Manet, and his earliest works, influenced by *Delacroix, were often erotic or mythological scenes executed with violent strokes of the palette knife. The Franco-Prussian War having broken up the group, Cézanne became more closely associated with the Impressionists, and through Camille *Pissarro (1872–73) became friendly with *Monet and *Renoir. He soon developed an original and personal style. He saw natural objects as made up of basic geometrical forms, such as the cylinder, sphere or cone, and his aim was to represent them by colour alone without shadows or perspective, space being suggested by a series of receding planes. Cézanne achieved his effects with a limited colour range: blue, green and tan predominantly, and brush-work as distinctive as it is difficult to describe. From about 1876 he gave up small brush strokes and painted in masses. His subjects, repeated over and over again, were few: landscapes, still life (mainly fruit and flowers), a few local portraits (and some of himself) and groups of card players and bathers. The enormous prices now paid for his works make it hard to credit that, until he was over 50, Cézanne’s talent went almost unrecognised. He became embittered and eccentric, withdrew to Provence in 1878 and except for short intervals lived there in seclusion for the rest of his life. When his father died (1886), leaving him enough to live in comfort, he married Hortense Figuet, a model with whom he had previously lived, and his work of the next 10 years is his most serene and assured. His last works are more violent and lyrical, e.g. the wonderful variants of Le Chateatu noir and Mont St Victoire. In 1895 Ambroise Vollard (1865–1939), a leading art dealer in Paris, mounted his first exhibition and thereafter Cézanne enjoyed at least moderate fame. A diabetic, he died from exposure after a fall. He had a profound influence on *Matisse, *Picasso and *Braque. Cubism was the obvious development of his geometrical theories but his influence extended far more widely and his works led from the traditional schools to the revolutionary theories and techniques of today. The Card Players (1893) was bought by the royal family of Qatar in 2011 for $US250 million, making it the most expensive painting in the history of art.

Rewald, J., Cézanne. 1986; Callow, P., Lost Earth: A Life of Cézanne. 1995; Danchev, A., Cézanne. 2012.

Chabrier, (Alexis) Emmanuel (1841–1894). French composer. He was largely self-taught. At first a civil servant, he did not become a professional musician until 1880. His first successful work, the orchestral rhapsody Espana (1883), shows the gaiety and orchestral flair that characterise his music: other examples are the Marche slave and Marche joyeuse. He also wrote the light operas Gwendoline (1886) and Le Roi malgré lui (1887). His influence on later French composers was notable, and his songs, piano music and the orchestral Suite pastorale were much admired by Ravel and Debussy.

Chabrol, Claude (1930–2010). French film director. Educated at the University of Paris, he became a critic, coauthored a book on Alfred *Hitchcock, and directed a series of films, many featuring his wife Stephane Audran, about crime, passion and family life among the bourgeoisie.

Chad (Ceadda), St (d.672). Anglo-Saxon missionary, born in Northumbria. Educated at Lindisfarne, he succeeded his brother, Saint Cedd, as abbot of their joint foundation at Lastingham in 664. He was consecrated Bishop of the Northumbrians with York as his see, but the appointment gave rise to a dispute and he resigned in 669 in favour of St Wilfrid. He was then made bishop of Mercia, with his see at Lichfield, and is credited with the conversion of the Kingdom of Mercia. He died of the plague. His remains are in St Chad’s Cathedral, Birmingham.

Chadwick, Sir Edwin (1801–1890). English social reformer. Originally a lawyer, he became a friend and disciple of Jeremy *Bentham. He worked (1832–46) for the Poor Law Commission and played an important part in the drafting of the Factory Act (1833) and the Poor Law Amendment Act (1834). He was the leading public-health reformer of the 19th century. He wrote The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population (1842) and advocated the introduction of comprehensive drainage and sewerage systems in English cities. This and other reports, e.g. that on The Practice of Interment in Towns, led to important reforms.

Chadwick, Sir James (1891–1974). English physicist. He studied at Manchester and under *Rutherford at Cambridge and was appointed professor of physics at Liverpool in 1935. Chadwick investigated highly penetrating radiation which in 1930 had been observed by Bothe and Becker when certain light atoms, such as those of beryllium, were bombarded with alpha-particles. By analysing the masses and speeds of the particles involved, he showed in 1932 that neutrons, uncharged sub-atomic particles whose existence had been predicted by Rutherford, were being produced. Chadwick is thus generally credited with the discovery of the neutron, and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1935. He worked on atomic energy research during World War II, was knighted in 1945 and became Master of Gonville and Caius College. Cambridge 1948–58.

Chadwick, (William) Owen (1916–2015). English historian. Educated at St John’s College, Cambridge, he was ordained as an Anglican priest and at Cambridge became Master of Selwyn College 1956–83, Regius Professor of Modern History 1968–83 and Vice Chancellor 1969–71. His books included The Reformation (1964), The Victorian Church (1966–70), The Secularization of the European Mind (1976), Michael Ramsey: A Life (1990), A History of Christianity (1995) and A History of the Popes 1830–1914 (1998). He received the OM in 1983.

Chagall, Marc (1887–1985). Russian-Jewish artist, born in Vitebsk. He worked as a stage designer under *Bakst, lived in Paris (1910–14) and was there influenced by the Cubists. He returned to Russia, served in World War I and became a commissar of fine arts after the revolution. In 1922 he returned to Paris. He lived in the US 1941–47, returning to France in 1948. His style, though it links up with that of the Surrealists, is highly personal. His dreamlike pictures are made up of Jewish and Russian folk fantasies and symbols and childhood memories. His first wife, Bella, appears in many of them. He also designed stained glass, sets for ballet, e.g. Firebird (1945) and Daphnis and Chloe (1958) and opera, e.g. Magic Flute (1967), illustrated books, e.g. La Fontaine’s Fables, and painted the ceiling of the Paris Opera (1964).

Alexander, S., Marc Chagall. 1979.

Chain, Sir Ernst Boris (1906–1979). Anglo-German biochemist, born in Berlin. He lectured at Oxford from 1935 and with *Florey devised methods of producing penicillin in commercial quantities. He shared the 1945 Nobel Prize for Medicine with Florey and *Fleming.

Chailly, Riccardo (1953– ). Italian conductor, born in Milan. He was principal conductor of the Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra 1982–88, the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, Amsterdam 1988–2004 and the Gewandhaus Orchestra, Leipzig 2005–16. He made powerful recordings of *Mahler. He was appointed director of La Scala, Milan 2015– .

Chaka see Shaka

Chaliapin (Shalyapin), Fyodor Ivanovich (1873–1938). Russian singer, born in Kazan. His family was desperately poor and he had little formal education, but after working at a variety of odd jobs he joined a touring opera company at the age of 17. His powerful bass voice and his great dramatic gifts soon brought him to St Petersburg and fame. He appeared at La Scala in 1901, New York 1907 and London in 1913. He left Russia in 1921. The title roles in the operas Boris Godunov and Prince Igor provided ideal opportunities for his talents. He acted in the silent film Ivan the Terrible (1915), and acted and sang in the film Don Quixote (1932). He made 200 recordings and toured Australia in 1926.

Challoner, Richard (1691–1781). English Roman Catholic bishop. Leader of the English Catholics, he was made apostolic vicar of the London Catholics in 1758, increased their numbers, strengthened their resistance to hostility and founded a charitable institution for the poor and aged. He revised the Reims Douai Bible (an English translation of the Vulgate for Roman Catholic use) and wrote many devotional works.

Chamberlain, Sir (Joseph) Austen (1863–1937). English Conservative politician. Son of Joseph *Chamberlain by his first wife, and educated at Rugby and Cambridge, he was a Conservative MP 1892–1937 and a junior minister from 1895, becoming Chancellor of the Exchequer 1903–05 under *Balfour, and again 1919–21 under *Lloyd George. He led the Conservative party 1921–22, but his adherence to Lloyd George and the coalition deprived him of the opportunity to become Prime Minister himself. Under *Baldwin he was Foreign Minister 1924–29, and crowned his work for European conciliation by negotiating and signing the Locarno Pact (1925) on which high and vain hopes were set, and for which he shared a Nobel Peace Prize with Charles Gates *Dawes and received the KG.

Chamberlain, Houston Stewart (1855–1927). Anglo-German racial theorist. He was educated in Paris, Geneva and Vienna and eventually (1908) settled in Bayreuth and married Richard *Wagner’s daughter Eva. He remained in Germany when World War I broke out and in 1916 became a German citizen. He wrote on Wagner and on aesthetic and philosophic themes, but the main work of his life, The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899), was based on *Gobineau and expounded a racial theory of history which provided arguments for Aryan and German racial supremacy repeated by Hitler to justify anti-Semitism.

Chamberlain, Joseph (1836–1914). English politician, born in London. Son of a screw manufacturer, he studied at University College School, London, then, to further his father’s interests, entered a firm of screw manufacturers at Birmingham and remained closely identified with the city. He retired from business in 1874, with a fortune of £100,000, was a reforming mayor of Birmingham 1873–76 and MP 1876–1914. During his first years in parliament he was an advanced radical and even a republican, but after serving under *Gladstone as President of the Board of Trade 1880–85 and President of the Local Government Board 1886, he disagreed with the proposal to grant Home Rule to Ireland and resigned to become a Liberal Unionist in alliance with the Conservatives. Always a staunch imperialist, he was Colonial Secretary 1895–1903 in the ministries of *Salisbury and *Balfour. He was a strong supporter of the Workmen’s Compensation Act (1897). He encouraged *Rhodes in his anti-Boer policies and was partly responsible for the South African War (1899–1902). His support for the creation of the Commonwealth of Australia (1901) was more constructive. In 1903 he resigned as a minister to promote ‘imperial preference’, in opposition to free trade. He became first chancellor of Birmingham University 1901–14 and actively promoted its development. Crippled by a stroke in 1906, he remained MP until his death.

Amery, J., and Garvin, J. L., The Life of Joseph Chamberlain. 6 vols, 1932–69.

Chamberlain, (Arthur) Neville (1869–1940). English Conservative politician, born in Birmingham. Son of Joseph *Chamberlain by his second wife and half-brother of Austen, he was educated at Rugby and Birmingham, ran the family’s banana and sisal plantation in the Bahamas 1890–97, then returned to Birmingham where he became a leading industrialist and a reforming lord mayor 1915–16. It was not until he was appointed Director of National Service 1916–17 during World War I that he became closely associated with national politics. Elected Conservative MP for the Ladywood division of Birmingham in 1918, he rose rapidly to become Minister for Health 1923, 1924–29 and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1923–24, 1931–37. His energy, despite an abrasive vanity, made him the natural successor to *Baldwin as Prime Minister in 1937. His government followed a policy of appeasement towards Hitler, for which he must bear the main responsibility, although the policy had wide political and popular support as the reception of the Munich Agreement of 1938 indicated. After Munich, Chamberlain turned to preparations for war, but lacked the powers of inspiration required of a political leader in time of war. Labour refused to join a Coalition government under Chamberlain and in a no-confidence motion in the House of Commons, the Conservative nominal majority of 200 shrank to 81. Chamberlain resigned (10 May 1940), *Halifax took himself out of contention and Winston *Churchill became Prime Minister. Chamberlain served as Lord President of the Council in the War Cabinet and supported Churchill in rejecting *Halifax’s proposal to involve Italy in pursuing a negotiated peace with Germany. Diagnosed with terminal cancer in October, he declined an earldom and a KG on his resignation and died in November. Historians have judged him harshly, but Chamberlain was an extremely able man, widely read, a gifted naturalist and amateur musician.

Dilkes, D., Neville Chamberlain. Vols 1 & 2. 1984–86; Smart, N., Neville Chamberlain. 2010.

Chambers, Ephraim (c.1680–1740). English editor. His two-volume Cyclopaedia (1728) was translated into French and provided the foundations for *Diderot’s famous Encyclopedie (1751–80).

Chambers, (Jay David) Whittaker (1901–1961). American journalist. A member of the Communist Party 1923–38, he later worked for Time magazine and in 1948 accused Alger *Hiss of having been a member of a Communist spy ring in Washington a decade earlier. This led to furious debate (in which Chambers’ main supporter was Richard *Nixon) and strenuous denial. After two trials Hiss was convicted (1950) of perjury. Chambers wrote an autobiography, Witness (1952).

Chambers, Sir Edmund Kerchever (1866–1954). English civil servant and stage historian. Educated at Oxford, he was a civil servant in the Board of Education, devoting his free time to the study of *Shakespeare. He wrote The Elizabethan Stage (4 vols, 1923) and William Shakespeare (2 vols, 1930).

Chambers, Sir William (1726–1796). British architect, born in Gothenberg. A voyage to China in his youth inspired his book Designs of Chinese Buildings (1757) and the pagoda at Kew Gardens. He designed Somerset House, London, in which he most successfully used and modified the English Palladian style. Chambers played an important part in the founding of the Royal Academy (1768) and helped to raise the status of the architectural profession.

Chambers, William (1800–1883) and Robert (1802–1871). Scottish publishers. The brothers founded the Edinburgh firm of W. and R. Chambers. William Chambers started Chambers’s Journal in 1832, and the well known Chambers’s Encyclopaedia (1859–68). Robert also wrote a number of books, including Traditions of Edinburgh (1823) and Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (1844), published anonymously, an ambitious and influential speculation about evolutionary theory, applying it to biology, geology and cosmology.

Chambord, Comte de, Henri see Berry, Duc de

Chamfort, (Sebastien-Roch) Nicolas (1740–1794). French playwright and cynic. He won an early reputation for his plays and for conversation and was elected to the Académie française. During the Revolution he worked with *Mirabeau and as a secretary to the Jacobin Club. He became a moderate during the Terror, was imprisoned, attempted suicide and died of his wounds. Among his famous remarks were: ‘Be my brother or I’ll kill you’ [said of the Jacobins] and ‘One would have to eat a toad every morning to be certain of doing nothing more disgusting for the rest of the day’.

Chamisso, Adelbert von (1781–1838). Franco-German writer and botanist, born in Champagne. His parents fled to Germany during the French Revolution and he worked as a botanist and editor. His novella Peter Schlemihils wundersame Geschichte (Peter Schlemihil’s Magic Story, 1814) about a man who sells his shadow to the Devil, became famous. His poems Frauen – Liebe und Leben (A Woman’s Love and Life, 1830) were set by *Schumann. He took part in a Russian round-the-world expedition and became keeper of the Berlin Botanical Gardens.

Champaigne, Philippe de (1602–1674). French painter, born in Brussels. An outstanding portraitist, e.g. of *Richelieu, he modified the style of *Rubens with classical restraint, was influenced by Jansenism and devoted himself to religious subjects.

Champlain, Samuel de (1567–1635). French explorer. After an expedition to the West Indies (1599) he made three voyages (1603–08) to Canada and founded Québec (1608). He was prime mover for the founding of New France (i.e. Canada) and became its Lieutenant-Governor 1613–29. In 1615 he discovered and explored the Great Lakes, repelled lroquois Indians and opened up the fur trade. In 1629 he was captured and taken to England but returned to Canada in 1613.

Bishop, M., Champlain: the Life of Fortitude. 1948.

Champollion, Jean François (1790–1832). French scholar. In 1822, he found the key to Egyptian hieroglyphics by deciphering the inscriptions on the Rosetta stone, a basalt slab discovered in 1799 during *Napoléon’s Egyptian expedition. Champollion was educated at Grenoble, where he was professor of history (1809–16), and was attracted to Egyptology at a very early age. He was still only 21 when he began publication of his Egypt Under the Pharaohs. In 1826 he became Director of Egyptian Antiquities at the Louvre, and a chair of Egyptology was founded for him at the College de France four years later.

Chancellor, Richard (d.1556). English navigator. In 1553 he commanded the Edward Bonaventure on the expedition of Sir Hugh Willoughby to find a northeast sea passage to China. Separated from his leader in a storm off the Lofoten Islands, he went alone into the White Sea, and travelled overland to Moscow, where he negotiated a trade with the tsar Ivan the Terrible. On his return to England his reports encouraged the foundation (1554) of the Muscovy Company. He went to Moscow again (1555–56) and lost his life in a shipwreck on the way home.

Chandler, Raymond Thornton (1888–1959). American detective story writer. Educated in England at Dulwich College, he followed a variety of occupations before winning fame as an author. He brought to the ‘tough’ school of thriller-writing a more sophisticated technique. His novels introduced the cynical, laconic private detective with moral standards, Philip Marlowe. Some of the best known were filmed, e.g. The Big Sleep (1939), The Lady in the Lake (1943) and The Long Goodbye (1953).

Chandragupta Maurya (d.c.298 BCE). Indian King c.320–297 BCE. He conquered the Magadha kingdom, and in 305 defeated *Seleucus’ attempt to regain the Indian territories conquered by *Alexander the Great. His spacious capital, Patahiptura (Patna), was linked to the northwest frontier by a good road with rest houses. He abdicated, became a Jain monk and fasted to death. *Asoka was his grandson.

Nilakanta Sastri, K. A. (ed.), The Age of Nandas and Mauryas. 1952.

Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1910–1995). Indian-American astrophysicist, born in Lahore. He studied at Cambridge, had a tense relationship with *Eddington but admired *Dirac, lived in the US from 1936 and taught at Chicago from 1937. He was the greatest theoretician of black holes and white dwarf stars. He determined ‘Chandrasekhar’s limit’, i.e. that stars with a mass more than 1.5 times that of the sun will collapse. He shared the 1983 Nobel Prize for Physics with William Alfred Fowler (1911–1995) and received the Copley Medal in 1984.

Miller, A. I., Empire of the Stars. 2005.

Chanel, Coco (Gabrielle Bonheur-Chanel) (1883–1971). French fashion designer. She was a dominant influence in world fashion 1925–38, and her loose, comfortable designs were widely copied, making haute couture accessible to women generally. She introduced the perfume Chanel No. 5 in 1922, designed jewellery and hair styles. For a decade she was the mistress of the Duke of Westminster. She collaborated with the Nazi occupation in France and left for Switzerland in 1944. The musical Coco (1969), later filmed, was based on her life.

Chaney, Lon (Leonidas Frank) (1883–1930). American film actor. Well known for his horror roles, (e.g. in The Hunchback of Notre Dame), it is said that his skill in miming originated with attempts to communicate with deaf-mute parents. His son, Lon Chaney Jr (1906–1973) played Lennie in Of Mice and Men (1940).

Chang Tsolin and Chang Xuehliang see Zhang Tsolin and Zhang Xuehliang

Channon, Sir Henry (‘Chips’) (1897–1958). Anglo-American politician and diarist, born in Chicago. In 1933 he married into the *Guinness family, became a Conservative MP 1935–58, was an assiduous social climber and wrote sharp and malicious diaries, published, in bowdlerised form, as Chips: The Diaries of Sir Henry Channon (1967).

Chaplin, ‘Charlie’ (Sir Charles Spencer) (1889–1977). British film actor and director, born in Kennington, London. From a poor family of music-hall artistes in Kennington, London, he went on the stage aged 8 and from 1906 acted with his brother Sidney in one of Fred Karno’s troupes, touring the US in 1910 and 1912. In 1913 he joined Mack *Sennett’s Keystone Company in Los Angeles and in 1914 appeared in 35 films, mostly short slapsticks. Chaplin gradually evolved his character of the tramp or ‘little man’, with the costume, make-up and shuffling walk becoming universally recognisable after The Tramp (1915) which he wrote and directed for Essanay. He took artistic control of all his films from 1915, rejected slapstick, using the magnifying power of cinema to develop an individual style as a mime, mixing pathos and satire. By 1917 he had a salary of more than $US1 million and was an international cult figure. With D. W. *Griffith, Mary *Pickford and Douglas *Fairbanks he formed the United Artists Corporation in 1919. His best films were silent and include The Immigrant (1917), Shoulder Arms (1918), The Kid (1921), The Gold Rush (1925),The Circus (1928), City Lights (1931) and Modern Times (1936), defiantly rejected speech but used Chaplin’s own music. His first talking film was The Great Dictator (1940), a satire on *Hitler, his exact contemporary. (They were born in the same week and Hitler resembled Chaplin’s ‘little man’.) After World War II Chaplin’s radical views came under increasing political attack and in 1952 he left the US, living mainly in Switzerland. The last of his 82 films were Monsieur Verdoux (1947), Limelight (1952), A King in New York (1957) and The Countess from Hong Kong (1967). He married four times: his second wife was the actor Paulette Goddard, his fourth Oona O’Neill (the playwright’s daughter), by whom he had eight children, including the actor Geraldine Chaplin (1944– ).

Robinson, D., Chaplin: His Life and Art. 1985.

Chapman, George (1559–1634). English poet and translator. A prolific and popular playwright, he was admired by *Webster and *Jonson, his best known plays being the comedy, written with Jonson and *Marston, Eastward Ho! (1605), and the tragedy Bussy d’Ambois (1607), the story of a swashbuckling swordsman at the French court. But it is his translations of *Homer that have ensured his immortality (reinforced by John *Keats’ famous sonnet). The Iliad began to appear in 1598 and was continued under the patronage of Henry, Prince of Wales (1609–11). The Odyssey was completed in 1614, and The Whole Works of Homer (1616) comprised both works. Though often inaccurate as a translation, since Chapman tended to expand the text to stress a moral issue, the work introduced Homer to many generations and so exercised enormous influence.

Spivack, C. K., George Chapman. 1967.

Char, René (1907–1988) French poet. Originally a Surrealist, and friend of *Camus and of *Picasso, *Braque and *Miró who illustrated his work, he wrote Le Marteau sans maître (1934), later set to music by *Boulez. He served in the Resistance 1942–45 and his Oeuvres completes appeared in 1983.

Charcot, Jean-Martin (1825–1893). French neurologist. He studied medicine in Paris, and became an intern at the Salpêtrière, Paris’s largest hospital, in 1848. He became interested in the diseases of long-stay patients, such as arthritis, sclerosis, and other chronic nervous conditions. His medical interests ranged widely. He studied poliomyelitis and investigated liver and thyroid diseases. Later in his career he became more interested in the physiological roots of psychic behaviour. He supported the ideas of Hughlings *Jackson who believed that specific aspects of behaviour were controlled from particular local centres of the brain. His lectures on hysteria attracted wide attention, since, partly through the use of hypnosis, he was able to control the behaviour of hysterics by gesture and suggestion. *Freud was one of many who were highly impressed by Charcot’s demonstrations of hysteria, for they suggested a world of the unconscious beyond the rational control of the subject. His son Jean Baptiste Charcot (1867–1936) led two major explorations of Antarctica.

Guillain, G., J. M.Charcot. 1959.

Chardin, Jean Baptiste Simeon (1699–1779). French painter. His still life pictures and domestic scenes follow the Dutch tradition and are notable for detail and simplicity and for the skill with which the natural appearance and texture of familiar objects, bread, fruit, an apron etc. are portrayed.

Rosenberg, P., Chardin 1699–1779. 1979.

Chardonnet, Hilaire Bernigaud, Comte de (1839–1924). French industrial chemist. He patented a cellulose nitrate-based fibre in 1884, and first exhibited rayon at the Paris Exposition of 1889.

Charlemagne (Carolus Magnus, Karl der Grosse, Charles the Great) (742–814). King of the Franks 768–814 and Emperor of the West 800–814. He and his brother, Carloman, jointly succeeded their father, *Pepin III (‘the Short’). On his brother’s death in 771, Charlemagne became sole ruler of the Franks and launched a vast expansion. Germany, Bavaria and Saxony had been conquered by 808 and Christianity forced upon the people. At the request of the pope he took his army over the Alps to Italy, conquered Lombardy (773–74) and established his son as king (781). His first expedition to Spain, however, ended in failure and the death of his commander Roland (the hero of romantic legend). But from 785 he systematically subdued north east Spain and in 80l captured Barcelona. He accomplished the conquest and forced conversion (791–96) of Pannonia and the kingdom of the Avars (barbarian tribes in Hungary). By 800, Charlemagne was the supreme power in western Europe, and he and his counsellors, such as the English *Alcuin, wishing to emphasise an imaginary continuity between Charles, his empire and that of Rome, argued that the imperial throne was vacant owing to the crimes of the Beastorn (Byzantine) empress Irene. Having obtained the assent of Pope *Leo III he went to Rome, and on Christmas Day 800, was crowned as Emperor in St Peter’s. This new empire associated the idea of ancient power with a Christian community, but while it thus created a focus of loyalty it soon led to a struggle between empire and papacy as well as conflicts between imperial claims and feudal states and thus eventually impeded the national development of Germany and Italy such as was gradually taking place elsewhere. To rule his vast empire Charlemagne retained the old system of local government ‘counties’ governed by counts (comtes) but exercised control and secured a degree of uniformity through the famous ‘Missi Dominici’, palace officials sent on circuit, a system which became a feature of later medieval administration. Many legal reforms were effected by the issuing of ordinances, while the use of writing was encouraged to secure uniformity of administration. Although Charlemagne read little and never learned to write, he encouraged the foundation of monastic and episcopal schools, and from his court at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) he stimulated the revival of arts and of letters known as the Carolingian Renaissance. His octagonal Palatinate Chapel in Aachen Cathedral, built in Byzantine style 796–805, became his burial place. His biographer, Einhard, gives a picture of a large, robust man, of great industry and natural talent. Though he lived simply he fully enjoyed the pleasures of the senses with a succession of three wives and many mistresses. His empire fell apart soon after his death and with it his dream of a united Europe.

Bullough, D. A., The Age of Charlemagne. 1965; Fried, J., Charlemagne. 2016; Nelson, J. L., King and Emperor. A New Life of Charlemagne. 2019.

Charles (‘the Young Pretender’) see Stuart, Charles Edward

Charles (1226–1285). Count of Anjou, and King of Sicily 1265–83. This ambitious ruler, the youngest son of *Louis VIII of France, became Count of Anjou in 1246, acquired Provence by marriage, supported the papal party in Italy against the imperialists and by his victories was able to accept the throne of Sicily (1265). He was planning to invade the Balkan peninsula, with a view to reviving the Latin empire of Constantinople, when in 1282 his Sicilian subjects signalled their revolt by the massacre of Frenchmen known as the Sicilian Vespers and by offering the throne to Peter of Aragon. Charles failed to re-establish himself though his descendants remained kings of Naples until 1435.

Charles (known as ‘the Bold’ or ‘le Téméraire’) (1433–1477). Duke of Burgundy. Son of *Philip ‘the Good’, on his succession in 1467 he ruled extensive but scattered territories in France and the Low Countries and set out to unite them under a single form of rule. This brought him into collision with *Louis XI, King of France, the feudal overlord of his French lands. Charles, having supported a baronial revolt against Louis, induced him (1468) to come to an interview, imprisoned him at Peronne and exacted a crippling treaty. He then annexed the prince bishopric of Liege, and by peaceful or warlike means extended his power in Guelders, Alsace and elsewhere. Meanwhile by subsidy and subtle diplomacy Louis XI continued to oppose him, especially by inflaming Swiss fears. War followed and in 1476 Charles was totally defeated at Granson on Lake Neuchâtel. In the following year the Burgundians were again defeated by the Swiss outside Nancy and Charles was killed. He left no male heir and the bulk of the Burgundian inheritance passed, through his daughter Mary, who had married the emperor Maximilian, to the Habsburgs.

Charles (Carlos) I King of Spain see Charles V

Charles I (Charles Stuart) (1600–1649). King of England, Scotland and Ireland 1625–49. Born in Dumferline, Fife, son of James VI of Scotland (later *James I of England) and Anne of Denmark, in 1616, on the death of his elder brother, Henry, he became Prince of Wales and heir to the throne. Charles, like his father, was firmly under the influence of the Duke of *Buckingham, with whom in 1623 he made an undignified and futile expedition to Madrid to woo a Spanish princess. After his accession he married *Henrietta Maria, daughter of *Henri IV of France, a union which introduced a Roman Catholic influence at court, deeply alienating the growing body of Puritans. Buckingham’s influence ended with his murder in 1628, but his last venture, an attempt to relieve the French Protestants in La Rochelle, was a fiasco that further discredited the king. Thus antagonised, Charles’ first three parliaments failed to vote him adequate revenues and he attempted to raise money by an intensive and dubious use of the royal prerogative. In 1628, however, in return for a promise of funds, he assented to parliament’s ‘Petition of Right’, which denounced the levying of forced loans and illegal taxes.

The greatest of royal art collectors and connoisseurs, he bought about 1500 pictures, including the Gonzaga collection from Mantua (1628–29) and was a patron of *Rubens and *Van Dyck. His collection, sold after his execution, included paintings by *Leonardo, *Raphael, *Titian, *Mantegna and *Rembrandt. In 1629 Charles, still unable to work with parliament, dissolved it, and until 1640, ruled England with the help of Thomas Wentworth, Earl of *Strafford, an efficient but stern administrator, and William *Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, whose attempt to impose a uniform liturgy roused even greater hostility than the forced exactions of the civil government. Indeed, it was the need to finance an unsuccessful war undertaken to impose a uniform prayer book on Presbyterian Scotland that forced Charles in 1640 to summon first the ‘Short’ and then the ‘Long’ parliaments. In an attempt at conciliation he even allowed the impeachment and execution of his loyal minister Strafford (1641), an act of treachery which brought him no respite. In January 1642, now desperate, he tried to arrest five of the leading opposition members in the House of Commons (*Pym, *Hampden, Holles, Strode and Haselrig). This act contributed to a complex situation which produced, in August 1642, a civil war. In the beginning the royalists (Cavaliers) had some successes but the possession of London by the parliamentarians (Roundheads) and the training of a New Model Army by *Cromwell turned the scales. After his last crushing defeat at Naseby, Charles surrendered to the Scots (1646) and in the following January was handed over by them to the English parliament, soon to fall into the lands of the army leaders. At first his captivity was not strict and he was able to communicate with his friends abroad and even to negotiate a treaty with the Scots, which brought about the second Civil War. But the royalists’ defeat strengthened the extremists. Charged with ‘high treason and other high crimes’, he was tried in Westminster Hall (20 January) before a specially constituted court, refusing to recognise its jurisdiction or defend himself. Beheaded in Whitehall (30 January), he was remembered for his courage as ‘the martyr king’.

Hibbert, C., Charles I. 1968; Reeve, L. J., Charles I and the Road to Personal Rule. 1989.

Charles I. Emperor of Austria-Hungary see Karl I

Charles I and II. Kings of Romania see Carol I and II

Charles I, II, III and IV. Spanish Kings see Carlos I, II, III and IV.

Charles II (known as ‘the Bald’) (823–877). King of the west Franks (Francia, later France) and Emperor 875–877. The death of his father, *Louis I (‘the Pious’), son and successor of *Charlemagne, was followed by a prolonged struggle for power with Charles’ elder brother, *Lothair, ended by the Treaty of Verdun (843), by which Charles became the ruler of the western part of the empire. On the death (875) of his nephew Louis II he invaded Italy and was crowned king and emperor by Pope John VIII. The disorders of his reign were increased by the Normans, who sacked Paris and Bordeaux.

Charles II (1630–1685). King of England, Scotland and Ireland 1660–85. Son of *Charles I, born in London, he took some part in the Civil War but in 1646 made an adventurous escape first to Jersey and then to France. After his father’s execution he came to terms with the Scots and was crowned at Scone in 1651, but his invasion of England, with Scottish troops, was routed at Worcester by *Cromwell (1651). Charles, after hiding in an oak tree at Boscobel, escaped to the Continent, and established a makeshift court first in France and then in Cologne, Bruges, Antwerp and Brussels. In 1658 Cromwell died and the protectorate soon collapsed. Early in 1660 General George *Monck intervened from Scotland and eventually a convention parliament, called under his auspices, invited Charles to return to England on the basis of his Declaration of Breda. This offered assurances of a settlement generally acceptable to ‘the political nation’. In May 1660 Charles landed at Dover and, to the joy of almost all, the monarchy was restored. Charles’ main preoccupation was to retain the throne and ‘never go on his travels again’. He never therefore pressed a point at issue to extremes and used his very considerable intelligence to evade a direct challenge. Thus he tried to thwart the ‘Clarendon Code’ (named for his chief minister Edward Hyde, Earl of *Clarendon), which imposed restrictions on dissenters and Protestants and was opposed to his natural tolerance, by a Declaration of Indulgence; this, however, he had to withdraw. But he welcomed the war with the Dutch (whom he disliked) by which the English acquired New Holland, including New York, and much trade. The plan of his next ministry, the Cabal (*Clifford, *Arlington, *Buckingham, Ashley—see *Shaftesbury, *Lauderdale), to create a Protestant alliance in northern Europe against the French, he evaded by a secret treaty (1670) with *Louis XIV. In return for subsidies Charles helped France against Holland but failed to fulfil a clause that he should declare himself a Roman Catholic. This discretion was the more necessary because alarm was caused in the late 1670s by the ‘discovery’ by Titus *Oates of an alleged Roman Catholic plot. Having with patience and ingenuity discredited Oates, and defeating an attempt to have his Catholic brother and heir James, Duke of York (*James II) excluded from the throne, Charles came into calmer waters. The French subsidies had eased his financial necessities, but the proceeds of customs and excise granted by parliament and swollen by increasing trade enabled him to rule without summoning parliament, which he had dissolved in 1681. Thus by tortuous methods Charles contrived to guide the country in the way he thought it should go, also encouraging science (the Royal Society dates from 1662) and interesting himself in the navy, the growth of the colonies and cultural activities. His main pursuit, however, was pleasure. His wife *Catherine of Braganza, brought him as a dowry Tangier and Bombay, but none of her children survived. In his gay and licentious court there were at least 12 children by eight colourful mistresses, including Lucy Walters, mother of the Duke of *Monmouth; Barbara Villiers, who became Lady Castlemaine and Duchess of *Cleveland; Nell *Gwyn the actor; the fascinating intriguer Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of *Portsmouth. His intelligence, wit and amoral nature set the tone of the Restoration period as a whole. After an apoplectic fit, probably due to uraemia, he became a Catholic, although his fervour may be doubted, urged his successor to look after his mistresses (‘Let not poor Nelly starve’) and died.

Kenyon, J. P., The Stuarts: A Study in English Kingship. 2nd ed. 1967; Fraser, A., King Charles II. 1979.

Charles III (‘le Gros’ or ‘the Fat’) (839–888). Emperor of the West 881–87, King of the Franks 881–88. Great-grandson of *Charlemagne, an epileptic, thought to be subject to demonic possession, he ruled, in theory, much of France, Germany and northern Italy. Deposed, his empire was broken up, never to be restored and he soon died.

Herr, R., The Eighteenth Century Revolution in Spain. 1958.

Charles V (known as ‘the Wise’) (1338–1380). King of France 1364–80. He was regent from 1356 during the English captivity of his father, John II, and in 1358 suppressed the Jacquerie, a peasant revolt. By the reorganisation of the army, the administration and finances, he was able to achieve his ambition of restoring his kingdom after its defeats by the English under *Edward III. So successful were his military efforts that by the end of his reign the English had been driven out of all but a few fortresses and their ancient patrimony Guienne, around Bordeaux.

Charles V (1500–1558). King of Spain (as Carlos I) 1516–56 and Holy Roman Emperor (as Karl V) 1519–56. Son of *Philip (Felipe) of Castile and Juana, daughter of *Ferdinand and *Isabella, he was born in Ghent and brought up in Flanders by his aunt Margaret of Savoy, daughter of his grandfather, the emperor *Maximilian (*Katherine of Aragon was his aunt). His happy boyhood owed much to his tutor, Adriaan Boeyens, later Pope *Adrian VI. Charles was declared of age in 1515, and on the death of Maximilian (1519), elected emperor, defeating *François I of France, after heavy bribes (largely financed by the *Fuggers) which included the Spanish conquests in the New World and the Aragonese possessions in southern Italy. He kept his mother, nominally Queen of Castile and Leon, confined until her death in 1555. At the Battle of Pavia (1525), imperial forces decisively defeated a French army and François was taken prisoner. Charles was a constant traveller, visiting England twice, France four times, but spent most time in the Low Countries. In 1526 he married Isabella of Portugal. In his wars with France, although Charles was on the whole victorious, the final result (by the Treaty of Crepy, 1544, Burgundy remained in French lands while France relinquished its claims in Italy) was hardly worth nearly 25 years of struggle. A more vital matter with which Charles had to contend was the Reformation in Germany. Charles was a devout Catholic but in this matter his aim and interest was to come to some sort of terms with *Luther’s movement to prevent the weakening of the empire by a prolonged religious struggle. The Peace of Augsburg (1555), though it satisfied neither side, was probably the best that could be obtained: it adopted the compromise formula cuius regio eius religio (i.e. each state was to adopt the religion of its ruler). Charles was a patron of *Titian and the father of Don *John (Juan) of Austria. After early difficulties Charles consolidated his rule in Spain and the conquests in the New World were among the many signs of the country’s advance to greatness. To him in his last years it proved a place of refuge. He spent only 18 years of his life in Spain and never mastered the language. In the autumn of 1555 he astonished all by announcing the abdication of his powers. The imperial crown and the Habsburg lands in east Europe were to pass to his brother *Ferdinand, and the Netherlands and the Spanish throne to his son *Philip, the husband of Queen *Mary of England. Crippled by gout, he retired to a monastery at Yuste in the north of Spain.

Parker, G., Emperor: A New Life of Charles V. 2019.

Charles VI (1368–1422). King of France 1380–1422. His reign, during most of which he was either a minor or insane, saw a continuous struggle for power, at first in council and (from 1411) in the field, between factions (Burgundians and Annagnacs) headed by the royal dukes of Burgundy and Orléans. *Henry V of England seized the opportunity to resume the Hundred Years War, won the Battle of Agincourt (1415), and in 1420 was able to secure the Treaty of Troyes, by which Charles’ daughter *Catherine was to marry Henry V and their son was to succeed to the French throne. Meanwhile Henry was the virtual ruler of France.

Charles (Karl) VI (1685–1740). Holy Roman Emperor 1711–40. Before succeeding his brother *Joseph he was Austrian candidate for the Spanish throne, left vacant on the death of *Charles II. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1700–13) he fought bravely in Spain. Ultimately the Bourbon Philippe was recognised as *Felipe V. As Emperor, Charles became obsessed with securing (by means of the Pragmatic Sanction) the recognition of the rights of his daughter *Maria Theresa to succeed him as ruler of Austria and Hungary. Despite these efforts the War of the Austrian Succession followed his death.

Charles VII (Karl Albrecht) (1697–1745). Holy Roman Emperor 1742–45. Head of the Wittelsbach dynasty, he was Duke of Bavaria 1720–45. When *Charles VI died without male heirs he claimed the Habsburg lands, provoking the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48). He was elected Emperor as a puppet of France and Prussia.

Charles VII (1403–1461). King of France 1422–61. On the death of his father, *Charles VI, he had to contest the right to the throne with *Henry VI of England, the legal successor under the Treaty of Troyes. He fought half-heartedly against the English in France from his own limited territory in the centre and south until the heroic efforts of Joan of Arc stirred him to greater action. After her capture of Orléans (1429) he was crowned at Reims and secured recognition as national leader. After the Burgundians joined Charles’ cause in 1435, Paris was recaptured. By 1450 the English had been driven out of Normandy, and by 1453 nothing but Calais remained of their vast possessions in France. Charles was not a heroic figure, but for the thorough administrative reorganisation which made these successes possible much credit was due to the king himself.

Charles VIII (1470–1498). King of France 1483–98. Son of *Louis XI, the reign began with the regency of his sister Anne of Beaujeu, who secured his marriage (1491) to *Anne of Brittany to ensure the acquisition of that duchy. Charles revived the Anjou claim to Naples (*Charles, Count of Anjou) and, allied with the Sforzas of Milan, invaded Italy. Although he captured Naples easily (1495) he was forced to retreat to France after a few weeks by the forces of the League of Venice (the papacy, Venice, Spain and the Empire). He died at Amboise after striking his head on a beam.

Charles IX (1550–1574). King of France 1560–74. The weak and indecisive son of *Henri II and *Catherine de’Medici, the effective ruler throughout, his reign was marked by a fierce religious struggle between the Roman Catholics and Huguenots that culminated in the massacre of St Bartholomew’s Day, 1572.

Charles X (Charles Philippe) (1757–1836). King of France 1824–30. Younger brother of *Louis XVI and *Louis XVIII, he was known as the Comte d’Artois, left France in 1789 on the outbreak of the Revolution, living in Savoy, Turin, Trier, then Koblenz. He escaped to Great Britain in 1792 and lived in Edinburgh and London with his mistress until *Napoléon’s first abdication in 1814. After the Bourbon restoration he led the ultra-royalists and, becoming king on the death of Louis XVIII, tried to revive absolutism. The result was the Revolution of 1830 after which he came once more to England, his cousin *Louis Philippe displaced him, with the new title of ‘King of the French’. Charles then lived in exile in Dorset, Edinburgh and Prague. He died of cholera in Gorizia (then in Austria-Hungary, now in Italy) and was buried there. His son, Louis Antoine, Duc d’Angouleme (1775–1844) married Marie Therese, daughter of *Louis XVI and claimed the throne himself as Louis XIX.

Charles IX, X, XI and XII, Kings of Sweden see Karl IX, X, XI and XII.

Charles XIV John (Karl Johan) (King of Sweden) see Bernadotte, Jean Baptiste Jules

Charles Philip Arthur George, Prince of Wales (1948– ). British prince. Eldest son of Queen *Elizabeth II of Great Britain and the Duke of *Edinburgh, he was educated at Cheam School, Gordonstoun, Geelong Grammar (‘Timbertop’) and Trinity College, Cambridge (MA). He was created Prince of Wales in 1958, served briefly in the Royal Navy, then pursued active and controversial views in the environment, architecture and urban planning. In July 1981 he married Lady Diana Spencer (*Diana) and the couple had two sons, *William (1982– ) and *Harry (1984– ). They separated in December 1992 and after bitter public controversy agreed on a divorce (1996). This raised speculation about the future status of Camilla Parker-Bowles (née Shand) (1947– ) and the situation was complicated by Diana’s sudden death. In her Jubilee year (2002), his mother awarded him the OM, and in April 2005 he married Mrs Parker-Bowles who took the title Duchess of Cornwall.

Dimbleby, J. The Prince of Wales. 1994.

Charles, Jacques Alexandre César (1746–1823). French physicist. He gave public demonstrations of *Franklin’s electrical experiments and eventually became professor of physics at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, Paris. Data obtained by him on the expansion of gases were added to by *Gay Lussac, who devised the law (called Charles’s Law) which states that the volume of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. Charles was also the first to use hydrogen instead of hot air to lift balloons.

Charles Albert see Carlo Alberto

Charles Edward Stuart see Stuart

Charles Martel (c.688–741). Frankish soldier and administrator. As ‘mayor of the palace’ under the decadent Merovingian kings of Austrasia (Rhineland) and Neustria (northern France), he became de facto ruler of the Franks. He extended his authority over lands now France, the Netherlands and the Rhineland and intervened in Bavaria. He gained his nickname Martel (‘the hammer’) by his great victory at Poitiers (732), the first decisive check to the Muslim advance into Europe. His rule marked the beginning of Carolingian power: his grandson was *Charlemagne.

Charles (‘the Young Pretender’) see Stuart, Charles Edward

Charlotte Augusta (1796–1817). British princess. Only child of the future *George IV, she married in 1816 *Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, later king of the Belgians. Her death in childbirth re-opened the question of succession to the English throne and her unmarried uncles were persuaded to marry. Her uncle Edward, Duke of *Kent became the father of the future Queen *Victoria.

Charlotte (Sophia) (1744–1818). British queen consort 1761–1818. Daughter of the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, she arrived in London on 8 September 1761, met *George III for the first time and married him six hours later. She gave birth to 15 children, 13 of them surviving into adulthood, including *George IV, *William IV and Edward, Duke of *Kent (whose daughter became Queen Victoria). She was a devoted, but reclusive, consort, passive about things she could not change, but widely read, an enthusiast for gardens and a pupil of J. C. *Bach.

Charpentier, Gustave (1860–1956). French composer. Encouraged by *Massenet to take up composition he won the Prix de Rome in 1887. He is best known for his opera Louise (1900), for which he also wrote the libretto, and the orchestral work Impressions of Italy.

Charteris, Leslie (Leslie Bowyer Yin) (1907–1993). American thriller writer, born in Singapore, resident in Britain. He created ‘the Saint’, a charmingly ruthless detective called Simon Templar, the hero of most of his books and of film, television, radio and comic strip series based on them.

Chase, Salmon Portland (1808–1873). American lawyer and politician. He gained his reputation as an attorney for fugitive slaves, was US senator from Ohio 1849–55 and 1861 and Governor of Ohio 1855–59. He sought the 1860 Republican nomination for president, but was regarded as too extreme on the slavery issue and lost to *Lincoln. As US Secretary of the Treasury 1861–64 he raised unprecedented taxes and established a national banking system. He resigned to pursue the presidency again, failed, and Lincoln made him Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court 1864–73. He presided with notable fairness at Andrew *Johnson’s impeachment (March–May 1868).

Chase, Stuart (1888–1985). American social scientist. Educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and at Harvard, he worked as a research economist in the *Wilson and *Roosevelt administrations. He wrote many books and articles on the ‘economics of plenty’ and was in a sense a precursor to *Galbraith. Among his works are The Economy of Abundance (1934), Live and Let Live (1960) and The Most Probable World (1968).

Chastelard, Pierre de Boscosel de (1540–1564). French poet. Grandson of the Chevalier *Bayard, at the French court of *François II he fell romantically in love with *Mary, the future Queen of Scots, and accompanied her to Scotland. Many of his poems were addressed to her. Found once hiding in her bedchamber he was forgiven, but later he repeated the offence and was hanged. The story was dramatised by *Swinburne.

Chateaubriand, François René, Vicomte de (1768–1848). French author, soldier and diplomat, born at St Malo. He spent most of his lonely childhood in Brittany, was a cavalry officer at the age of 18 and in 179l went to North America which he described in his Voyage en Amerique (1827). Opposed to the Revolution he joined the emigrant army on the frontier, was wounded and lived in poverty in England (1794–99). He returned to France to hold minor diplomatic posts under *Napoléon but soon became anti-Bonapartist. After the restoration of *Louis XVIII he held ambassadorial posts in Berlin (1821) and London (1822) and was Foreign Minister 1823–24. After the revolution of 1830, which replaced *Charles X by *Louis Philippe, he played little part in public life. About the time of his return to France he abandoned his scepticism and wrote his great apologia Le Cenie du Christianisme (1802), which not only defended the religious aspects of Christianity but also its effects on art and architecture, literature and institutions. In advance he published with great success an episode intended for the book Atala (1801), a highly coloured story of an Native American girl convert and her tragic love. René, extracted from the great work and published separately (1805), presents a passionate, disillusioned, egotistical Byronic young man (in fact Chateaubriand himself), irresistible to those who initiated the French Romantic movement. Perhaps his greatest work was the autobiographical Memoires d ‘Outre Tombe (published in six volumes between 1848 and 1902). Madame *Récamier was the best known of his many mistresses.

Châtelet-Lomont, Gabrielle Émilie (née Le Tonnelier de Breteuil), Marquise de (1706–1749). French mathematician, philosopher and translator. Educated at home, possibly by *Fontenelle, she translated *Newton’s Principia, corresponded with *Leibniz, *Euler and *Bernoulli. *Voltaire lived with her 1733–38. She proposed the hypothesis of the conservation of total energy.

Chatham, 1st Earl of see *Pitt, William (‘the Elder’)

Chatterji, Bambin Chandza (1838–1894). Indian author. He revolutionised Indian literature by being the first to write novels following the European pattern devoted to Indian themes and in a native language (Bengali). The song Bande Mataram originally a poem in his novel Amanda Math (1882) was adopted as the national anthem of the Republic of India.

Chatterton, Thomas (1752–1770). English poet, born in Bristol. Posthumous son of a schoolmaster, he read voraciously as a boy and began concocting pseudo-antique poetry. At the age of 17 he sent to Horace *Walpole manuscripts purported to be the work of a 15th-century monk, Thomas Rowley. Walpole accepted them as genuine at first but later rejected them, and they are now known to have been invented by Chatterton. In 1770 he went to London and in a few months produced an amazing amount of work, including satires, political essays, and the Ballade of Charatie. The death of his patron, the Lord Mayor William Beckford, and the increasingly frequent rejection of his manuscripts brought him to despair. At last, penniless and starving, he poisoned himself in his lodgings. The mock antique was regarded in that age not as forgery but as a semi-legitimate literary form (cf. *Macpherson’s Ossianic poems) and his rhythms and general approach to poetry were remarkably modern. The tragic boy poet became a literary hero romanticised by *Keats, *Wordsworth, *Coleridge, *Shelley and *Rossetti, and controversy about the genuineness of the Rowley poems continued well into the 19th century.

Chatwin, (Charles) Bruce (1940–1989). British travel writer, novelist and photographer. He worked for Sotheby’s in London until 1966, then studied archaeology in Edinburgh and joined the Sunday Times as a travel writer. His travel books were In Patagonia (1977), The Songlines (1987), a study of Australian aboriginal creation myths, and a posthumous collection What Am I Doing Here? (1990). His novels include On the Black Hill (1982, later filmed) and Utz (1988). He died of AIDS.

Chaucer, Geoffrey (c.1340–c.1400). English poet, courtier, bureaucrat, diplomat and scrap metal collector, probably born in London. Son of a rich vintner, the Black Death occurred during his early childhood. About 1356 he became a page in the household of Lionel, Duke of Clarence. He fought in what became known as ‘the Hundred Years’ War’ in France (1359–60), in which he was captured in Rheims and ransomed for £16. In 1366 he married Philippa de Roet, a lady-in-waiting to Philippa of Hainault, King *Edward III’s queen, and sister of Catherine Swynford who became *John of Gaunt’s third wife. He entered the king’s household in 1367.

After Edward’s death in 1377, Chaucer served in the court of *Richard II until the king’s deposition in 1399 (and, later, murder) by Bolingbroke (*Henry IV), John of Gaunt’s son. His wife had died in 1387. He travelled to France and Italy on seven diplomatic or commercial missions, may have met *Boccaccio and *Petrarch, and also visited Spain and Flanders. He was comptroller of customs in London (1374–86), a knight of the shire (that is, Member of Parliament) for Kent (1386) and clerk of works at the royal palaces (1389–91). On the accession of Henry IV, after some delay, his pension was renewed and he spent the remaining months of his life in comparative comfort. He had a deep interest in science, especially astronomy.

It is assumed that Chaucer died suddenly because the final editing of The Canterbury Tales is incomplete, the text is sometimes inconsistent and no contemporary record of his death has survived. Claimed to have been originally buried in Westminster Abbey because he lived in the close, in 1556 his remains were said to have been transferred to a larger tomb in the centre of what is now called ‘Poet’s Corner’ and the new gravestone is the earliest record of a date of death. Its cause is unknown and murder has been suggested. He left no will and there is no evidence of what happened to his estate. However, his son Thomas Chaucer (c.1367–1434) was appointed Chief Butler by Henry IV, sat in 14 Parliaments, was five times Speaker of the House of Commons and died rich.

Chaucer is regarded as one of the greatest English poets.

His works may be divided into three periods. In the first, contemporary French influence was strong: The Book of the Duchess, and his part of the translation entitled The Romaunt of the Rose. In the second (c.1372–86), the Italian influence of *Dante and Boccaccio was apparent: Troilus and Criseyde, The Parlement of Foules, The Legend of Good Women and The House of Fame. To the final period belongs his last and greatest work The Canterbury Tales, stories told by a party of 30 pilgrims, of all social classes—knight, miller, cook, wife of Bath, friar, merchant, doctor etc.—journeying to the tomb of Thomas *Becket at Canterbury. ‘Here is God’s plenty’, *Dryden wrote of the work. Written in rhyming couplets, 17,000 lines in total, the stories present a vivid picture of life in the Middle Ages. A masterpiece by any standard, though incomplete, The Canterbury Tales is also the first major work written in the vernacular (Middle English), and one of the first to be printed, by William *Caxton, in 1478 and 1483.

While other contemporaries (*Langland, *Gower) wrote major works in English, Chaucer’s influence was far greater and he made the first recorded use of about 2000 words, including ‘significant’, ‘session’, ‘superstitious’, ‘universe’, ‘galaxy’, ‘funeral’, ‘humiliation’, ‘moral’, ‘outrageous’ and ‘householder.’

Robinson, F. N. (ed.), Chaucer: Complete Works. 2nd ed. 1959; Rowland, B. (ed.), Companion to Chaucer Studies. 1968; Jones, T. et al., Who Murdered Chaucer?: A Medieval Mystery. 2003; Turner, M., Chaucer: A European Life. 2019.

Chausson, (Amédée) Ernest (1855–1899). French composer. Trained as a lawyer, he became a pupil of *Franck and *Massenet. His romantic but melancholy works include a symphony (1890), Poème for violin and orchestra (1896), chamber works and songs. He was killed in a bicycle accident.

Chauvel, Sir Harry (Henry George) (1865–1945). Australian soldier, born in New South Wales. In World War I, he served in Egypt, Gallipoli, and his Light Horse Brigade defeated the Turks at Beersheba (October 1917) in the last great cavalry charge in history. He was Chief of the General Staff 1923–30 and the first Australian promoted to General (1929).

Hill, A., Chauvel of the Light Horse. 1978.

Chauvin, Nicholas (c.1770–1820?). French soldier. His exaggerated expressions of loyalty to *Napoléon and vain-glorious patriotism resulted in the coining of the word ‘chauvinism’.

Chávez (y Ramírez), Carlos (Antonio de Padua) (1899–1978). Mexican composer, conductor and teacher. Founder of the Mexican Symphony Orchestra (1928), his works include five symphonies and several operas. He was much influenced by Mexican folk music but also followed contemporary trends, e.g. abstract music. He was Norton Professor of Poetics at Harvard 1958–59.

Chávez Frias, Hugo Rafael (1954–2013). Venezuelan politician. He served as an army officer and was imprisoned 1992–94 for leading an armed coup. He founded the United Socialist Party and was President of Venezuela 1999–2013, working closely with Cuba and attracting US suspicion for his radical measures, including land reform. In 2012 he had eight months’ treatment for cancer in Cuba.

Cheever, John (1912–1982). American novelist and short-story writer. Many of his stories appeared in The New Yorker, and his highly praised novels include The Wapshot Chronicle (1958), Bullet Park (1969) and Falconer (1977).

Chekhov, Anton Pavlovich (1860–1904). Russian dramatist and short-story writer, born in Taganrog. Grandson of a liberated serf and son of a shopkeeper, he studied medicine at Moscow University (supporting himself by writing about 600 comic sketches), but later he practised little. Through the help of the publisher Aleksei Suvorin, with whom he travelled in Italy, he achieved early success with his stories and in 1887 his first play Ivanov was produced. In 1892 he went to live with his family at Malikhovo near Moscow and helped in the cholera outbreak of 1892–93. In 1897, threatened by tuberculosis, he went to the Crimea, and from 1900 lived mostly at Yalta, where he became friends with *Tolstoy and *Gorki. After several false starts as a dramatist, he achieved great success with *Stanislavsky’s revival (1898) of The Seagull (1895), which had previously failed. His masterpieces Uncle Vanya (1901), The Three Sisters (1901) and The Cherry Orchard (1904) followed. In the last two, leading parts were played by Olga Knipper (1868–1959), whom he married in 1901. In his plays, as in his short stories, he used an impressionistic technique, eschewing the dramatic and the obvious and, while portraying the lives of ordinary people, hinting always at the absurdity, beauty and tragedy of life. He died in Badenweiler, Germany. His funeral was Chekhovian: the coffin was taken to Moscow by train in a refrigerated car intended for oysters, and the funeral procession was confused with a general’s, accompanied by a military band. His heroes are almost always the gentle and the sensitive, at the mercy of forces which are too strong for them. His influence on European short-story writers has been immense.

Troyat, H., Chekhov. 1986; Rayfield, D., Anton Chekhov: A Life. 2000; Malcolm, J., Reading Chekhov. A Critical Journey. 2002; Bartlett, R., Chekhov. Scenes from a Life. 2004.

Chelmsford, 1st Viscount, Frederic John Napier Thesiger (1868–1933). English administrator. Educated at Oxford, he became a barrister, inherited a barony in 1905 and served as Governor of Queensland 1905–09 and New South Wales 1909–13. A captain in his regiment in India when unexpectedly appointed as Viceroy 1916–21, he was identified with the ‘Montagu-Chelmsford’ reforms (1918), under which dyarchy (i.e. a division of the functions and instruments of government between the centre and the provinces) was adopted as a limited constitutional reform for India, but opposed by *Gandhi. In April 1919, British troops under R. E. H. *Dyer massacred civilians at Amritsar (Jallianwala Bagh) but Chelmsford was slow to respond. In 1924, although a Conservative, he accepted appointment as First Lord of the Admiralty in the first Labour Government. He was Warden of All Souls, Oxford 1932–33.

Chen Duxiu (Ch’en Tu-hsiu) (1879–1942). Chinese Communist politician. In 1915 he became first editor of the periodical New Youth which launched a violent attack on traditional Chinese government and society, and promoted Western philosophies. He is regarded as the main inspiration of the May Fourth Movement, a social and intellectual revolution sparked off by a students’ rising on 4 May 1919, resulting in his imprisonment. On his release, greatly impressed by the Soviet revolution in Russia he became a Marxist. He founded the Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai in July 1921 and became its first Secretary-General. He was dismissed at the instigation of the international Comintern in 1927 because he opposed its insistence that the CCP cooperate with the Nationalist Guomintang. Expelled from the CCP in 1927, his direct influence came to an end, but he continued to teach a highly individual version of Marxism which incorporated some democratic ideas. The Nationalists jailed him 1932–37.

Chow Tse-tsung, D., The May Fourth Movement. Intellectual Revolution in Modern China. 1960; Feigon, L., Chen Duxiu, Founder of the Chinese Communist Party. 1983.

Cheney, Dick (Richard Bruce) (1941– ). American Republican politician, born in Nebraska. A Congressman from Wyoming 1978–89, he served as US Secretary of Defense 1989–93 under George H. *Bush and Vice President of the US 2001–09 under George W. *Bush.

Gellman, B., Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency. 2014.

Chénier, André Marie de (1762–1794). French poet, born in Constantinople. The son of a diplomat, he hailed the French Revolution on its outbreak, but became disgusted with its excesses and in one ode extolled Charlotte *Corday. He was arrested in 1794 and guillotined on *Robespierre’s order only two days before the Terror ended. His poems, Élégies, Bucoliques, Odes, Hymnes and Iambes, all follow classical models. Umberto Giordano wrote an opera based on his life. His brother, Marie Joseph Chénier (1764–1811), was a poet and dramatist. Fully committed to the Revolution he obtained fame for his revolutionary poetry, especially the Chant du départ.

Cheops see Khufu

Cherenkov, Pavel Alekseivich (1904–1990). Russian physicist. In 1958 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics (with Tamm and Frank) for the discovery that light waves radiate from a charged particle passing through a transparent material at speeds greater than the speed of light through such material. This ‘Cherenkov radiation’ is used to detect charged particles and plot their course and speed.

Chernenko, Konstantin Ustinovich (1911–1985). Russian Communist politician. Son of a peasant, he joined the CPSU in 1931, became an official in Moldavia, worked for the Central Committee 1956–65 and for the presidium 1965–84. He was a Central Committee member 1971–85, joining the Politburo in 1978. On the death of Yuri *Andropov (Jan. 1984) he was elected to succeed him as nominee of the Brehzhnevite anti-reform group, defeating M.S. *Gorbachev. He died after 13 months as First Secretary of the CPSU and President of the USSR.

Chernomyrdin, Viktor Stepanovich (1938–2010). Russian politician. He worked in the oil and gas industry until 1985, became a minister 1985–92, Deputy Prime Minister 1992, and Prime Minister 1992–98.

Chernyshevsky, Nikolai Gavrilovich (1828–1889). Russian political philosopher and utopian socialist, born in Saratov. Son of a priest and educated in St Petersburg, he was influenced by *Herzen, *Belinsky and *Feuerbach, and in turn influenced *Lenin, especially with his novel What Is To Be Done? (1863). He spent years in prison and Siberian exile and inspired the Russian populist (Narodnik) movement. *Dostoevsky attacked him.

Cherubini, (Maria) Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore (1760–1842). Italian composer, born in Florence. He lived in Paris from 1788, wrote much religious music in his early life and this, with chamber music, occupied him almost exclusively during his later years. His reputation rests upon his operatic work, and *Beethoven (oddly) thought him the greatest of his contemporaries in this field. He wrote 29 operas including Medée (1797) and Anacreon (1803). To the opera comique he introduced a romantic interest and an exciting plot, though the music itself remained classical in form and rather austere. Cherubini was Inspector General of the Paris Conservatoire from 1821, a post that brought most of the 19th-century French composers under his influence.

Deane, B., Cherubini. 1965.

Cherwell, Frederick Alexander Lindemann, 1st Viscount (1886–1957). British physicist, born in Baden Baden. Friend and scientific adviser to Winston *Churchill. In World War I, as director of the experimental laboratory at Farnborough, he made a personal and practical test in the air of his theory of how to bring an aeroplane out of a spin. Professor of experimental philosophy at Oxford 1919–57, in World War II he advised the cabinet on scientific matters, while his close relationship with the Prime Minister made him powerful. Paymaster General 1942–45 and 1951–53, he was created Viscount in 1956.

Cheshire, (Geoffrey) Leonard, Baron Cheshire (1917–1992). British airman and social worker. The son of an Oxford don, he joined the RAF in World War II, flew bombers in over 100 missions, was promoted to group captain and awarded the VC, DSO (2 bars) and DFC. In August 1945 he was an official observer when the US Air Force dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki. After retiring from the RAF in 1946 he devoted himself to establishing the Leonard Cheshire Foundation homes for the sick and incurable, aided by his wife Sue Ryder (1923–2000), later Baroness Ryder of Warsaw. By 1990 there were 270 homes in 50 countries. He received the OM in 1981 and a peerage in 1991.

Braddon, R. Cheshire VC. 1954.

Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of (1694–1773). English statesman and man of letters. As Lord Stanhope he was an MP 1715–23. After inheriting the earldom (1726) he was Ambassador to the Netherlands 1728–32 and later held a succession of high offices. A friend of *Pope, *Swift, *Bolingbroke and *Voltaire, he took an active interest in scientific matters, but is best remembered for his letters to his illegitimate son Philip Stanhope (1732–1768). They are witty, elegant and cynical, and are marked by great shrewdness of observation—women, manners and education being the constantly recurring themes.

Chesterton, G(ilbert) K(eith) (1874–1936). English author and literary critic, born in London. He was educated at St Paul’s School before studying art at the Slade. But art was always secondary to letters. He wrote regular articles for many newspapers and magazines, took over the New Witness on the death of his brother, Cecil, in 1918 and revived it as G.K.’s Weekly in 1924. He was a man of much geniality but he had a strong antipathy for the squalor of industrialism and disliked both capitalism and socialism, yearning, like his great friend Hilaire *Belloc (whose books he amusingly illustrated), for a return to the distributivist economics of the Middle Ages. All his work, which includes essays, poetry, novels, and literary, social and religious studies (he was converted to Roman Catholicism in 1922), reveals his tremendous energy, robust humour and mastery of paradox. He is probably best known as the creator of the detective priest Father Brown, who figured in several collections of semi-philosophical detective stories beginning with The Innocence of Father Brown (1911). His novels, The Napoleon of Notting Hill (1904), The Man Who Was Thursday (1908) and The Flying Inn (1914), combine fantasy with social comment. He also wrote biographies of *Browning, *Dickens and G. B. *Shaw. Chesterton was enormously fat.

Pearce, J., Wisdom and Innocence. 1996; Barker, D., G. K. Chesterton. 1973.

Chevalier, Maurice (1888–1972). French music-hall singer and film star. His engaging smile and charm won him fame not only in Paris music halls (where he was long a co-star with *Mistinguett) but internationally. He appeared in several films, notably Le Roi (1949) and Gigi (1958).

Chevreul, Michel-Eugène (1786–1889). French chemist, born in Angers. He worked at the Museum d’Histoire Naturelle and the Jardin des Plantes in Paris and became the director of both. He began a major study of the chemistry of oils and fats which led to soap-making becoming an exact science and to greatly improved candles. Elected FRS in 1826, he received the Copley Medal in 1857. A director of the Gobelins tapestry works, he became interested in the chemistry of dyes and in colour contrast. His ideas influenced neo-impressionist painters, e.g. *Seurat. The first to grasp the significance of sugar in the urine of diabetics, he was also a pioneer in gerontology and his 100th birthday was commemorated in the first photographic interview (by Felix and Paul *Nadar).

Chevrolet, Louis (1879–1941). American racing car river and designer, born in Switzerland. In 1911 he founded his own automobile company, but in 1917 sold out to General Motors which retained his name for a popular model. He continued his career as a driver but died in poverty.

Chiang Ch’ing (Jiang Qing) see Mao Zedong

Chiang Kaishek (Jiang Jieshi in pinyin). (1887–1975). Chinese marshal and politician, born in Zhejiang. Son of a farmer, as an officer cadet he became involved in the successful revolution (1911) against the last Manchu emperor and was from then onwards a loyal adherent of *Sun Yat-sen who, in 1921, established himself as President of the republican government centred on Canton. The north was still in the lands of self-appointed warlords and after Sun’s death in 1925 Chiang was chosen to command an expedition to bring them under control. This was delayed by a split between the Communist and Nationalist wings of Sun’s revolutionary party, the Guomintang. Appointed leader of the Nationalists, Chiang, as generalissimo, resumed the delayed northern drive and by 1928 overcame the warlords and occupied Beijing (Peking). He then broke with the Communists. He was Commander-in-Chief of all forces under Guomintang control 1928–46 and held the titles of President of China 1928–31, 1943–49 and Premier 1930–31, 1935–37, 1939–45, 1947.

In 1931 the Japanese invaded Manchuria. Chiang was torn between wanting to resist the Japanese and defeating the Communists who ruled in Kiangsi province, settling for appeasement of the invaders. In the great ‘Long March’ (October 1934–January 1936), * Mao Zedong led his followers from Kiangsi to the remote Shensi province. In 1936 Chiang was kidnapped at Xi’an by * Zhang Xueliang and released on promising to make a truce with the Communists and stop appeasing the Japanese. This led to an intensification of the war, with the Japanese occupying Shanghai, forcing Chiang’s government to move from Nanjing progressively up the Yangtze river until it found refuge above the rapids at Chungking. Pressure eased when, in 1941, the US entered World War II and in 1945 Chiang emerged as president of a stricken and impoverished country.

But immediately the old struggle with the Communists broke out, and political manoeuvre was followed by civil war in which the Communists finally triumphed. Chiang withdrew to Taiwan in 1950 and continued to lead a Guomintang administration, which occupied the seat of China in the Security Council of the United Nations until 1971.

Chiang obtained help and encouragement at every stage of his career from his American-educated second wife Song Meiling (1898–2003), sister of Sun Yat-sen’s widow. His son Chiang Chingkuo (Jiang Jingguo) (1910–1988), was Premier of the ‘Republic of China’ (i.e. Taiwan) 1972–78 and President 1978–88.

Fenby, J., Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek and the China He Lost. 2003; Crozier, B., The Man Who Lost China. 2009; Pakula, H., The Last Empress. 2009.

Chichele, Henry (1362–1443). English prelate and patron of learning. Educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford, he soon became prominent in Church and state, and after serving on embassies abroad became Bishop of St David’s in 1408 and Archbishop of Canterbury 1414–43. He strongly supported *Henry V’s war policy in France and his resistance to the encroachments of papal power at home. In 1437 he founded two Oxford colleges, All Souls and St John’s (originally called St Bernard’s).

Chicherin, Georgi Vasilievich (1872–1936). Russian diplomat. Of noble origin, he served in the Russian foreign office but resigned on joining the Social Democrat party; from 1904 he lived with revolutionaries abroad. In 1917 he was arrested in England and exchanged for Sir George Buchanan, British Ambassador. He became Peoples’ Commissar for Foreign Affairs 1918–30. He signed the Brest-Litovsk Treaty which ended the German war. While attending the Genoa Conference (1922) he secretly negotiated the Rapallo Treaty, securing recognition and trade agreements from Germany. Illness led to his resignation (1930).

Chichester, Sir Francis Charles (1901–1972). English aviator and yachtsman. In 1929–30 he made a solo flight from England to Australia in a Gipsy Moth bi-plane; in 1931 he made the first east–west flight between New Zealand and Australia. He began ocean sailing in 1953. In 1960 he won the first transatlantic race for solo yachtsmen. In 1966–67 he sailed round the world single-handed in Gipsy Moth IV.

Chichester, F., The Lonely Sea and the Sky. 1964.

Chifley, Ben (Joseph Benedict) (1885–1951). Australian Labor politician, born in Bathurst. Chifley’s family suffered in the 1890s Depression. Separated from his parents and two younger brothers at the age of five, he rarely saw his mother for the next nine years, and lived with his grandparents at Limekilns until 1899, where he slept on a chaff-bag. He attended the Patrician Brothers' High School in Bathurst for two years (1899–1901) and became a voracious reader, including *Gibbon and *Plutarch. In 1902 he joined the New South Wales Railways as a shop-boy, then became a cleaner and fireman. He studied at the Workers’ Educational Association and the Bathurst Technical School, and became an industrial advocate for the Locomotive Engine-drivers’, Firemen’s and Cleaners’ Association. Promoted to first-class locomotive engine driver, he was later demoted because of his role as a trade union activist. He was a Member of the House of Representatives 1928–31 and 1940–51, and served as Minister of Defence 1931–32 under James *Scullin. When the ALP split in New South Wales, during the Depression, he supported the Federal leadership and strongly opposed J. T. *Lang.  

Chifley held the key position of Commonwealth Treasurer 1941–49 under *Curtin when war with Japan broke out. After Curtin died, he became Prime Minister 1945–49, and was the architect of post-war reconstruction, including full employment and the welfare state, supported *Evatt on foreign policy and *Calwell in the post-war mass migration program. He was strongly committed to Bretton Woods, the World Bank and early elements of the global economy, but had to use all his political skills to win Caucus’s reluctant approval. He aided the CSIRO and the ABC, created The Australian National University but ran aground with his preoccupation with banking and excessive regulation. The long coal strike of 1949 was no help either. However, there were significant gaps in his political repertoire: White Australia Policy, aborigines, women’s issues and schools, the last regarded as a state responsibility. On these issues, Chifley was a man of his times.

Day, D., Chifley. 2001.

Chikamatsu Monzaemon (Sugimori Nobumori) (1653–1724). Japanese dramatist. He wrote about 160 plays for the Bunraku puppet theatre. He was the first playwright to introduce true drama to the puppet theatre, previously a display of virtuoso skill by the puppeteers. Many of his plays were adapted for the Kabuki theatre and remain in the repertoire. He wrote historical melodramas such as The Battles of Kokusenya (1715) and realistic domestic tragedies such as The Love Suicides at Amijima (1720).

Childe, V(ere) Gordon (1892–1957). Australian archaeologist, born in Sydney. Educated in Sydney and Oxford, he became secretary to John Storey, Premier of New South Wales 1920–21, and his How Labour Governs (1923) was a pioneering analysis. He wrote several important books on archaeology, including The Dawn of European Civilization (1925), providing a theory of social structures in prehistory, still widely supported, and the popular What Happened in History (1942). He excavated Skara Brae, Orkney, held chairs in archaeology at Edinburgh 1927–46 and London 1946–56. He coined the term ‘Neolithic Revolution’ in 1935. He jumped to his death in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales.

Childeric III (735–755). King of the Franks 743–51. Last of the Merovingians, he was deposed by *Pepin III.

Childers, (Robert) Erskine (1870–1922). Anglo-Irish author and nationalist, born in London. A clerk in the House of Commons, he won a sensational success with his novel, The Riddle of the Sands (1903), dealing with secret preparations for a German invasion of Britain. Later he became a strong Irish nationalist. He was a leader of the Sinn Féin resistance to the Irish Free State, condemned by an Irish military court and executed. His son Erskine (Hamilton) Childers (1905–1974), born in London, educated at Trinity College Cambridge, became a Fianna Faíl MP 1938–73, Deputy Prime Minister 1969–73 and was President of the Irish Republic 1973–74.

Wilkinson, B., The Zeal of the Convert. 1978.

Ch’in. Chinese dynasty, now called *Qin (pinyin), which ruled 221–205 BCE.

Ch’ing. Chinese dynasty, in pinyin *Qing, which ruled 1644–1912.

Chippendale, Thomas (c.1718–1779). English furniture maker and designer. The son of a Yorkshire joiner, he moved from Worcestershire to London where by 1755 he and his firm were occupying three houses in St Martin’s Lane. Furniture still surviving in Harewood House and elsewhere is mentioned in his accounts. His own best work, almost exclusively in mahogany, is in the neo-classical style, the association of his name with an Anglicised rococo style (with Gothic and oriental variants) being due to the fact that it was to that particular style that the designs of his publication The Director (The Gentleman and Cabinet Maker’s Director, 1754) were devoted. Most so-called Chippendale furniture is the work of other craftsmen taken from The Director, designs inspired, but not actually drawn, by Chippendale himself.

Coleridge, A., Chippendale Furniture. 1968.

Chirac, Jacques René (1932–2019). French politician, born in Paris. As a student activist, he was briefly in the Communist Party, graduated from Sciences Po and the ENA, served as an army officer, then worked as public servant and a staffer for Georges *Pompidou. A Member of the National Assembly 1967–74, Minister for Agriculture 1972–74, and the Interior 1974, he became Prime Minister 1974–76, under *Giscard d’Estaing. He led the RPR (Rassemblement pour la République) 1976–94. After the revival of the office of Mayor of Paris (in abeyance since 1871), he was elected, serving 1977–95. In 1981, he was a candidate for President, ran third in the first round of voting but contributed to Giscard’s defeat by splitting the conservative vote. He was Prime Minister again 1986–88, in ‘cohabitation’ with *Mitterrand, but ran against him in 1988. President of France 1995–2007, his resumption of nuclear tests in the Pacific (1995–96) drew international protests. In 1997, he apologised to the descendants of *Dreyfus and *Zola. He was frank in his condemnation of the French regime during the German occupation, and its role in the Holocaust. He was re-elected President in 2002, defeating Jean-Marie *Le Pen, with 82 per cent of the vote in the second ballot. In 2011, he was found guilty of diverting public funds and abusing public confidence as Mayor of Paris and given a two-year suspended prison sentence.

Chirico, Giorgio De’ (1888–1978). Italian painter, born in Greece. One of the most important precursors of Surrealism, he painted objects and landscapes in unexpected juxtaposition with no regard to reality. Thus window dummies, plaster busts, abstract shapes or bits of machinery might be grouped against a background of classical architecture. From this he developed a style which came to be known as metaphysical painting in which there was a greater symbolic content. In the 1920s he abandoned his earlier style and turned to more conventional styles and subjects, but the galleries of the world have chosen to show his earlier idiosyncratic paintings.

Chirico, G. de’, Memorie della mia vita. 1945.

Chisholm, Caroline (née Jones) (1808–1877). English social reformer, born near Northhampton. She married an officer in the Indian army, and campaigned for migration and employment opportunities of young women to Australia as an essential precondition to a civilian society, and lived near Sydney 1838–46, 1859–66 and in Victoria 1854–59. *Dickens satirised her, unfairly, as Mrs Jellyby in Bleak House.

Chisholm, George Brock (1896–1971). Canadian psychiatrist. After a distinguished career he was Director General of the World Health Organisation 1948–53. His Can People Learn to Learn? (1958) was a bestseller.

Choiseul, Etienne François, Duc de (1719–1785). French diplomat. Through the patronage of Madame de *Pompadour, he became ambassador to Rome and Vienna 1753–58, returning to take office as Foreign Minister 1758–70. He was thus at the heart of affairs during the Seven Years’ War and signed the Treaty of Paris (1763), which confirmed the losses, e.g. in Canada and India, of the preceding years. He was also responsible for popular reforms in the services, supported the publication of the Encyclopedie, and assisted in the suppression of the Jesuits. Madame du *Barry’s party at court were responsible for his downfall (1770) and he lived in retirement until his death.

Chomsky, (Avram) Noam (1928– ). American theoretical linguist and political activist, born in Philadelphia. Educated at Pennsylvania and Harvard Universities, he taught linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1955 and held chairs in modern languages and linguistics from 1961. His principal thesis was first defined in Syntactic Structures (1957) and developed further in Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965), Language and Mind (1968), Reflections on Language (1975) and Essays on Form and Interpretation (1977). He argued for the existence of a universal grammar that underlies all languages, and that the structural principles of language are innate, biologically determined and capable of genetic transmission. He regarded linguistics as a branch of cognitive psychology. He was a vigorous polemicist, opponent of US foreign policy, especially in Vietnam, Iraq and with Cuba. He vigorously denied charges that he was an apologist for *Pol Pot in Cambodia and described himself as a libertarian socialist. His political books include Manufacturing Consent (1988) and Deterring Democracy (1991). Between 1980 and 1992, according to the Arts and Humanities Citation Index, Chomsky was cited more often than any other living scholar.

Chopin, Frédéric François (Fryderyk Franciszek) (1810–1849). Polish-French composer, born near Warsaw. From boyhood Chopin suffered from ill health, but early displayed musical gifts. His music teacher in Warsaw encouraged him to develop in his own way and by 21 Chopin was already an accomplished pianist and composer for the piano. He made his debut as a concert pianist in Vienna in 1829, and from 1831 lived mainly in Paris and did not return to Poland. His recitals were successful and he became the friend of *Bellini (who, like *Donizetti, influenced his melodic style) and *Mendelssohn. Catholic, conservative and royalist, he admired *Bach, *Haydn and *Mozart but had grave doubts about *Beethoven. He gave few concerts after 1831. His compositions established the piano as a solo concert instrument. No other composer has surpassed him in this field which he explored more fully than any of his predecessors. His individual lyric and harmonic sense and his innovations in the technique of playing the piano were profoundly influential. His fame rests upon the wide range of his piano compositions, including three sonatas (1828, 1839, 1844), two concertos (both 1830), 24 preludes (1836–39), four ballades (1835, 1839, 1841, 1842), four scherzos (1835, 1837, 1839, 1842), 15 polonaises, 60 mazurkas, 21 nocturnes and many etudes and waltzes. In Paris he fell in love with the woman novelist George *Sand, an affair which began in 1838, survived a horribly uncomfortable winter in Majorca (1838–39), before ending in a quarrel in 1847 due to her children’s jealousy. Chopin’s health deteriorated over many years but the cause is uncertain: tuberculosis, bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis of the lungs have been suggested. In 1848 he visited England and Scotland, giving several concerts. He died in Paris and was buried in the Père-Lachaise cemetery.

Hedley, A., Chopin. 1947; Rosen, C., The Romantic Generation. 1995.

Chou En-lai see Zhou Enlai

Chrétien, (Joseph Jacques) Jean (1934– ). Canadian Liberal politician. Educated at Laval University, he became a lawyer and was a Liberal MP 1963–86, 1990–2003, serving under *Trudeau and *Turner as Minister for Industry, Trade and Commerce 1976–77, for Finance 1977–79, Attorney-General 1980–82, External Affairs Minister and Deputy Prime Minister 1984. Leader of the National Liberal Party 1990–2003, and Prime Minister 1993–2003, he was awarded the Order of Merit in 2009.

Chrétien de Troyes (fl. 1166–1190). French trouviere. A poet at the court of Champagne, he developed many of the legends which were later incorporated into Arthurian romances (*Malory) and also the Holy Grail and Parsifal (*Wolfram von Eschenbach, *Wagner). Perceval, left unfinished at his death, is the first in which the story of the Holy Grail is associated with Arthurian material. His claim that material for the epic Guillaume d’Angleterre was found at Bury St Edmunds suggests that he may have visited England. He was one of the most influential of medieval poets and many translations and imitations of his work appeared.

Christ, Jesus see Jesus Christ

Christian IX (1818–1906). King of Denmark 1863–1906. As Prince Christian of Glucksbürg he had been recognised as heir of the childless Frederik VII to all parts of the Danish monarchy, but immediately after his accession he had to face war with *Bismarck’s Prussia and surrender the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein to overwhelming force. He ruled as a constitutional monarch but gained a special notoriety by the way in which he extended his family connexions. His children included his successor Frederik VIII, *Alexandra, wife of Edward VII of Great Britain, *George I of Greece, and Dagmar, wife of the Russian emperor *Aleksandr III. In the next generation this dynastic network spread further still, and, not only through Queen Alexandra but through its Greek connexions, included Prince *Philip, Duke of *Edinburgh, and Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent.

Christian X (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm) (1870–1947). King of Denmark 1912–47. Son and successor of Frederik VIII and the elder brother of *Haakon VII of Norway, in 1920 he reluctantly accepted constitutional restraints on his authority to choose ministers. He achieved great popularity by his courageous bearing and behaviour during the German occupation in World War II.

Christie, Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa (née Miller) (1890–1976). English writer. After limited schooling, although she read widely, she married Colonel Archibald Christie in 1914, became a nurse in World War I, published The Mysterious Affair at Styles in 1920, disappeared equally mysteriously in 1926, and in 1930 married the archaeologist (Sir) Max Mallowan (1904–1978). She published 66 detective novels, and 15 collections of short stories, translated into 103 languages, with total sales estimated at 4 billion books. Her plots were ingenious but hardly more baffling for her devoted readers than for her two most famous sleuths, the Belgian Hercule Poirot and the homely Englishwoman Miss Jane Marple. Her best known play, The Mousetrap, had an unbroken run in London from its premiere on 25 November 1952, reaching its 25,000th performance in November 2012, the longest run in theatrical history.

Christie, John (1882–1962). English opera promoter. Born to a rich landed family, educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, and taught at Eton for seven years. He won an MC fighting in France, and decided to turn his family home at Glyndebourne, Sussex, into an opera house, supported by his wife Audrey Mildmay (1900–1953), a Canadian operatic soprano. The Glyndebourne Opera began in 1934 (Fritz *Busch) and was revived in 1950. He received a CH in 1954. His son, Sir George Christie (1934–2014), was chair of Glyndebourne Opera 1962–2014, built a new opera house (1994) and received a CH (2001).

Christie, John Reginald Halliday (1899–1953). English murderer. He was convicted and hanged for the murder of his wife but also confessed to the murder of five other women whose bodies were found at his home. Among those whom he claimed to have killed was the wife of Timothy John Evans, an illiterate truck driver. When Evans was tried in 1950 for murdering his wife and daughter, Christie had been the principal witness for the prosecution. Evans was hanged for the murder of the child but received the consolation of a posthumous pardon in 1966.

Christie, William Lincoln (1944– ). American-French harpsichordist and conductor, born in Buffalo. Educated at Yale and Harvard, he lived in France from 1971 and in 1979 founded the baroque group Les Arts Florissantes, directing outstanding performances of baroque operas and making many recordings. Also an expert gardener, he became a French national in 1996.

Christina (1626–1689). Queen of Sweden 1632–54. Daughter of *Gustaf II (Gustavus Adolphus), during her minority, until 1644, the country was effectively governed by the great chancellor Axel *Oxenstierna, but on assuming power she soon revealed her distrust of him and the ruling aristocracy. Able and capricious, she achieved at least two of her political aims, the early ending of the Thirty Years’ War and the recognition as her heir of her cousin Charles, to whom she had previously been secretly engaged. But her main interests, apart from indulging her personal extravagances, were literature, art, philosophy and religion (*Descartes came to Stockholm at her invitation). In 1651 she first announced her intention to abdicate, and though persuaded to postpone the decision, she left the country in 1654, became a Roman Catholic and went to live in Rome. On the death of *Charles X (1660) and again in 1667, she attempted to regain her throne, but was rejected because of her religion. She became reconciled to life in Rome, where she ruled a brilliant artistic and literary circle until her death.

Weibull, C., Christina of Sweden. 1966.

Christo (Christo Vladimirovich Javacheff) (1935– ). Bulgarian-American artist. Educated in Sofia and Paris, he gained early recognition for his ‘wrapped objects’, temporary public sculptures in which buildings, walls, bridges or coastlines were wrapped up. His wife Jeanne-Claude Denat de Guillebon (1935–2009), born in Morocco on the same day, was his collaborator.

Christoff, Boris (Kirilovich) (1918–1993). Bulgarian singer, born in Sofia. The greatest operatic bass since *Chaliapin, and a powerful actor, he was a notable Boris *Godunov, Prince Igor and *Philip II (in *Verdi’s Don Carlos).

Christophe, Henri (1767–1820). King of Haiti 1811–20. Originally a black slave, he became *Toussaint l’Ouverture’s most successful general in his struggle against the French. After the death (1806) of *Dessalines he was elected President but, impatient of constitutional control, he set up an independent state in the north. After he was proclaimed King (1811), he built a palace on the model of St Cloud and created a nobility to provide a court. Though ruthless and capricious he showed an extraordinary willingness to learn and to introduce laws, educational methods, agricultural machinery indeed anything he thought useful from abroad. A stroke left him helpless in the face of a military revolt and he shot himself.

Christopher, Warren (1925–2011). American lawyer and administrator, born in North Dakota. Educated at Stanford, he became a Los Angeles lawyer, served as Deputy Secretary of State under President *Carter 1977–81 and was President *Clinton’s Secretary of State 1993–97.

Christus (Cristus), Petrus (c.1420–1473). Flemish painter, born near Antwerp. Active in Bruges from 1444, he was strongly influenced by the van *Eycks and is best known for his altarpieces and portraits, of which about 30 survive. He may have visited Milan in 1457.

Chrysler, Walter Percy (1875–1940). American motor manufacturer, born in Kansas. He left the Buick company, of which he was president (1916–19), to form the Chrysler Corporation, which he ran until 1938. Chrysler produced the Jeep and the Dodge. In 2009, to avoid bankruptcy, it formed a strategic alliance with Fiat.

Chrysostom, St John see John Chrysostom, St

Chu, Steven (1948– ). American physicist, born in St Louis. Professor of physics at Stanford 1987–2001, he shared the 1997 Nobel Prize for Physics for ‘development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light’ and directed the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2004–09, and in Houston Superconductivity. US Secretary of Energy 2009–13, he was an effective advocate for climate change mitigation.

Chu Hsi see Zhu Xi

Chun Doo Hwan (1931– ). Korean soldier and politician. He commanded the defence security unit in the South Korea army (1979–80), organised a coup that took over the army leadership in 1980, and became President of the Republic of Korea 1981–88. In 1996 he was tried for his involvement in the murder of President *Park Chung Hee (1979), sentenced to death and amnestied in 1997.

Church, Alonzo (1903–1995). American mathematician and logician, born in Washington DC. A pioneer of symbolic logic, he taught at Princeton and UCLA. His students and collaborators included Alan *Turing.

Churchill, Arabella (1648–1730). English mistress. Sister of the 1st Duke of *Marlborough and mistress of James, Duke of York (later *James II), their son, the Duke of *Berwick, became a distinguished soldier in the French armies.

Churchill, Charles (1731–1764). English satirical poet. Ordained in 1756 he was briefly a curate but soon turned to writing satirical and political verse. He led a dissipated life, and left the Church in 1763. He was a vigorous supporter of John *Wilkes and wrote much of his famous political polemic in The North Briton.

Laver, J., Poems of Charles Churchill. 1970.

Churchill, Lord Randolph Henry Spencer (1849–1895). English politician. The third son of the 7th Duke of Marlborough, he was educated at Eton and Oxford and became a Conservative MP in 1874. He developed a policy of progressive conservatism, known as Tory Democracy, and attacked both Liberal and Conservative leaders. He was Secretary for India 1885–86 and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1886, resigning the latter office after six months as a protest against the excessive financial demands of the army and navy. Then 37, he never held a Cabinet post again and was crippled by syphilis in his later years. In 1874 he married Jenny Jerome (1854–1921), daughter of a New York newspaper proprietor.

Churchill, W. L. S., Lord Randolph Churchill. Rev. ed. 1952.

Churchill, Winston (1871–1947). American novelist, born in Missouri. Among his successful romantic novels were Richard Carvel (1899) and The Crisis (1901). Active in politics as a Progressive, he was sometimes confused with his namesake, the British politician.

Churchill, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer (1874–1965). English politician, soldier and author, born at Blenheim Palace. An adoring son of a bullying remote father and a vivacious remote mother, his parents were Lord Randolph *Churchill, a seventh generation descendent of the Duke of *Marlborough, and Jenny Jerome, an American. He was educated (patchily) at Harrow and Sandhurst. He served with the Spanish forces in Cuba (1895) then joined the British army in India, where he began to take an intense interest in history and literature. He was sent to the Sudan in 1898 and took part in the battle of Omdurman. A correspondent of the London Morning Post during the Boer War, he was captured by the Boers, escaped and returned to England as a hero. In 1900 he published a novel, Savrola, and was elected to the House of Commons, serving as MP 1900–22 and 1924–64 (Conservative 1900–04, 1924–64, Liberal 1904–22). His dreadful relatives and friends caused deep seated suspicion. Although a devoted monarchist, he was mistrusted by *Edward VII, *George V and (at first) *George VI.

In the Liberal ministry of *Campbell Bannerman he was Undersecretary for the Colonies 1906–08, President of the Board of Trade 1908–10 and Home Secretary 1910–11. As First Lord of the Admiralty 1911–15, he was responsible for the mobilisation of the fleet on the outbreak of World War I. He planned the Allied landing at Gallipoli (1915) and when this failed he was subject to severe criticism and resigned. In 1916 he served in France with the 6th Royal Scots Fusiliers, but when *Lloyd George displaced *Asquith he recalled Churchill to office as Minister of Munitions 1917–19. He was Secretary of State for War and for Air 1919–21 and Colonial Secretary 1921–22. When the war ended he was prominent in organising armies of intervention to overthrow the Soviet Government in Russia. He saw the futility of continued violence in Ireland and supported the establishment of the Irish Free State. After the dissolution of the Turkish Empire he was responsible for creating the new states of Jordan and Iraq (suggesting the last name himself as a substitute for Mesopotamia) which became British mandates.

He opposed breaking up Lloyd George’s coalition government and was defeated in the 1922 and 1923 general elections. Returned in the October 1924 election, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer 1924–29, under Stanley *Baldwin. In 1925 he pegged sterling to the Gold Standard, at the 1914 exchange rate, leading to an overvaluation which made exporting harder. He took an extremist line against the General Strike of 1926, calling it ‘revolutionary’ and had to be calmed down by Baldwin. He also showed some sympathy for *Mussolini. He was not offered a place in the *MacDonald-Baldwin National Government (1931), flirted briefly with Lloyd George and Oswald *Mosley and took an extreme view in opposing all moves towards self-government in India. He denounced *Gandhi in 1931 as ‘this seditious … fakir of a type well known in the east … half-naked’. He remained deeply anti-Indian. In 1936 he reached his political nadir, supporting King *Edward VIII against Baldwin over the abdication crisis. Despite his lamentable judgment in other areas, he was correct in his consistent opposition to *Hitler, although silent on Ethiopia and Spain. After *Chamberlain became Prime Minister (1937) he bitterly attacked the policy of appeasing Germany and, on the outbreak of World War II (1939), became First Lord of the Admiralty. Chamberlain resigned after widespread criticism of his wartime government.

In May 1940 Churchill was made Prime Minister in a coalition government. He told the nation: ‘I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.’ As Prime Minister and Minister of Defence he led a coalition government with Labour and Liberal support. He worked in close cooperation with *Roosevelt, whom he met in August 1941 in the Atlantic, near Newfoundland, and other world leaders including Josef *Stalin (August 1942, Moscow), General *de Gaulle and *Chiang Kaishek. He took little interest in the Pacific War and Asia (other than India: he had never visited Australia or New Zealand). His strategic judgment was often erratic and he treated some able generals (*Dill, *Wavell, *Auchinleck) harshly. Apart from his opposition to Hitler, his war aims were ill-defined apart from a determination to maintain the British Empire. In October 1944 at Moscow he conceded Stalin’s claim to dominate Eastern Europe and the Balkans, and Roosevelt acquiesced at Yalta (February 1945).

At the post war general election of July 1945 his party was heavily defeated by Labour and *Attlee replaced him at the Potsdam Conference. Churchill continued as Conservative leader and Leader of the Opposition. In March 1946 his famous speech at Fulton, Missouri helped to define the ‘Cold War’. He led the Conservatives to a narrow victory (his only one) in October 1951 and resumed office as Prime Minister 1951–55 and Minister of Defence 1951–52. His relationship with *Elizabeth II had embarrassing parallels with Lord *Melbourne and Queen *Victoria. He maintained his close relations with the US under Presidents *Truman and *Eisenhower. In April 1955, past 80, he gave up as Prime Minister very reluctantly, although he had suffered two serious strokes and his memory was failing. Anthony *Eden replaced him. He declined a dukedom in 1955, wishing to continue as a member of the House of Commons. Always a colourful and controversial figure, he earned the gratitude of the democratic world for his dynamic leadership in the wartime years. He was an enthusiast for Franco-German reconciliation and some form of European union.

A gifted amateur painter, he was made an honorary Royal Academician in 1948. His literary work reflects the stylistic influence of *Gibbon and *Macaulay. Among his books were Lord Randolph Churchill (1906), The World Crisis (1923–29, a history of World War I), My Early Life (1930), Life of the Duke of Marlborough (1933–38), Great Contemporaries (1937). He published The Second World War (6 vols, 1948–54) and A History of the English Speaking Peoples (4 vols, 1956–58). He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953 ‘for his mastery in historical and biographical presentation and for his brilliant oratory, in which he has always stood forth as the defender of eternal human values’. He suffered from periods of depression which he called the ‘black dog’.

He was awarded the CH (1922) and OM (1946), made a Knight of the Garter in 1953, and received innumerable awards, degrees and fellowships, including FRS and RA.

He married Clementine Ogilvy Hozier (1885–1977) in 1908. She was created GBE in 1946 and Baroness Spencer-Churchill in 1965. Their son, Randolph Frederick Edward Spencer Churchill (1911–1968) was a notoriously erratic writer and journalist. He served in the army in World War II and was a Conservative MP 1940–45. Among his books were The Story of the Coronation (1953) and The Rise and Fall of Sir Anthony Eden (1959). Their daughter Mary Spencer-Churchill, Baroness Soames (1922–2014) married Christopher Soames, wrote Clementine Churchill’s biography (1979) and was created LG in 2005. Randolph’s son Winston (Spencer) Churchill (1940–2010) was a Conservative MP 1970–97.

Churchill, R. S. Winston S. Churchill 2 vols (and companions) 1966–67, continued by Gilbert, M. 6 vols (and companions) 1971–88; Soames, M., Clementine Churchill 1979; Charmley, J., Churchill: The End of Glory 1992; Jenkins, R. Churchill. 2001; Roberts, A., Churchill. Walking with Destiny. 2018.

Chu Teh see Zhu De

Ciano, Galeazzo, Conte di Cortellazzo (1903–1944). Italian Fascist politician. The son of a naval hero who became a minister in the first Fascist Government, he married *Mussolini’s daughter Edda in 1930. He served as Minister for Foreign Affairs 1936–43 but voted for Mussolini’s deposition at the Grand Council (1943). He was later captured by Mussolini’s supporters, tried and shot as a traitor.

Cibber, Colley (1671–1757). English actor, playwright and poet. The author of about 30 plays, the best known being She Would and She Would Not, he was denounced by *Pope, *Fielding and *Johnson, and his appointment as Poet Laureate in 1730 was the subject of much derision. He achieved varying success on the London stage as an eccentric comedian. He wrote the autobiographical Apology for the Life of Mr Colley Cibber, Comedian (1740).

Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106–43 BCE). Roman orator, politician and philosopher, born in Arpinum. Educated in Rome, Rhodes and Athens, he achieved early fame as an orator, served as quaestor of Sicily (75) and praetor of Rome (66). Although he was not of noble birth his ability won him the support of the senatorial party. As Consul (63) he exposed and suppressed the conspiracy of *Catiline but was later exiled, and deprived of his property for having illegally passed death sentences on some of the conspirators. He served as Governor of Cilicia (52–51). He supported *Pompey against *Caesar during the civil war (49–48) and only returned to Rome on Caesar’s invitation in 47. He supported the conspiracy against Caesar but did not take part in his murder. He led the republicans in opposition to the Second Triumvirate (Mark *Antony, *Octavianus and *Lepidus) and was exiled and ultimately murdered on Antony’s orders. His severed head and hands were displayed to the mob.

Vain but sincere, he proved an inept politician. Regarded as the greatest of Roman orators, 57 of his major speeches have survived. His vivacious letters and his books on law and philosophy (On Oratory, On the Republic, On Old Age, On Friendship) were of great historical significance and affected the development of Latin style. His writings were a major influence on the literature of the Renaissance, and *Petrarch wrote commentaries on his works.

Stockton, D., Cicero: A Political Biography. 1971.

Cid, El (Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar) (c.1040–1099). Spanish soldier. The name ‘El Cid’ is Arabic: ‘seyyid’ means ‘lord’. He was also called ‘El Cid Campeador’: ‘the lord champion’. So many legends have been told about him that it is difficult to determine the truth. He seems to have been a soldier of fortune who sold his services from time to time to both the Christians and the Moors. Noted for his skill in guerrilla warfare, he conquered and ruled Valencia 1094–99. Medieval legends incorrectly described him as a valiant champion of Christianity against the Moors.

Ciller, Tansu (1946– ). Turkish economist and politician. Educated in the US, she became an academic, wrote textbooks, succeeded *Demirel as leader of the True Path party and was Prime Minister 1993–96.

Cimabue, Giovanni (‘bull-headed’) (Cenni di Pepo or Pepi) (c.1240–1302). Italian painter, born in Florence. Little has survived of his work apart from some mosaics in Pisa, and panel paintings and frescoes attributed to him in Florence and Assisi. His use of a golden background reveals the extent of Byzantine influence, but his figures are more natural than those of his predecessors. He was the teacher of *Giotto according to *Vasari but there is hardly any documentary evidence of his life and work. *Dante, his contemporary, refers to him as enjoying a fame that was overtaken by that of Giotto.

Battisti, E., Cimabue. 1967.

Cimarosa, Domenico (1749–1801). Italian composer, born in Naples. He wrote about 60 operas, few of which are still performed; the best known is The Secret Marriage (1792), a comic opera. He became court conductor for *Catherine the Great at St Petersburg. A popular oboe concerto was arranged by Sir John *Barbirolli from Cimarosa’s music.

Cincinnatus, Lucius Quinctius (519–435 BCE). Roman politician and soldier. He was twice appointed dictator by the Senate to deal with invasions by the Aequians. On each occasion he returned to retirement in the country as soon as the military emergency was over. He was famous as a model of devotion to duty and the unselfish renunciation of power.

Cinna, Lucius Cornelius (d.84 BCE). Roman politician. A leader of the democratic party, he was Consul in 87 and in 86–84, and supported *Marius in the civil war against *Sulla. His daughter Cornelia became the second wife of Julius *Caesar, whose ambitions Cinna encouraged. He was killed during a mutiny of his own troops. His son Lucius Cornelius Cinna (d.44 BCE) was one of Caesar’s assassins.

Cinthio (name used by Giovanni Battista Giraldi) (1504–1573). Italian novelist and poet, born in Ferrara. *Shakespeare’s Othello is almost certainly drawn from a story in Cinthio’s Hecatommithi (1565).

Cipriani, Amilcare (1844–1918). Italian revolutionary politician. A friend of *Garibaldi, he fought for Italian unification, then served in the Paris Commune (1870–71). He spent many years in prison or in exile. He raised a battalion to fight for Greek independence from the Turks, and supported the Allied cause in World War I.

Citroën, André Gustave (1878–1935). French motorcar manufacturer. After World War I he began to produce small, low-priced cars, but in 1934 he went bankrupt and lost control of the company that still carries his name.

Cixi (pinyin, in Wade-Giles Tz’u Hsi)  (1835–1908). Dowager empress of China 1861–1908. Daughter of an army officer, her personal name was Yehonala. A striking beauty who became the concubine of the weak and dissolute emperor Xianfeng (1831–1861) she achieved personal domination over him, bore his only son, Tongzhi (1856) and became regent when he succeeded at the age of five. She was probably responsible for the death of Tong and his wife (1875). She gained a new term of regency by placing her sister’s four-year-old son Guangxu (né Zaitian) (1871–1908) on the throne. When he came of age (1889), she continued to rule in his name, maintaining authority with diplomatic skill to prevent further foreign encroachments. But there were major blows. China was defeated in a war with Japan (1894). In 1898 the emperor encouraged the ‘Hundred Days’ Reform movement (*Kang Yuwei) but the empress rallied reactionary forces, regained power and imprisoned Guangxu. There were even more disastrous effects from reprisals for the anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of 1900 (secretly encouraged by Cixi) which left the *Qing (Manchu) dynasty thoroughly discredited. She introduced some modest reforms including the abolition of footbinding for women (1905), which had never been part of Manchu custom. Guangxu died of arsenic poisoning, a day before Cixi, and the likeliest culprits were either the empress herself, despite her fragile health, or *Yüan Shikai. On the death of ‘the Old Buddha’, a two-year-old child (*Pu’yi, or Xuantong) was left to succeed. The revolution was in sight. She liked to be designated ‘Motherly Auspicious Orthodox Heaven-Blest Prosperous All Nourishing Brightly-Manifest Calm Sedate Perfect Long-Lived Respectful Reverend Worshipful Illustrious Exalted Empress Dowager’.

Chang, J., Empress Dowager Cixi. 2013.

Clair, René (né René-Lucien Chomotte) (1898–1981). French film director, born in Paris. Noted for developing a cinematic equivalent of the verbal cut and thrust of stage comedy, and for his poetic originality, his best known films are An Italian Straw Hat (1928), Le Million (1931), À nous la Liberté (1931), The Ghost Goes West (1935), And Then There Were None (1945) and La Beauté du Diable (1950). In 1960 he became the first film director to be elected to the Académie française.

Clarensol, G., and Regent, R., René Clair: Un Maître du Cinéma. 1952.

Clare, John (1793–1864). English poet. Called ‘the Northamptonshire peasant poet’, he became a farm boy at the age of seven, then worked as a gardener until he joined the local militia. He was a vagrant for some years, lived with gypsies and, after an unhappy love affair, became insane. He was confined in an asylum from 1837. His simple and direct lyrics have an unusual purity of style and he published The Village Minstrel (1821) and Rural Muse (1827) which were well received. His best known lyric, written in the asylum, was: ‘I am: yet what I am, who knows or cares?’.

Storey, E., A Right to Song: The Life of John Clare. 1982.

Clarence, George Plantagenet, Duke of (1449–1478). English prince. The son of *Richard Duke of York and the brother of King *Edward IV, he was also the son-in-law of the Earl of *Warwick (‘The Kingmaker’). A vacillating character, he first supported Warwick against Edward, then changed sides and was ultimately imprisoned in the Tower on a charge of necromancy. He died in the Tower, traditionally having been ‘drowned in a butt of Malmsey’, presumably meaning that he drank himself to death.

Clarence, William Henry, Duke of see William IV

Clarendon, 1st Earl of, Edward Hyde (1609–1674). English lawyer, politician and historian, born near Salisbury. The son of a squire, he was educated at Oxford, became a successful barrister and sat in the House of Commons 1640–42. Although he had criticised the practice of the monarchy of ‘the personal government of *Charles I’, he joined the King before the outbreak of the Civil War (1642) and tried to exert a moderating influence on him. Chancellor of the Exchequer 1642–43, he was the chief adviser to the future *Charles II from 1646. After the Restoration he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer 1660–61 and Lord High Chancellor 1660–67, being the effective head of the government. His daughter, Anne Hyde (1637–1671) married the future *James II in 1660 and was the mother of queens *Mary and *Anne. He became Chancellor of Oxford University 1660–67 and received an earldom in 1661. The Clarendon Code which aimed at maintaining supremacy for the Church of England and denied toleration to Catholics and Dissenters was somewhat erroneously ascribed to him. King Charles began unjustly to blame him for every failure of national policy and dismissed him in 1667, the ‘Cabal’ ministry then taking office. Clarendon was impeached and fled to France, where he remained for the rest of his life. He wrote an important History of the Rebellion, published posthumously in 1704, with a perpetual copyright to the University of Oxford, which became the basis of the Clarendon Press. He also wrote against *Hobbes. He died in Rouen.

Wormwald, B. H. G., Clarendon: Politics, History and Religion, 1640–1660. 1951; Ollard, R., Clarendon and His Friends. 1988.

Clark, Colin Grant (1905–1989). Australian economist. Educated at Oxford, he divided his time between Britain and Australia and popularised (1940) A.G.B. Fisher’s analysis of the labour force into primary, secondary and tertiary sectors.

Clark, George Rogers (1752–1818). American surveyor, soldier and frontiersman. He led successful military expeditions defending Kentucky during the War of Independence. He attacked the Shawnee Indians as well as the British, his aim being the extension of American settlement. After the war he was appointed an Indian commissioner, and helped to negotiate a treaty with the Shawnee tribe in 1786. He lost his position as the result of intrigues, and in 1793 was part of an intrigue against Washington to persuade the US to join France in a war against Britain. He returned to Louisville on the Ohio River (which as Fort Nelson, had been one of his main war time bases) and lived in retirement.

Clark, Graeme Milbourne (1935– ). Australian medical scientist. Educated at Sydney University, he was Professor of Otolaryngology at Melbourne University 1970–2000 and developed a cochlear implant, known as the bionic ear, which restored hearing to the profoundly deaf. He was awarded an AC, FAA, FRS, the Lister Medal (2010) and the Lasker DeBakey Prize (2013).

Clark, Helen Elizabeth (1950– ). New Zealand Labour politician. She lectured at Auckland University, became an MP 1981–2009, Minister for Health 1989–90, Leader of the Opposition 1993–99 and Prime Minister 1999–2008. She was Director of the UN Development Programme 2009–17.

Clark, Joe (Charles Joseph) (1939– ). Canadian politician. A journalist and academic in Alberta, he was a Progressive Conservative MP 1972–93, Leader of the Opposition 1976–79 and 1980–83, and Prime Minister 1979–80. He became Minister for External Affairs 1984–91 and Minister for Constitutional Affairs 1991–93, under *Mulroney.

Clark, Kenneth Mackenzie Clark, Baron (1903–1983). British art historian and critic. Educated at Oxford, he worked with Bernard *Berenson in Florence for two years, and became Director of the National Gallery, London 1934–45. He was Slade Professor of Fine Arts at Oxford University 1946–50 and 1961–62, Chairman of the Arts Council of Great Britain 1953–60 and of the Independent Television Authority 1954–57. His books included Leonardo da Vinci (1939), Landscape into Art (1949), Piero della Francesca (1951), The Nude (1956) and Rembrandt and the Italian Renaissance (1966). His television series and later book Civilisation (1969) were extremely popular. He received a KCB in 1938, the CH in 1959, a peerage in 1969 and the OM in 1976. His son Alan Kenneth Mackenzie Clark (1928–1999) was a controversial military historian and diarist, Conservative MP 1974–92, 1997–99, and a junior minister.

Secrest, M., Kenneth Clark. 1984.

Clark, (Charles) Manning (Hope) (1915–1991). Australian historian. Educated at Melbourne and Oxford, he was professor of Australian history at The Australian National University (1949–80), writing the massive but controversial A History of Australia (1962–87, 6 vols).

Clark, Mark Wayne (1896–1984). American soldier. He served in World War I and was wounded, and in World War II became GOC of the US Fifth Army in the invasion of Italy (1943), later commanding all US troops in Italy 1944–45 and Austria 1945–47. He succeeded General M. B. *Ridgway as Supreme Commander of Allied Powers in the Far East and UN Commander-in-Chief in Korea 1952–53. He was in charge of the allied armies at the end of the Korean War. He wrote From the Danube to the Yalu (1954).

Clark, Sir Wilfred Edward Le Gros (1895–1971). English anatomist. Professor of Anatomy at Oxford University 1934–62, he wrote History of the Primates (1949) and The Fossil Evidence of Human Evolution (1955).

Clark, William (1770–1838). American explorer, born in Virginia. He joined the army in 1792 and fought against the Native Americans. With Meriwether *Lewis he went on an expedition to the northwest of the United States (1804–06). Leaving from St Louis, they explored the Missouri River to its source, crossed the Rocky Mountains and followed the Columbia River to the Pacific. They returned to St Louis and published a valuable scientific record of their expedition. Clark was Governor of Missouri Territory 1813–20 and Superintendent of Indian Affairs 1822–38.

Clarke, Sir Arthur C(harles) (1917–2008). British novelist and science writer. His predictions of future technological developments scored well for accuracy, including the communications satellite (1945). With Stanley *Kubrick he wrote 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) as a novel and script for an important film. He published more than 50 books. He lived in Sri Lanka from 1956.

Clarke, John Morrison (1948–2017). Australian-New Zealand satirist, actor, writer and film producer. A penetrating satirist in the tradition of *Swift and a master of language, he punctured political absurdity and pomposity on film, television, radio, books and journals.

Clarke, Kenneth Harry (1940– ). English Conservative politician. A barrister (QC), he was a Member of Parliament 1970–2019, Secretary of State for Health 1988–90, for Education and Science 1990–92, for Home Affairs 1992–93 and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1993–97. Under David *Cameron, he served as Minister for Justice and Lord Chancellor 2010–12, then as Minister without Portfolio 2012–14, then forced out, consoled by the award of a CH. His ministerial service was the fifth longest since *Palmerston.

Clarke, Marcus Andrew Hislop (1846–1881). Australian novelist, born in London. He became a journalist in Melbourne and wrote a powerful (but not completely accurate) novel about the convict settlement at Port Arthur (Tasmania), For the Term of His Natural Life (1874).

Claude, Georges (1870–1960). French chemist. He invented neon lighting and founded a company to exploit this invention. Among his other achievements was the invention of processes for the production of liquid air and of synthetic nitrates.

Claude Lorrain(e) (Claude Gellée) (1600–1662). French landscape painter, born in Nancy. Originally a pastrycook, he was trained in Rome and lived there from 1627. Most of his paintings were based on biblical, classical or medieval themes, for example The Judgment of Paris (1646), Seaport: The Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba (1648) and Landscape with the Marriage of Isaac and Rebekah (1648). He made thousands of fluent, almost impressionistic, drawings and was also an etcher. He died rich and about 250 of his paintings survive, most in England, where his idealised landscapes were much admired, especially by *Turner.

Claudel, Paul Louis Charles Marie (1868–1955). French poet, playwright and diplomat. He studied law, joined the diplomatic service in 1890 and spent most of his adult life abroad. He served as Minister to Brazil 1917–19, and Ambassador to Japan 1921–25, to the US 1926–33, and to Belgium 1933–35. He called himself a follower of *Rimbaud and it was the influence of the Symbolists which turned him away from materialism and the acceptance of a mechanical universe; however, he reacted against the decadence of the symbolists and his work reflects his devotion to Catholicism. His plays include Break of Noon (1908). The Tidings Brought to Mary (1916) and The Book of Christopher Columbus (1930). He was elected to the Académie française in 1946. He is important in the history of the theatre because of his use, in his later plays, of ‘total theatre’ stage presentation. His sister Camille Claudel (1864–1943) was a sculptor, mistress and model of *Rodin, confined in an asylum from 1913. The film Camille Claudel appeared in 1989.

Fowlie, W., Claudel. 1958.

Claudius I (Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus) (10 BCE–54 CE). Fourth Roman Emperor 41–54 CE. Born in Lugdunum (modern Lyon), son of Drusus, the brother of the Emperor *Tiberius, his supposed, or assumed, imbecility and physical incapacity saved him from the fate of many of his relatives, but he wrote and studied history although his works (in Latin and Greek) are now lost. He became Emperor after *Caligula’s assassination in 41. He built the Claudian aqueduct, commenced the conquest of Britain and was present for part of the campaign. He appeared to condone the viciousness and profligacy of his wife *Messalina, but when she publicly married a lover he had her executed. *Suetonius makes a confused reference to Claudius’ attempt to expel Jews from Rome in 49 CE, because they had been ‘causing disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus (sic)’. His second wife *Agrippina, who is believed to have poisoned him, was the mother of the next emperor, *Nero.

Graves, R., I Claudius, Claudius the God. 1934.

Claudius II (Marcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus) (d.270). Roman Emperor 268–70. Born in Sirmium, Pannonia (now in Serbia). A career soldier, he was Governor of Illyria, and was then appointed by the Emperor *Gallienus as his military deputy. After senior officers murdered Gallienus, troops outside Milan proclaimed Claudius as emperor. He defeated the Goths at Naissus (269) and died of the plague in his birthplace.

Clausewitz, Carl Philipp Gottleib von (1780–1831). Prussian soldier and military strategist. Of Polish origin, he served as a staff officer under *Scharnhorst and *Gneisenau, and directed the Prussian army school at Berlin 1818–30. His famous book On War (Von Kriege, published posthumously by his widow in 1832–37) dealt with military strategy in an analytical manner and remained of major importance until World War I. He coined the aphorism ‘War is the continuation of politics by other means’.

Parkinson, R., Clausewitz. 1971; Howard, M., Clausewitz. 1983; Strachan, H., Clausewitz, 2007.

Clausius, Rudolf Julius Emanuel (1822–1888). German mathematical physicist, born in Pomerania (now in Poland). He was educated in Berlin and Halle, and became a professor of physics at the Artillery and Engineering School, Berlin 1850–55. In 1850 he enunciated the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics (‘Work and heat are equivalent’, ‘Heat cannot of itself pass from a colder to a hotter body’) precise formulations of discoveries by J. R. *Mayer, *Joule and *Helmholtz, and of Sadi *Carnot respectively, just anticipating *Kelvin with the Second Law. In 1857 Clausius provided explanations of how electrolysis works and the kinetic theory of gases. He held professorships at Zürich 1855–67, Würzburg 1867–69 and Bonn 1869–88. In 1865 he proposed the concept of ‘entropy’, the measure of unavailability of energy for work within a system: with any change in the system, entropy increases (from order to disorder). Elected FRS, he was awarded the Copley Medal in 1879. A lunar crater is named for him.

Clay, Henry (1777–1852). American Whig politician, born in Virginia. He became a lawyer, lived in Kentucky from 1797, achieved great success as an advocate and served in the state legislature. He was a US senator 1806–07, 1810–11, 1831–42 and 1849–52, a Member of the House of Representatives 1811–14, 1815–21 and 1823–25, and three times Speaker 1811–14, 1815–20 and 1823–25. He was defeated each time he tried for the presidency, in 1824, 1832, 1840 and 1844. He insisted ‘I would rather be right than President’, and proved his point. When no candidate secured a majority in the 1824 poll, he urged his supporters in the House of Representatives to vote for J.Q. *Adams, rather than Andrew *Jackson who had led on the popular vote. Adams was elected and appointed Clay as US Secretary of State 1825–29. A great orator and magnetic personality, Clay was called ‘The Great Pacificator’ for his ability to effect compromises on issues that seemed likely to split the Union, e.g. the Tariff Bill of 1833, in which as an ardent protectionist he proposed that tariffs be lowered in order to appease the south. He also arranged the 1850 compromise, by which California was admitted to the Union as a non-slave state, and the Fugitive Slave Law was passed. His nephew Cassius Marcellus Clay (1810–1903) was an ardent abolitionist who edited an anti-slavery newspaper in Lexington.

van Deusen, G.G. The Life of Henry Clay. Repr. 1967.

Cleanthes (fl. c.300 BCE). Greek philosopher. A Stoic, he was the pupil of *Zeno of Citium, and became a great teacher. St *Paul quoted from one of his poems in the Acts of the Apostles.

Clegg, Sir Nick (Nicholas William Peter) (1967– ). English Liberal Democrat politician. Educated at Westminster School and Cambridge, he was MEP 1999–2004, MP 2005–17. He served as Deputy Prime Minister and Lord President of the Council 2010–15, in coalition with David *Cameron’s Conservatives. In the elections of May 2015, the Liberals suffered a catastrophic loss, falling from 56 seats to 8.

Clemenceau, Georges Benjamin (1841–1929). French Radical politician, born in the Vendée. Son of a physician, he studied medicine in Paris, but went to the US as a journalist (1865–68) and taught for a time at a school in Connecticut. He was Mayor of Montmartre 1870–71 and a Member of the Chamber of Deputies 1876–93. He founded a radical newspaper in Paris, La Justice, in 1880, and became a remorseless critic of ministerial ineptitude. He forced the resignation of President *Grévy over an honours scandal (1887). He was defeated as a deputy in 1893. The ferocity of his journalistic attacks earned him the soubriquet of ‘The Tiger’ and his revelations caused the fall of several ministries. He was a strong supporter of Captain *Dreyfus, unjustly charged with espionage. A senator 1902–20, he served as Minister of the Interior 1906, and Premier 1906–09, completing the separation of Church and State, but losing the support of the Socialists by using troops to break several strikes. During World War I he flayed government inefficiency in his newspapers, L’Homme Libré (suppressed by the censor in 1914) and L’Homme enchainé. At a critical moment in the war, when resistance was low (November 1917), President *Poincaré appointed him as Premier and Minister of War, and he held these posts 1917–20. He proved a vigorous leader, mobilised all available resources, and crushed defeatism, but ruled as a virtual dictator, ignoring the legislature. He was responsible for the appointment of Marshal *Foch as Allied Generalissimo in March 1918. He was elected to the Académie française in 1918. After the war had been won he became President of the Paris Peace Conference (1919) and trenchantly criticised President *Wilson’s proposals as impracticably idealistic. In 1920 the French legislature elected Paul *Deschanel as President of the Republic in preference to Clemenceau. This was a left-handed compliment as his cynical advice at previous presidential elections had always been ‘Vote for the stupidest’. He retired from public life, visited India and the US, and devoted himself to literature.

Monnerville, C., Clemenceau. 1968; Watson, D.R., Georges Clemenceau. 1974.

Clemens, Samuel Langhorne see Twain, Mark

Clement I, St (Clement of Rome) (c.30–100? CE). Pope 90–100? Thought to have been the fourth Bishop of Rome (i.e. Pope), assuming St *Peter to have been the first, an old tradition claims that he was consecrated by St Peter himself. He wrote an Epistle to the Church of Corinth (c.95) which has survived and demonstrates that the Roman see was exercising authority outside the boundaries of Italy. He is thought to have died in exile, perhaps in the Crimea.

Clement VII (Giulio de’Medici) (1478–1534). Pope 1523–34. A cousin of Pope *Leo X, he was Archbishop of Florence 1512–34. He proved an indecisive pope and failed to cope with the problems raised by the Reformation. In 1527 Rome was sacked by the Imperial troops of *Charles V but by 1529 Clement had become reconciled with Charles, and begged him to solve the problem of Lutheranism. He refused *Henry VIII’s request for an annulment of his marriage to *Katherine of Aragon, the aunt of Charles V (1534).

Clementi, Muzio (1752–1832). Italian pianist and composer. He lived in England 1766–80, 1782–1804, 1810–32, and achieved great fame, first as a pianist and composer, later as a publisher, teacher and piano manufacturer. He was one of the founders of the modern school of piano playing, and composed 70 sonatas and a famous collection of studies Gradus ad Parnassum.

Cleopatra VII (Thea Philopater) (69–30 BCE). Queen of Egypt 51–30 BCE. Born in Alexandria, daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes, she was a member of a Macedonian-Greek dynasty, but spoke Egyptian as well. She married her younger brother, Ptolemy Dionysus, in 5l but was forced into exile by her brother’s guardian, Pothinus, in 49. From Syria she attracted the interest and attention of Julius *Caesar, and after he conquered Egypt in 48 she was restored to power. She became Caesar’s mistress, bore him a son (Caesarion, 47 BCE) and lived with him in Rome 46–44. On returning to Egypt she married Ptolemy XIV, another of her brothers, but he was soon poisoned on her orders. In 42, she met Mark *Antony, they lived together for 12 years and had three children. Cleopatra’s union with Mark Antony cost him much support in Rome, and after his heavy defeat at the battle of Actium (31) he committed suicide. Cleopatra tried to win the love of the victorious Octavian (*Augustus) but failed, and killed herself (according to tradition) by applying an asp to her breast. She was intelligent and widely read but subject to an overmastering ambition and sensuality. She is a major character in plays by *Shakespeare and *Shaw, operas by *Händel and *Massenet and several films.

Volkmann, H., Cleopatra. 1958.

Clerk Maxwell, James see Maxwell, James Clerk

Cleveland, Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of (1641–1709). English noblewoman. The daughter of Viscount Grandison, she was the mistress of *Charles II from 1660–74 and her sons became Duke of Cleveland, Duke of Grafton and Duke of Northumberland. She became a Roman Catholic and her influence over Charles contributed to the fall of *Clarendon. Among her other lovers was the future Duke of *Marlborough.

Cleveland, (Stephen) Grover (1837–1908). 22nd and 24th President of the US 1885–89; 1893–97. Born at Caldwell, New Jersey, the son of a Presbyterian clergyman, he worked in a lawyer’s office from the age of 17 and became an attorney in 1859. He served as Assistant District Attorney of Erie County, New York State, 1863–65, sheriff (and hangman, three times) of Erie County 1871–73, then returned to his law practice. In 1881 he began his extraordinary political career which took him in four years from a law office to the White House. As mayor of Buffalo 1881–82 he proved a notable reformer and gained the Democratic nomination for Governor of New York State, serving 1883–85. He was Democratic candidate for the presidency in 1884, 1888 and 1892. In the 1884 election he was narrowly elected and served as 22nd President 1885–89. In 1888, although he gained a majority of the popular vote, he was defeated in the electoral college by 233 votes to 168 and Benjamin *Harrison succeeded him as President. He defeated Harrison in 1892 and became the only ex-president to return to the White House. He was extremely conservative on all economic questions and favoured a laissez-faire policy. He reformed the civil service, vetoed about 300 Civil War pension bills, urged a policy of free trade (believing that protection was ‘pampering employers’), and instituted the Interstate Commerce Commission (1887). His second term was marked by an economic depression. He secured the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Bill and was anxious to maintain the gold standard. He used Federal troops to suppress the Pullman strike in Illinois (1894), despite the protests of J. P. *Altgeld, and invoked the *Monroe Doctrine against Great Britain in a dispute over the Venezuelan border (1895). He was virtually repudiated by his party in 1896 when W. J. *Bryan was nominated on a free-silver policy. He strongly opposed female suffrage. He retired to New Jersey, became a Trustee of Princeton University 1901–08 and of the Equitable Life Insurance Company, New York, 1905–08.

Cleveland, John (1613–1658). English poet. Champion of the Royalist cause during the Civil War, his best-known work is a series of political poems in heroic couplet: Rupertismus,The Rebel Scot and The King’s Disguise.

Cliburn, Van (Harvey Lavan Cliburn, Jr) (1934–2013). American pianist, born in Louisiana. Brought up in Texas, he studied in New York, specialising in the Russian romantic tradition. Winning the first International Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow (September 1958) made him an instant celebrity, highly honoured in the US and USSR. However, he kept playing the same repertoire that made him famous, suffered a ‘burnout’ in 1978 and withdrew from concerts until 1994.

Cliff, N., Moscow Nights. The Van Cliburn Story. 2017.

Clifford, Clark McAdams (1906–1998). American lawyer. Practising in Washington, he was an adviser to Presidents *Truman, *Kennedy and *Johnson but held no public office until his brief term as Secretary of Defence 1968–69, during which the US began to retract its military action in Vietnam. He was accused of conflict of interest in banking in 1991 which destroyed much of his reputation.

Clifford of Chudleigh, Thomas Clifford, 1st Baron (1630–1673). English politician and courtier. Educated at Oxford, he was MP 1660–72, served on several diplomatic missions for *Charles II, and became a member of the ‘Cabal’ (Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley, Lauderdale) ministry, as Commissioner for the Treasury 1667–72 and Lord Treasurer 1672–73. He became a Roman Catholic about 1670. He was a sincere but ineffective minister.

Clinton, Bill (William Jefferson Blythe, Jr) (1946– ). 42nd President of the US 1993–2001. Born in Hope, Arkansas, he took his step-father’s name after his widowed mother remarried. Educated at Hot Springs High School and Georgetown University, he won a Rhodes scholarship to Oxford (where he campaigned against the Vietnam war) and completed legal studies at Yale. In November 1975, he married Hillary Diane Rodham (Hillary *Clinton). He was a professor at the University of Arkansas Law School 1974–76, Attorney-General of Arkansas 1977–79 and Governor of Arkansas 1979–81, 1983–93. In 1992 he won the Democratic nomination for president against a weak field, at a time when George *Bush was thought to be unbeatable. In November, he defeated Bush 43 to 38 per cent in the popular vote, with H. Ross *Perot on 19 per cent, after a vigorous campaign marked by strong personal attacks. Clinton concentrated on the US economy and promised an era of ‘hope and change’. After a shaky start as President, he achieved some successes in foreign policy, backed the Middle East peace and supported Boris *Yeltsin. The Republicans won control of Congress in 1994 with a hard Right agenda, but this victory soon caused a political reaction, Clinton moved to the centre on policy issues and recovered lost popularity. In November 1996 he became the first Democrat since Franklin *Roosevelt to be elected for a second term, winning 49 per cent of the vote, in a low turnout, against Bob *Dole and Perot. His second term was distracted by allegations of sexual impropriety (‘Zippergate’) by Paula Jones, Monica Lewinsky, Kathleen Willey and others. Fears of a second Gulf War in February 1998 were averted (or postponed) by the intervention of Kofi *Annan. Clinton, pursued by special prosecutor Kenneth Starr, gave evidence to a grand jury (August 1998) and made damaging admissions about sexual relations with Lewinsky. Starr’s report alleged 15 offences by Clinton, and the House of Representatives decided to conduct impeachment hearings. Despite Democrat gains in the 1998 Congressional elections, in December the House, voting on party lines, impeached Clinton on two counts, perjury and obstruction of justice. (Air attacks on Baghdad at this time consolidated Saddam’s position.) After trial in the Senate January–February 1999, the prosecution failed on both counts, but Clinton suffered heavy personal damage. NATO missile attacks and bombing of Serbia (April–June 1999) following ‘ethnic cleansing’ in Kosovo appeared at first to strengthen *Milosevic, but led to a peace agreement in which NATO and Russian troops occupied Kosovo under UN auspices. The Clinton Foundation was founded in 2001 and has developed programs for tackling problems of global health, education and exposure to climate change. In 2008, the Clintons campaigned for Barack *Obama after Hillary failed to win the Democratic nomintion, and used networking skills to promote her candidacy in 2016. In 14 Presidential rankings by US historians and political scientists, Clinton scored No. 17 in the aggregate.

Clinton, B., My Life. 2004; Branch, T., The Clinton Tapes. 2009.

Clinton, De Witt (1769–1828). American lawyer. US Senator from New York 1802–03, Mayor of New York City 1803–07, 1808–10, 1811–15, and State Governor 1817–23, 1825–28, he was Federalist candidate for president in 1812, against *Madison. He first put forward the idea of a canal linking the northeast coast with the Great Lakes through Lake Erie. The State Legislature accepted a scheme in 1816 and Clinton supervised the project himself and opened the Erie Canal in 1825. He was also noted for his interest in education and the dissemination of the arts and sciences.

Clinton, George (1739–1812). American politician, born in New York. Lawyer and soldier, he was Governor of New York 1777–95; 1801–04 (a record period), opposed ratification of the US Constitution and became a founder of the emerging Democratic-Republican Party. In 1792, he was a candidate for Vice President (losing to John *Adams), but won in 1804 and 1808, serving under *Jefferson and *Madison 1805–12, and dying in office. De Witt *Clinton was a nephew.

Clinton, Sir Henry (c.1738–1795). English soldier. A Member of Parliament 1772–84 and 1790–94, he was an indecisive Commander-in-Chief of British Forces in North America 1778–81, and wrote a narrative of the campaign.

Clinton, Hillary (Diane) (née Rodham) (1947– ). American lawyer and Democratic politician, born in Chicago. Educated at Wellesley College (Mass.) and Yale, in 1964 she campaigned for Barry *Goldwater, but became a Democrat and a lawyer for the Senate’s *Nixon impeachment team. She married Bill *Clinton in 1975. After her husband’s election as President (1992), as First Lady she proposed comprehensive changes in health insurance which were blocked in Congress and she came under bitter personal attack about property dealings in Arkansas in the 1970s (‘Whitewater’), which intensified after the Republican victory in mid-term elections in 1994. At the end of her husband’s term, she was elected as US Senator from New York, serving 2001–09. She campaigned for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2008, and although initially regarded as a clear favourite, lost to Barack *Obama. She then served as his effective but controversial Secretary of State 2009–13, declining reappointment. In April 2015 she launched her campaign for the Democratic Party Presidential nomination. Overwhelmingly supported by the party establishment and in the Southern States, she was challenged by Senator Bernie *Sanders who appealed to the ‘outsider’ vote and young people. By June 2016 she had enough pledged delegates to secure the nomination—the first woman endorsed for President by a major party. In November, despite a popular vote of 65.8 million, the second highest figure in US history, a 2.1 per cent plurality, winning 20 states and the District of Columbia, she was defeated by Donald *Trump in the Electoral College.

Clinton, H. R., Living History. 2003, Hard Choices. 2014; Aller, J., and Parnes, A., HRC. 2014.

Clive, Robert Clive, 1st Baron (1725–1774). English soldier and administrator, born near Market Drayton, Shropshire. Son of a squire, he was educated at the Merchant Taylors’ School, became extremely unhappy there, and in 1743 joined the East India Company as a ‘writer’ (i.e. clerk administrator). He worked in Madras 1743–46 but obtained an ensign’s commission in the Indian army after fighting began with *Dupleix’s French troops. After training a large force of sepoys he defeated 10,000 French and Indian troops at Arcot in 1751 in a clash that resulted from a dispute over the control of the Carnatic. Lieutenant Governor of Fort St David 1755–57, he was sent in 1756 to punish the Nawab of Bengal and Calcutta, Surajud Dowlah, who had locked 146 British civilians in a small room, 123 of them dying of suffocation overnight in the ‘Black Hole of Calcutta’. Clive defeated the Nawab at Plassey in 1757, thus placing the large state of Bengal under British control. The Seven Years’ War had begun in Europe and fighting between the British and French soon broke out in India. As Governor of Bengal 1757–60 he established the supremacy of British power throughout most of India. Returning to England in 1760 he was a Member of Parliament 1760–62. After being raised to the peerage, he went back to India as Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Bengal 1764–67, making reforms in administration. He retired in 1767 because of ill health, and after facing several charges of mis-government and peculation, he was absolved of all blame. An opium addict, he committed suicide by cutting his throat.

Harvey, R., Clive: The Life and Death of a British Emperor. 1998.

Clodius (Pulcher), Publius (c.93–52 BCE). Roman politician. A leader of the democratic party, he became a supporter of *Caesar and an opponent of *Pompey and *Cicero. As Tribune of the People 59–57, he proved to be a capable demagogue, revived the guilds, ordered free gifts of corn for the people, and sent Cicero into exile. He organised street gangs to help him in his campaign for the Consulate but was killed by the rival gang of Milo.

Cloete, (Edward Fairly) Stuart (Graham) (1897–1976). South African novelist. His novels include Turning Wheels (1937), The Hill of Doves (1941), The African Giant (1955), The Mask (1957), Rags of Glory (1963) and The Abductors (1966). He was a strong critic of apartheid and the Boer tradition.

Cloete, S., Victorian Son. 1972.

Clore, Sir Charles (1904–1979). British financier and businessman, born in London. Noted as a practitioner of the ‘take over’, he was son of an immigrant Russian tailor who became prosperous in the textile trade. An established dealer in businesses, he bought J. Sears and Co. in 1956, by going directly to the shareholders with an offer per share at well above market value. This method, now common, was then new. At the time of his death his fortune was estimated at £50 million, and his companies were active in retailing, engineering, transport, shoe-making and bookmaking. He was committed to the Zionist cause, to which he gave generously, as he did to many charities. He was the donor of the Clore Gallery (opened 1987), an extension of the Tate.

Close, ‘Chuck’ (Charles Thomas) (1940– ). American painter and photographer, born in Washington State. Working in a variety of forms, including collage, woodcuts, lithographs, etchings, finger paintings, tapestry and mosaics, he was known for his massive portraits (e.g. Philip *Glass, Barack *Obama) and there were many international exhibitions.

Clough, Arthur Hugh (1819–1861). English poet. Brought up in the US, he was educated at Rugby and Oxford, and became the friend of *Carlyle, *Emerson and Matthew *Arnold. A civil servant, he was a melancholy sceptic whose verse reveals his preoccupation with ethical questions. He revised *Dryden’s translation of Plutarch’s Lives. His sister, Anne Jemima Clough (1820–1892) became the first Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge 1871–92.

Chorley, K., Arthur Hugh Clough. 1962.

Clovis I (Germanic form Hlodwig, Latinised as Louis) (466–511). King of the Franks c.481–511. Born in Tournai (modern Belgium), son of Childéric I, ruler of the Salian Franks, he murdered rivals to the succession, defeated the Gallo-Roman rulers of the Kingdom of Soissons in 486, made Paris his capital and won territory from the Alemanni, Burgundians and Visigoths. He married Clothilde, a Christian, and was baptised himself in Reims in 496. (This event led to a controversial commemoration in 1996 when Clovis was hailed by the ultra-Right as the founder of Christian France.) He opposed the Arians and convened a Church council at Orléans (511).

Verseuil, J., Clovis. 1992.

Clyde, 1st Baron see Campbell, Colin

Clynes, John Robert (1869–1949). English Labour politician. Son of an Irish labourer, he worked in cotton mills from the age of 10, became a union organiser and a Labour MP 1906–3l, 1935–45. He led the Labour Party 1921–22, during Ramsay *MacDonald’s absence from parliament, and was Lord Privy Seal 1924 and Home Secretary 1929–31.

Cnut (or Knud = ‘knot’, also written as Canute) (c.995–1035). King of England 1016–35, Denmark 1018–35 and Norway 1028–35. Son of *Sweyn Forkbeard, King of Denmark, and a Polish mother, he invaded England in 1015, divided the kingdom with *Edmund Ironside and on his death became sole king. He codified law, encouraged the Church and (bigamously) married *Æthelred’s widow Emma. He occupied Norway after a civil war in 1028. The legend of him attempting to command the tide to turn back has been misunderstood: he was ironically pointing out to fawning courtiers that there were limits to his power.

Bolton, T., Cnut the Great. 2017.

Coates, Albert (1882–1953). English conductor, born in St Petersburg. He worked in business and studied in both England and Russia, then became a pupil of *Nikisch in Germany. He conducted the St Petersburg Opera 1910–19, toured Europe and the US and made many recordings of *Wagner and the great Russians. He lived in South Africa 1947–53. His disappearance from recording catalogues is hard to fathom.

Coates, Eric (1886–1957). English composer. His light music gained wide popularity and included the London Suite, London Again, The Three Elizabeths and The Three Bears Suite.

Coates, (Joseph) Gordon (1878–1943). New Zealand politician. A Member of Parliament 1911–43, decorated in World War I, he became Leader of the Reform Party and Prime Minister 1925–28, the first born in New Zealand. As Minister for Finance 1933–35 he attempted to tackle the Depression’s impact and during World War II served under Labour as a non-party minister 1940–43.

Cobb, John (1899–1952). English racing motorist. He broke the world land speed record, 1947, by travelling at 634.4 km p.h.in a Napier-Railton. He was killed in a motor boat accident on Loch Ness, Scotland.

Cobbett, William (1763–1835). English pamphleteer and Radical politician. After service in the army in Canada 1783–91, he became a Tory propagandist, under the pen name of Peter Porcupine, and attacked all forms of radicalism and democracy. After 1804, he joined the radical cause, was imprisoned for denouncing flogging in the army and later acquitted on a charge of sedition. A Member in the first reformed Parliament 1832–35 he wrote extensively on political and agricultural subjects. Rural Rides (1822–28), published as a series of pamphlets, is masterly.

Cole, G. D. H., The Life of William Cobbett. 3rd ed. 1947.

Cobden, Richard (1804–1865). English Liberal politician. A Member of Parliament 1841–65, the co-founder, with John *Bright, of the Anti-Corn Law League, he became known as ‘The Apostle of Free Trade’. Prominent in opposing the Crimean War (which brought him much unpopularity), he was an active worker for international peace and disarmament. Although he regarded himself as a radical, he firmly believed in ‘laissez faire’ and opposed trade unions and factory legislation, which he thought were opposed to liberty of contract. He supported the North in the US Civil War.

Hinde, W., Richard Cobden. 1987.

Cobham, Sir Alan John (1894–1973). English aviator. After serving in the Royal Flying Corps during World War I, he entered civil aviation, took part in many notable long distance flights and won the Britannia Trophy in 1926 for his flight to Australia and back. He pioneered the London–Cape Town route and devised a system for refuelling planes in the air.

Cochrane, Thomas, 10th Earl of Dundonald (1775–1860). Scottish sailor. After many brilliant exploits in which he captured over 50 French and Spanish ships, he became a Whig Member of Parliament 1805–16. Deprived of his naval command in 1816, after being tried for fraud he was imprisoned for one year. On his release he went to South America, where the struggle against Spanish domination was in progress, and served as Commander of the Chilean Navy 1818–22, and of the Brazilian Navy 1823–25, contributing much to the success of the nationalist risings. On returning to Europe he became Commander of the Greek Navy 1827–28, but when the Whigs came to power in England he was reinstated in the British Navy (1832) and served as Commander-in-Chief of the North American Station 1848–51.

Cockcroft, Sir John Douglas (1897–1967). English physicist. Educated at Manchester and St John’s College, Cambridge, he worked with *Rutherford at the Cavendish Laboratory. In 1932, with E. T. S. Walton, he succeeded in splitting the nucleus of the atom. Professor of natural philosophy at Cambridge 1939–46, during the war he worked on the production of the atomic bomb in the US. He was director of the UK Atomic Energy Establishment at Harwell 1946–59 and first Master of Churchill College. Cambridge 1959–67. He shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1951 with Walton, received the OM in 1957, and won the Ford ‘Atoms for Peace’ Award of $US75,000 in 1961. He was Chancellor of The Australian National University, Canberra 1961–65.

Cockerell, Sir Christopher Sydney (1910–1999). English engineer. He was a pioneer of the amphibious hovercraft that can travel across a variety of surfaces on a cushion of air. The air is produced by jets. Cockerell was knighted in 1969, 10 years after a prototype hovercraft crossed the English Channel.

Cocteau, Jean (1889–1963). French poet, ballet designer, novelist, playwright, actor, film producer and graphic artist, born near Paris. He published his first volume of poetry La Lampe d’Aladin in 1908, was associated with *Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes and served as an ambulance driver in World War I. His ballets include Parade (1917), with music by Erik *Satie, sets by Pablo *Picasso and staged by *Diaghilev, Le Boeuf sur le toit (1920, *Milhaud/ *Dufy) and Les Biches (1924, *Poulenc). He wrote eight novels of which Thomas l’imposteur (1923) and Les Enfants Terribles (1929, filmed 1950) are the best known. His opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex (1927) was set to music by *Stravinsky and remains in the repertoire. Several of his plays were filmed under his own direction e.g. Orphée (1926, 1950), and Les Parents terribles (1938, 1948), while others were successful on television and radio, e.g. La Voix Humaine (1930) and La Machine á écrire (The Typewriter, 1941). His beautiful but obscure films were based on a private mythology not always shared with the audience. The best known were Le Sang d’un poete (1932), L ‘Eternal retour (1944) and La Belle et la bête (1945). In the 1950s he was active as a graphic artist and fresco painter. After decades as an ‘enfant terrible’ and foe of artistic orthodoxy, Cocteau accepted immortalisation by election to the Académie française (1955).

Cody, William F(rederick) (1846–1917). American showman, known as ‘Buffalo Bill’. Originally an Indian scout, he gained his title by supplying buffalo meat to railway workers. From 1883 he organised a ‘Wild West Show’ which stimulated wide interest in ‘Cowboys and Indians’.

Coen, Jan Pieterszoon (1587–1629). Dutch colonialist. He worked for the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie: VOC) and was twice Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies 1618–23; 1627–29. He founded the capital, Batavia, established monopolies in nutmeg and cloves, and, using Japanese mercenaries, massacred 15,000 people in the conquest of the Banda Islands.

Coen, Joel (1954– ) and Ethan Coen (1957– ). American film directors, born in Minneapolis. Their films include Raising Arizona (1987), Barton Fink (1991), Fargo (1996) and O Brother, Where Art Thou? (2000). They won the Academy Award for No Country for Old Men in 2008.

Coetzee, J(ohn) M(axwell) (1940– ). South African-Australian novelist and critic, born in Cape Town. Educated at the University of Cape Town and in Texas, he worked in London and for IBM as a computer programmer. He taught English at Buffalo, New York and in Cape Town and held a chair in Chicago. He won the Booker Prize twice, for Life & Times of Michael K (1983) and for Disgrace (1999). Other novels include Waiting for the Barbarians (1980), Master of Petersburg (1994), Elizabeth Costello (2003), Slow Man (2005), Diary of a Bad Year (2007) and The Childhood of Jesus (2013). He relocated to Adelaide in 2002 and became an Australian citizen in 2006. Awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2003, the citation calls him ‘a scrupulous doubter, ruthless in his criticism of the cruel rationalism and cosmetic morality of western civilisation’. He has published outstanding volumes of essays and literary criticism.

Kannemeyer, J. C., J. M. Coetzee. 2012; Attwell, J.C., J. M. Coetzee and the Life of Writing. 2015.

Coeur, Jacques (c.1395–1456). French merchant and pioneer capitalist, born in Bourges. Son of a merchant, he travelled through the Mediterranean and the Levant. His investments included ship-owning, salt, tax collecting, mining, shipping, arms, money changing, importing furs, silk, jewels and artefacts, and property in Paris, Marseille, Montpellier, Lyon and Tours. He was a Minister to *Charles VII, then accused of disloyalty, tortured and imprisoned. He escaped and died on the Greek island of Chios. His palace in Bourges, begun in 1444, is the finest surviving example of medieval domestic architecture, and a mansion in Paris (4e arrondissment) is still in use.

Coggan, (Frederick) Donald, Baron Coggan (1909–2000). English prelate. He was Principal of the London School of Divinity 1944–56, Bishop of Bradford 1956–61, Archbishop of York 1961–74 and Archbishop of Canterbury 1974–80. His theology was evangelical, and, although concerned with social issues, he stressed that a changed society can only come from the conversion of the individual to the service of God. His works include Sinews of Faith (1969) and The Heart of the Christian Faith (1978).

Cohan, George M(ichael) (1878–1942). American songwriter, prouducer and performer, born in Rhode Island. Of Irish Catholic descent, he worked in Tin Pan Alley and composed more than 150 songs, including Over There and I’m a Yankee Doodle Dandy.

Cohen, Leonard (1934–2016). Canadian poet, singer, novelist and poet, born in Montréal. Relatively late in securing recognition, he recorded and toured for the first time in 1970 but soon had a great reputation in a variety of art forms and received many honours including the Canadian CC (2003). His novels include The Favourite Game (1963) and Beautiful Losers (1966).

Coke, Sir Edward (1552–1634). English lawyer and politician. A Member of Parliament 1580–1606, he was Speaker of the House of Commons 1593–94 and Attorney-General 1594–1606, proving to be a zealous supporter of the royal prerogative and being responsible for the prosecution of *Essex, *Raleigh and the Gunpowder Plot conspirators. However, on his appointment as Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, in 1606, he became the champion of the Common Law in opposition to the exercise of the Crown’s prerogative rights. In 1610 he decided that the king’s proclamations could not override laws made by Parliament and that ecclesiastical causes must be subject to the jurisdiction of the secular courts. He was promoted to the office of Chief Justice of the King’s Bench Division 1613–16 where it was hoped that he would, prove less troublesome to *James I and his advisers. His fearless defiance of those orders of the king which he regarded as illegal made the supporters of the Divine Right determined to secure his removal from office. In 1616 several trivial charges prepared by *Bacon, the Attorney-General, were brought against him and he was dismissed. A leading member of Parliament 1621–29, he denounced interference with the liberty of the House of Commons. In 1622 he was seized and imprisoned as a result of his attacks. He vigorously opposed the Duke of *Buckingham’s monopoly of office and favour, describing him as ‘the grievance of grievances’. Coke’s law reports helped to systematise and consolidate the Common Law of England and his writings on jurisprudence, such as the four Institutes are well known, especially Coke on Littleton.

Holdsworth, W. S., A History of English Law. 2nd ed. Vol. 5. 1937; Throne, S. E., Sir Edward Coke. 1957.

Coke, Thomas William, 1st Earl of Leicester of Holkham (1752–1842). English agricultural innovator. He represented Norfolk as a Whig MP 1776–84, 1790–1832, but is much better known for the many farming improvements he introduced on his Norfolk estate of Holkham. By use of bone meal and fertilisers, by sowing seeds in drills, by planting sainfoin and clover to enable larger numbers of livestock to be maintained, by many other new or improved methods, he so increased the value of his estate that in 40 years from 1776 the rents are said to have risen from about £2,000 to £20,000. His example, propagated through ‘open days’ and tours of inspection, led to a general improvement in British farming. He was a Radical, denied a peerage until *William IV died.

Colbert, Jean Baptiste (1619–1683). French administrator. After the death of *Mazarin he became the Chief Minister of *Louis XIV. As Controller General of Finance 1665–83, he repaid most of the national debt, reorganised the French Navy, established new colonies in Africa and America, encouraged shipbuilding and foreign trade and reformed the French administrative service. To finance these reforms he had to introduce higher taxation which made him unpopular.

Mongredien, G., Colbert, 1619–1683. 1963.

Cole, G(eorge) D(ouglas) H(oward) (1889–1959). English economist. The author of The Common People (with Raymond Postgate) (1938) and The Intelligent Man’s Guide to the Post War World (1947), he became professor of social and political theory at Oxford University in 1944 and was active in the Labour Party and the Fabian Society. With his wife Dame Margaret Isabel Cole (née Postgate) (1893–1980) he wrote 29 detective novels (1923–42).

Cole, Nat(haniel Adams) ‘King’ (1919–1965). American singer and jazz pianist, born in Montgomery, Alabama. He first gained recognition as the leader of a jazz trio in the 1930s. Later he performed mainly as a singer. He had wide popular success with his more sentimental songs.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor (1772–1834). English poet and philosopher, born in Devonshire. After leaving Jesus College, Cambridge, he became a friend of Robert *Southey and William *Wordsworth. Keenly interested in religion and philosophy, between 1794 and 1804 he was attracted by Unitarianism, preached for a time, planned to become a minister, then became agnostic. Involved in plans to set up a utopian community, a Pantisocracy, in Pennsylvania, his enthusiasm soon waned.

With Wordsworth he published Lyrical Ballads (1798) and the volume was a major contribution to the Romantic revival in English literature. All Coleridge’s great poems were written in an 18–month burst: ‘Kubla Khan’ (1797–98), ‘The Rime of the Ancient Mariner’ (1797–98), ‘Christabel’ (1797; 1800), ‘Frost at Midnight’ (1798) and ‘The Nightingale’ (1798). He claimed that ‘Kubla Khan’ was part of a longer poem that he heard in an opium dream.

After 1800 he was completely addicted to opium and was dependent on the charity of friends. He spent time in Malta and Italy (1804–06) attempting to recover.

At his height he was celebrated as a dazzling conversationalist but later, because of debt and increasing ill-health, he became a melancholic. His principles of literary criticism are to be found in his Biographia Literaria (1817) and he is regarded as the founder of the modern school of Shakespearian criticism. He was also interested in metaphysics and translated works by *Schiller, *Kant and *Lessing. He popularised the word ‘psychology’ (1800). Although most of his poetry is of uneven quality, his masterpieces have a mysterious and magical beauty that echoes the music of a visionary world.

Bate, W. J., Coleridge. 1968; Wilson Knight, G., The Starlit Dome. Repr. 1971; Holmes, R., Coleridge: Early Visions. 1989; Holmes, R., Darker Reflections. 1998.

Coleridge-Taylor, Samuel (1875–1912). English composer, of West African descent. His cantata Hiawatha achieved great success and his Little Concert Suite is often performed.

Colet, John (1466–1519). English theologian. A friend of *Erasmus and Thomas *More, he revived the humanist tradition in the English Church and his liberal opinions influenced the Reformation in England. He was Dean of St Paul’s Cathedral 1505–19, and founder of St Paul’s School, London.

Colette, Sidonie Gabrielle Claudine (1873–1954). French novelist. She began her working life as a music hall actor. Her first husband, Henry Gauthier-Villars (1859–1931), discovered her talent for writing and, by keeping her prisoner, forced her to produce novels which he published under his pen name of ‘Willy’. After their divorce she continued to write and the semi-autobiographical ‘Claudine’ novels became very popular. A brilliant observer, she wrote always of love, with a masterly understanding of human motives. Her books include The Vagrant (1912), Chéri (1929), Claudine in Paris (1931), and The Cat (1936). Gigi (1951) was the basis of a highly successful musical film.

Richardson, J., Colette. 1982; Gilmour, J., Colette’s France. Her lives, her loves. 2013.

Colfax, Schuyler (1823–1885). American Republican politician, born in New York City. He became a journalist, Congressman from Indiana 1855–69 and Speaker of the House of Representatives 1863–69. He was Vice President of the US 1869–73, serving with Ulysses S. *Grant.

Coligny, Gaspard de (1519–1572). French soldier, admiral and Huguenot leader. Brother of a cardinal, noted as a fearless leader and imprisoned in Spain 1557–59, he became a Calvinist convert. From 1560 he was joint leader of the Huguenots with Louis I, Prince of *Condé, and actively promoted the Protestant cause. Although he was a favourite of *Charles IX, he was murdered by servants of the Duc de Guise at the St Bartholomew’s Day massacre.

Colijn, Hendrikus (1869–1944). Dutch Christian Democratic politician. Prime Minister 1925–26 and 1933–39, he died in German captivity.

Collingwood, Cuthbert Collingwood, Ist Baron (1750–1810). English sailor. After *Nelson’s death he became Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet 1805–10.

Collins, Michael (1890–1922). Irish nationalist politician. He worked in London 1906–16 as a clerk in the post office and a bank, returning to Ireland to take part in the Dublin rising and was interned briefly. Elected to the House of Commons (1918) as a Sinn Féin MP, he refused to sit in Westminster but, with other Irish Nationalists, set up the Dáil Éireann (1919) and proclaimed the Republic. Under *de Valera, he became Minister for Home Affairs 1919 and Finance 1919–22, general of the Irish volunteer army and director of intelligence for the Irish Republican Army (IRA). In December 1921, with Arthur *Griffith, he negotiated a treaty with *Lloyd George that partitioned Ireland and set up the Irish Free State, with Dominion status. When de Valera repudiated the treaty, demanding full independence and the formation of a Republic, civil war broke out between the two Irish factions and Collins commanded the Free State forces. On the death of Griffith, he became head of the Free State Government but only 10 days later he was ambushed by soldiers of the Irish Republican Army and murdered.

Taylor, R. Michael Collins. 1958; Coogan, T. P., Michael Collins. 1996.

Collins, (William) Wilkie (1824–1889). English novelist, born in London. Son of a successful painter, he was trained for the law, but worked in publishing and was befriended by *Dickens, who (with *Poe) became a major influence. His melodramatic novels were great successes. The Woman in White (1860) is based on a personal experience: while he was walking with Dickens one night a distraught young woman, dressed in white, begged him for help, claiming that her life was threatened. On this theme he wrote a dramatic story, featuring the memorable villain, Count Fosco. The Moonstone (1868) has been described by T. S. *Eliot as ‘the first, the longest and the best of modern English detective novels’.

Peters, C., The King of Inventors: A Life of Wilkie Collins. 2017; Ackroyd, P., Wilkie Collins. 2017.

Collor de Mello, Fernando (1949– ). Brazilian politician, born in Rio de Janeiro. His family owned newspapers and magazines, and he entered politics in Alagoas State, as a mayor 1979–82, Federal Deputy 1982–86 and Governor 1986–89. He formed the National Reconstruction Party and after a sophisticated media campaign was elected President November–December 1989 in Brazil’s first free direct election since 1960. Collor appeared to have cast off his playboy image, but serious accusations of corruption were raised in the Congress and in December 1992 he resigned to avoid impeachment.

Colman, Ronald (1891–1958). English actor, resident in Hollywood. He was well known for his romantic roles in films such as Beau Geste, Random Harvest and The Prisoner of Zenda.

Colombo, Matteo Realdo (1510–1559). Italian anatomist, born in Cremona. Son of an apothecary, he studied medicine under *Vesalius in Padua, succeeded him there in 1544, then moved to Pisa (1546). In 1549 he established himself in Rome, where he spent the rest of his life. His fame rests on his great skill and experience in dissection, vivisection and autopsy. In his only book, the De Re Anatomica (published posthumously in 1559) he offered excellent descriptions of the eye, the pleura, and the peritoneum. But he is best known for his discovery of the course of the passage of blood from the right cardiac ventricle to the left through the lungs (‘the pulmonary circuit’). From this he drew the important conclusion that it is not in the heart, but in the lungs, that venous blood is mixed with air to become arterial blood. He thus switched the focus of attention away from the heart to the lungs. His vivisections also led him to understanding the heartbeat. He emphasised the contraction of the heart, and the importance of its expulsion of materials. Such views were later taken up by *Harvey.

Colt, Samuel (1814–1862). American inventor. In 1835 he produced the famous revolver named after him and adopted by the US Army.

Coltrane, John (William) (1926–1967). American jazz saxophonist, born in North Carolina. He made his professional debut in 1945 and worked with Dizzy *Gillespie (1949–51) and Miles *Davis (1955–57). He was already regarded as a leader of modern jazz in the late 1950s. From then on he became increasingly interested in experimental jazz and free form.

Colum, Padraic (1881–1972). Irish playwright and poet. He helped to found the Abbey Theatre and wrote the plays The Land and The Betrayal. He was also the author of several books of verse and stories for children.

Columba (Colm Cille), St (c.521–597). Irish missionary. He established a monastery at Iona (563) and was responsible for the conversion of much of Scotland. He illuminated 300 books himself and established a scriptorium which produced the Book of Kells (c.800).

Columbus, Christopher (Cristóbal Colón in Spanish, Cristoforo Colombo in Italian) (1451?–1506). Spanish navigator and explorer, born in Genoa (Liguria). Probably of Castilian descent (but not Jewish, as sometimes suggested), and writing no Italian, son of a master weaver, went to sea at 14, and claimed to have sailed to Iceland, Ireland, England, Tunisia, the Greek islands and West Africa. He lived in Lisbon in the 1470s, possibly as a chartmaker, sailor and sugar buyer, trading with Madeira, the Canaries and the Azores. He married in 1479. His wife, who owned property in Madeira, died about 1484. Columbus became convinced that the shortest trade route to Asia was by sailing west, contrary to the prevailing Portuguese belief that the eastern (African) route would be quicker. (He assumed the earth had a circumference of about 25,000 kilometres; the true figure is 40,000.) With his brother Bartholomeu Columbus (Bartoloméu Columbus 1445?–1515) he sought patrons for a voyage of exploration. *João II refused him and *Henry VII of England and *Charles VIII of France turned his brother down. After eight years of pleading, assisted by Genoese bankers and the Franciscans, he attracted the patronage of *Ferdinand and *Isabella, rulers of the newly united Spain. On 3 August 1492, he set off from Palos with 87 men and three old ships (Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria), sailing via the Canaries. On 12 October 1492 he sighted an island, probably Watling Island in the Bahamas, naming it San Salvador. He assumed it to be part of India, describing the inhabitants as Indians, a term which has stuck. He then sailed by the north coast of Cuba (which he thought was China) and an island he named Hispaniola (Española), leaving a party to set up a fort in Villa de la Navidad (now in Haiti). The Santa Maria was wrecked on a reef in Santo Domingo (now the Dominican Republic), the Pinta lost in a storm and Columbus left for Spain in the Nina on 18 January 1493. On his return in March his discoveries were acclaimed, he was made Admiral of the Ocean Sea and Viceroy of the Indies, including all present and future discoveries. The impact was immediate. In 1494 Pope *Alexander VI divided the world between Spain and Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas. In his second expedition (1493–96) Columbus had 17 ships and 1500 men. He discovered the islands of Dominica and Jamaica and established the first European town in the New World on Haiti, at Isabella. Because he was unable to secure financial advantage to Spain from his discoveries he had difficulty in gaining support for a third expedition. However, in May 1498 he sailed again, discovered Trinidad, and on 5 August made his first landfall on the South American continent, on the Paria peninsula in Venezuela, then found the mouth of the Orinoco. Columbus was now convinced that he had discovered ‘an Other World’ (otro mundo), a continent to the south of China, concluding (oddly) that the world was pear—or breast—shaped. Meanwhile, John *Cabot had already landed in North America (June 1497) and Vasco da *Gama had found the eastern sea route to India (May 1498). Columbus was a poor administrator and after clashes with the colonists he lost his position of Viceroy of the Indies. In 1499 he was arrested by his successor, Francesco de Bobadilla, and sent back to Spain in chains. Soon released, although still in disfavour, he was later reinstated to his former position of honour. In his fourth expedition (1502–04), he sailed along the coast of Honduras and Nicaragua, spending four months in Panama (Jan.–Apr. 1503) without realising that the Pacific was barely 70 kilometres away. When he returned empty handed once more, his reputation suffered, his patron Isabella was dead, and he was ill and neglected. But he did not die in poverty and received regular payments of gold from Hispaniola. He died in Valladolid, was later buried in Seville, then reburied (1542) in Santo Domingo, transferred to Havana (1795) and back to Seville in 1898. However, in 1877 a casket labelled with his name was found in Santo Domingo. Although his remains were said to have been transferred to Havana in 1795, and back to Seville in 1898, it is probable that they never left Santo Domingo and that the tomb in Seville contains his son. Diego Columbus (1480–1526), appointed Viceroy of the Indies (1511) and created a duke, was refused authority over the mainland, although the Columbus estate received the gift of Jamaica and land in Panama. Ironically, adoption of the name America celebrates a relatively minor figure, Amerigo *Vespucci. Nevertheless, Columbus is widely commemorated—in Columbia, British Columbia, cities, rivers, mountains and universities. The towns at either end of the Panama Canal are Cristóbal and Colón.

The 1992 Quincentennial, The Encounter of Two Worlds, revived much controversy about Columbus. Some biographers saw him as a scientific, rational Renaissance explorer, most as an obsessed, medieval crusader who brought disease and slavery to the New World.

Fernandez-Armesto, F., Columbus. 1991; Henige, D., In Search of Columbus: The Sources for the First Voyage. 1991.

Combes, (Justin Louis) Emile (1835–1921). French Radical-Socialist politician. He was trained for the priesthood but became a physician. A senator from 1885, he became Minister of Education 1895–1906, and as Premier 1902–05 introduced anti-clerical legislation (1905) that ended the Concordat of 1801 and completed the separation of Church and state.

Comenius, Johannes Amos (Jan Amos Komensky) (1592–1670). Czech educationist. A pastor of the Moravian Church, he is famous for his innovations in the methods of teachings, especially of languages, and wrote the first pictorial text book for children Orbis sensualism pictus (1658). He was invited to England by the parliament in 1641 to advise on education and also assisted in reforming education in Sweden and Hungary.

Spinka, M., John Amos Comenius: that Incomparable Moravian. 1943.

Commodus, Lucius Aelius Aurelius (161–192). Roman Emperor 180–92. Son of *Marcus Aurelius, he was co-Emperor from 177. He ended the persecution of Christians but his rule was marked by extravagance, cruelty and corruption. He identified himself with Hercules and had all the months of the year renamed in his honour. He was strangled in his bath by the wrestler Narcissus, at the orders of his mistress, Marcia.

Compton, Arthur Holly (1892–1962). American physicist. He shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1927 (with C.T.R. *Wilson) for their research on X-rays. He was Chancellor of Washington University 1945–53. His brother Karl Taylor Compton (1887–1954) was President of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1930–49. Both brothers were associated with the development of the atomic bomb.

Compton, Dennis Charles Scott (1918–1997). English sportsman. He was a noted Test cricket batsman and soccer player and wrote The End of an Innings (1958).

Compton-Burnett, Dame Ivy (1884–1969). English novelist, born in London. Her first two novels Dolores (1911) and Pastors and Masters (1925) were followed by a sequence of 17 more, including Men and Wives (1931), A House and its Head (1935), Parents and Children (1941), Mother and Son (1955) and A Cod and his Gifts (1963) in which she examines the complexities of lives in middle-class families in the period around 1900. Her novels consist mostly of dialogue.

Baldanaza, F., Ivy Compton-Burnett. 1964.

Comstock, Anthony (1844–1915). American reformer. Secretary of the Society for the Supression of Vice in New York 1873–1915, his name has been used in the word ‘Comstockery’, meaning prudery.

Comte, Auguste Isidore Marie François (1798–1857). French philosopher and mathematician. At first strongly influenced by *Saint-Simon, he was a lecturer at the École Polytechnique (1833–51) until periodic attacks of insanity compelled his retirement. He was financially assisted by J. S. *Mill in his later years. In The Course of Positive Philosophy (6 vols, 1830–42) he preached ‘humanism’ in its most extreme form, stating that mankind in general (and the individual also) passes through intellectual stages, the Theological (dominant in Europe until the 13th century) and the Positive (which he hoped would dominate Europe in the future, science taking the place of theology and philosophy). He theorised that because nothing can be ascertained beyond physical facts, it is useless to enquire into the origin of physical phenomena. Human knowledge is relative and not absolute, therefore mankind must seek moral values not in God, who is unknowable, but in the perfecting of human society on a scientific basis. This system is known as Logical Positivism. There are small Positivist Churches in several countries and these follow ‘The Religion of Humanity’ by worshipping the personification of man as an ideal. Comte was finally excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church, and he died of cancer after a long illness.

Conant, James Bryant (1893–1978). American chemist, administrator and educationist. He was assistant professor 1919–27 and professor of organic chemistry 1928–33 at Harvard University, becoming president of the university 1933–53. He became High Commissioner 1953–55, then Ambassador, to West Germany 1955–57, and undertook a survey of American secondary education. Among his books are Organic Chemistry (1942), Education is a Divided World (1948), Education and Liberty (1953) and The American High School Today (1958).

Hershberg, J. G., James B. Conant. 1994.

Condé, de. French noble family, members of which include Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (1530–1569). French soldier. He was, with Gaspard de *Coligny, a leader of the Huguenot faction in the religious struggle against the party of the duc de Guise. After his defeat at the battle of Jarnac he surrendered but was treacherously slain by a Catholic officer. Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (1621–1686), was the great-grandson of the preceding. As duc d’Enghien he defeated the forces of the Spaniards and of the Holy Roman Empire in many notable battles (1643–46). After a bitter dispute with Cardinal *Mazarin he defected to Spain and later led the Spanish forces in several battles against the French. However, in 1659, he returned to France where he was pardoned and later commanded the armies of *Louis XIV in succession to *Turenne. He is commonly known as the Great Condé.

Mongredien, G., Le Grand Condé. 1959.

Condillac, Etienne Bonnot, Abbé de (1714–1780). French philosopher. Son of a vicomte, he took orders essentially as a means of establishing a career and income. He became one of the leading Paris philosophes of the mid-18th century, a friend of *Rousseau and *Diderot. One of his major undertakings was to make the empirical approach to epistemology developed by *Locke thoroughly familiar in France. Condillac, however, pursued a more reductionist analysis. Locke believed that all human information came into the mind through the senses, but that the mind possessed innate powers of reflection on those sense-data. Condillac argued that the powers of judgment themselves were associations which had been formed on the basis of previous sensations. In this regard, Condillac in particular insisted that language itself was not innate, but was learnt through individual experience. For this reason, he was an advocate of the reform and systematisation of scientific language, in order to purify thought. This idea played an important role in *Lavoisier’s reforms of the language of chemistry.

Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de (1743–1794). French philosopher, mathematician and politician. Elected to the Académie française in 1782, he was a protégé of d’ *Alembert, a contributor to the Encyclopedie, biographer of *Turgot and *Voltaire and a pioneer of probability analysis. He supported the Revolution and served in the Legislative Assembly 1791–92 and the Convention 1792–94. A devotee of reason, he remained naively convinced about human perfectibility. Proscribed by Robespierre as a Girondin, he was captured and died in prison, perhaps by suicide. He was strongly anti-clerical and anti-Imperialist. He supported pacifism, birth control, legal equality for both sexes, and the establishment of social services. His optimistic essay on population, published posthumously, urged active social choices, especially education for women and family planning (*Malthus’ Essay on Population was written as a response).

Baker, K. M., Condorcet: From Natural Philosophy to Social Mathematics. 1982; Badinter, E. and R., Condorcet. 1988.

Confucius (Latinised form of Kongfuzi, i.e. ‘Master Kung’, personal name Kong Qiu in pinyin or K’ung Ch’iu in Wade-Giles) (551–479 BCE). Chinese philosopher and teacher, born in Ch’ü-fu, state of Lu (modern Shandong). Little is known of his life, but according to legend he was the son of a soldier who belonged to an impoverished noble family. His early years were spent in poverty and after some years of manual work he became an accountant and then a teacher c.531–517, wandering through the countryside discussing ethical problems. During his travels he is thought to have met *Lao Zi, the founder of Daoism. He married at an early age but the marriage soon ended in divorce and women are seldom mentioned in the Confucian writings. During a period of civil war Confucius fled to the neighbouring province of Chi and his fame spread throughout China. Duke Ting of Lu made him Governor of the city of Chungtu. He was Minister of Works and Justice 501–498 and Prime Minister of the province 498–495 until he was forced to resign by the pleasure-seeking duke. For 13 years he was an itinerant teacher. In 482 a new duke of Lu invited him to return and his three remaining years were devoted to collating and revising the ancient Chinese scriptures. He was buried with great ceremony at Qufu where his grave still attracts pilgrims. The term Confucianism is an 18th-century European coinage and characterising it as a religion is misconceived. Confucius was no more a religious teacher than *Socrates or *Plato: he was an ethical philosopher and none of his teachings deals with the nature of God or prospects of future life. He stressed that society depends on the observance of natural relationships of authority, obedience and mutual respect, both within the family and between ruler and subject, and he urged strict observance of loyalty, submission and benevolence. Many of his sayings are included in the famous Analects copied down by his disciples: they include Confucius’s ‘golden rule’: ‘What you do not like when done to yourself do not do to others.’ Although he was never deified he has been the object of prayers and sacrifices by the Chinese and ancestor worship is inextricably linked to his teachings. Confucius was an exact contemporary of the *Buddha. Until World War II, knowledge of the Confucian scriptures (The Five Kings, The Four Books and the Analects) was compulsory for Chinese university students and civil servants. Confucian teaching was also influential in Japan and Korea. H. H. Kung (1881–1967), one of *Chiang Kaishek’s ministers, was a direct descendant of Confucius, in the 75th generation.

Creel, H. G., Confucius and the Chinese Way. 1960; Dawson, R., Confucius. 1981; Leys, S., The Analects of Confucius. 1997.

Congreve, William (1670–1729). English dramatist. Brought up in Ireland and originally for the law he went to London in 1692, and became a novelist and playwright. Double Dealer (1694) and Love for Love (1695) show his mastery of construction and style. He was a friend of *Dryden and *Swift. His best known play, The Way of the World (1700), regarded as one of the best English comedies of manners, was a failure at first and Congreve, disappointed, abandoned writing for the stage.

Lynch, K. M., A Congreve Gallery. 1951.

Conkling, Roscoe (1829–1888). American Republican politician. US Congressman 1859–63, 1865–67, US Senator from New York 1867–81, he was progressive on slavery, a supporter of *Lincoln and *Grant, and the Civil Rights Act (1875). However, as leader of the ‘Stalwart’ faction, he was corrupt and strongly opposed to civil service reform. He declined appointment as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1873 and as an Associate Justice in 1881.

Connally, John Bowden, Jr (1917–1993). American politician. Originally a Democrat and protégé of L. B. *Johnson, he became Secretary of the Navy 1961, and Governor of Texas 1963–69, being shot and injured in Dallas when President Kennedy was assassinated. He was *Nixon’s Secretary of the Treasury 1971–72 and joined the Republicans in 1973.

Connaught and Strathearn, Prince Arthur William Patrick Albert, 1st Duke of (1850–1942). English soldier and prince. The son of Queen *Victoria, he served for many years in the British Army and was Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean 1907–10 and Governor-General of Canada 1911–16. His son, Prince Arthur of Connaught (1883–1938), was Governor-General of South Africa 1920–23, his daughter Princess Margaret of Connaught (1882–1920) married the future *Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden.

Connelly, Marc(us Cook) (1890–1980). American playwright. He wrote the plays The Wisdom Tooth and Green Pastures and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1930.

Connery, Sir Sean Thomas (1930– ). Scottish film actor. He worked in many casual jobs, including coffin polisher. He was the original James Bond in seven films based on Ian *Fleming’s novels (from Dr No, 1962 to Never Say Never Again, 1983). He won an Academy Award for best supporting actor for The Untouchables. Other films included The Russia House (1990) and The Rock (1996).

Connolly, Cyril (Vernon) (1903–1974). English critic and editor. He edited Horizon 1939–50 and his books include Enemies of Promise (1938) and Condemned Playground (1944).

Connolly, James (1870–1916). Irish socialist politician. After joining the Sinn Féin movement, he became Commander-in-Chief of the Easter Rising in 1916. He was captured by the British and shot.

Conrad, Joseph (Jozef Teodor Konrad Nalecz Korzeniowski) (1857–1924). British novelist, born in Berdichev, Poland (now in Ukraine). From 1874 he worked as a seaman on French ships, joining the British merchant marine in 1880. He sailed round the world and qualified as a master in 1886. He became a naturalised British subject in 1886, explored the Congo on foot 1890, retired from sea life in 1894 and devoted himself to writing. His novels, all written in English, include Almayer’s Folly (1895), An Outcast of the Islands (1896), The Nigger of the Narcissus (1898), Lord Jim (1900), Nostromo (1904), The Secret Agent (1907), Under Western Eyes (1911), Chance (1913), Victory (1915), The Shadow Line (1917), The Rescue (1920) and The Rover (1923). His novella, Heart of Darkness appeared in the collection Youth (1902). Orson *Welles planned a feature film and it inspired Francis Ford *Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979). Conrad worked with Ford Madox *Ford and was befriended by Henry *James and John *Galsworthy. His novels show a real mastery of narrative style and great psychological insight. There is also a strong sense of the mystery of nature, especially of the sea, and of the forces summoned up in human nature in order to fight it. The critic F. R. *Leavis placed him (1941) in ‘the great tradition’.

Baines, J., Joseph Conrad: A Critical Biography. 1960.

Conrad von Hotzendorff, Franz, Graf [Count] (1852–1925). Austrian field marshal. Chief of Staff of the Imperial Army 1906–17, he was the leading Austrian advocate for war in 1914, anti-Serb and anti-Italian and persuaded the foreign minister *Berchtold to support a punitive war against Serbia.

Conran, Sir Terence Orby (1931– ). English designer. He had a major influence in designing shops, restaurants, furniture, gardens and toys, was a prolific writer, able publicist, effective entrepreneur and company director.

Consalvi, Ercole (1757–1824). Italian cardinal and diplomat. As Papal Secretary of State 1800–23 he proved to be a masterly diplomat, took part in the Paris Peace Conference of 1814 and secured the restoration of the Papal States. He followed a relatively liberal domestic policy.

Constable, John (1776–1837). English painter. His landscape paintings have received recognition for their spontaneity and freshness, and greatly influenced the techniques of many 19th-century artists, notably the Barbizon school in France. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1802, but he did not gain general recognition until about 1824, when his View on the Stour and The Hay Wain were exhibited in Paris, won gold medals and aroused great admiration. His work was rooted in a deep love of the East Anglian landscape, and characterised by his ability to convey atmosphere, weather and changing light. He is considered, with *Turner, the greatest English landscape painter.

Gadney, R., Constable and His World. 1976.

Constant (de Rebecque), (Henri) Benjamin (1761–1830). French-Swiss writer and politician, born in Lausanne. A member of the Tribunate 1799–1802, he later opposed *Napoléon and was banished and after the Bourbon Restoration supported constitutional liberalism. He published the psychological novel Adolphe in 1816 and later wrote the monumental study On Religion. In 1951 Cecile, another of his novels, was discovered and published.

Nicolson, H., Benjamin Constant. 1949; Wood, D., Benjamin Constant. A Life. 1993.

Constantine I (‘the Great’) (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus) (c.280–337 CE). Roman Emperor 306–37. Born at Kis (now in Serbia), the illegitimate son of *Constantius Chlorus (250–306) and *Helena, he served as a soldier under *Diocletian and *Galerius, and in 305 accompanied his father to Britain. After his father’s sudden death, Constantine was proclaimed as Emperor by his troops. There were several years of struggle before his authority was fully recognised throughout the empire. Between 306 and 316 his capital was at Augusta Treverorum (modern Trier), where he built a great basilica, which largely survives, and imperial baths. In 312 he finally defeated the general *Maxentius (who had been proclaimed Emperor in Rome by his troops) at the battle of Milvian Bridge. At this battle he saw a vision of the cross in the Heavens accompanied by the words ‘in hoc signo vinces’ (‘In this sign shalt thou conquer’). In the Edict of Milan (313), he and Licinius officially granted toleration ‘for Christians and all others’. In 324 he became sole ruler of both the Eastern and Western Empires, and after gaining the support of the Christian Church for this administration, he established an absolute monarchy. Although he did not become a baptised Christian until shortly before his death. he took an active interest in Church affairs and convened (325) the first General Council of the Church at Nicaea (modern Iznik) at which the Athanasian (or Nicene) Creed was adopted and toleration, in effect, withdrawn from other religions. In 325 he chose Byzantium as the capital of the Roman Empire (‘Roma Nova’), in 330 renamed Constantinopolis in his honour. He then made Christianity the state religion and improved the administration throughout the empire. His son, Flavius Claudius Constantinus (317–340), ruled as Constantine II 337–40. He shared the government of the Empire with his brothers, taking Britain and Gaul as his personal responsibility. He was killed in a battle against his brother Constans.

McMullen, R., Constantine. 1969; Fletcher, J., Life of Constantine the Great. 2008; Stephenson, P., Constantine. Roman Emperor, Christian Victor. 2010; Potter, D., Constantine the Great. 2013.

Constantine I (1868–1923). King of Greece 1913–17, 1920–22. Son of *George I of Greece, he supported Germany during World War I and was forced to abdicate by the pro-British Prime Minister Eleutherios *Venizelos. After the war he was recalled by a plebiscite but abdicated once more on the failure of the Greek campaign against the Turks in Asia Minor. He was the father of three Greek kings: *Alexander, *George II and *Paul I.

Constantine II (c.879–953). King of Alba (Scotland) 900–43. Grandson of Kenneth MacAlpine, and son of Aed, after a long reign he abdicated and died as a hermit in St Andrews.

Constantine IX (Kōnstantinos Monomarkhos) (c.1000–1055). Byzantine Emperor 1042–1055. Son of a Macedonian official, he was chosen to be husband and co-ruler by the Empress *Zoë. After her death (1050) he ruled with her sister Theodora. He revived the university in Constantinople and promoted arts, architecture and literature. However, he lost territory to the Normans in the West, to a rebellion in Thrace and the Seljuk Turks were about to invade Anatolia. The ‘Great Schism’ of 1054 between the Latin and Greek churches occurred during his reign but he was not involved.

Constantine XI Palaeologus (1404–1453). Byzantine Emperor 1448–53. Last Emperor of the East, he was killed by the Turks after the capture of Constantinople, and was buried without a trace.

Constantine XIII (1940– ). King of Greece 1964–67. Son of *Paul I, he grew up in South Africa and won an Olympic Gold Medal for yachting in 1960. Although his grandfather was *Constantine I, he adopted the numeral XIII to stress his continuity with the Byzantine (Greek) emperors before 1453. Following a military coup in April 1967, the king attempted a counter-coup in December in order to restore his personal authority. This failed and Constantine retreated to exile, settling in Hampstead. He was stripped of Greek citizenship in 1994.

Constantius I Chlorus (Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantius) (250–306). Roman Emperor 305–306. Born in Dardania (modern Kosova), his partner (or wife) was *Helena. Their son was *Constantine I. He left her and married the daughter of emperor *Maximian who promoted Constantius to be ‘Caesar’ in 293, under the tetrarchy created by *Diocletian, and on his abdication became joint Emperor with *Galerius, ruling as ‘Augustus’ in the west. He defeated a rising in Britain and died suddenly at Eboracum (York).

Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus) (317–361). Roman Emperor 337–61. Born in Serbia, third son of *Constantine, he shared the throne with his brothers *Constantine II and Constans, but in the ensuing conflict, Constantine II was killed and the empire was divided, with Constantius taking the east. He engaged in inconclusive warfare with the Persians, continued his father’s promotion of Christianity and attempted to find a compromise between the supporters of the Nicene Creed and Arianism. Baptised on his deathbed, he was succeeded by his cousin *Julian the Apostate.

Cook, Frederick Albert (1865–1940). American physician and explorer. In 1908 he claimed to have reached the North Pole but R. E. *Peary challenged this and Cook was greatly discredited. To the end of his life he still maintained that he was the first man to reach the Pole. He died in poverty after having been jailed for five years for mail frauds.

Cook, James (1728–1779). English explorer, navigator and scientist, born in Marton-in-Cleveland, Yorkshire. Son of an agricultural labourer, he joined the Royal Navy in 1755 and received rapid promotion, largely because of his skill at navigation. His detailed charts of the St Lawrence River assisted *Wolfe’s victory on the Heights of Abraham, Québec (1759) and he was stationed in Newfoundland and Labrador waters 1763–67. In 1768 he was appointed commander of the barque Endeavour which was to take an expedition of scientists, headed by Joseph *Banks, to observe the transit of Venus, at Tahiti. On his return he circumnavigated the two islands of New Zealand and explored the eastern coast of Australia, north of 38º. On 29 April 1770, after Cook fired three shots at indigenes in canoes, his party landed at Botany Bay (originally called Stingray Bay), raised the Union Flag and stayed for eight days, collecting novel flora and fauna. Inexplicably, although Cook observed (and named) the entrance to Port Jackson, the future site of Sydney, just to the north, he failed to explore it. Endeavour was breached on a shoal of the Great Barrier Reef in June and repaired near the site of modern Cooktown. Having charted the whole eastern coastline, on 22 August 1770, at Possession Island, in the Torres Strait, he claimed possession of the whole eastern coast, naming it New South Wales, for King *George III. This exploration was acclaimed on his return to England in 1771. On a second expedition (1772–75), in the Resolution, he charted the coast of New Zealand, crossed the Antarctic Circle (January 1773) and reached 71°10’S, explored (and re-named) New Caledonia and named the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu). He experimented with diet, including malt and wort (by-products of making beer), sauerkraut and fresh vegetables and no sailor on the Resolution died of scurvy; for this he received the Copley Medal of the Royal Society (1775) and was elected FRS (1776). On his third voyage to the Pacific (1776–79), again on HMS Resolution, he circumnavigated New Zealand, made the first European landing on the Hawaiian islands (which he named the Sandwich Islands) and charted the Pacific coast of North America up to the Arctic regions in an unsuccessful attempt to find a north-east passage through North America from the Pacific. On returning to Hawaii he was involved in a scuffle with natives over a stolen boat and was clubbed to death and dismembered. His remains were returned to the British and buried at sea. Minor planet 3061 Cook, a Moon crater and places in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Alaska, Hawaii, Antarctica, Chile, French Polynesia and the Cook Islands are named for him.

His widow, Elizabeth Cook (née Batts) (1743–1835), burnt all his letters before she died.

Beaglehole, J. C. (ed.), The Journals of Captain James Cook. 1955–67; Frame, W. and Walker, L., James Cook. The Voyages. 2018.

Cook, Sir Joseph (1860–1947). Australian politician, born in Staffordshire. Originally a coal miner, he emigrated to Australia in 1885, becoming a union organiser, fervent Methodist and Member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly 1894–1901. He broke with Labor on the solidarity pledge in 1894, serving as a Minister under George *Reid. Elected as a Free Trader to the House of Representatives 1901–21, he later became a Liberal, then Nationalist. Minister for Defence 1909–10, he succeeded *Deakin as Leader of the Opposition 1913, narrowly defeating *Forrest. He was Prime Minister 1913–14, Minister of the Navy 1917–20 and High Commissioner in England 1921–27.

Cook, Robin (Robert Finlayson) (1946–2005). British Labour politician. He was a tutor and racing journalist, Edinburgh councillor, MP 1974–2005, Foreign Secretary 1997–2001 and Leader of the House of Commons 2001–03. He broke with Tony *Blair over the Iraq war.

Cook, Thomas (1808–1892). English tourist agent. His firm pioneered the organisation of international tourist services which greatly encouraged European travel. Faced with online bookings, fierce competition, and an ageing clientele, the Thomas Cook Group ceased trading in September 2019.

Swinglehurst, E., Romantic Journey: Story of Thomas Cook and Victorian Travel. 1974.

Cooke, Robin Brunskill, Baron Cooke (1926–2006). New Zealand judge. A judge from 1972 and President of the Court of Appeal 1986–96, in 1995 he became New Zealand’s last life peer.

Coolidge, (John) Calvin (1872–1933). 30th President of the US 1923–29. Born in Plymouth, Vermont, son of a storekeeper, he was educated at Amherst College, became an attorney, city councillor, Mayor of Northampton, State Senator 1912–15 and Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts 1916–18. As Governor 1919–20, he won fame by his firm handling of a police strike in Boston, 1919. In 1920 he was the successful Republican candidate for the vice presidency and served 1921–23. On the death of Warren *Harding, he succeeded to the presidency. Although re-elected overwhelmingly in 1924, he declined to stand again in 1928. He believed ‘That the best government is the least government’, and exercised little executive authority as president. A cold, somewhat introverted personality, he was notorious for his laconic utterances. When told that Coolidge had died, Dorothy *Parker commented: ‘How can they tell?’

White, W. A., A Puritan in Babylon. 1938; Shlaes, A., Coolidge. 2013.

Coombs, H(erbert) C(ole) (‘Nugget’) (1906–1997). Australian economist, banker and public servant, born in Western Australia. Educated at the University of WA and the London School of Economics, he became Director of Rationing 1942–43 and Director-General of Post War Reconstruction 1943–49. For more than 40 years he played a decisive role in economic and social policy formulation, including central banking as Governor of the Commonwealth Bank 1949–60 and the Reserve Bank 1960–68, education, was Chairman of the Australian Council for the Arts 1968–74, the Council for Aboriginal Affairs 1968–76 and Chancellor of Australian National University 1968–76. From 1972 he had an intense, touching relationship with the poet Judith *Wright and they were prolific correspondents.

Coombs, H. C, Trial Balance. 1981; Rowse, T., Nugget Coombs. A Reforming Life. 2002.

Cooper, (Alfred) Duff, 1st Viscount Norwich (1890–1954). English Conservative politician and writer. A descendent of *William IV, educated at Eton and Oxford, he entered the Foreign Office and won a DSO in World War I. Member of Parliament 1924–29, 1931–45, he was Secretary of State for War 1935–37, First Lord of the Admiralty 1937–38 (resigning as a protest against *Chamberlain’s appeasement policy), Minister of Information 1940–41, and Ambassador to France 1944–47. A skilful author, he wrote biographies of *Haig, *Foch and *Talleyrand. In 1919 he married Lady Diana Manners (1892–1986), a daughter of the Duke of Rutland, a famous beauty and actor. For his son, see John Julius *Norwich.

Cooper, D., Old Men Forget. 1953. 1986; Charmley, J., Duff Cooper. 1986.

Cooper, Gary (Frank James) (1901–1961). American film actor. He appeared in 91 films as a vigorous man of action. The best known are For Whom the Bell Tolls, Sergeant York and High Noon.

Cooper, James Fenimore (1789–1851). American writer. His dramatic stories of the adventures of the pioneers with Native Americans include The Last of the Mohicans (1826), The Pathfinder (1840), and The Deer Slayer (1841). He lived in Europe 1826–33, where his novels were very popular and praised by Franz *Schubert, Victor *Hugo and *Balzac.

Grossman, J., James Fenimore Cooper. 1949.

Coote, Sir Eyre (1726–1783). English soldier. He served under *Clive at the battle of Plassey (1757). As Commander-in-Chief in India, 1779–83, he allied himself with Warren *Hastings and helped to complete the conquest of the subcontinent.

Copernicus Nicolaus (Mikolaj Koppernigk) (1473–1543). Polish astronomer born in Torun. He studied astronomy, mathematics and medicine in Cracow and Padua and was physician to his uncle, the Bishop of Ermeland, 1506–12. Although not in holy orders, his uncle appointed him to the office of Canon of Frauenburg in 1513 and he held this position until his death. For over 30 years he studied the theory, first enunciated by *Pythagoras, that the earth is not the centre of the solar system, but his great work which lays down his final conclusions was not published until shortly before his death. In this book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, he argued that the sun is the centre of the solar system, the earth rotates daily on its axis and that other planets also revolve around the sun in orbits. He is regarded as the founder of modern astronomy. His theories were adopted by *Galileo and *Kepler, rejected by Tycho *Brahe. He also advocated monetary reform and anticipated *Gresham's Law.

Banville, J., Doctor Copernicus. 1977.

Copland, Aaron (1900–1990). American composer, born in New York. His parents came from Russia, where the family name was Kaplan. A pupil of Nadia *Boulanger, his works, mostly for orchestra, have great rhythmic vitality and many critics consider him the leading contemporary American composer. His music includes the ballets El Salon Mexico, Appalachian Spring, Billy the Kid and The Tender Land (an opera) and he was awarded a Pulitzer Prize (1944), an Oscar (1950) and the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1964).

Smith, J., Aaron Copland. 1955.

Copley, Sir Godfrey, 2nd Baronet (c.1653–1709). English official. MP 1678–81, 1695–1705, he endowed the Royal Society’s Copley Medal, its highest award, first conferred in 1736.

Copley, John Singleton (1738–1815). American portrait painter. Noted for his ‘Boston portraits’ of New England families, he moved to England in 1774 and extended his work into the genre of historical paintings. These were technically sophisticated but they lacked the vigour of his early work and his reputation suffered. His son, John Singleton Copley, 1st Baron Lyndhurst (1772–1863), born in Boston, became Lord Chancellor 1827–30, 1834–35 and 1841–46, and was a moderate reformer with a high judicial reputation.

Coppola, Francis Ford (1939– ). American film director and writer. The son of a musician, educated at UCLA, his extremely successful films include The Godfather (1972), Godfather II (1974), The Conversation (1974), Apocalypse Now (1979), Godfather III (1990) and The Rainmaker (1997).

Coquelin, Benoît-Constant (1841–1909). French actor. He made his debut at the Comédie Française in 1860, and became a full member of the company at 23. His range was exceptionally wide, and he excelled at the broadest comedy and most delicate pathos. He formed his own company in 1892. In 1895–97 he worked at the Renaissance Théâtre, Paris. In 1897 he was a director of the Théâtre de la Porte-Saint-Martin, where he created the part of Cyrano de Bergerac in *Rostand’s play. In 1900 he toured with Sarah *Bernhardt and acted at her theatre during the last years of his career.

Corbett, James John (1866–1933). American boxer, born in San Francisco. Known as ‘Gentleman Jim’, he defeated John L. *Sullivan to become world heavyweight boxing champion in 1892, losing to Bob *Fitzsimmons in 1897. He retired from boxing in 1903 and became an actor, appearing in 12 films. Errol *Flynn played Corbett in the film Gentleman Jim (1942).

Corbusier, Le see Le Corbusier

Corbyn, Jeremy Bernard (1949– ). British Labour politician. MP 1983– , but never a Minister, strongly opposed to many policies advanced by Tony *Blair, often voting against the Labour Government (or abstaining), especially on Iraq and national security. In September 2015 he won Labour’s leadership with strong votes from trade unions and branch members, despite only minuscule support from fellow MPs. Despite low expectations, Corbyn campaigned well in the June 2017 election, reviving many pre-*Blair policies, securing a 9.5 per cent swing to Labour and denying a Tory majority to Theresa *May. Corbyn seemed unable to, or unwilling, to shake off accusations of anti-Semitism. In the campaign for the December 2019 election, his position on a second Referendum about the UK’s relationship with the EU was equivocal and Labour suffered its worst result since 1935, with a primary vote of 32.2 per cent. Corbyn left the Leadership in April 2020 on the election of his successor, Sir Keith *Starmer.

Corday, Charlotte (Marie Anne Charlotte Corday d’Armont) (1768–1793). French assassin and revolutionary. A member of an old Norman family, she supported the principles of the French Revolution, but, horrified by the Reign of Terror, she murdered one of the Jacobin leaders, Jean Paul *Marat, by stabbing him in his bath. She was guillotined four days later.

Corelli, Arcangelo (1653–1713). Italian composer and violinist, born in Fusignano. Educated in Bologna, he lived in Rome from 1675, enjoying the patronage of Queen *Christina and Cardinals Pamphili and *Ottoboni, and composed orchestral music for great occasions. He created the Concerto Grosso form, wrote 60 of them, was extensively published, influenced *Scarlatti, *Händel and *Bach and became the first composer known exclusively for instrumental works. Corelli was an outstanding teacher, ensemble trainer and one of the earliest conductors.

Pincherle, M., Corelli et son temps. 1954; Allsop, P., Arcangelo Corelli. New Orpheus of Our Times. 1999.

Corelli, Marie (Mary Mackay) (1855–1924). English novelist. She enjoyed a decade of sensational success with her novels A Romance of Two Worlds (1886), Barabbas (1893), The Sorrows of Satan (1895) and The Mighty Atom (1896), followed by a critical reaction and oblivion.

Cori, Carl Ferdinand (1896–1984). American biochemist, born in Czechoslovakia. Professor of Biochemistry at Washington University, St Louis 1931–67, he and his wife Gerty Theresa Cori (née Radnitz) (1896–1957) shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1947 for their studies in carbohydrate metabolism.

Coriolanus, Gaius Marcius (fl. 490 BCE). Roman hero. After being exiled from Rome he became Commander of the Volscian army, heading it against Rome. He stopped his forces outside the city in response to the pleas of his wife and mother, and was killed by the Volsces as a result. *Shakespeare wrote a tragic play on this theme.

Corneille, Pierre (1606–1684). French playwright, born in Rouen. Of a middle-class family, educated by the Jesuits, he became a lawyer and was Crown Counsel in Rouen until 1650. Between 163l and 1635 he had written seven successful comedies, was awarded a pension by Cardinal *Richelieu and became nationally famous with his drama El Cid (1637?) which led to an obscure quarrel over royalties and the loss of the Cardinal’s favour. Corneille’s later plays were mostly tragedies, dramatic rather than cathartic, written in Alexandrine verse, physically static but emotionally vigorous and brilliantly characterised, generally turning on the conflict between two duties, and mostly based on classical subjects. They include Médée (1637), Horace (1640), Cinna (1641), Polyeucte (1643), Oedipe (1659), Othon (1664) and Suréna (1674). He was greatly admired by *Molière, *Voltaire, *Napoléon and *Balzac. He became a member of the Académie française in 1647. His brother Thomas Corneille (1625–1709) was the author of two very successful plays, Timocrate (1656) and Ariane (1672).

Yarrow, P., Corneille. 1963; Stegmann, A. (ed.), Oeuvres complètes de Pierre Corneille. 1963.

Cornforth, Sir John Warcup (1917–2013). Australian organic chemist, born in Sydney. Educated at Sydney and Oxford universities, and completely deaf from the age of 20, he worked for the UK Medical Research Council 1946–62, directed the Shell chemical enzyme laboratory 1962–75, and shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1975 for work on the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions. He was Australian of the Year in 1975, received the Copley Medal in 1982 and an AC in 1991.

Cornwall, Earl of see Richard, Earl of Cornwall

Cornwallis, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess (1738–1805). English general and politician, born in London. Son of the 1st Earl Cornwallis, educated at Eton and Cambridge, he was a Member of Parliament 1760–62. An able soldier, he served in British forces in the American War of Independence from 1776, under William *Howe and the incompetent Henry *Clinton, until forced to surrender to George *Washington in Yorktown, Va. (October 1781), after defeat by American and French troops.

As Governor-General of Bengal and Commander-in-Chief in the East Indies 1786–93, he consolidated and simplified the legal system, imposing the English model. Master-General of the Ordnance 1795–1801, he was a signatory of the Treaty of Amiens (1802). Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1798–1801, he imposed executions and brutal punishments after the 1798 Young Ireland rising (and an abortive French invasion), but detested the corruption involved securing the Act of Union (1801), which absorbed Ireland into the United Kingdom. Sympathetic to Catholic emancipation, he resigned, with William *Pitt when reform was blocked by *George III. On Pitt’s return as Prime Minister, Cornwallis was reappointed as Governor-General of Bengal 1805, but nine weeks after his arrival he died of fever in Ghazipur and was buried there.

Corot, (Jean-Baptiste) Camille (1796–1875). French landscape and figurative artist, born in Paris. Son of prosperous shopkeepers, he was largely self-trained and apart from three years in Rome (1825–28) spent most of his life uneventfully in Paris, often visiting the country to sketch and paint. He never married. He began painting in the classical *Poussin tradition but evolved a subtle and original style that influenced and anticipated the Impressionists. He was a friend, but not a member, of the Barbizon school (*Millet). He was extremely prolific, much imitated (and forged): cynics observed that of Corot’s 3000 paintings, 5000 were in the United States.

Correggio, Antonio Allegri da (c.1494–1534). Italian painter. His works are mostly on religious subjects and show great mastery of the art of composition. One of the best known is The Ascension of the Virgin in Parma Cathedral.

Cortés (de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano), Hernán (1484–1547). Spanish (Castilian) conquistador, born in Medellin, Extremadura. Son of an impoverished hidalgo, he attended university at Salamanca, went to the New World in 1506 and became an administrator in Hispaniola (Santa Domingo) and Cuba. He led an expedition of 508 soldiers, 100 sailors and 16 horses which landed in Yucatan in February 1519, and soon formed alliances with some Mexican kingdoms hostile to Aztec domination. He arrived in Tenochtitlan (Mexico) in November 1519. The superstitious emperor *Moctezuma II may have identified Cortés with the god Quetzalcoatl and became a pliant hostage of the Spaniards until he died in June 1520, either as a result of stoning by his own people or Spanish murder. During Cortés’ absence, the Aztecs drove the Spanish out of Tenochtitlan. He returned with a larger army in August 1521 assisted by horses, cannon and the devastating pandemic of smallpox to which the Spaniards were immune. Tenochtitlan was destroyed. Cortés established control of the whole Aztec empire and was made Governor of New Spain 1523–26. He explored Honduras 1524–26. Cortés was subject to violent attack by rival Spaniards and had powerful enemies at the court of *Charles V. However, in 1529 he was created marques del Valle de Oaxaca, married a duke’s niece and was confirmed as Captain General of New Spain. In 1536 he explored (and named) Lower California. He returned to Spain in 1540, claimed poverty and neglect but was enormously rich and died on his estate near Seville. He is now buried in Mexico.

Madariaga, S. de, Hernån Cortéz, Conqueror of Mexico. 1941.

Cortot, Alfred (Denis) (1877–1962). French pianist and conductor, born in Nyon, Switzerland. He began his career as a *Beethoven pianist, then studied *Wagner’s operas in Bayreuth and premiered Parsifal and Götterdämmerung in Paris (1902). In 1905 he formed a trio with Jacques Thibaud and Pablo *Casals and toured extensively. He became a noted interpreter of *Chopin, made many recordings and was an important teacher (*Lipatti was a pupil). He collaborated with the German occupation and *Petain’s government and in 1945 was suspended from performing for a year.

Corvo, Baron see Rolfe, Frederick William

Cosgrave, William Thomas (1888–1965). Irish politician. Originally a grocer, he became active in the Irish Nationalist Movement and was a member of the House of Commons 1918–22, although he did not take his seat. Following the sudden deaths of Arthur *Griffith and Michael *Collins, he became the first Prime Minister (President of the Executive Council) of the Irish Free State 1922–32. He crushed *de Valera’s rebellion far more harshly than the British had ever acted and, by 1923, 11,000 Republicans were in prison and more than 50 had been executed. His son, Liam Cosgrave (1920–2017) was Minister for External Affairs 1954–57, and Prime Minister 1973–77.

Cosgrove, Sir Peter John (1947– ). Australian general, born in Sydney. Educated at Duntroon, he was Chief of the Army 2000–02, Chief of the Defence Force 2002–05 and Governor-General 2014–19. He wrote My Story (2006).

Cossa, Baldassarre (c.1370–1419). Italian prelate and anti-Pope, known as John XXIII, born in the kingdom of Naples. Educated at Bologna, he rose in the church bureaucracy at a time of ‘the Great Schism’, with rival popes in Rome (*Gregory XII) and Avignon (Benedict XIII). In Pisa, he was elected as ‘pope’ by a group of cardinals and was recognised by France, England, Portugal, Florence and Venice. He appointed the *Medici as bankers to the papacy. Cossa was deposed by the Council of Constance (1413), imprisoned in Germany, then ransomed by Florence. *Gibbon wrote of him, ‘The more scandalous charges were suppressed; the vicar of Christ was accused only of piracy, rape, sodomy, murder and incest’.

Costa, Lúcio Marçal Ferreira Ribeiro Lima (1902–1998). French-Brazilian architect, born in Toulouse. A follower of *Le Corbusier, appointed as Director of the School of Fine Arts in 1931, he was one of a team responsible for the Ministry of Education and Health building in Rio de Janeiro 1937–43 which is regarded as pioneering modern architecture in Brazil. He designed the plan for the city of Brasilia in 1956.

Costello, John A(loysius) (1891–1976). Irish politician. Leader of Fine Gael, he was an opponent of *de Valera, served as Prime Minister 1948–51, 1954–57 and took Ireland out of the British Commonwealth (1949).

Costello, Peter Howard (1957– ). Australian Liberal politician, born in Melbourne. Educated at Monash University, he became a barrister and was a Member of the House of Representatives 1990–2007 and Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party 1994–2007. In John *Howard’s Government, despite some tensions on the issue of succession, he became Australia’s longest serving Commonwealth Treasurer 1996–2007.

Coster, Laurens Janszoon (c.1370–1440?). Dutch inventor. He worked in Haarlem and is sometimes claimed to have preceded *Gutenberg in the development of movable, metal type.

Cotman, John Sell (1782–1842). English landscape painter and etcher. With *Crome he is considered the leading member of the Norwich School. He had a deep interest in architecture, and painted landscapes with a strong structural form, emphasised by flat washes. His Liber Studorium of 1838 consists of 48 soft-ground etchings, and is considered a landmark in etching technique.

Cotton, Charles (1630–1687). English poet. He was a country gentleman who wrote some beautiful short lyrics, admired by Wordsworth. He translated the Essays of Montaigne, and became the friend of Izaak Walton, to whose Compleat Angler he contributed. He wrote many parodies of the works of classical authors.

Coty, René Jules Gustave (1882–1962). French conservative politician. Originally a lawyer, he was active in local government and served as Deputy 1923–35 and Senator 1935–42. He took no part in politics during the war, but after the Liberation was re-elected as Deputy (1945) and Senator (1948). He became Minister of Reconstruction 1947 and was Vice President of the Senate 1949–53. In December 1953 on the 13th ballot he was elected as President of the Fourth Republic as a compromise candidate and served Jan. 1954–Jan. 1959. In May 1958, he installed General *de Gaulle as Premier, retiring on the inauguration of the Fifth Republic.

Coubertin, Pierre, Baron de (1863–1937). French publicist and educator. He was responsible for the revival of the Olympic Games and presided at the first modern Olympiad in Athens in 1896. He served as President of the International Olympic Federation 1894–1925.

Coué, Emile (1857–1926). French psychotherapist. He believed that auto-suggestion has a powerful effect on sickness (even organic disease) and his slogan ‘Every day, in every way, l am getting better and better’ became extraordinarily popular in the 1920s.

Coughlin, Charles Edward (1891–1979). American priest, born in Canada. He began broadcasting from Detroit, Michigan, in the 1920s, originally in opposition to the Ku Klux Klan. In the period 1930–36 he had a weekly audience of more than 10 million. Originally a supporter of the New Deal, he turned strongly against Roosevelt and in 1935 formed the National Union of Social Justice which had anti-Semitic and pro-Fascist tendencies. In 1942 his broadcasts were banned and he quickly lost influence. Joseph P. *Kennedy was a strong supporter of Father Coughlin.

Coulomb, Charles Augustin de (1736–1806). French physicist. Noted for his work on electricity and magnetism, he was a military engineer by profession, and invented a magnetoscope, a magnometer and a torsion balance. He proved that the force of attraction between two electrical charges is inversely proportional to the square of their distance: this is known as ‘Coulomb’s Law’. A ‘coulomb’ is the standard unit of electrical quantity, a current of one ampere per second. In 1802 *Napoléon appointed him as inspector of schools.

Couperin, François (1668–1733). French composer, harpsichordist and organist, known as ‘Couperin le Grand’. His family produced many notable musicians. He studied the works of *Corelli and *Lully, becoming a church organist at St Gervais in Paris (from 1683) and music master at the Royal Court 1717–33. He was a great keyboard virtuoso and composed more than 300 vivacious and graceful harpsichord works that greatly influenced J. S. *Bach and *Händel. He also wrote chamber music, songs and religious works.

Mellers, W., François Couperin and the French Classical Tradition. 1950.

Courbet, Gustave (1819–1877). French realist painter. Originally a student of theology, he taught himself painting by copying the works exhibited in the Louvre and ultimately became one of the most prolific of all French artists. His realism in painting made him the enemy of the traditionalists, and his original technique influenced later French schools. An atheist and socialist, he was active in the Paris Commune, sitting as a member of the revolutionary assembly (1871). He later served six months in jail, before he fled to Switzerland where he died. His best works include The Burial at Ornans (1850), Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet (1854), The Painter’s Studio (1855) and the powerful nude The Origin of the World (L’Origine du monde, 1866).

Zahar, M., Gustave Courbet. 1950; Rubin, J. H., Courbet. 1997.

Courtauld, Samuel (1876–1947). British industrialist and patron of the arts. As chairman of Courtauld’s textile company he pioneered the commercial development of man-made fibres. His collection of French paintings became the nucleus of the collection at Home House, where he also set up the Courtauld Institute for the study of art history.

Cousin, Victor (1792–1867). French philosopher and educationist. A popular lecturer at the Sorbonne, he developed what he termed ‘eclectic’ philosophy, insisting that truth can be discerned by ‘intuition’. As Minister of Education 1840–5l, he introduced many reforms into French primary education, most of them derived from Germany. He translated *Plato’s works and wrote studies on *Pascal and *Kant.

Cousteau, Jacques Yves (1910–1997). French marine explorer, conservationist, author and film-maker. A French naval officer, with Emil Gagnan he invented the aqualung (1943) which permitted much underwater exploration and popularised scuba-diving. In the Calypso, he conducted experiments to extend the period divers could spend underwater. With specially designed submarines, he made many underwater films: three won Academy Awards in 1957, 1959 and 1965. He directed the Oceanographic Museum, Monaco from 1957. The Cousteau Society (established in 1973) was a prolific producer of books and a 21–volume encyclopaedia. A member of the Académie française 1988–97, he played a central role, with Bob *Hawke, in securing international agreement (1991) to preserve Antarctica from mining for 50 years.

Cousteau, J. Y., The Ocean World of Jacques Cousteau. 20 vols, 1973; Matsen, B., Jacques Cousteau. The Sea King. 2009.

Couthon, Georges (1755–1794). French revolutionary. A cripple, trained as a lawyer, he was a Member of the Legislative Assembly 1791–92, a Member of the Convention 1792–94 and of the Committee of Public Safety 1793–94. He was guillotined with *Robespierre.

Couve de Murville, Maurice (1907–1999). French diplomat and politician. He served as French Ambassador to Egypt 1950–54, to NATO 1954–55, to the United States 1955–56 and to West Germany 1956–58. President *de Gaulle appointed him Minister for Foreign Affairs 1958–68, in 1968 he was Minister of Finance and Economy (June and July) and then Prime Minister 1968–69. He was Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the National Assembly 1973–81.

Couve de Murville. M., Une politique étrangère, 1958–1969. 1973.

Coverdale, Miles (1488–1569). English prelate and translator, born in Yorkshire. Educated at Cambridge, he joined the Augustinian order, later becoming an ardent Protestant. In 1535, in Antwerp, he published the first printed, complete English translation of the Bible, including the Apocrypha. Having no Hebrew or Greek, he worked from the Latin Vulgate and *Luther’s German translation, and incorporated *Tyndale’s translations of the Pentateuch and New Testament. Coverdale’s edition formed the basis of the so-called ‘Matthew’s Bible’ of 1537, the first to be licensed for sale in England, and he worked on ‘The Great Bible’ of 1539 (also retaining Tyndale’s material). Coverdale’s Psalms were preserved in the Authorised (King James) Version. He was a Puritan and, because of his extreme views, spent several years in European exile, mostly in Germany 1543–48 and 1555–59. A notable preacher, he was Bishop of Exeter 1551–53 but lost this office on the accession of Queen *Mary.

Cowan, Edith Dircksey (née Brown) (1861–1932). Australian social reformer, born in Geraldton. In 1876 her father was hanged for shooting her step-mother. A prominent suffragist, she became an active campaigner on issues relating to women and children. A Nationalist MP in Western Australia 1921–24, and the first woman elected to an Australian Parliament, she was commemorated by the Edith Cowan University, a federal electoral division and appearing on the $50 banknote.

Coward, Sir Noël (Pierce) (1899–1973). English playwright, actor, producer and composer, born in Teddington. He made his stage debut as a boy and became a popular performer in light comedies. His first play The Vortex, portrayal of decadence, caused a sensation when produced in London in 1923. It was followed by many sophisticated comedies including Hay Fever (1925), Private Lives (1930), Blithe Spirit (1931), Present Laughter (1943) and Nude with Violin (1956). He composed the music and wrote the dialogue for the musical comedies Bitter Sweet (1929) and Words and Music (1934). He wrote and produced the successful films Cavalcade (1938), In Which We Serve (1942), This Happy Breed (1944), Blithe Spirit (1945) and Brief Encounter (1947). Among his other works were several volumes of autobiography, e.g. Future Indefinite (1954) and a number of witty songs, e.g. Mad Dogs and Englishmen. He was an accomplished actor who appeared in a number of films, e.g. In Which We Serve and Our Man in Havana. After World War II he lived in Bermuda. He was knighted in 1970.

Morley, S., Noël Coward. 1969; Hoare, P., Noël Coward. 1995.

Cowen, Sir Zelman (1919–2011). Australian lawyer, academic and administrator, born in Melbourne. Educated at Melbourne and Oxford, he was Dean of Melbourne University’s law school 1951–66, and a prolific textbook writer, Vice Chancellor of the University of New England 1967–70 and of Queensland 1970–77. As Governor-General of Australia 1977–82 he brought a ‘touch of healing’ after the controversial Sir John *Kerr. He became Provost of Oriel College, Oxford 1982–90 and Chairman of the UK Press Council 1983–88, then returned to Australia.

Cowen, Z., A Public Life. The Memoirs of Zelman Cowen. 2006.

Cowley, Abraham (1618–1667). English essayist and metaphysical poet. Educated at Cambridge, he wrote a series of pastoral comedies as a young man but was expelled from university in 1643 on account of his Royalist sympathies during the Civil War. He lived on the Continent 1646–56 and undertook confidential missions for the royal family. Later he became a physician and actively engaged in botanical experiments. His poems include The Mistress and Pindaresque Odes.

Cowper, William (1731–1800). English poet. Trained as a lawyer, his verse was popular in his lifetime because of its directness and the natural sympathy he expressed towards everyday scenes and events. His life was characterised by evangelical religious fervour and periods of melancholia and mental instability. He collaborated with the evangelical divine John Newton in writing Olney Hymns (1779). He made an effective blank verse translation of The Iliad (1791).

Ryscamp, C., William Cowper. 1959.

Cox, James Middleton (1870–1957). American newspaper publisher and politician. He was Governor of Ohio 1913–15 and 1917–21, and became Democratic candidate for president in 1920, campaigning in support of *Wilson’s policies with Franklin D. *Roosevelt as his running mate. He was heavily defeated by Warren *Harding.

Coypel, Charles-Antoine (1694–1752). French painter. Court painter to *Louis XV, he also designed tapestries, woven by the Gobelins manufactory, illustrating *Cervantes’ Don Quixote. He wrote several plays.

Cozens, Alexander (c.1715–1786). English landscape painter, born in Russia. He settled in England (1746) and from 1763 to 1768 was drawing master at Eton. His watercolour landscapes are mainly in monochrome and are sometimes almost impressionistic in technique. His son John Robert Cozens (1752–c.1799), whom he taught, started to work in monochrome but later used a fuller range of colour.

Oppé, A. P., Alexander and John Cozens. 1954.

Cozzens, James Gould (1903–1978). American novelist. Educated at Harvard, his novels were conservative accounts of people operating within organisational or professional constraints, highly praised on publication, now undervalued. They included The S.S. San Pedro (1931), The Last Adam (1933), Men and Brethren (1936), The Just and the Unjust (1943), Guard of Honour (1948) and By Love Possessed (1958). He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1949.

Crabbe, George (1754–1832). English poet, born at Aldeburgh, Suffolk. He went to London to seek success as a writer. Edmund *Burke, to whom he had sent some poems, gave him encouragement, as did Dr *Johnson. In The Library (1781), The Village (1783) and The Newspaper (1783), he showed that stark but vivid realism which is his predominant characteristic. He took holy orders and in the following years, when he was chaplain to the Duke of Rutland (1783–85) and then a parish priest, he published nothing further. In 1807 came The Parish Register, and The Borough in 1810. A tale in the latter inspired Benjamin *Britten’s opera Peter Grimes. (Britten later moved to Aldeburgh.) Crabbe's Tales (1812) and Tales of the Hall (1819) again show his realistic appreciation of character and somewhat grim sense of humour. Crabbe’s main contribution to English poetry was his skill in telling a short story in verse.

Blunden, E. (ed.), The Complete Works of George Crabbe. 1947.

Craig, (Edward) Gordon (1872–1966). English theatrical designer, producer and actor. Son of Ellen *Terry and the architect Edward Godwin, he acted on the London stage for some years under Henry *Irving, but after 1900 he devoted himself to stage design and production. His first production (1900) was *Purcell’s Dido and Aeneas, at the Hampstead Conservatoire, London. He lived with Isadora *Duncan 1905–07, then worked in Berlin, Florence and Rome. He produced a notable Hamlet in Moscow (1912) with Konstantin *Stanislavsky. His outstanding influence upon modern stage production was conveyed through his books, The Art of the Theatre (1905), Towards a New Theatre (1913), Scene (1923) and his magazine Mask (1908–14, 1919–29). By simplifying three dimensional scenery with costumes and lighting effects in harmony, he conceived a production as a unified and complete work of art. He spent several years in Florence, where he started a school of stage design. He received a CH in 1958 and died in Vence.

Craig, E. G., Gordon Craig: The Story of his Life. 1968.

Craigavon, James Craig, 1st Viscount (1871–1940). Ulster politician. In the House of Commons 1906–21 he made his name as a bitter opponent of Home Rule for Ireland. After the partition of the country he became the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland (Ulster) 1921–40.

Cram, Ralph Adams (1863–1942). American architect. Practising in Boston, and teaching at MIT, he was exceptionally productive in designing 54 cathedrals, churches and chapels, mostly in the ‘collegiate Gothic’ style. The huge Cathedral of St John the Divine, New York, was begun in 1892: Cram became its chief architect in 1912 and designed the nave. Other works include buildings at Princeton University, including the chapel.

Cranach, Lucas (1472–1553). German painter and engraver, born in Kronach, Franconia. His name was derived from his birthplace. His earlier work included religious subjects (e.g. Rest on the Flight to Egypt) with idyllic backgrounds and remarkable for their fresh colouring. He also executed many woodcuts. In 1505 he became a painter to the Saxon court at Wittenberg. He became an ardent Protestant and among his many portraits in which he is inclined to over-concentrate on the accessories of dress is one of *Luther. Two of his sons were trained by him, Lucas Cranach (1515–1586), whose work is often indistinguishable from that of his father, and Hans Cranach (d.1537).

Crane, (Harold) Hart (1899–1932). American poet. After working as a reporter in New York, he drifted unhappily through a succession of odd jobs. Most of his poetry, which shows the influence of *Rimbaud and *Whitman, was published in two volumes, White Buildings (1926) and The Bridge (1930), which has been called ‘a mystical interpretation of the past, present and future of America’. He jumped over the side of a ship in despair at his homosexuality and alcoholism.

Crane, Stephen (1871–1900). American writer and war correspondent. He wrote two novels, the stark and powerful Maggie, A Girl of the Streets (1892), ignored at the time of publication, and The Red Badge of Courage (1895), a sensitive account of heroism under fire in the American Civil War. Its success led to his appointment as war correspondent in the Greco-Turkish and Spanish-American Wars. He also wrote poetry and realistic short stories. From 1898 he lived in England and came to know Joseph *Conrad, Henry *James and other writers. He died of tuberculosis in Germany.

Stallman, R. W., Stephen Crane: a Critical Bibliography. 1972.

Crane, Walter (1845–1915). English artist. He is best known as an illustrator (e.g. of the Toy-book series). Like William *Morris he sought to ally art to industry and everyday objects.

Cranmer, Thomas (1489–1556). English prelate, born in Nottinghamshire. Educated at Cambridge University, he became a Fellow of Jesus College and lectured in divinity, at the same time studying *Luther’s works critically. (Martin *Bucer was a more important influence than Luther.) A widower, he also served as a diplomat. In 1529 he attracted the attention of *Henry VIII by expressing his opinion that Henry’s reasons for divorcing *Katherine of Aragon were valid, and that views from European universities should be sought. Cranmer was sent on missions abroad to rally support and in 1530 arrived in Rome to present the case for annulment of the marriage to Pope *Clement VII. He became envoy to Emperor *Charles V in 1532 and in Nuremberg married Margarete Osiander. In January 1533 he was raised from Archdeacon of Taunton to become Archbishop of Canterbury, working with, and to a large degree under the direction of, Thomas *Cromwell. He declared the king’s marriage to Katherine null and void (1533). In 1536 he annulled Henry’s marriage to *Anne Boleyn but gave no detailed explanation and he pleaded against her execution. He supported too, the Act of Supremacy (1534) which asserted the royal headship of the Church of England. He also encouraged the English translations of the Bible but failed to reach doctrinal agreement with the German reformers, with the result that little change in doctrine was made in Henry’s reign. The two prayer books of *Edward VI’s reign, the latter little different from the Book of Common Prayer (of *Charles II’s reign) still used, were, however, largely due to Cranmer’s work and inspiration, and his gift for noble and sonorous expression is fully displayed. The words of the marriage ceremony are his. When *Mary came to the throne his Protestantism, combined with his support for Lady Jane *Grey, made his fate inevitable. He tried to save his life by a recantation of his opinions, but this he afterwards withdrew and met his death at the stake at Oxford with the same courage as his fellow martyrs, *Ridley and *Latimer.

MacCulloch, D., Thomas Cranmer: A Life. 1996.

Crashaw, Richard (1613–1649). English poet. The son of a Puritan clergyman, he was educated at Charterhouse and Cambridge University. While at Peterhouse, he became a Roman Catholic and in 1643 fled abroad. He eventually obtained a benefice at Loreto, where he died soon after his arrival. His gentle character made him much loved. He wrote secular and religious poems in both Latin and English, and his fame mainly rests on those in which devotion and mystical experience are expressed in ardent, almost sensual, terms.

Crassus, Marcus Licinius (c.110–53 BCE). Roman magnate. Considered the wealthiest Roman of his time, he was also an able politician and a skilled but brutal general, who destroyed the slave revolt (73–71 BCE) led by *Spartacus. He used his money for political ends and so was able to form with *Caesar and *Pompey the first triumvirate which dominated Roman politics from 60 BCE. He held the office of consul twice (70 and 55) and as part of the bargain made with his associates at Luca became Governor of Syria in 54. His campaign to subdue the Parthians (53) ended in disaster in Mesopotamia and his own death.

Craxi, Bettino (1934–2000). Italian Socialist politician, born in Milan. He became a journalist and party organiser, Deputy 1968–94, party leader 1976–93 and Prime Minister 1983–87. He was charged with corruption in 1993, retired to Tunisia and was sentenced in absentia (1994) to 8½ years jail.

Cray, Seymour R(oger) (1925–1996). American computer designer. Educated at the University of Minnesota, he worked for Remington Rand and UNIVAC, and became the co-founder of Control Data in 1957. In 1972 he established Cray Research Inc. and designed a series of supercomputers, leading to the Y-MP C90 of 1990. Supercomputers were soon challenged by ‘massively parallel’ computing, where a network of smaller computers was linked synergistically to create greater computing capacity.

Crean, Simon Findlay (1949– ). Australian Labor politician. Son of Frank (Francis Daniel) Crean (1916–2008), a Minister under Gough *Whitlam 1972–75, he was President of the Australian Council of Trade Unions 1985–90, a Federal MP 1990–2013, Minister 1990–96; 2007–13 and Leader of the Opposition 2001–03.

Crébillon, Claude Prosper Jolyot de (1707–1777). French novelist. A gay and witty man of the world, he chose elegant, sophisticated and licentious themes. In his most famous work, Le Sopha (1745), an oriental prince transformed into a sofa is titillated by overhearing the amorous conversations of those who choose him for a resting place. His father, Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon (1674–1762), a playwright, was regarded as a rival to *Voltaire; his sensational tragedies, e.g. Atrée et Thyeste (1707), were based on unnatural crimes.

Creevy, Thomas (1768–1838). English diarist. His letters and journal, covering more than 40 years, give a sometimes prejudiced but always vivid account of the political and social events and gossip of his time. He married a rich widow, was an often absentee Whig MP 1802–26, 1831–32, always representing ‘rotten boroughs’, but regarded himself as a disciple of Charles James *Fox.

Cremer, Sir (William) Randal (1836–1908). English politician. Originally a carpenter and trade union leader, he was a friend of *Mazzini and *Garibaldi and general secretary of the International Workingmen’s Association 1864–67 and secretary of the Workmen’s Peace Association 1871–1908. Elected as a Liberal MP 1885–95; 1900–08, he founded the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) in 1889 and was a strong advocate of international arbitration. In 1903 he received the Nobel Peace Prize. A pacifist, he became a passionate opponent of female suffrage (asserting that women voters were likely to be influenced by religion).

Crerar, Harry (Henry Duncan Graham) (1888–1965). Canadian soldier. After having commanded the Canadians in Italy and the Mediterranean area (1943–44) he was GOC of the Canadian 1st Corps, which formed (1944–45) the left wing of the great Allied liberating drive from Normandy to the German frontier. An excellent staff officer, less successful in the field, he was one of many generals scorned by *Montgomery. He received a CH in 1945.

Cressent, Charles (1685–1768). French cabinet-maker. Considered the greatest in the Regency style and one of the finest in the 18th century, he began his career in the studios of *Boulle, and was appointed official cabinet maker to the Duke of Orléans, Regent of France, in 1715. He was a skilled metalworker, not only designing and making his pieces but casting and carving their characteristic gilded bronze ornaments himself.

Cresson, Edith (née Campion). (1934– ). French Socialist politician. She served under *Mitterrand and was Minister for Foreign Trade 1983–86 and for European Affairs 1988–90. She was France’s first woman Prime Minister 1991–92 and became European Commissioner for Research, Science and Technology 1995–99.

Crewe, Robert Offley Ashburton Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of (1858–1945). English Liberal politician, born in London. Son of Richard Monckton *Milnes (Lord Houghton), educated at Harrow and Cambridge, he became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1892–95. Created earl in 1895, he served as a Minister under *Campbell-Bannerman and *Asquith 1905–16 and was Secretary of State for India 1910–15. Liberal Leader in the House of Lords 1908–23 and 1936–44, he played a key role in securing passage of the Parliament Act 1911, which ended the veto power of the House of Lords. Promoted to marquess in 1911, he served as Ambassador to France 1922–28 and Secretary of State for War 1931. The last Whig, he was the son-in-law of *Rosebery and wrote a boring official biography (1931).

Crichton, James (1560–1582). Scottish scholar. Known as ‘the Admirable Crichton’ for his skill as a poet, linguist, mathematician and athlete, he graduated from St Andrew’s University at the age of 15, left Scotland in 1577 and in the course of his continental travels gained fame by his ability to carry out disputations in 12 languages. He was killed in Mantua in a street brawl. (The play The Admirable Crichton by *Barrie is wholly unrelated.)

Crick, Francis Harry Compton (1916–2004). British molecular biologist, born in Northampton. Educated at Mill Hill School, he graduated in physics from University College, London and worked for the Admiralty developing magnetic mines during World War II. From 1947 he worked at Cambridge, first at the Strangeways research laboratory 1947–49, then at the Medical Research Council’s molecular biology laboratory 1949–77, where he studied under Max *Perutz. At the Cavendish laboratories he worked with J. D. *Watson on the molecular structure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), partly basing their work on the X-ray diffraction studies of M. H. F. *Wilkins and Rosalind *Franklin. Crick and Watson published a joint paper in Nature (25 April 1953) explaining the double helical structure of DNA, the chemical bases joining the helixes (like steps on spiral staircases) and the replication mechanism. This was regarded as one of the greatest scientific discoveries in all biology, in the face of fierce competition e.g. from Linus *Pauling and many others. In 1962 Crick, Watson and Wilkins shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Crick was a fellow at the Salk Institute at San Diego 1962–73 and a research professor there 1977–2004. He proposed what he called the ‘central dogma of molecular biology’ (1970)—that DNA determines how cells will grow, that RNA acts as a transmission line, and ‘information’ is passed on to the protein which changes as directed. He wrote Of Molecules and Men (1966) and in the controversial Life Itself (1981) proposed the concept of ‘directed panspermia’—that bacteria were introduced to earth from other planets. He received the Royal Society’s Royal Medal (1972) and Copley Medal (1975) and the OM in 1991. What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery (1990) was a memoir. His last great area for investigation was theoretical neuroscience and he attempted to explain the physical basis for consciousness. The Astonishing Hypothesis (1994) described the soul as ‘no more than the behaviour of a vast assembly of nerve cells and their associated molecules’.

Judson, H. F., The Eighth Day of Creation. 1979; Edelson, E., Francis Crick and James Watson: And the Building Blocks of Life. 2000; Ridley, M., Francis Crick: discoverer of the genetic code. 2006.

Crippen, Hawley Harvey (1865–1910). American homeopath and convicted murderer, born in Michigan. He lived in London from 1897 and in 1910 he poisoned his wife, a music-hall actor known as Belle Elmore, and concealed her dismembered body beneath the floor of his house. With his mistress, Ethel Le Neve (1883–1967), who was dressed as a boy, ‘Dr’ Crippen sailed for America but was arrested on the ship as the result of a wireless signal—the first time this new invention had been used to bring a criminal to justice. He was found guilty and hanged; Ethel Le Neve was acquitted.

Cripps, Sir (Richard) Stafford (1889–1952). British politician. Son of the ecclesiastical lawyer Charles Alfred Cripps, 1st Baron Parmoor (1852–1941) who served in the Labour governments of 1924 and 1929–31, Cripps, educated at Winchester and London University, was already one of the most successful KCs in the country when he became immersed in politics. MP 1931–50, and Ramsay *MacDonald’s Solicitor General 1931, he was expelled from the Labour party (1939) for supporting a ‘Popular Front’ with the Communists. In World War II he was Ambassador to Russia 1940–42, Lord Privy Seal 1942 and Minister for Aircraft Production 1942–45. In 1942 he failed in a mission to India to secure agreement among Indians on the terms on which a promise to give dominion status to India after the war could be fulfilled. In Attlee’s postwar Labour government, Cripps, as President of the Board of Trade 1945–47 and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1947–50, was especially associated with the austerity policy of rationing and controls. (Churchill called him ‘Christ and carrots’.) Cancer forced his retirement (1950).

Cripps, S., Towards a Christian Democracy. 1945.

Crispi, Francesco (1819–1901). Italian politician, born in Sicily. A republican, inspired by *Mazzini, he took refuge in France after the collapse of the 1848 revolution. He landed in Sicily with *Garibaldi’s Thousand in 1860. He accepted the monarchy of *Vittorio Emmanuele as a unifying force, and in the Chamber of Deputies gained a great reputation for independence and his support of a nationalism based on moral unity. As Prime Minister 1887–91, 1893–96 he abandoned Italy’s traditional amity with France by strengthening the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria. He also developed the Italian settlements in East Africa, Somalia and Eritrea. The crushing defeat of the Italians at Adowa (1896) forced his resignation and had a demoralising effect on Italian politics for decades.

Cristofori di Francesco, Bartolomeo (1655–1731). Italian harpsichord maker, born in Padua. Under Medici patronage, in 1700 there is the first reference to an ‘arpicembalo’, a harpsichord that could produce a soft or loud note according to the pressure on the keys. This he did by introducing a hammer action in place of the former plucking of the strings. The instrument was the first ‘piano forte’ (‘soft loud’) and the forerunner of the present pianoforte. He died in Florence.

Crivelli, Carlo (c.1430–c.1495). Venetian painter. His many altarpieces and pictures illustrate the life of the Madonna. His Annunciation in the National Gallery, London, is remarkable for its background ornamentation (which includes a peacock, a hanging carpet and many other decorative objects) and the mathematical precision of its perspective.

Croce, Benedetto (1866–1952). Italian philosopher, historian and critic, born in the Abruzzi region. Son of a landowner, he lost both parents and his sister in an earthquake at Ischia (1883) from which he narrowly escaped. Educated in Rome, he abandoned law for history and aesthetics. In Naples, he founded the journal La Critica in 1903 and edited it until 1944. Early formulations of his views on literature, philosophy and history appeared there and he also held an honorary chair in philosophy at Naples University 1903–44. His philosophy, influenced by Hegel, is an idealism that holds that the only reality is mind or spirit. This is not a transcendent entity, however, but rather to be identified with human experience and includes works of art. Croce’s discussion of this area, which in a rather wide sense of the word he calls aesthetics, has been the most influential part of his philosophy. Actual works of art, according to Croce, are expressions of sensuous insights of artists. The insights, it is claimed, are the ‘real’ works of art, and the actual paintings, for example, are merely means of communicating them to others. Croce’s greatest work is the Philosophy of the Spirit (1902–17) but his views on aesthetics are also presented in Aesthetic (1902). He was a Senator 1910–44 and Minister of Education 1920–21, withdrawing from politics when *Mussolini came to power. He wrote An Autobiography (1927) and returned to public life as Leader of the Liberal Party 1944–47.

Crockett, David (‘Davy’) (1786–1836). American hero. This semi-legendary figure of the pioneer days (‘cradled in a sap trough, clouted in a coonskin …’) was a lawyer, active in the development of Tennessee, Member of the House of Representatives for much of the period 1817–35, and killed at the Battle of Alamo, fighting against the Mexicans.

Croesus (d.546 BCE). Last king of Lydia (Asia Minor) 560–546 BCE. He extended his kingdom eastwards but when opposed by Cyrus, the Persian king, he was quickly overthrown and his realm annexed. It is for his proverbial wealth that he is remembered. His help in the rebuilding of the temple at Ephesus is commemorated by a column inscribed with his name, now in the British Museum.

Croker, John Wilson (1780–1857). British literary critic and politician, born in Ireland. An MP 1807–52, he was a vitriolic opponent of parliamentary reform and coined the political name ‘Conservative’. In 1809, he helped to found the Quarterly Review, in which appeared his attack on Endymion that, in Byron’s words, ‘killed John Keats’. Macaulay detested him ‘more than cold boiled veal’. He was one of the founders of the Athenaeum Club, London, in 1824.

Crome, John (1768–1821). English painter. A leading member (with *Cotman) of the Norwich School, he began as a sign painter and educated himself in art mainly by copying works owned by a friendly local collector. Most of his life was spent in and around Norwich (where he was a drawing master) and his pictures, e.g. The Poringland Oak, and Mousehold Heath, both in the National Gallery, London, which show the serenity and spatial quality of the Dutch landscapists, are mainly of local scenes. River and windmill, skies drenched in light, meadows and storm-wrecked trees are typical subjects.

Clifford, D., and Clifford, T., John Crome. 1968.

Cromer, 1st Earl of, Evelyn Baring (1841–1917). English administrator, born in Cromer. Member of a merchant banking family (*Baring), he was educated at Woolwich, served as a staff officer in Malta and Jamaica and became private secretary 1872–76 to his cousin Lord *Northbrook, Viceroy of India. One of the European commissioners of the Egyptian public debt 1877–79 and Comptroller-General 1879–80, he returned to India as Finance Member of the Viceroy’s Council 1880–83. As British Consul-General and Agent to Egypt 1883–1907, he was the de facto ruler of ‘the veiled protectorate’, with responsibility for finance, foreign affairs, defence, education and public works, although the country was nominally part of the Ottoman Empire. He was a Latin and Greek scholar but never attempted Arabic. He saw himself as ruling in an enlightened Whig tradition and was showered with British honours including an earldom in 1901, the OM in 1906, the Albert Medal, a FRS and £50,000 from parliament. He led the Unionist free traders in the House of Lords and was a vigorous opponent of votes for women. He chaired Dardenelles Commission 1916–17, enquiring into the Gallipoli fiasco, where his exertions contributed to his death. His grandson, (George) Rowland Stanley Baring (1918–1991), 3rd Earl of Cromer, managing director of Baring Brothers (from 1947), headed the British Treasury’s delegation in the US (1959–61), became a Director of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, Governor of the Bank of England 1961–66 and Ambassador to the US 1971–74, receiving a KG in 1977.

Crompton, Richmal (pen name of Richmal Crompton Lamburn) (1890–1969). English writer. Originally a classics teacher, beginning with Just William (1922) she wrote 37 children’s books about William Brown, a mischievous but endearing middle-class schoolboy and his friends (and enemies). By 1977, nine million of her books had been sold.

Crompton, Samuel (1753–1827). English inventor, born near Bolton, Lancashire. He was working in a spinning mill when he invented the ‘spinning mule’, which combined the virtues of *Hargreaves’ ‘spinning jenny’ and *Arkwright’s waterframe. In 1812 Crompton received a grant of £5,000, but his business ventures failed and he died in poverty only mitigated by secret gifts from friends.

Cromwell, Oliver (1599–1658). English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth, born in Huntingdon. Of yeoman stock (the original family name was Williams), related by marriage to Thomas *Cromwell, he attended grammar school, spent a year at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and may have studied law at Lincoln’s Inn, London. In 1620 he married Elizabeth Bourchier, the daughter of a London merchant. He represented Huntingdon in Parliament 1628–29, but during the 11 years of *Charles I’s absolute rule (1629–40) he was active only in local affairs, though he became a fervent, but not bigoted, Puritan. In 1638 he inherited property at Ely from an uncle, but suffered a nervous breakdown, leading to ‘reconversion’ and a burst of religious fervour. He was MP for Cambridge in the Short and Long Parliaments 1640–53. Soon after the Civil War broke out (1642) he was serving under *Essex and won distinction as a cavalry officer at Edgehill. His military skill became more and more evident, his tactics being especially effective at the great parliamentary victory (1644) at Marston Moor near York. He played a principal part in the creation of the New Model Army (known as the ‘Ironsides’), who were subjected to rigid discipline and stern morality. Cromwell emerged as the leader of this body and it became devoted to his interests. He was helped too by the passing of the Self Denying Ordinance (1645) under which the parliamentary generals (Cromwell himself excepted) gave up their commands. This left *Fairfax and Cromwell to lead the New Model Army to victory at Naseby. This was the beginning of the end: the west country and other royalist held areas were gradually overrun, the towns were stormed or surrendered. Charles himself was harried and chased until at last he surrendered to the Scots near Newark, only to be handed over after a year of haggling to the English parliament. In 1647 parliament and army quarrelled, Charles was seized in the name of the army and thenceforth, Fairfax being in favour of conciliation and no longer able to influence events, Charles depended for his life on Cromwell’s mercy. Probably the king’s intrigues with the Scots, which brought them into a war against him, made Cromwell decide that he must die. Having crushed the Scots at Preston, he caused Charles to be brought to trial and his execution followed (January 1649). With the formation of the Commonwealth, Cromwell’s only official position was his army leadership, but he gradually gathered the executive reins into his hands. First a rising of the extremist ‘Levellers’ had to be suppressed (1649), then he went to Ireland, still in royalist hands, and achieved a conquest by cruelties, such as the massacres of the garrisons of Drogheda and Wexford, which provoked bitter memories that still survive. His settlement, based largely on dispossessing Roman Catholic Irish and replacing them by English ex-soldiers or land speculators, was equally disastrous. In contrast, after he had crushed, at Worcester, a Scottish invasion headed by Prince Charles (the future *Charles II) he brought to Scotland the advantage of union and free trade with the more prosperous and advanced England. Meanwhile he was in trouble with the surviving members of the old parliament, known as the Rump, who had little relish for a new autocrat. Cromwell dissolved them by a show of force and called a Puritan convention, nicknamed the ‘Barebones Parliament’, which proved equally intractable and was also dismissed. Supreme power now rested with Cromwell and his officers. In 1653 under an ‘Instrument of Government’ he was declared Protector, a council of state assisted him in his executive functions and a single-chamber parliament dealt with legislation and taxation. His ordinances had the effect of law when parliament was not in session. The members varied from the sycophants to the querulous, but Cromwell never succeeded in working with assemblies and had to rule as a virtual dictator with ‘major-generals’ acting as regional administrators. He was offered the crown but would have forfeited the support of the army had he accepted. Cromwell proved as good an administrator as he had been soldier. In his religious reforms he took measures to improve the quality of the ministry but showed tolerance to all denominations other than Roman Catholicism and Anglican episcopalianism. His legal ordinances aimed at the suppression of corrupt practices swept away many barbarous punishments and provided relief for debtors. His foreign policy was designed to strengthen English trade. Although the 1651 Navigation Act precipitated the first Dutch War (1652–54), *Tromp found a match in *Blake, whose successes brought the Commonwealth much prestige. In the war with Spain (1655–58), in which Jamaica was won, Cromwell even managed to gain the alliance of Catholic France. He suffered from gout, malaria and stones in the bladder. He died on 3 September 1658, the anniversary of his victories at Dunbar and Worcester. His body was buried in Westminster Abbey, but in January 1661, after the Restoration, his embalmed body was exhumed, hanged at Tyburn, then decapitated and his head exposed on a pole outside Westminster Hall until 1684. (In 1960 his head was buried at Sidney Sussex College.)

Cromwell believed in, and found biblical justification for, all that he did and was unquestionably among the greatest of all English rulers, but that his system struck no deep roots was proved by the fact that within two years of his death the people were cheering the return of the monarchy. His third son, Richard Cromwell (1626–1712), succeeded him briefly as Lord Protector (1658–59), becoming virtually a prisoner of the army which deposed him. Known as ‘Tumbledown Dick’, he lived in exile in Paris until 1680.

Ashley, M., The Greatness of Oliver Cromwell. 1966; Fraser, A., Cromwell: Our Chief of Men. 1973.

Cromwell, Thomas, 1st Earl of Essex (c.1485–1540). English lawyer and administrator, born in Putney. Son of a brewer and a gentlewoman, he did not attend university but left home, led an adventurous life on the Continent and became fluent in Italian, French and Latin. He became established (c.1513) in London as a trader. He attached himself (1514) to *Wolsey and, though elected to parliament (1523), continued to serve him as an assistant and secretary until his downfall. This he survived and soon proved as useful to King *Henry VIII as he had been to Wolsey. MP again 1529–36, he became Chancellor of the Exchequer 1533–40, Principal Secretary to the King 1533–40, Master of the Rolls 1534–36 and Lord Privy Seal 1536–40. Sympathetic to the religious reformers in Zürich, Geneva and Strasbourg, and strongly opposed to papal supremacy, after Henry’s position as head of the church was secured by the Act of Supremacy (1534), he was given the rather odd title of Vice-Gerent 1535–40, in which, as the king’s deputy in religious affairs, he carried out the dissolution of the monasteries and secured a large part of their revenues for the crown. He played a significant role in the execution of John *Fisher and *Anne Boleyn (not so much with Thomas *More), succeeding Fisher as Chancellor of Cambridge University 1535–40 and attending Anne’s beheading.

He continued to support Henry’s personal ambitions and, by centralising the administration and making it more efficient, added to his power. For his services he was created a baron 1536 and KG 1537.

He secured publication of the ‘Matthew Bible’ (1537) and the ‘Great Bible’ (1539), most of it translated by the unnamed (and unnameable) William *Tyndale, with the remainder by Miles *Coverdale and John Rogers.

In April 1540, he was created Earl for arranging Henry’s marriage with *Anne of Cleves. It was this service that proved his undoing. As the king’s agent he made many powerful enemies and so, when the marriage failed, Henry could vent his anger in the certainty of public approval. Cromwell was arrested, condemned by bill of attainder for heresy and treason, and executed, without trial, in July 1540. However, in December 1540 Henry created Gregory Cromwell (c.1520–1555) a baron, apparently claiming to have been misled about his father’s guilt.

The two Man Booker prize–winning novels by Hilary *Mantel are persuasive rehabilitations of his reputation, arguing that he was a practical reformer, remote from religious fanaticism and a restraint on Henry. Diarmaid *MacCulloch’s biography is a powerful reinforcement.

Dickens, A. G., Thomas Cromwell and the English Reformation. 1959; Mantel, H., Wolf Hall. 2009; Bring Up the Bodies. 2011; The Mirror and the Light. 2020; MacCulloch, D., Thomas Cromwell. A Life. 2018.

Cronin, A(rchibald) J(oseph) (1896–1981). Scottish novelist. Originally a physician, his books include Hatter’s Castle (1931), The Citadel (1937), The Green Years (1944) and The Spanish Gardener (1950).

Cronje, Piet (1835–1911). South African soldier. He was a leading figure of the Transvaal army in the first and second Boer Wars. In the early stages of the latter he had a striking success at Magersfontein when he repulsed Lord Methuen’s attempt to relieve Kimberley. In the following February, however, at Paardeberg he was forced to surrender with 4000 men to Lord *Roberts. He was confined at St Helena for the rest of the war.

Crookes, Sir William (1832–1919). English chemist and physicist, born in London. Educated at the Royal College of Chemistry, like *Huggins, *Joule and *Rayleigh he inherited wealth and was able to pursue independent research without having to teach. He discovered (1861) the element thallium from spectroscopic investigation of selenium residues from a sulphuric acid plant. He invented the radiometer and a vastly improved vacuum tube, leading to the development of the cathode ray tube. In 1879 he discovered a ‘fourth state of matter’ (after solids, liquids and gases), which he called ‘radiant matter’, now known as ‘plasma’. He correctly concluded that cathode rays consisted of streams of particles, later called electrons. He was unlucky not to have beaten *Röntgen to the discovery of X-rays. He designed ‘Crookes glass’ to protect the eyes of industrial workers from strong radiation which is now also widely used for protection against bright sunlight. He became a naïve and credulous President of the Society for Psychical Research 1896–99. Awarded a knighthood (1897), the Copley Medal (1904) and the OM (1910), he was President of the Royal Society 1913–15. Nominated for the Nobel Prize for Physics five times and for Chemistry six—all failed.

Crosby, Bing (Harry Lillis) (1903–1977). American singer and actor, born in Tacoma, Washington. He began singing professionally in the 1920s, working 1926–30 with Paul *Whiteman’s band. A baritone, Crosby was a pioneer of ‘crooning’, a soft, murmuring style, ideal for singing into a microphone. He made his film debut in 1930 and began his radio career as a soloist in 1931. His 84 films, some as narrator, included Pennies from Heaven (1936), Road to Singapore (1940, first of a Road series with Bob *Hope), Going My Way (1944, Academy Award), The Bells of St Mary’s (1945), White Christmas (1954) and High Society (1956). He won many awards, invested in technology, died suddenly on a golf course in Spain and left a large fortune.

Crosland, (Charles) Anthony Raven (1918–1977). British politician. After war service in North Africa and Italy, he resumed his studies at Oxford and lectured in economics there 1947–50. He was a Labour MP 1950–77, serving under Harold *Wilson in a variety of ministries 1964–70, and as Minister for Environment 1974–76. He contested the party leadership in 1976, polling badly, but James *Callaghan appointed him Foreign and Commonwealth Secretary, a post he held until his sudden death. Crosland will be best remembered for his writings on political philosophy, especially for his advocacy of democratic socialism in a mixed economy in The Future of Socialism (1956) and The Conservative Enemy (1962).

Crosland, S., Tony Crosland. 1982.

Crossman, Richard Howard Stafford (1907–1974). British Labour politician. Son of a judge, he was educated at Winchester and Oxford, becoming a don at New College and Deputy Editor of the New Statesman 1938–44. A Labour MP 1945–74, as an intellectual he aroused deep suspicion and *Attlee excluded him from office. He was party chairman 1960–64, serving under Harold *Wilson as Minister for Housing and Local Government 1964–66, Lord President of the Council 1966–69 and Secretary of State for Social Security 1968–70. He edited the New Statesman 1970–72. His Diaries, published posthumously (1975–77), although largely self-serving, give vivid insights into the workings of cabinet government.

Crowley, Aleister (1875–1947). British charlatan. He liked to be known as ‘the wickedest man in the world’. He devised a form of Satanism, which involved many obscure and repugnant rituals, and attracted a small number of eccentric disciples.

Cruden, Alexander (1701–1770). Scottish bookseller in London. He compiled the Concordance of the Holy Scriptures (1737). He became insane soon afterwards and was subsequently subject to periods of madness in which he called himself ‘Alexander the Corrector’.

Cruikshank, George (1792–1878). English caricaturist. Both his father and his elder brother were caricaturists. His cartoons, especially those ridiculing participants in Queen *Caroline’s trial, created his reputation but he is now best known for his book illustrations, especially those for *Grimm’s fairy tales, *Dickens’ Oliver Twist and some of Harrison *Ainsworth’s novels.

Crumb, George Henry (1929– ). American composer, born in West Virginia. He studied in Berlin, and was influenced by *Webern. His output was small, but intense and deeply emotional, including Black Angels (1970) for amplified string quartet, Vox Balaenae (Voice of the Whale) (1971), for electric flute, electric cello, and amplified piano, Music for a Summer Evening (Makrokosmos III) (1974), for two amplified pianos and percussion, songs and piano works.

Crusell, Bernhard Henrik (1775–1838). Finnish composer, conductor and clarinetist. He worked in Stockholm from 1791, composed three vivacious concertos for clarinet, a Sinfonia concertante for clarinet, horn, bassoon and orchestra (1808), much chamber music, and translated the libretti of Figaro and Fidelio into Swedish.

Crutzen, Paul Jozef (1933– ). Dutch atmospheric chemist, born in Amsterdam. He shared the 1995 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Mario Molina and Sherwood *Rowland ‘for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone’. He promoted the use of the term ‘anthropocene’ to define a new era in geology and ecology.

Cruz, Ted (Rafael Edward) (1970– ). American Republican politician, born in Canada. His father was Cuban born. Educated at Princeton and Harvard, he became a lawyer and administrator. US Senator from Texas 2013– , he was a strong conservative contender for the Republican Presidential nomination in 2016.

Cudworth, Ralph (1617–1688). English philosopher. The best known of the group of philosophers generally called the ‘Cambridge Platonists’, he summed up his philosophy in his The True Intellectual System of the Universe, a rambling uncompleted work intended to counteract materialism by proving the existence of a supreme divine intelligence. The learning displayed was immense, the presentation of his opponents’ case was so fair and their arguments against the existence of God so strongly put forward that *Dryden could doubt whether he had successfully demolished them.

Passmore, J. A., Ralph Cudworth. 1950.

Cuénod, Hugues (-Adhémer) (1902–2010). Swiss tenor. His mother was of English descent, distantly related to the *Churchills. His voice was small, but beautifully managed, with outstanding diction and a repertoire which extended from *Monteverdi to *Stravinsky. He recorded selectively over a longer period than any other singer, and was an admired teacher, who continued his career well into his 90s.

Cugnot, Nicolas-Joseph (1725–1804). French military engineer. In 1769–70 he designed and built two steam-propelled vehicles for hauling heavy guns. The vehicles had three wheels, the single front wheel steering and driving. Cugnot had not solved the problems of water supply and of maintaining steam pressure, but his invention pioneered steam traction vehicles.

Cui, Cesar Antonovich (1835–1918). Russian composer of French-Lithuanian origin. He was associated with the group of composers known as ‘The Five’ (*Balakirev), and composed operas, piano pieces and orchestral works. By profession he was a military engineer and became a lieutenant general.

Cuitlahuac (or Quetlavaca) (d.1520). Mexican (Aztec) Emperor 1520. He replaced his brother *Moctezuma, who was under Spanish control, rebelled against *Cortés and died of smallpox during the siege of Tenochtitlan.

Culbertson, Ely (1891–1955). American bridge player. A brilliant player, often partnered by his first wife, Josephine, he did more than anyone else to develop and popularise contract bridge. The card-showing conventions set out in his Gold Book of Bidding and Play (1941) and earlier works, led the way to a vast literature on modern contract bridge.

Cullen, Paul (1803–1878). Irish prelate. He worked in Rome for 20 years, became Archbishop of Armagh 1849–52 and Dublin 1852–78, and was the first Irish cardinal (1866). Because of his Vatican links, he was able to shape the Catholic Church not only in Ireland but in the US, Canada and Australia.

Cumberland, Ernest Augustus, Duke of (1771–1851). British prince and, as Ernst August, King of Hanover 1837–51. Born in London, the fifth son of *George III, also King of Hanover, he fought the French in the Hanoverian army (1792–93) and was severely wounded. In the House of Lords he was an extreme reactionary, and was rumoured to have murdered his valet. He succeeded *William IV as King of Hanover, because the Salic Law excluded Queen *Victoria.

Cumberland, William Augustus, Duke of (1721–1765). British prince and Field Marshal. Known as ‘Butcher’, son of *George II, in the War of Austrian Succession he distinguished himself at the battles of Dettingen (1743) and Fontenoy (1745). He was then recalled to meet the threat of the Jacobite invasion from Scotland under Charles Edward *Stuart (the Young Pretender). Having reached Derby the Scots retreated to their own country where Cumberland gained a decisive victory at Culloden (1746). It was his severity after this battle that earned him his nickname. He commanded the Hanoverian army in the Seven Years War but, hopelessly outnumbered by the French, was defeated at Hastenberg (1757) and signed the convention of Kloster Zeven (later repudiated by George II) which left Hanover and Westphalia in French hands.

cummings, e e (Edward Estlin Cummings) (1894–1962). American poet and painter, educated at Harvard. He was imprisoned for six months during World War I by the French who mistakenly believed him to be a spy. He wrote about this experience in The Enormous Room (1922). His volumes of poetry are notable for their unorthodox form and abandonment of punctuation and capital letters.

Cunard, Sir Samuel, 1st Baronet (1787–1865). English ship owner, born in Nova Scotia. Having acquired experience of coastal shipping by carrying the mails from Halifax to Boston he came to England in 1838 and in 1840, in association with Robert Napier and others, started a fortnightly trans-Atlantic service. The first vessel used was the Britannia, a wooden paddle steamer of 1156 tons, but iron and screw propelled ships of much greater speed and tonnage were gradually introduced.

Cunningham of Hyndhope, Andrew Browne Cunningham, 1st Viscount (1883–1963). British sailor. In World War I he distinguished himself (DSO with two bars) in the Dardanelles campaign and the Dover patrol. In May 1939 he was appointed Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean where he had to face the much more numerous enemy squadrons. In September 1940 a brilliantly planned and executed naval air attack on the ships in Taranto harbour crippled the Italian battle fleet. Three more cruisers and two destroyers were eliminated at the battle of Cape Matapan in the following March. Cunningham had to organise the evacuations from Greece and Crete, to contain and attack when possible the Italian fleet and above all to protect the passage of convoys to Malta and the armies in North Africa in the face of almost continuous German and Italian air attack. In 1943 he succeeded Sir Dudley *Pound as First Sea Lord. Created a baronet in 1942, he received the KT in 1945 and a viscountcy and the OM in 1946. His brother, Sir Alan Gordon Cunningham (1887–1983), commanded the brilliant and successful attack from the south (1940) against the Italians in Ethiopia. His later appointment (1941) as Commander of the 8th Army in the western desert ended when he was superseded while an offensive which he had launched was still in progress. He was later High Commissioner in Palestine 1945–48.

Cunningham, A. B., A Sailor’s Odyssey. 1951; Winton, J., Cunningham. 1998.

Cunobelinus (d.c.40). British ruler. From Verulamium (St Albans) he extended his power to cover most of southeast England. The legends preserved in *Shakespeare’s Cymbeline are of no historical value.

Cuomo, Mario Matthew (1932–2015). American Democratic politician. He served as Secretary of State of New York 1975–79, Lieutenant-Governor 1979–82, and Governor 1983–95. An outspoken liberal, he declined to run for the presidential nomination in 1992 and was dubbed ‘Hamlet on the Hudson’. His son, Andrew Mark Cuomo (1957– ) was US Secretary for Housing and Urban Development 1997–2001 and Governor of New York State 2011– .

Curie, Marie (née Manja Sklodowska) (1867–1934). Polish-French physicist, born in Warsaw. The youngest of five children, her father was a teacher of mathematics and physics, her mother principal of a girls’ school. She taught briefly, then studied at an underground nationalist university. (Poland was then under Russian rule.) In 1891 she followed her sister Bronja to Paris, where she enrolled at the Sorbonne, living in great poverty. She became the assistant of Pierre *Curie and married him in 1895.

Following *Becquerel’s discovery of radioactivity (1896), the Curies in 1898 identified two new elements, polonium and radium, in pitchblende (a form of uranium oxide found in pitch-like substances), and after processing eight tonnes of it, isolated a gram of radium salts. She shared the 1903 Nobel Physics Prize with *Becquerel and Pierre *Curie for their work on radioactivity, becoming the first woman Nobel Laureate, and, at 36, still the youngest. On her husband’s death in an accident, she succeeded him as professor of physics at the University of Paris until 1919, being the first woman ever appointed. She investigated the medical effects of radioactivity, and in 1910 isolated metallic radium. In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the discovery and isolation of radium and polonium, becoming the first person (and only woman) to win two Nobel Prizes in the sciences. Her gender precluded election as FRS or award of the Copley Medal. She had a close relationship in 1911 with the physicist Paul *Langevin, but gave him up to devote herself to research. She founded and directed the Radium Institute in Paris and in World War I took a mobile treatment unit to the battlefields.

Professor of radiology at the University of Warsaw 1919–34, she continued her intensive research and also wrote a biography of her husband (1923). In 1921 she visited the US, met President *Harding and was publicly acclaimed. She died of leukaemia, induced by her years of working with radioactive materials, near Sallanches in Haute-Savoie. The film Marie Curie (1943) featured Greer Garson in the title role. The element ‘curie’ was named for her in 1944 by Glenn *Seaborg. In 1995 she was reburied with her husband in the Panthéon, the first woman so honoured.

She had two daughters. Irène Curie (1897–1956), worked with her mother, married another assistant, Jean Frédéric Joliot (later *Joliot Curie), sharing the 1935 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with him for the creation of artificial radiactivity. They both joined the Communist Party. Eve Curie (1904–2007) wrote her mother’s biography (1937) and Journey among Warriors (1943).

Cotton, E., Les Curies. 1963; Quinn, S., Marie Curie: A Life 1995.

Curie, Pierre (1859–1906). French physicist. In 1880, with his brother (Paul) Jacques Curie (1855–1941), he discovered piezoelectricity (electricity produced by pressure in certain crystals). He also investigated the magnetic properties of materials and established ‘Curie’s Law’ which relates magnetic properties and temperature. He was director of the laboratories 1882–95 and professor of physics 1895–1906 at the University of Paris. In 1895 he married Manja Sklodowska (Marie *Curie) and thereafter they devoted themselves to the study of radioactive minerals. Jointly with his wife and *Becquerel, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics (1903). He was run over by a truck and killed.

Cotton, E., Les Curies. 1963.

Curnow, (Thomas) Allen (Munro) (1911–2001). New Zealand poet. Some of his best poems were collected in At Dead Low Water and Sonnets (1949), while his satiric verses, written under the pen name ‘Whim Wham’, proved popular. He edited the much praised A Book of New Zealand Verse (1945; expanded 1960).

Currier and Ives. Nathaniel Currier (1813–1888) founded a lithographic and publishing business, engaging James Merritt Ives (1824–1895) as designer. The prints, which represent many aspects of the US of their time—houses, coaches, railway and outdoor scenes in general—were popular in their day and have become valued collectors’ pieces.

Curtin, John (Joseph Ambrose) (1885–1945). Australian politician, born in Creswick, Victoria. After being secretary of the Victorian timber-workers’ union 1911–15 and editor of the Westralian Worker 1917–28, he was a Labor MP 1928–31 and 1934–45. Leader of the ALP 1935–45, having been a determined isolationist and supporter of appeasement, from the outbreak of World War II he urged the strongest support of Britain in the struggle against *Hitler. In the deeply divided parliament elected in 1940, *Menzies was forced out by colleagues, *Fadden was dogged but inadequate and two Independents decided to support Labor. Curtin became Prime Minister in October 1941. When Japan’s conquest of Southeast Asia and invasion of the East Indies threatened Australia he appealed to *Roosevelt for US aid. Joint defence was set up under the supreme command of General Douglas *MacArthur. Curtin was fortunate to be supported by a strong Treasurer, J. B. *Chifley, and in the election of 1943 he won a massive majority. He died in office and many historians regard him as Australia’s greatest Prime Minister.

Serle, A. G. For Australia and Labor. 1998; Day, D., John Curtin: a life. 1999; Edwards, J., John Curtin’s War. 2 vols, 2017, 2018.

Curzon, Sir Clifford (Michael) (1907–1982). English pianist. He was noted as an exponent of *Mozart, *Beethoven and *Brahms, and toured widely.

Curzon of Kedleston, George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess (1859–1925). English Conservative politician, born in Kedleston, Derbyshire. Son of a peer, he showed brilliance at Oxford, was an MP 1886–99 and equipped himself by travel in Russia and the East and by extensive study to become Undersecretary for Foreign Affairs 1895–99. In 1899 he was appointed Viceroy of India, the youngest ever, and accepted an Irish barony, hoping to return to the Commons. He effected major reforms in Indian administration and his term was extended in 1904. However, in 1905 he resigned over a quarrel with the Commander-in-Chief, India, Lord *Kitchener, as much a clash of two autocratic temperaments as a real difference concerning the relation between army and civil authority. Curzon was an activist Chancellor of Oxford University 1907–25, accepted an earldom in 1911 and was raised to a marquessate in 1921. In World War I he was a member of *Lloyd George’s war cabinet as Lord President of the Council 1916–19, later as Foreign Secretary 1919–24, continuing after the coalition broke up (1922). On Bonar *Law’s resignation (1923), Curzon was bitterly disappointed to be passed over, when *George V, acting on advice from *Balfour and others, chose Stanley *Baldwin as Prime Minister, partly because Labour, having become the major opposition party, was virtually unrepresented in the Lords. Curzon’s temperament was as much his enemy as circumstances. His attempts to conceal his intense sensitivity, combined with a real love of, and skill at, organising pageantry, gave him a reputation for arrogance, hauteur and even bombast, which had a most damaging effect on his career. After Labour’s 10 months in power, Curzon became Lord President of the Council 1924–25, but without departmental responsibilities. He was a pioneer conservationist and donated Bodiam Castle and Tattershall Castle to the National Trust.

Gilmour, D. Curzon. 1994; Gilmour, D., Curzon: Imperial Statesman. 1994.

Cushing, Harvey Williams (1869–1939). American surgeon. An early pioneer in brain surgery, he made valuable contributions, both technical and as teacher and writer. His The Life of Sir William Osler (1925) won the Pulitzer Prize. He held chairs at Harvard and Yale, was nominated 38 times for the Nobel Prize (without success) but was elected FRS.

Custer, George Armstrong (1839–1876). American soldier, born in Ohio. A dashing cavalry leader in the Civil War, he served in many campaigns against the Indians and is especially famous for ‘Custer’s last stand’ (1876), at Little Bighorn River, Montana, when he led 200 cavalry into a Sioux Indian ambush (*Sitting Bull) in which all were killed. This tragic exploit has made him the subject of much controversy.

Goble, P. and D., Custer’s Last Battle. 1970.

Cuthbert, St (c.634–687). Anglo-Saxon monk, possibly born in Scotland. He lived as a hermit, was faithful to the Roman tradition and became Bishop of Lindisfarne in 686. *Alfred the Great was inspired by Cuthbert who became regarded as the patron saint of northern England and was reburied at Durham Cathedral in 1104. Buried with him was a tiny Gospel of St John, described as ‘the earliest surviving intact European book and one of the world's most significant books’, bought by the British Library in 2012 for £9 million.

Cuvier, Georges (Léopold Chrétien Dagobert) (1769–1832). French zoologist, anatomist and palaeontologist. As a youth he assumed the name of his dead brother Georges. Educated at Stuttgart, where he began his animal studies, he became a tutor near Caen, Normandy, where he could study fossils and the animal life of the seashore at first hand. His abilities were recognised by a visiting savant and he was invited to Paris, where eventually he became a professor at the Jardin des Plantes (zoological gardens). He pioneered the study of fossils and is regarded as the founder of comparative anatomy. Cuvier believed firmly in the fixity of species, and was strongly opposed to the evolutionist viewpoint. His Le Regne animal (1817) contained a systematic classification of all animal life, based on structural similarities, and these theories led him to modify the Linnean system of animal classification.

Coleman, W., Georges Cuvier, Zoologist. 1964.

Cuyp, Aelbert (1620–1691). Dutch landscape painter. He was the son of Jacob Cuyp (1575–1649), also an artist, best known for animal subjects and military scenes. Aelbert, though he also painted portraits, military and hunting scenes, is famous for idyllic scenes near his native Dordrecht (e g. Landscape with Cattle at the National Gallery, London) in tones warm and golden with sunshine. He greatly influenced English landscapists of succeeding generations.

Cymbeline see Cunobelinus

Cyprian, St (Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus) (c.200–258). Latin bishop and martyr, born in Carthage. Trained as a rhetorician, he was past middle life when (c.246) he was converted to Christianity. As Bishop of Carthage he proved to have great powers of organisation, especially during the persecutions of the emperor Decius when he had to direct the affairs of the see from hiding. Later he showed moderation and humanity in dealing with the lapsed, those who for one reason or another had abandoned their faith. He was martyred during the persecutions of the emperor Valerian.

Cyril (Kyrill, originally Konstantinos), St (c.827–869) and his brother St Methodius (originally Mikhaël) (c.825–885). Greek missionaries in Russia, born in Thessalonica. In c.860 Cyril went to preach among the Tartar Khazars to the north of the Black Sea. Meanwhile Methodius had been working among the Bulgarians but in c.863 the two brothers went together to Moravia, where their knowledge of the Slav language of the people and their ability to transcribe the Bible and other liturgical works made them more influential than the missionaries already there who knew only Latin or German. Summoned to Rome, they received papal sanction for their use of the Slavonic language. Cyril died there (869) but Methodius, now Bishop of Moravia, returned to complete their work. Cyril devised the Glagolitic alphabet, a modification of the Greek with symbols for additional elements in spoken Slavonic. A later modification, developed in Bulgaria, now called Cyrillic, is the basis of written Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian and Serbian.

Cyrus (Ku’rash) (d.401 BCE). Persian prince. He was pardoned for conspiracy against his brother, King *Artaxerxes II, and became satrap of Asia Minor, he then raised a rebel army, many of them Greeks, but was met, defeated and killed at Cunaxa in Babylonia. The epic homeward march of the Greeks, the dangers they encountered, including the snows of Asia Minor, is described in the Anabasis of *Xenophon, who was with them.

Cyrus II (‘the Great’: Greek form of Ku’rash) (c.585–529 BCE). King of Persia 559–529 BCE, Shahanshah (King of Kings) of Iran 550–529. Son of Cambyses (d.559 BCE), King of Persia, he conquered Media, Lydia (where he overcame *Croesus) and Babylon (*Belshazzar), and founded the Achaemenid Empire, the greatest to that time. Notably tolerant, he allowed the Jews to return from captivity in Babylon (539) and rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. He is often credited with promoting the first ‘charter of human rights’, and abolishing slavery, but this is contested. He had an enthusiasm for gardens. Killed fighting a nomadic tribe, the Massagetai, at his death Cyrus’ empire spread from Afghanistan to the Bosphorus. His reign was described by *Xenophon, *Herodotus and the Book of Daniel. His son *Cambyses added Egypt, Libya and Thrace to the empire.

Frye, R. N., The Heritage of Persia. 1963.

Czerny, Karl (1791–1857). Austrian pianist and teacher. Noted for his studies and exercises designed to improve technique, he studied with *Beethoven, and his pupils included *Liszt and *Leschetizky.

Cziffra, György (Georges) (1921–1994). Hungarian-French pianist. A phenomenal technician, he left Hungary in 1956 and made many recordings.


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