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Dictionary of World Biography

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Eakins, Thomas (1844–1916). American painter, photographer and sculptor, born Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He studied art and anatomy, then studied in Paris under Jean-Leon Gérome at the École des Beaux-Arts (1866–69). He then visited Spain and was deeply influenced by the works of *Velázquez and *Ribera. Returning to the US, he was professor of, and lecturer on, anatomy and painting at Pennsylvania Academy. A realist, called ‘the American Courbet’, his most famous picture The Gross Clinic (1875) provoked great revulsion, though his paintings are for the most part portraits of friends and depictions of outdoor sports. He was criticised for his teaching innovations which included working from live nude models, and his unwillingness to abandon the use of models resulted in his resignation in 1896. He was deeply interested in multiple image photography.

Eames, Charles (1907–1978). American industrial designer. Trained as an architect, he designed the ‘Eames chair’ (1946), moulded plywood supported by a tubular metal frame. His industrial and domestic creations were universally adopted.

Eames, Robin Henry Alexander, Baron Eames (1937– ). Irish prelate. Anglican Primate of All Ireland and Archbishop of Armagh 1986–2006, he received the OM (2007), presumably in recognition as his role as a reconciler both in doctrinal and community issues.

Earhart, Amelia Mary (1898–1937?). American aviator. A nurse, then a social worker, she married the publisher George P. Putnam in 1931. She was the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic (1932) and from Hawaii to California (1935). She disappeared between New Guinea and Howland Island on an attempted round the world flight with Fred Noonan in a Lockheed Electra 10E. Her fate was the subject of extensive speculation, including capture and execution by the Japanese, or defection to the Japanese, becoming a US spy, assuming a new identity. There is an extensive literature. Claims that bones found on Nikumaroro Island are hers are controversial. She has been much memorialised.

Davis, B., Amelia Earhart. 1977.

Early, Jubal Anderson (1816–1894). American soldier, born in Virginia. A lawyer, he rose to the rank of Lieutenant General in the Confederate army in the Civil War. He made a rapid advance down the Shenandoah Valley in July 1864, which threatened Washington. He continued to be valuable in several campaigns and proved a formidable opponent even when his forces were outnumbered. After 1865 he fled to Mexico, then Canada, returning to practise law. He refused to swear an oath of allegiance to the US Government.

Eastman, George (1854–1932). American inventor. His invention of the first practicable roll film (1884) and his development of cheap, mass-produced ‘Kodak’ cameras made photography a popular hobby. Experiments conducted jointly with *Edison did much to overcome the early difficulties of making motion pictures. He gave away $125 million: major beneficiaries were the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Rochester. He committed suicide.

Brayer, E., George Eastman. 1995.

Eastwood, Clint (1930– ). American film actor and director. The films he directed include Play Misty for Me (1971), Firefox (1982), Bird (1988), Unforgiven (1992), Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil (1997), Mystic River (2003) and Million Dollar Baby (2004). As an actor, he starred as ‘Dirty Harry’ in a series of five films, and In the Line of Fire (1993).

Ebert, Friedrich (1871–1925). German Socialist politician, born in Heidelberg. A saddler by trade, and a Catholic, he became a journalist, secretary of the SDP 1905–19 and a Reichstag member 1913–19 who voted (reluctantly) for war credits. The SDP split three ways in 1917, with Ebert leading the anti-Communists. He was Chancellor for one day (November 1918) when the Imperial Government collapsed. The armed forces, encouraged by *Gröner, supported a Black-Red-Gold (Catholic Centre, Democrat and SDP) coalition in 1919, and Ebert was elected first President of the German Republic 1919–25. His rule was compromised from the outset, using the army and a Freikorps, units of unemployed ex-soldiers, in 1919 to crush the Spartacists (Rosa *Luxemburg) and suppress a Socialist Republic in Bavaria. He died of appendicitis.

Peters, M., Friedrich Ebert. 1954.

Eça de Queirós, José Maria de (1845–1900). Portuguese novelist, born in Pavoa do Varzim. He graduated in law from Coimbra University (1866) and settled in Lisbon. He began a career in law but his real interest lay in literature. He wrote for the Gazeta de Portugal (1866–67) and contributed a satirical review to As Farpas (1871). By 1871 he was closely associated with the ‘generation of ’70’, rebellious Portuguese intellectuals who advocated social and artistic reform. Joining the foreign service he was Consul in Cuba 1872–76 and England 1874–79, when he wrote the novels for which he is best remembered,O Crime do Padre Amaro (1875), then O Primo Basilio (1878), stories of sexual misdeeds. In 1888 he wrote Os Maias, by which time he was designated the ‘Portuguese *Zola’. This novel was, like its predecessors, an attempt to bring about social reform by exposing the evils of contemporary society. His other novels show a change of style: O Mandarim (1880) is a fantasy, A Reliquia (1887) a satire and A Cidade e as Serras (1901) a picture of rural life, praising the beauty of the countryside. He was Consul in Paris 1888–1900. Of aristocratic temperament, he was contemptuous of the backwardness of Portugal, but his last novel expresses a sentimental feeling for the country. He introduced naturalism and realism in literature to Portugal and was a master of character analysis and is generally regarded as Portugal’s greatest novelist.

Eccles, Sir John Carew (1903–1997). Australian physiologist, born in Melbourne. Educated at Melbourne High School and Melbourne University, he undertook research on the spinal cord at Oxford (1925–37). He was professor of physiology at Otago University 1944–51 and at Australian National University 1951–66. In Canberra he discovered the chemical means by which signals are communicated or repressed by nerve cells, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine in 1963 (with A. L. *Hodgkin and A. F. *Huxley). His work has had considerable influence on the medical treatment of nervous diseases, and research on the function of kidney, heart and brain. His publications include Reflex Activity of the Spinal Cord (1932) and The Physiology of Nerve Cells (1957). He was President of the Australian Academy of Science 1957–61 and received the AC in 1990.

Eckert, John Presper Jr (1919–1995). American inventor, born in Philadelphia. With John W. Mauchly, professor of electrical engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, he improved computing equipment needed by the US War Department to recompute artillery firing tables (1943). They also won a government contract to build a digital computer (completed 1946), and ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the prototype for most modern computers. In 1948 Eckert and Mauchly established a computer manufacturing firm and in 1949 produced Binac (Binary Automatic Computer) which stored information on magnetic tape rather than punch cards. Their third model, Univac I (Universal Automatic Computer) was widely used in the commercial world, and really began the computer boom.

Eckhart, Johannes (c.1260–1327). German theologian, usually known as Meister Eckhart. One of the most profound medieval thinkers, the mystical and abstract nature of his speculations make them difficult to understand. They have been loosely described as Christian neoplatonism. He conceives an ultimate incomprehensible Godhead, of which the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are different manifestations. The soul of man also partakes of the essence of the Godhead and on reaching a stage of self awareness is re-absorbed into the Godhead from which it came. Eckhart’s mysticism did not, however, take the form of trances, visions etc. He was a powerful preacher and must have been a competent man of affairs. Two years after his death many of his teachings were condemned by the papacy. Opus tripartitum was his most important work.

Hustache, J. A., Master Eckhart and the Rhineland Mystics. 1958.

Eco, Umberto (1932–2016). Italian writer. A historian and philosopher, he taught at Bologna University, became an expert on James *Joyce and semiotics (*Barthes) and wrote the bestselling novels, The Name of the Rose (1980), Foucault’s Pendulum (1988) and The Island of the Day Before (1995).

Eddington, Sir Arthur Stanley (1882–1944). English astronomer and astrophysicist. An unmarried Quaker, deeply interested in religion, he studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, became assistant at Greenwich Observatory 1906–13, and was professor of astronomy and director of the observatory at Cambridge University 1913–44. In 1916 he began his work on the constitution of the stars, establishing their internal structure and bringing about a complete revision of ideas then current. In May 1919, he confirmed *Einstein’s theory of general relativity by observing a solar eclipse from Principe, West Africa, and made important contributions to relativity theory, particularly in relation to cosmology. He clashed with Subrahmanyan *Chandrasekhar over the existence of ‘black holes’. He wrote a number of popular works expounding advances in physics. One of the best known is The Nature of the Physical World (1928). He was knighted in 1930 and awarded the OM in 1938. Nominated six times for the Nobel Physics Prize, without success, a lunar crater and Asteroid 2761 Eddington were named for him.

Douglas, A. V., Arthur Stanley Eddington. 1956.

Eddy, Mary (Morse) Baker (née Baker) (1821–1910). American founder of the Christian Science movement, born in Bow, New Hampshire. From childhood a devout Bible student, she was healed after a serious injury caused by a fall (1866) by applying the teaching of the healing of the palsied man in St Matthew’s Gospel to her own condition. In 1875 she published Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures which asserted that matter was an illusion and that ‘Spirit’ (i.e. God) was everything. Thus all physical ailments could be overcome by prayer. In 1877 she married Asa G. Eddy (d.1882), her third husband. In 1879 she founded the First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston and was pastor emeritus until her death. She founded a daily newspaper, the Christian Science Monitor, in 1908.

Peel, R., Mary Baker Eddy. 3 vols, 1966, 1971, 1977.

Edelman, Gerald Maurice (1929–2014). American molecular biologist, born in New York. He was trained at the Rockefeller University, taught there from 1960 and shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his determining the structure of the gamma-globulin blood molecule. Later, he developed a biological theory of mind, the Theory of Neuronal Group Selection (TNGS), and wrote Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind (1992).

Eden, (Robert) Anthony, 1st Earl of Avon (1897–1977). British Conservative politician, born in Co. Durham. Second son of Sir William Eden, a Durham baronet, he was educated at Eton, won an MC in World War I and studied oriental languages at Oxford (1919–22). MP for Leamington 1922–57, from the first he specialised in foreign affairs and was parliamentary private secretary to Sir Austen *Chamberlain 1926–29. His work at Geneva with the League of Nations gave him an international reputation for diplomatic skill. Undersecretary for Foreign Affairs 1931–33 and Minister for the League of Nations 1933–35, he became Foreign Secretary 1935–38 after the resignation of Sir Samuel Hoare (1st Viscount *Templewood). Attempts by the Prime Minister, Neville *Chamberlain, to bring about a rapprochement with Mussolini caused Eden to resign in 1938. When *Churchill formed his coalition ministry, Eden was briefly Secretary for War 1940, then Foreign Secretary 1940–45. Deputy Leader of the Conservative Opposition 1945–51, he was Foreign Secretary for a third time 1951–55. His first marriage failed and in 1952 he married Clarissa Churchill, the Prime Minister’s niece. He was created a KG in 1954. When Churchill reluctantly departed, Eden succeeded as Prime Minister 1955–57, despite serious health problems (ulcers, biliary and abdominal infections). His domestic policies were mildly progressive. In October 1956, his sponsorship of the Anglo-French military intervention in Egypt, after *Nasser had refused redress for seizing the Suez Canal, provoked a violent controversy within and outside his own party, and alienated President *Eisenhower. There was a ceasefire in November. Under pressure from his colleagues, and with illness as a pretext, he resigned in January 1957. The Eden Memoirs (1960, 1962, 1965), ghost-written, in three volumes, sold well, although unreadable. He was awarded an earldom in 1961.

James, R. R., Anthony Eden. 1986.

Edgar (Eadgar) the Ætheling (c.1051–c.1126). English prince, born in Hungary. Son of Edward the Exile and grandson of *Edmund Ironside, he was next in the royal line of descent when *Edward the Confessor died and *Harold became King. After the Norman invasion and Harold’s death, he was elected king (1066) by the Witanagemot but never crowned. After *William’s conquest he submitted, but soon took refuge with his sister Margaret, who became the wife of *Malcolm III of Scotland. After the northern rising of 1069–70, in which he took part, and wanderings in Europe, he made his peace with William. He was a crusader in 1099 and fought against *Henry I at Tinchebrai, Normandy (1106). The last survivor of the royal house of Wessex, founded by *Cerdic, his date of death and place of burial are unknown.

Edgar (Eadgar) the Peaceful (943–975). King of England 959–75. The first king for many years to be able to exercise undisputed rule over an undivided country, he was able to reform the administration, wisely allowing the Danes of eastern England to live under their own laws. His supremacy was symbolised by the legend that he was rowed on the Dee by eight subject kings. His chief adviser was *Dunstan, who enthusiastically supported his monastic reforms.

Edgeworth, Maria (1767–1849). Anglo-Irish writer. Her father, Richard Lovell Edgeworth (1774–1817), a landlord of Co. Longford, was a scientist, politician and educationist, with a score of children upon whom he could try out his theories. Maria, the eldest, cooperated with him as joint author of the *Rousseau-esque Practical Education (1798), and herself wrote The Parent’s Assistant (1796–1801) and Moral Tales (1801). Better known are her realistic novels of Irish life: Castle Rackrent (1800), The Absentee (18l2) and Ormond (1817). Excessive moralising marred these and her other novels, e.g. Belinda (1801). She was a friend of Sir Walter *Scott.

Inglis-Jones, E., The Great Maria: A Portrait of Maria Edgeworth. 1959.

Edinburgh, Duke of, Philip Mountbatten (originally Philip of Greece and Denmark) (1921– ). British prince, consort of Queen *Elizabeth II. Born in Corfu, he was the son of Prince Andrew of Greece, but part of the Danish dynasty with the cumbersome name of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. His mother, Princess Alice of Battenberg, who became a nun, was a sister of Earl *Mountbatten of Burma, whose surname he adopted in 1947. After some precarious years as an exile, he was educated in France, England, Germany and at Gordonstoun in Scotland. He joined the Royal Navy in 1939 and served in the Pacific during World War II. He was created Duke of Edinburgh shortly before his marriage to Princess Elizabeth (November 1947). He travelled extensively, taking a keen and often controversial interest in industry, education, science, sport and conservation. He became a prince of the United Kingdom in 1957, received the OM in 1968 but was never Prince Consort. He was Chancellor of Cambridge University 1976–2011 and celebrated 70 years of marriage in 2017.

Hoey, B., Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. 1991; Eade, P., Prince Philip. 2011.

Edison, Thomas Alva (1847–1931). American inventor, born in Milan, Ohio. Growing up in Michigan, he spent only three months at school, was taught at home by his schoolteacher mother, becoming a voracious reader and essentially self-educated. He set up his own laboratory at home, and at the age of 12 began selling newspapers and candy on the Grand Trunk Railroad, soon employing assistants. Trained as a telegraphist, (1862) as a reward for saving a child’s life, he became an expert operator (despite his growing deafness) and repairer of machines. After six years as an itinerant telegraphist, he settled in Boston (1868), working for Western Union, and after devouring *Faraday’s work, devoted his free time to experiments in electricity. In 1869 he invented an improved stock market tickertape printer, his first great success, sold it for $40,000, and began manufacturing high-speed telegraphic printers in Newark, New Jersey. His quadruplex telegraph (1874) doubled transmission capacity of lines. In 1876 he established the world’s first industrial research laboratory, at Menlo Park, NJ, his ‘invention factory’. The concept of commercial inventiveness was probably his greatest achievement. (This laboratory moved to West Orange, NJ, in 1887.) His favourite invention, the phonograph (1877), on which sound vibrations were recorded on tinfoil wrapped around a cylinder, made him internationally famous. Edison later used wax cylinders, from which copies could be made, but the phonograph was displaced by the gramophone developed by *Berliner and others, playing discs. His dictating machine and stencil duplication (1877) revolutionised—if not created—modern office work, until the digital age. His carbon microphone (1878) was needed to make *Bell’s telephone a commercial reality. (In 1877 Edison revived the relatively rare word ‘Hello’ by proposing it as a telephone greeting.)

General Electric, funded by J. P. *Morgan, was established in 1878; Edison sold his stock in 1894 to invest in mining. In 1879 he patented the first successful incandescent lightbulb, using a carbon filament in a vacuum (*Swan’s lights burned out in a few minutes), devised a complete electrical distribution system including generators, switches, plugs and fuses, and by 1882 was supplying direct current (DC) to New York consumers on a grid. However, impatient of theory, he failed to grasp the significance of his employee Nikola *Tesla’s work on alternating current (AC) which was far cheaper to distribute. His exact contemporary, George *Westinghouse adopted Tesla and AC and by 1890 Edison had lost the distribution battle: after 1892 his electrical patents were taken over by General Electric. In 1883 he made his only major scientific discovery, the ‘Edison effect’, one of the foundations of electronics, the flow of current between a hot and cold electrode due to the emission of electrons. The first execution by electric chair took place in New York (1890). In 1891 he developed the Kinetoscope camera which could film moving images on strips of celluloid—a technique later developed by the *Lumière brothers. Edison thought the future of land transport lay with electric cars and development of the internal combustion engine was taken up by his onetime employee, Henry *Ford. During World War I he worked for the US Government, devised an improved alkaline storage battery and tried to produce synthetic rubber from weeds. Edison was the central figure of the Second (electric) Industrial Revolution with more than 1300 patents to his credit. Einstein called him ‘the greatest inventor of all time’. He was deeply disappointed, as was Tesla, not to have been awarded a Nobel Prize. A classic ‘rags to riches’ story, Edison (like *Franklin) is part of the American dream. He always described genius as ‘one per cent inspiration, ninety-nine per cent perspiration’, preferring hands on experience and repeated trial and error to theoretical speculation. On the negative side, as Isaac *Asimov noted, he ‘fostered a confusion between science and invention’ which inhibited public support and understanding of basic science for decades. In a feature in Life magazine (Fall 1997) a panel of scholars ranked Edison as No. 1 of ‘the 100 most important people of the millennium 1001–2000’.

Josephson, M., Edison: A Biography. 1959; Clark, R. W., Edison, 1977; Morris, E., Edison. 2019.

Edmund of Abingdon, St (Edmund Rich) (c.1175–1240). English ecclesiastic, born in Abingdon. He studied at Oxford and Paris, lecturing in both places. In 1222 he became Canon of Salisbury Cathedral, and in 1227 preached for the 6th Crusade, at the request of Pope Gregory IX by whom he was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury 1233. Outspoken, he clashed with *Henry III, criticising his reliance on favourites, and his foreign policies. Edmund averted civil war by bringing moral pressure to bear upon Henry but the threat of excommunication forced him to make concessions. Later, however, the papal legate, Otho, requested by Henry, undermined Edmund’s authority, forcing him to leave England for Rome, to appeal to the Pope (1238). He died at Soissy en route to Pontigny to enter a monastery. Edmund’s high ideals and virtue made him widely respected and he was canonised in 1247. Feast day: 16 Nov. His Speculum Ecclesiae is considered a major contribution to medieval theology.

Lawrence, C. H., St Edmund of Abingdon: A Study in Hagiography and History. 1960.

Edmund (Eadmund) Ironside (980–1016). King of England 1016. Son of *Æthelred the Unready, he led the resistance to the Danish invaders under *Cnut but after a long, and at first successful, struggle he was defeated at Ashington (1016) and had to divide his kingdom with Cnut, retaining the south for himself. After his death Cnut ruled over the whole kingdom.

Edmund (Eadmund) the Martyr, St (c.841–870). King of East Anglia 855/6–70). He was either slain in battle or martyred by the Danes, reputedly bound to a tree, scourged, shot with arrows and finally beheaded for refusing to renounce his Christian faith. His tomb at Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, eventually became a shrine.

Edward (Eadweard) the Elder (870–924). King of England 899–924. Before he succeeded his father, *Alfred the Great, he defeated the Danes repeatedly but on coming to the throne he immediately had to face a revolt by his cousin Aethelwald supported by the Danes of the east and north. Edward continued his victorious career and after the death of his sister and staunch ally Aethelflaed, the ‘Lady of the Mercians’ (918), he was lord of all England south of the Humber, and by 921 was overlord also of the north, Wales and parts of Scotland. He maintained his power by strategically placed fortresses, some of which survive. He was succeeded by his son *Athelstan.

Edward (Eadweard) the Martyr (c.963–978). King of England 975–78. Son of Edgar the Peaceful, his reign was disorderly and he was murdered at Corfe Castle, Dorset, probably at the instigation of his stepmother Aelfthryth, whose son *Æthelred the Unready succeeded him. He was styled as martyr from c.1001.

Edward (Eadweard) the Confessor, St (c.1003–1066). King of England 1042–66. He was the seventh son of *Æthelred the Unready by Emma, sister of the Duke of Normandy, at whose court he had been brought up for safety’s sake, since England was in a state of turbulence. When he succeeded his half brother *Harthacnut, he had lived for less than two years in England. It was natural therefore that he should surround himself with Norman friends but he also took to a life of pious practice and religious observance. Westminster Abbey, which he founded and where he is buried, is his finest memorial. Meanwhile power rested with his ambitious father-in-law *Godwine, Earl of Essex, and his son *Harold. Edward had no liking for either but was unable to assert himself and he eventually agreed that Harold should succeed to the throne. He posthumously acquired a reputation as a lawgiver. He was canonised in 1161.

Edward I (1239–1307). King of England 1272–1307. Born in Westminster, son of *Henry III, he was nicknamed ‘Longshanks’ for his unusual height, about 1.88 m. In 1254, he married *Eleanor of Castile, to whom he remained devotedly attached. During the Barons’ War (1264–65) he led his father’s army and defeated and killed Simon de *Montfort at Evesham (1265). He played a minor role in the Ninth Crusade (1270–73), was wounded, and did not return to England until August 1274, two years after his father’s death. He soon showed himself to be a great lawmaker. The first Statute of Westminster (1275) dealt with administrative abuses, that of Quo Warranto, by forcing the magnates to show warrant for the powers they claimed to exercise, was a protection against the usurpation of feudal power. The Statute of Mortmain prevented the handing over of land to the Church except under licence. Edward believed in government by consent and that those who had to find the money for wars and other emergencies should be consulted as to amounts and the methods by which it should be raised. Therefore he extended de Montfort’s experiments of adding new elements to the Great Council until there actually came into existence a body which began to be known as parliament from about 1295 and had some resemblance to modern legislatures. Outside England, Edward had to contend with the French king’s provocations, designed to secure control of Edward’s French inheritance, and was forced into a long, expensive and indecisive contest. In Wales a rising by the prince *Llewelyn ap Gruffydd (1282) provided him with excuse and opportunity for a complete conquest secured by strategically placed castles, several of which still stand. From 1275, he took increasingly punitive measures against the Jews, leading to the Edict of Expulsion (1290), which excluded Jews from England until *Cromwell repealed the edict in 1656. His son, the future *Edward II, was declared Prince of Wales (1301). In Scotland, where the death (1290) of the three-year-old queen, *Margaret, the Maid of Norway, had left a gap in the succession, he was less successful. Edward made three expeditions in support of his candidate John de *Balliol, but though he could usually win pitched battles and hold the fortified towns, though he could even bring the Coronation stone from Scone to Westminster (1296) and defeat and execute the patriot leader William *Wallace (1305), he could achieve no permanent conquest and was marching northwards to suppress yet another rising (under Robert *Bruce) when he died. He became known as ‘the Hammer of the Scots’ (Malleus Scotorum). He was buried in Westminster Abbey. He had a very intimidating manner, most of his wars were failures or indecisive, and his expulsion of the Jews set an appalling precedent; nevertheless, he promoted the idea of a representative parliament, governing by consent, ventilating grievances and making it easier to collect revenue. Edward I is generally regarded as one of the greatest of medieval kings.

Morris, M., A Great and Terrible King. Edward I and the Forging of Britain. 2009; King, A., Edward I: A New King Arthur? 2017.

Edward II (1284–1327). King of England 1307–27. He was born in Caernarvon, the fourth son of *Edward I. Though he had the magnificent Plantagenet physique and was addicted to country sports and occupations (but not the jousting and tournaments of the nobility), he was always a weak and unstable king. Homosexual and strongly influenced by favourites, the first of these, the Gascon Piers *Gaveston, made Earl of Cornwall in 1307, so incited the hatred of the barons by his pride and extravagance that they had him executed (1312). Edward’s authority was still further lowered when in an attempt to carry out his father’s policy and bring Scotland to submission he marched northwards only to be decisively beaten by Robert *Bruce at Bannockburn (1314). For the next few years power was in the hands of a group of barons known as Lords Ordainers, under the leadership of the Earl of Lancaster. At last, in 1322, Edward regained control and secured Lancaster’s execution, but, disastrously for himself, he fell once more under the domination of a favourite, Hugh Despenser, a Lord of the Welsh March. Once more rebellion was provoked, this time organised by Edward’s wife *Isabella of France and her lover Roger de *Mortimer. In January 1327, Edward was deposed and later murdered at Berkeley Castle, presumably by Mortimer’s agents, but the exact circumstances are not clear. Christopher *Marlowe wrote the play Edward II (1592).

Bingham, C., The Life and Times of Edward II. 1973; Warner, K., Edward II: The Unconventional King. 2014.

Edward III (1312–1377). King of England 1327–77. Born in Windsor, son of *Edward II and Isabella of France, he succeeded on his father’s deposition. In 1328 he married *Philippa, daughter of the Count of Hainaut in Flanders. She gave birth to five sons who reached maturity and five daughters. In 1330 he obtained effective control by having his mother’s lover Roger de *Mortimer seized and hanged, then resumed the Scottish War and by a major victory at Halidon Hill (1333) placed the son of John *de Balliol on the throne. He then turned his attention to France which provided all the justification he needed to gratify his love of chivalry and war. (The Order of the Garter, founded by him in 1348, imitated the knighthood gathered at Arthur’s Round Table). Not only were there the provocations of the last two reigns but there was his own claim through his mother to the French throne, from which he was only excluded by the Salic Law debarring succession through the female line. Thus in 1337 began what became the Hundred Years’ War, by no means a continuous conflict but a series of campaigns often separated by years and interrupted by treaties. In the first stages, marked by the victorious sea fight at Sluys (1340), which opened the way to the invaders, and the great battles of Crécy (1346) and Poitiers (1356), the English seemed invincible. Edward and his son, *Edward the Black Prince, achieved glory, but it was the dominance of the long bow over armoured knights that proved decisive. Calais was captured in 1347, its burghers spared, so the story goes, by the intercession of the intercession of Queen Philippa. By the treaty of 1360 the English regained the duchy of Aquitaine while renouncing the claim to the French throne. But when the French renewed the war in 1369 the English were forced to give up all possessions except the district round Calais. At home Edward was not a great ruler, he maintained law and order, but in his reign parliament was considerably strengthened by its claim to grant or withhold the funds necessary for the conduct of the war. In the king’s last years he became senile and the government fell into the hands of his greedy mistress, Alice Perrers, and his son, *John of Gaunt, with the result that many difficulties awaited his successor and grandson, *Richard II. Ardent and chivalrous, with a strong taste for good living, Edward III was a more venturesome warrior but a much less able administrator than *Edward I.

Johnson, P., The Life and Times of Edward III. 1973; Ormrod, W. M., Edward III. 2011; Mortimer, I., The Perfect King. The Life of Edward III. 2008; Davis, J. P., The Gothic King: A Biography of Edward III. 2013.

Edward IV (1441–1483). King of England 1461–70, 1471–83, first sovereign of the House of York. Born in Rouen, he was son of *Richard, Duke of York and great-grandson of Edmund, fourth son of *Edward III. During the Wars of the Roses he was, after the death of his father at Wakefield, the Yorkist candidate for the throne. After *Henry VI’s forces had been defeated in 1461 at the battles of Mortimer Cross and Towton, Edward was proclaimed king. His cousin, the Earl of *Warwick, known as the ‘kingmaker’, sustained his rule but was later antagonised when Edward became increasingly influenced by the family of his wife, Elizabeth Woodville (md.1464). In 1470, Warwick succeeded in deposing Edward, who fled to Holland, and in restoring Henry VI. Having rallied support Edward returned the next year, defeated the Lancastrians at Barnet (where Warwick was killed) and Tewkesbury, and regained his throne, ensured by the murder of Henry VI. Though notorious for his indolence and love of pleasure, he proved a resourceful and capable ruler, encouraged trade and supported William *Caxton, who set up the first printing press in England.

Myers, A. R., The Household of Edward IV. 1959.

Edward V (1470–1483). King of England April–June 1483. Born in Westminster, one of the ‘princes in the Tower’, on the death of his father, *Edward IV, he was proclaimed king under the guardianship of his uncle, Richard, Duke of Gloucester. In June 1483 an assembly of peers and commoners deposed him on the grounds that Edward IV’s marriage to Elizabeth Woodville was bigamous and the offspring illegitimate. Edward and his brother Richard, Duke of York were taken to the Tower of London and there murdered, probably by their uncle, who became *Richard III, or possibly by Henry VII (1485). The fate of the princes is a matter of continuing controversy. In 1674 the bones of two boys were found in a wooden chest in the tower. Assumed to be the remains of the ‘princes in the Tower’, they were interred in Westminster Abbey.

Edward VI (1537–1553). King of England 1547–53. Born in London, son of *Henry VIII, whom he succeeded, by his third wife *Jane (Seymour), he was precocious in his studies, interested in the reformed religion, but seems to have had a cold shrewdness, particularly unattractive in so young a boy. This was made apparent by the way in which he accepted and acquiesced in the execution of his uncle and first ‘protector’, Edward Seymour, Duke of *Somerset. John Dudley, Duke of *Northumberland, the new protector, persuaded Edward, on his deathbed, to nominate Lady Jane *Grey, Northumberland’s daughter-in-law, as his successor, to the exclusion of his sisters *Mary and *Elizabeth. During his reign the Church became steadily more national and Protestant and a second, more stringent Act of Uniformity was passed. He died of tuberculosis.

Jordan, W. K., Edward VI. 2 vols, 1968, 1971.

Edward VII (Albert Edward) (1841–1910). King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India 1901–10. Born in London, he was the second child and eldest son of Queen *Victoria and Prince *Albert. Probably dyslexic, he was subject to extreme discipline and restraints on his natural inclinations in youth but had a brief encounter with education at Edinburgh University, Christ Church, Oxford, and Trinity College, Cambridge. As Prince of Wales he was entirely excluded by his mother from any share in, or indeed acquaintance with, affairs of state. He visited the US (1860) and India (1861) and married the beautiful Princess *Alexandra of Denmark in 1863. Reacting against his parents’ rigid morality, he was renowned as a lover of wine, women and gambling. However, he was vaguely sympathetic to *Gladstone, philosemitic, but also interested in *Wagner’s operas. As king, he came to terms with democracy and gained surprising popularity. He pushed the entente-cordiale with France (1905) and his nickname ‘the Peacemaker’ had some validity. His nephew, Kaiser *Wilhelm II, called him ‘an old peacock’; Henry *James dubbed him ‘Edward the Caresser’. His eldest son *Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence, died in 1892. He died of emphysema and heart failure at the age of 69 and was succeeded by his second son *George V.

Magnus, P., Edward VII. 1967; Weintraub, S., The Importance of Being Edward. 2000; Ridley, J., Bertie. A Life of Edward VII. (2013).

Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David) (1894–1972). King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India January–December 1936, later Duke of Windsor. Born in Richmond, eldest son of *George V and Queen *Mary, he was created Prince of Wales in 1910, given a naval education at Dartmouth College and proceeded to Magdalen College, Oxford. During World War I he served on the staff in France. From 1919 he toured the world constantly, winning adulation from vast crowds. He succeeded his father in January 1936. His long association with an American divorcee, Mrs Wallis Simpson (née Warfield) (1896–1986), was suppressed by the British press and the BBC. He advised *Baldwin of his intention to marry Mrs Simpson after her second divorce. The British and Dominion governments opposed her becoming queen and would not agree to legislation providing for a morganatic marriage. After 325 days, he abdicated in favour of his brother Albert, Duke of York, who became *George VI. Created Duke of Windsor, in June 1937 he married Mrs Simpson in France. He served unhappily as Governor of the Bahamas 1940–45, where his major challenge was the murder of Sir Harry Oakes (July 1943). He lived in Paris from 1945 and died there. His autobiography, A King’s Story, appeared in 1951. The Duke and Duchess were both buried at the royal mausoleum at Frogmore, Windsor.

Ziegler, P., King Edward VIII. 1990.

Edward the Black Prince, Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Aquitaine (1330–1376). English prince and soldier, born in Woodstock. Eldest son of *Edward III, he became the first duke created in England (1337) and was an original KG (1348). He won his spurs at Crécy (1346) and proved his ability as a commander at Poitiers (1356), where he captured the French king, *Jean II. Less successful as ruler (from 1362) of his father’s French possessions, Aquitaine and Gascony, he again proved his military prowess when he made a chivalrous incursion into Spain in aid of *Pedro (‘the Cruel’) of Castile and won another great victory at Najara (1367). This was the end of his glory. He returned ill and despondent to England in 1371, having had to yield during the previous two years to rebellions among his subjects and encroachments from France, by which the English possessions were gradually whittled away. He died before his father, and his son, by his wife Joan, the ‘Fair Maid of Kent’, succeeded Edward III to the throne as *Richard II. He was buried at Canterbury Cathedral where his armour can still be seen.

Edwards, Jonathan (1703–1758). American theologian and philosopher, born in Connecticut. He became a pastor of Northampton, Mass., where his powerful preaching and writing kindled the religious revival known as ‘the Great Awakening’. His doctrinal inspiration came from *Calvin and he was the last of the great New England Calvinists, advocating acceptance of the doctrine of predestination. For the last years of his life he worked as a missionary among the Indians, becoming President of the College of New Jersey (Princeton University) just before his death.

Miller, P., Jonathan Edwards. 1949.

Edwards, Sir Robert Geoffrey (1925–2013). English physiologist, born in Yorkshire. A pioneer in in vitro fertilisation (IVF), working with Patrick Steptoe (1911–1988), the birth of Louise Brown, in Oldham, in 1978 was the first resulting from the procedure. Further births soon followed in Melbourne, following the work of Carl Wood (1929–2011). Edwards won the 2010 Nobel Prize for Medicine and was knighted in 2011.

Edwin (Eadwine or Æduinus) (c.585–633). King of Northumbria 616–33. Son of Ælle, King of Deira, he spent his youth in exile, probably in Wales, but was installed as king of Deira and Bernicia in 616 under the protection of Raedwald, King of East Anglia. He gradually expanded his kingdom to the borders of Scotland, and became overlord of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms except Kent. His second wife was Æthelburh, sister of Eadbald, King of Kent. Through her and her confessor Paulinus, later the first Archbishop of York, he became a Christian. Edwin was killed in battle against an alliance of the Mercian king *Penda and Cadwallon, King of North Wales.

Egalité, Philippe see Orléans, Philippe, Duc d’

Egbert (Ecgberth) (771/5–839). King of Wessex 802–39. A descendant of *Cerdic, the founder of the house of Wessex, as a young man he was an exile at the court of *Charlemagne. Though he returned to become king in 802, almost nothing is known of him until he defeated the kingdom of Mercia at the battle of Ellendun (825), a victory so decisive that it brought Mercian supremacy to an end and all southeast England under the control of Wessex. Egbert conquered Mercia in 829 and received Northumbria’s submission in the same year. He could not hold his gains, however, and Mercia again had its own king the following year. But Egbert’s reign pointed the way to the future destiny of the Wessex kings as rulers of all England.

Egk, Werner (1901–1983). German composer and conductor. He wrote the operas Peer Gynt (1938), Columbus (1948) and Der Revisor (1957), based on *Gogol’s The Government Inspector. His role during the Nazi regime has been described as ‘enigmatic opportunism’ and he received significant commissions. Later compositions include the concertos Moira (1973) and Temptation (1977). He was President of the International Confederation of Authors and Composers 1976–78.

Egmont, Lamoral, Count d’ (1522–1568). Netherlandish soldier and statesman. One of the great lords of the century, he served the emperor *Charles V (who had acquired the Burgundian inheritance in the Netherlands) with great distinction, and in 1546 was made a knight of the Golden Fleece. When *Philip II of Spain succeeded Charles (1555), the persecution of Protestants and imposition of the Inquisition by his minister in the Netherlands, Cardinal Antoine de Granvelle, intensified. *William the Silent became an exile but Egmont went to Madrid trying to secure redress for their grievances from Philip himself. The extravagance of the language with which Egmont, on his return, expressed his anger at the failure of his mission gave Granvelle’s successor, the Duke of *Alba, an excuse to crush opposition. Egmont and his ally Philip de Montmorency, Count of Hoorn, were arrested for heresy and publicly beheaded in Brussels. Their execution was a chief factor in sparking off open rebellion against Spanish rule. Egmont’s life was celebrated in a play by *Goethe, with music by *Beethoven.

Ehrenburg, Ilya Grigorevich (1891–1967). Russian writer. A war correspondent in World War I, he supported the Russian Revolution but spent most of his time between the wars in Paris (from 1934) as a correspondent for Izvestia. He was a most prolific writer of novels, of which The Adventures of Jullio Jurenito, satirising decadent western civilisation, is among the best known. He won the *Stalin Prize in 1947 with The Storm, a major novel about World War II. The Thaw (1954) commented on the oppressions of Stalin’s regime.

Ehrlich, Paul (1854–1915). German-Jewish bacteriologist, born in Silesia (now Poland). He graduated in medicine at Leipzig in 1878. After returning (1890) from treatment in Egypt for tuberculosis, he worked at the new Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin. He developed staining techniques (using *Perkin’s synthetic mauve dyes) for the tuberculosis bacillus, assisting *Koch’s work. With Emil von *Behring, he perfected a diphtheria serum. In 1896 he became director of the State Institute for Serum Research and in 1906 of the Royal Institute for Experimental Therapy at Frankfurt-on-Main. He investigated blood cells and immunity to infection, including the ‘chemical affinity’ theory in which the ‘side-chains’ or receptors of cells can be stimulated chemically to promote immunity from toxins. He shared the 1908 Nobel Prize for Medicine with Elie Metchnikoff (1845–1916) for their ‘work on the theory of immunity’. In 1910, with Hata Sahachiro, he developed an arsenical compound, originally numbered ‘606’ and named ‘salvarsan’, which proved effective in treating syphilis − an early form of chemotherapy. ‘Neosalvarsan’ (‘914’), much less toxic, was produced in 1912. He was renominated for the Nobel Prize in 1912 and 1913. The film Dr Ehrlich’s Magic Bullet (1940), starring Edward G. Robinson, was a sympathetic account of his life and work.

Loewe, H., Paul Ehrlich. 1950.

Ehrlich, Paul (Ralph) (1932– ) American population biologist. He taught at Stanford University from 1959 and wrote The Population Bomb (1968), warning of a global population explosion and calling for ZPG (‘zero population growth’). With his wife Anne Howland, he wrote The Population Explosion (1990) and Healing the Planet (1991).

Eichmann, (Karl) Ado1f (1906–1962). Austrian Nazi bureaucrat. As head of the Gestapo’s Jewish extermination department in World War II he suggested a ‘final solution of the Jewish problem’. In 1960 he was found living in Argentina under an assumed name, kidnapped by Israeli agents, tried in Israel, condemned and executed (1962) for crimes against the Jewish people and against humanity.

Arendt H., Eichmann in Jerusalem. 1964.

Eiffel, (Alexandre) Gustave (originally Bonickhausen) (1832–1923). French engineer, born in Dijon. He designed a long bridge across the Duoro, near Oporto (1876–77), an elegant iron bridge—span of 162 metres, 120 metres high—across the Truyère river at Garabit (1880–84) and the structure for New York’s Statue of Liberty (1885). He designed and built (1887–89) the famous 300.5 metre Eiffel Tower for the 1889 Paris Exposition. It was the world’s tallest structure until 1930. The collapse of locks he designed for the first Panama Canal scheme involved him in a scandal (1893) which brought a fine and imprisonment. Later he conducted pioneer researches in aerodynamics and the use of wind tunnels.

Eijkman, Christiaan (1858–1930). Dutch physician. Professor of hygiene at Utrecht University 1898–1928, he was the co-discoverer, with Sir Frederick *Hopkins, of the ‘accessory food factors’ (later called vitamins) which combat beri-beri. He shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine (1929) with Hopkins.

Einstein, Albert (1879–1955). German-Jewish-Swiss-American theoretical physicist, born in Ulm. An only son (a sister was born in 1881), he attended school in Munich, spent some time in Milan and Pavia with his parents and from 1896 studied at the Federal Technical High School (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule—ETH), Zürich. He became a Swiss citizen in 1901 and was a specialist examiner at the patent office in Berne 1902–09. In January 1903 he married Mileva Maric (1875–1948), a Serb, who played an important (but largely unrecognised) role in his early work. His obsession with research meant that he neglected his children seriously. Hendrik *Lorentz was a major intellectual influence. In 1905, aged 26, he received his PhD from Zürich University and published three great papers that changed theoretical physics profoundly: on the photo-electric effect, asserting that light is composed of discrete quanta or photons, and accounting for anomalies in *Planck’s work, explaining Brownian motion, the random movement of particles in suspension (Robert *Brown) as due to molecular bombardment, and the Special Theory of Relativity. The last paper argued that energy and matter are inter-convertible, proposing the famous equation E = mc2 (where E is energy, m is mass and c the speed of light), that the motion of a body can only be measured relative to another body, since nothing is absolutely at rest, that nothing can exceed the speed of light, and that measuring space and time are also relative, since the observer’s motion is also involved (a thesis later developed by *Heisenberg). Six major papers expanding his 1905 work appeared in 1906. An associate professor at Zürich University 1909–11, he became professor of physics in Prague 1911–12, at the Zürich Institute 1912–13, at Berlin University 1913–33 and Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics 1917–33. In 1916 he published his General Theory of Relativity and became world famous in 1919 after observations of a solar eclipse (Arthur *Eddington) confirmed his contention that light was bent by gravity.

In 1917, Einstein hypothesised, but never published, a ‘steady state’ theory for the evolution of the universe (taken up by Fred *Hoyle in 1948 but later displaced by the ‘big bang’ theory). He also concluded that ‘dark energy’ was a central factor in gravitation, then retreated from the idea, which was later confirmed by Brian *Schmidt, Saul Perlmutter and Adam Riess. In 1919 he divorced his first wife and married his cousin Elsa Lowenthal (1876–1936).

From 1910, he received 62 nominations for the Nobel Prize for Physics, until in 1922 he was awarded the Prize for 1921 ‘for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect’, a relatedly minor part of his unique achievement. He received the Royal Society’s Copley Medal in 1925. From 1927 he engaged in long unresolved debate with Niels *Bohr about the foundations of quantum mechanics. He speculated about the hypothesis of an expanding universe but only accepted it in 1929 (*Lemaître, *Hubble). In December 1932 he left Germany for the US, resigning his Berlin post in 1933 and became an American citizen in 1940. A life member of the Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, NJ, he was a professor there 1933–45. He doubted that a mechanism for generating energy on a large scale by atomic fission was possible until he learned in 1939 that Otto *Hahn and Lise *Meitner had split a uranium isotope in Germany and that chain reaction had been confirmed by Leo *Szilard, and others, in New York. In October 1939 he sent President *Roosevelt a letter, drafted by Szilard, warning of the military implications of splitting the uranium atom. This led directly to the ‘Manhattan Project’ and the atomic bomb. Einstein was uninformed and uninvolved in further developments. Horrified by the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, he campaigned actively for the international control of atomic power. For 30 years he attempted, without success, to reconcile gravitation, electromagnetism, general relativity and quantum theory in a ‘unified field theory’. He was the last scientist to be a household name and his image is found as an icon in laboratories throughout the world. Generally regarded as the greatest mathematical physicist of all time, he declined the presidency of Israel (1952) on *Weizmann’s death (to the relief of David *Ben-Gurion). Element 99 einsteinium (Es) and the main belt Asteroid 2001 Einstein were named for him. His hypothesis about gravitational waves was confirmed by observations in 2015 and 2017.

Clark, R. W., Einstein. The Life and Times. 1971; Fölsing, A., Albert Einstein. 1997; Pais, A., Subtle is the Lord … 1982; Isaacson, W., Einstein. His Life and Universe. 2007; Stone, A. D., Einstein and the Quantum. 2013.

Eisenhower, Dwight D(avid) (‘Ike’) (1890–1969). American general and 34th President of the US 1953–61. Born in Denison, Texas, of Swiss-German descent, he grew up in Abilene, Kansas, and graduated from the West Point Military Academy, ranking 61st of 164, became a training instructor and remained in the US during World War I. He was ADC to General Douglas *MacArthur in Washington 1933–35 and in the Philippines 1935–37, then had a series of very rapid promotions. As Chief of the War Plans Division in the War Department 1941–42 he showed a remarkable grasp of global strategy. In June 1942 General George *Marshall promoted him to be General Commanding US Forces in Europe, and, a month later, Supreme Commander, Allied Forces in North Africa. This led to the successful invasion of French North Africa, and, as Supreme Commander, Mediterranean, the invasion of Sicily (July 1943), working with *Alexander. In December 1943, President *Roosevelt appointed him as Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force in Europe, a job Marshall had hoped for. (*Churchill would have preferred *Alanbrooke.) The Normandy landing took place on D-Day, 6 June 1944. Eisenhower’s strategy has been criticised as over-cautious (especially by his prickly rival *Montgomery), but he showed superior political, diplomatic and strategic skills, maintaining working relations with prima donna generals who suspected ‘Ike’ less than each other and remained popular with troops. He was promoted as a five-star General of the Army (1944) and awarded the British GCB and OM in 1945. After a short period as Military Governor of the US Zone of Germany, President *Truman appointed him as Chief of Staff, US Army 1945–48, and suggested he should run for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1948. His memoir Crusade in Europe (1948) was a bestseller. President of Columbia University, New York 1948–51, following the establishment of NATO he was appointed Supreme Commander, Allied Powers in Europe 1951–52. He won the Republican nomination for president in 1952 with liberal support, defeating Robert *Taft, then won the election with 55 per cent of the vote over the Democrat Adlai *Stevenson. He defeated Stevenson again in 1956 with 57 per cent. (Richard *Nixon was elected Vice President for both terms.) He took a more passive role as President than Roosevelt or Truman, but resisted ‘old guard’ pressures to dismantle the New Deal-Fair Deal welfare structures. For most of his term he worked with a Congress dominated by moderate Democrats. He helped to end the Korean War and *Stalin’s death eased Cold War tensions. He took a moderate stand against Joe *McCarthy and avoided military involvement in Indo-China. In 1953 he appointed Earl *Warren as Chief Justice (a choice he later regretted) and gave cautious support to enforcement of civil rights for blacks, sending troops into Arkansas in 1957. In the 1960 presidential campaign his tepid endorsement of Nixon assisted *Kennedy’s election. In his farewell address (January 1961), he gave a surprising warning ‘against the acquisition of unwarranted influence … by the military-industrial complex’. His reputation has risen since his death and in 19 Presidential ranking lists by historians and political scientists, he scored No. 9 in the aggregate.

Ambrose S. E., Eisenhower. 2 vols, 1985; Newton, J., Eisenhower: The White House Years. 2011; Smith, J. E., Eisenhower in War and Peace. 2012.

Eisenstein, Sergei Mikhailovich (1898–1948). Russian film director. He served as an engineer in the civil wars and later trained in Moscow as a stage designer and producer. He made his first film in 1924. He developed consummate skill in the direction of crowds and the dramatic use of cutting, notably in such films as The Battleship Potemkin (1925), Alexander Nevsky (1938), his first talking picture, and Ivan the Terrible (1944–45).

Barna, K., Eisenstein. 1973.

Eleanor of Aquitaine (c.1122–1204). Duchess of Aquitaine 1137–1204, Queen consort of France 1137–52 and of England 1154–89. Born in Bordeaux, a member of the Ramnulfid dynasty, rulers of Poitiers, she was Duchess of Aquitaine in her own right. After her marriage (1137–52) to *Louis VII was annulled, she soon married the future *Henry II of England. She brought much of southwestern France as her dowry. This became the cause of a struggle between the two countries which lasted, with intervals, for 300 years. A masterful woman, she supported her sons (the future *Richard I and *John) against her unfaithful husband, was imprisoned 1174–89, and after his death (1189) prevented them quarrelling. Her eldest son, Henry, died as a child, her third son was Geoffrey, who died before his father and whose son *Arthur of Brittany, was murdered in the Tower of London, probably on the instructions of John. She was buried at Fontevraud-l’Abbaye, Anjou.

Pernoud, R., Eleanor of Aquitaine.1967.

Eleanor of Castile (1246–1290). English queen consort 1272–90. She married the future *Edward I in 1254. Before his accession (1272) she went with him on a crusade, but the story that she sucked poison from his wound is probably legendary. Edward showed his devotion to her memory by erecting crosses at each place where the funeral procession rested when her body was conveyed from Lincoln to Westminster. A replica of the final one stands at Charing Cross, London.

Elegabalus (originally Sextus Varius Avitus Bassianus, as Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus) (c.204–222). Roman Emperor 218–22. Known, but only after his death, by the name of the Syrian Sun God, of whom he was hereditary high priest, he owed his elevation to the throne to the troops in Syria whom the intrigues of his grandmother (a sister of Julia, wife of the emperor *Septimius Severus) had suborned. The fame of the young emperor rests on his reputation as a bisexual and his gaudy extravagance. The rites of the Sun God, whom he claimed to personify, were introduced by him to Rome and were so obscene that they scandalised the citizens. After an attempt to assassinate his cousin, *Alexander Severus, whom he feared as a potential usurper, Elegabalus was murdered by the praetorian guard.

Elgar, Sir Edward (William), 1st Baronet (1857–1934). English composer, born in Broadheath, Worcestershire. He succeeded his father as organist of St George’s Roman Catholic Church, Worcester. Apart from violin lessons, he was self-taught: he read widely and became an amateur scientist. Although he made no use of the folksong tradition he was one of the pioneers of the English musical revival at the beginning of the 20th century, the first outstanding English composer since *Purcell. His earliest work, including pieces composed for the Worcester festivals, attracted only local attention, but he won an international reputation almost overnight when Richard *Strauss acclaimed his Variations on an original theme (Enigma) for orchestra (1899). The Dream of Gerontius (1900), an oratorio based on Cardinal Newman’s poem, was even more highly praised. The Apostles (1903) and The Kingdom (1906) belong to an uncompleted trilogy on the early Christian Church. Other works include Symphony No 1 (1908) and No 2 (1911), and the Introduction and Allegro for strings (1905). The violin concerto in B Minor was first performed by *Kreisler (1910). His more popular works, such as the five Pomp and Circumstance marches (1901–07) and the concert overture Cockaigne (1901), are warmly extrovert and reflect something of the vitality of Edwardian England. His last major work was the cello concerto in E minor (1919) and after his wife died (1920) he practically abandoned composition. Professor of music at Birmingham University 1905–08 and Master of the King’s Musick 1924–34, he was awarded a knighthood (1904), the OM (1911), a baronetcy (1931) and a GCVO (1933), although he yearned for a peerage. His sketches for Symphony No. 3, completed and elaborated by Andrew Payne, were published in 1997 and soon performed and recorded, to critical approval.

Maire, B., Elgar, His Life and Work. 1973; Grimley, D., and Rushton, J. (eds), The Cambridge Companion to Elgar. 2004.

Elgin, 7th Earl of, Thomas Bruce, 11th Earl of Kincardine (1766–1841). Scottish soldier and diplomat. As Ambassador to Constantinople 1799–1803, he bought from the Sultan and later sold to the British Museum, for £35,000, the groups of statuary (the ‘Elgin Marbles’) from the frieze of the Parthenon at Athens. His son James, 8th Earl of Elgin, 12th Earl of Kincardine (1811–1863), was Governor of Jamaica 1842–43, Governor-General of Canada 1847–54, Special Ambassador to China 1857–61 (marked by *Gordon’s destruction of the Summer Palace, 1860) and Viceroy of India 1862–63. He died in India. His son, Victor Alexander, 9th Earl of Elgin, 13th Earl of Kincardine (1849–1917), born in Montréal, was a Liberal politician. *Rosebery persuaded him to become Viceroy of India 1894–99 and he was Colonial Secretary 1905–08.

El Greco see Greco, El

Elijah (Eliyahu) (fl. c.870–840 BCE). Israelite prophet. He denounced *Ahab and his Phoenician wife *Jezebel for trying to establish Baal worship, and for ordering the death of Naboth in order to secure his coveted vineyard. He appears in the Bible story as a worker of miracles and he is said to have been carried to heaven in a chariot of fire. The belief that he would return to earth, combined with the Messianic doctrine, led to his identification in the New Testament with *John the Baptist, Christ’s forerunner.

Eliot, George (pen name of Mary Ann Evans, from 1851 Marian) (1819–1880). English novelist, born in Warwickshire. Daughter of an estate agent she left school at the age of 16, when her mother died, and while looking after her father’s household studied Latin, Greek, German and Italian under visiting teachers. She was brought up as a strict evangelical but at the age of 22 reacted violently against religion. After her father’s death she went to London and became assistant editor (1851–53) of the Westminster Review under John Chapman, at whose home she lodged. While there she met Herbert *Spencer who introduced her to George Henry *Lewes, a versatile literary journalist who had written a well known history of philosophy and was preparing a biography of *Goethe. When she met him he was living apart from his wife but unable to obtain a divorce. Mary Ann and he lived happily together from 1854 until his death (1878). Hitherto, her published literary work had been confined to translations from the German but the encouragement of Lewes, who had seen and liked her story ‘Amos Barton’, which appeared later with two others as Scenes from Clerical Life under her pseudonym George Eliot, decided her career. The novels which followed are considered among the greatest of their epoch. Social criticism and moral values are seldom lost sight of and her wide knowledge is a constant spur to the intellect, but it is the humour, compassion and understanding with which she builds up and probes her characters that give her novels their unique and lasting value. Adam Bede appeared in 1859, followed by The Mill on the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), Romola (1863), set in Renaissance Florence, Felix Holt (1866), Middlemarch (1872) and, last and least successful, Daniel Deronda (1876), a novel about Judaism that anticipated Zionism and the creation of Israel. Minor works include a dramatic poem, The Spanish Gipsy (1868). In the year of her death she married John Walter Cross (1840–1924), an old friend of Lewes and herself.

Laski, M., George Eliot and Her World. 1973; Karl, F., George Eliot. 1995.

Eliot, Sir John (1592–1632). English parliamentarian. He entered Parliament in 1614. Originally a protégé of the King’s favourite, *Buckingham, he later turned against him and took part in his impeachment. He opposed *Charles I’s forced loans and was instrumental in obtaining assent to the Petition of Right (1628). In 1629, with eight other members, he was sent to the Tower of London where he died. He left several manuscript works, including The Monarchie of Man, paradoxically, a defence of kingship.

Hulme, H., The Life of Sir John Eliot. 1957.

Eliot, T(homas) S(tearns) (1888–1965). Anglo-American poet, critic and playwright, born in St Louis, Missouri. He studied philosophy at Harvard, the Sorbonne (with *Bergson) and Oxford. He taught at schools and at Birkbeck College in London, worked at Lloyd’s Bank 1917–25, then became an editor with the publishers Faber and Gwynne, later Faber and Faber, where he became a director. From 1915 he was unhappily married to Vivien Haigh-Wood (1888–1947), a gifted woman who suffered from a variety of mental and physical problems.

His early poetry, e.g., The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock (1917), is sometimes satirical and often appears flippant:

I grow old … I grow old …

I shall wear the bottoms of my trousers rolled.

Influenced by Charles *Maurras and the writings of Henry *Adams, he became conservative, authoritarian and anti-Semitic, rejecting the values of modern secular society. This was reinforced by the waste, disruption and upset of values caused by World War I. This is most apparent in Gerontion (1920) and in his longest poem The Waste Land (1922). Broadly based on the theme of the Holy Grail it is characterised by deep disillusion with contemporary spiritual blindness. The poem, edited and cut by his friend Ezra *Pound, uses quotations from or allusions to 31 authors in six languages.

April is the cruellest month, breeding

Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing

Memory and desire, stirring

Dull roots with spring rain.

The Waste Land

He edited the literary journal Criterion for its entire life 1922–39. In 1927 he converted from Unitarianism to the Church of England, describing himself as an Anglo-Catholic, and became a British subject. After the 1930s Eliot’s poetry became increasingly metaphysical and the religious influences, especially in the case of Christian symbolism, are more apparent. Pessimism has been replaced by ‘penitential hope’ e.g. in Ash Wednesday (1930) and Four Quartets (1943), philosophical poems which echo *Beethoven’s late compositions.

We shall not cease from exploration

And the end of all our exploring

Will be to arrive where we started

And know the place for the first time.’

‘Little Gidding’, from Four Quartets

His witty Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats (1939) was later dramatised in Andrew *Lloyd W *Lloyd Webber’s musical Cats (1981). As essayist and critic he had gained a great and increasing influence especially in reviving interest in *Dryden and metaphysical poets such as *Donne. Lectures, as Charles Eliot Norton professor of poetry at Harvard, were reprinted as The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism (1933). Yet a third reputation awaited him as a dramatist. The Rock (1934), written as the words of a Church pageant, was followed by the verse drama Murder in the Cathedral (1935). After World War II he adapted verse drama to contemporary themes (with allegorical significance) in the very successful The Cocktail Party (1950), The Confidential Clerk (1954) and The Elder Statesman (1958). In 1948 Eliot was awarded the OM and the Nobel Prize for Literature.

Ackroyd, P., T. S. Eliot. 1984.

Elisabeth (Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie von Habsburg-Lothringen, née von Wittelsbach) (1837–1898). Empress consort of Austria, Queen consort of Hungary 1854–98. Born in Munich, to a branch of the Bavarian royal family, known as ‘Sisi’ or ‘Sissi’, and a great beauty, she married the emperor *Franz Josef in 1854, but her lively and wayward nature found the formality of court life in Vienna increasingly irksome. She spent much time abroad and built herself a palace on Corfu. In 1889 her only son, *Rudolf, was found dead with his mistress, Marie Vetsera, in a shooting-box at Mayerling. She was stabbed to death by an anarchist, Luigi Lucheni, in Geneva. She appears as a character in many books and films.

Haslip. J., The Lonely Empress. 1965, repr. 1987.

Elizabeth (Erzebét), St (1207–1231). Hungarian princess in Germany. Daughter of András II, King of Hungary, she was brought up at the court of the Landgrave of Thuringia, to whose son she was betrothed at the age of 4. Though the court at the Wartburg was famed for its gatherings of poets and minstrels, she gave herself up, from childhood, to religious austerity and charity. When 14 she married and, under her influence, her young husband went on a crusade but died on the way. Elizabeth, expelled from court for wasting the revenues on charity, went to Marburg where, encouraged in an overstrict asceticism by a harsh confessor, she soon died. She was canonised in 1235.

Elizabeth I (1533–1603). Queen of England and Ireland 1558–1603. Born in Greenwich, daughter of *Henry VIII and *Anne Boleyn, on her mother’s execution Henry declared her illegitimate, but his will reinstated her in the line of succession. Before she came to the throne, either from compulsion or from prudence, she remained in studious retirement but she was for a time imprisoned in the Tower of London and later confined by her half-sister *Mary I, at Woodstock, on suspicion of being involved in *Wyatt’s rebellion (1554). Highly intelligent, she had good teachers (mostly exponents of Erasmian ‘new learning’ e.g. Roger *Ascham) and was proficient in Latin, Greek and the Romance languages. Basically indifferent in matters of religion, when she came to the throne on Mary’s death she favoured a conciliatory religious policy: her aim was to be governor of a Church whose doctrines would be acceptable to all but the most extreme. But she realised that to strengthen her position she must range herself with the Protestant rulers in Europe although her aim was to secure peace and prosperity and avoid foreign entanglement. Her Church Settlement was based on parliamentary statute (1559). Within three days of her accession she made William Cecil, later Lord *Burghley, her chief secretary, and she relied on his sage judgment until he died (1598). One crucial decision was expected of her—to choose a husband and to provide the country with an heir. Despite many suitors this she never did. Her sister’s widower *Philip II of Spain was an early suitor and well into her middle age others appeared, including two of *Catherine de’Medici’s sons, Henri, Duc d’Anjou (later *Henri III) and François, Duc d’Alençon. Her attitudes to her suitors were highly ambiguous. Her inclinations turned to Robert Dudley, Earl of *Leicester, who remained at her side and served her at court and in the field, but she did not marry him. Known as the Virgin Queen (Walter *Raleigh named the colony of Virginia to honour this attribute), she was preoccupied with matrimonial schemes or affairs of apparent passion from her teens to her fifties. The heir to her throne was *Mary, Queen of Scots, who, expelled from her own country, had taken refuge in England. Too dangerous to be left at large she was confined to a succession of country houses from 1568, the centre of many plots to kill Elizabeth which the indefatigable Francis *Walsingham unravelled. In 1580 Pope *Gregory XIII proclaimed that eliminating Elizabeth would not be a sin and she felt exposed after the murder of her ally *William the Silent in 1584. Under pressure from Parliament and her Council, Mary was tried and convicted of treason, and Elizabeth signed a death warrant (1587). She later protested that she had not intended the sentence to be executed; but it was. Meanwhile captains *Drake, *Frobisher and *Hawkins carried out piracy and undeclared war against the merchant fleets and overseas possessions of Spain with the queen’s tacit approval. In 1588 Philip of Spain organised a vast Armada to overwhelm England (while the parsimonious Elizabeth delayed her own preparations) which her sea captains, with their superior gunnery and tactics, put to rout. The defeat of the Armada did not mean the end of the war with Spain, which became one of attrition, lasting until her successor *James I made peace (1604). Late in the 1590s there was an Irish uprising, and in 1601 the Earl of *Essex, a former favourite, attempted an unsuccessful rebellion. But the period was also one distinguished by an unrivalled flowering of literature, especially drama (*Shakespeare, *Marlowe). Elizabeth said of herself that she had ‘the heart and stomach of a king’ but she was also vain and capricious, could be fickle and even callous. Yet she had a gift for holding the affection and esteem of her subjects and for choosing wise advisers.

Neale, J. E., Queen Elizabeth I. 1971; MacCaffrey, W., Elizabeth I. 1993.

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (1926– ). Queen of the United Kingdom and Head of the Commonwealth 1952– . Born in London, elder daughter of the Duke and Duchess of York (later King *George VI and Queen *Elizabeth), she was educated privately, and during World War II was commissioned in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In November 1947 she married Lt Philip Mountbatten, Duke of *Edinburgh. Their children were *Charles, Prince of Wales (b.1948), *Anne (b.1950), Andrew (b.1960) and Edward (b.1964). On a visit to Kenya she heard of the sudden death of her father and her own accession (February 1952). She was crowned at Westminster Abbey in June 1953. In the course of her duties she toured every part of the Commonwealth and entertained many heads of state. Horse racing was prominent among her leisure interests and she was a successful owner. Her Silver Jubilee was celebrated in 1977 and she remained personally popular. The ‘annus horribilis’ of 1992 was marked by intense media exposure of the private lives of family members, a fire at Windsor Castle and the ending of tax exemption. In September 2015 she became the longest-reigning British monarch, passing Queen *Victoria.

Lacey, R., Majesty. 1977; Pimlott, B., The Queen: a biography of Elizabeth II. 1996; Bradford, S., Elizabeth. 1996.

Elizabeth (Elizabeth Stuart, later Wittelsbach) (1596–1662). Queen of Bohemia 1619–20. Daughter of James VI of Scotland (*James I of England), she provided the future link between the Stuart and Hanoverian dynasties. In 1613 she married *Frederick V of the Palatinate and after his brief period as King of Bohemia (1619) she was known as the ‘Winter Queen’. After their expulsion the family lived in Holland. Among her 13 children were the dashing Prince *Rupert, and *Sophia who married Ernst August, later elector of Hanover, and became the mother of Great Britain’s *George I. Elizabeth, who returned to England after *Charles II’s restoration, was a vivacious fascinating creature who became known as the Queen of Hearts, the subject of a famous poem by Sir Henry *Wotton.

Elizabeth (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite, née Bowes-Lyon) (1900–2002). British queen consort 1936–52, known as the Queen Mother. Born in London, daughter of the 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was educated by governesses. In 1923 she married Albert, Duke of York, later King *George VI and had two daughters, *Elizabeth (b.1926) and *Margaret Rose (b.1930). She retained her popularity well into her 10th decade and was the longest lived of British queens. Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports 1978–2002, she became the royal family’s first centenarian on 4 August 2000.

Elizabeth (author of Elizabeth and her German Garden) see Arnim, Elizabeth von

Elizabeth of York (1465–1503). English queen consort 1486–1503. Daughter of *Edward IV, by her marriage to *Henry VII she linked the dynasties of York and Lancaster. She is said to have died of grief at the death of her elder son, Arthur.

Elizabeth (Yelizaveta) Petrovna (1709–1762). Tsarina (Empress) of Russia 1741–62. Daughter of *Peter the Great and his second wife, Empress *Catherine I, she became empress after a group of guards officers had deposed the infant Ivan VI. She built the Winter Palace in St Petersburg and introduced French culture and language into court circles. When the Seven Years War broke out (1756) she joined the Franco-Austrian alliance against *Friedrich II (the Great) of Prussia, a policy reversed by her nephew and successor, *Peter III. She never married.

Ellenborough, Edward Law, 1st Baron (1750–1818). English lawyer. He made a great name for himself by his defence of Warren *Hastings, and was Lord Chief Justice 1802–18. His son Edward Law, 1st Earl of Ellenborough (1790–1871) was President of the Board of Control for India 1828–30, 1834–35, 1841, 1858; and Governor-General of India 1842–44. His term in India was brief, controversial and violent. Despite instructions to withdraw from Afghanistan, he directed his forces to occupy Kabul (1842), annexed Sind (1842) and conquered Gwalior (1844). Dismissed by the East India Company, he was created earl on his return to England and campaigned for India to be controlled directly by the Crown.

Ellet, Charles (1810–1862). American engineer, born Penn’s Manor, Penn. He worked for three years as a surveyor and assistant engineer, then studied at the École Polytechnique, Paris, and travelled widely in Europe, returning to the US in 1832. In 1842 he completed the first wire suspension bridge in the US, at Fairmount, Pennsylvania and between 1846–49 redesigned and built the world’s first longspan wire cable suspension bridge, over the Ohio River at Wheeling, with a central span of 308 metres (1,010 feet). It failed in 1854 due to aerodynamic instability. He invented naval rams and in the US Civil War he equipped nine Mississippi river steamboats as rams, which defeated a fleet of Confederate rams. He died in the battle.

Ellington, ‘Duke’ (Edward Kennedy) (1899–1974). American composer, pianist and bandleader, born in Washington DC. Grandson of a slave, he worked in ‘swing’, but primarily in jazz, achieving national recognition from 1927 at the Cotton Club in Harlem. He composed about 900 works, including Mood Indigo; Don’t Get Around Much Any More; Black, Brown and Beige; and the ballet The River. He made many recordings, toured constantly with his big band, appeared in a few films and on television, and wrote some film scores. He was recognised on a coin and a stamp, and received the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1969), 15 Emmys and a posthumous Pulitzer Prize.

Lambert, G. E., Duke Ellington. 1959; Hasse, J. E., Beyond Category: The Life and Genius of Duke Ellington. 1995; Teachout, T., Duke. 2015.

Ellis, (Henry) Havelock (1859–1939). English writer. He taught in rural New South Wales 1875–79, then studied medicine in London and devoted himself to a scientific analysis of sex, leading to his pioneering work, Studies in the Psychology of Sex, published from 1898 onwards. Among his other works were a series of books on science (1889–1914) and essays on Elizabethan and Jacobean drama.

Calder-Marshall, A., Havelock Ellis: A Biography. 1959.

Ellroy, James (1948– ). American novelist. His dark crime novels include L.A. Confidential (1990), American Tabloid (1995), and My Dark Places (1996).

Ellsworth, Lincoln (1880–1951). American explorer. In 1926 he flew over the North Pole with Amundsen and Nobile in the airship Norge. He made a pioneering flight over Antarctica in 1935.

Elssler, Franjziske (or Fanny) (1810–1884). Austrian dancer. One of the most celebrated of 19th-century dancers, she was regarded as the chief rival of *Taglioni and, whether she was performing in London, Paris or America, she was equally acclaimed. She was seen at her best in Spanish dances, which demanded the particular exuberance for which she was famed.

Guest, I., Fanny Elssler, The Pagan Ballerina. 1970.

Elyot, Sir Thomas (c.1490–1546). English humanist, translator, essayist and lexicographer. He worked with *Wolsey as Clerk of the Privy Council 1523–30 and envoy to the Emperor *Charles V 1531 but was ambiguous about major changes in the relationship of church and state. His great enthusiasm was for the use of the vernacular in public documents. The Boke Named the Governour (1531) set out a system of popular education for the gentry stressing their social and political role. A translator and coiner of new words (e.g. ‘encyclopaedia’), he compiled a Latin into English dictionary (1536).

Elzevir, Louis (c.1540–1617). Dutch printer. His family became famous printers for many generations in Leyden. His son Bonaventura Elzevir (1583–1682), who took his nephew Abraham into partnership, produced (1634–36) beautiful editions of the classics, *Caesar, *Livy, *Tacitus, etc. Other members of the family established themselves in Amsterdam where they produced a famous French Bible (1669).

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–1882). American essayist and poet, born in Boston. One of six children of a Unitarian minister, on his father’s death (1811) he was brought up by his mother and an intellectual aunt. Educated at Harvard, like his father he joined the ministry, but after his first wife died he abandoned it in 1832. He travelled in Europe and in England (1833), met *Wordsworth, *Coleridge and other writers, finding a kindred spirit and lasting friend in *Carlyle. After returning to America, he settled in Concord and in 1835 married Lydia Jackson. In Nature (1836) he set out his philosophy of transcendentalism, developed after years of study, including elements of German idealism, Greek and Hindu culture, centred on the concept of the immanence of the divine in the real world, linked with pantheism, celebrating individualism, rejecting materialism and empiricism. His essays were deeply influenced by *Montaigne. His later works, for example Representative Men (1850), were often based on his notes for the long series of popular lectures for which he became famous. He regarded himself primarily as a poet but is chiefly remembered for his essays on politics, religion and literature. He was also an active abolitionist. He influenced *Whitman and *Thoreau, was noticed by *Nietzsche, but irritated *Melville, Henry *James and T. S. *Eliot. The Conduct of Life (1860) summarises and clarifies, in a series of essays, his philosophic views on such subjects as worship, fate, power, etc. Later essays are contained in, for example, Society and Solitude (1870). His Journals were published in 1909–14.

Richardson, R. R., Emerson. The Living Fire. 1995.

Eminence Grise see Joseph, Père

Emin Pasha, Mehmed (Eduard Schnitzer) (1840–1892). German doctor and explorer. He remained in the Equatorial province of Sudan after the death of *Gordon, whom he had served. He was eventually killed by Arab slave traders about 160 km east of Stanley Falls.

Emmet, Robert (1778–1803). Irish patriot. A Protestant radical, he joined the United Irishmen while still at Trinity College, Dublin. Compelled to leave, he went to France but returned (1802) convinced that he would have French support for an Irish rising. This, when it took place (1803), was premature and ineffective. Fifty men were killed and Emmet himself was betrayed, condemned and executed.

Landreth, H., The Pursuit of Robert Emmet. 1948.

Empedocles (c.493–433 BCE). Greek philosopher, born in Sicily. In his theory of matter he postulates four indestructible elements, fire, air, water, and earth, of which, variously blended and compounded, all material substances are composed. He also worked out an important system of sense perception. His long poems, On Nature and Purification, in which his philosophic and religious theories were set out only survive in part. The legend ascribing his death to a fall or plunge into the crater of Mount Etna has attracted several writers: *Milton, *Meredith, and Matthew *Arnold (Empedocles on Etna, 1852) refer variously to the theme.

Empson, Sir William (1906–1984). English literary critic and poet, born in Yorkshire. Educated at Winchester and Magdalen College, Cambridge, he studied mathematics and English with I. A. *Richards. His first book Seven Types of Ambiguity (1930), argued that the multiplicities of meaning in literature arose from ambiguities in the language used, drawing on *Freud and *Marx, and became an influential text of New Criticism. He taught English literature at the universities of Tokyo 1931–34, Beijing 1937–39, 1947–52 and Sheffield 1953–71 and worked for the BBC during World War II. His terse, witty, complex and emotional poetry was published in Poems (1930) and The Gathering Storm (1940) and he wrote studies of *Shakespeare and *Milton.

Haffenden, J., William Empson, 2 vols, 2005, 2006.

Enders, John Franklin (1897–1985). American bacteriologist. He studied English literature at Harvard, then turned to bacteriology, joined the faculty of the Harvard Medical School in 1932, worked at the Boston Children’s Hospital and became a full professor only in 1956. In 1954 he shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine with T. H. Weller and F. C. Robbins for their discovery of the ability of the poliomyelitis virus to grow in cultures of different tissues. This led to the discovery of *Salk’s polio vaccine. He also helped to develop a vaccine against measles (1962).

Enescu, George (Georges Enesco in France) (1881–1955). Romanian composer, conductor, violinist, pianist and teacher. He studied in Vienna (graduating at 13) and Paris, with *Massenet and *Fauré. He wrote a powerful Octet for strings (1900). His two Romanian Rhapsodies (1901), strongly influenced by folk music, were an instant success, which he came to regret. He conducted frequently in the US and became the teacher of Yehudi *Menuhin. He wrote two symphonies, piano sonatas and the opera Œdipe (1931). Pablo *Casals described Enescu as ‘the greatest musical phenomenon since Mozart’.

Engels, Friedrich (1820–1895). German socialist, born in Barmen. Son of a cotton manufacturer, he became (1842) the Manchester agent of his father’s business and collected information for his The Condition of the Working Classes in England (1844). Meanwhile his lifelong friendship with *Marx had begun. In 1845 he gave up his business to be with him and they jointly produced the famous Communist Manifesto (1848) in London. Thereafter he sustained Marx with constant financial support, even re-entering the business to do so and, when after his father’s death he finally sold his partnership (1870), he joined Marx in London and stayed with him until he died (1883). The remaining years of his life were spent in editing and translating Marx’s works. His The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884, English translation 1902) touches on what he called ‘the woman problem’. Simone de *Beauvoir thought it superficial.

Mayer, G., Friedrich Engels. 1969; Green, J., Engels. A Revolutionary Life. 2008; Hunt, T., The Frock-Coated Communist. The Revolutionary Life of Friedrich Engels. 2009.

Enghien, Louis Antoine Henri de Bourbon, Duc d’ (1772–1804). French soldier. Eldest son of the Prince de Condé and related to the French royal family, he left France in 1792 during the Revolution to join the emigré army. In 1804 *Napoléon, on the assumption or pretence that he was implicated in a conspiracy, sent agents to abduct him from neutral territory and had him tried and executed. The effect upon Napoléon’s reputation proved it to be a blunder as well as a crime.

English, Bill (Simon William) (1961– ). New Zealand National politician. A farmer and public servant, he was twice Leader of the National Party 2001–03; 2016– , served as John *Key’s Deputy and Finance Minister 2008–16 and succeeded him as Prime Minister 2016–17, losing office after Winston *Peters formed a coalition with Labour.

Ennius, Quintus (239–169 BCE). Latin poet. He wrote 22 tragedies, borrowing his themes mainly from *Euripides, and his Annals, written in hexameters, which relate the history of Rome from earliest times. Only fragments of his works survive.

Ensor, James, Baron (1860–1949). Belgian painter. His father was English but he spent almost all his life at Ostend. His grotesque and satirical pictures, reminiscent of *Bruegel and *Bosch but painted in the technique of *Manet or *Courbet, gained recognition very slowly, but in 1929 he was created a baron. Among his best known pictures were Christ’s Entry into Brussels in 1889 (1888) and Dangerous Cooks (1896). He often painted masquerades and skeletons, and was a forerunner of Expressionism.

Tannenbaum, L., James Ensor. 1951.

Enver Pasha (1881–1922). Turkish soldier and politician, born in Istanbul. As a leader of the ‘Young Turks’ he was prominent in the revolution of 1908 which restored the 1876 constitution. In 1913 he led a coup d’état, resulting in power passing to a pro-German triumvirate of *Taalat Pasha, Jamal Pasha and himself. As War Minister 1914–18 he brought the Ottoman Empire into World War I on Germany’s side and with Talaat, bears main responsibility for the genocide of between 0.8 and 1.5 million Armenians from 1915. He was a political opponent of Mustafa Kemal (*Atatürk). He fled to Russia in 1918. Sent to Turkestan to establish Bolshevik power, he raised a revolt in his own interest and was murdered by Soviet agents in Bukhara.

Eötvös, Péter (1944– ). Hungarian composer and conductor. He studied with *Stockhausen, and his works include Psychokosmos (1993), for chamber orchestra, and the opera The Three Sisters (1998), based on *Chekhov.

Epaminondas (d.362 BCE). Theban soldier and statesman. He destroyed Spartan supremacy by his victory at Leuctra (371) in Boeotia and subsequent march south. He built a fleet to keep that of the Athenians in check and one more success against them would probably have enabled him to achieve his aims. Such victory was achieved (362) at Mantinea in the Peloponnese but at the cost of his life. But for his death at the moment of final victory he might have achieved his statesmanlike vision of a federation of all Greece.

Epictetus of Hierapolis (c.55–135 CE). Greek Stoic philosopher, born in Phrygia. A freed slave, he went to Rome to teach but was banished, with other philosophers, by *Domitian and settled in Eporus. His moral view was that one ought to escape the slavery of desire and so become free to act in accord with divine providence. His maxims were collected by his pupil Arrian in the Enchiridion and in eight books of commentaries.

Epicurus (c.342–270 BCE). Greek philosopher, born in Samos. He founded the Epicurean system, the great rival of Stoicism in the Graeco-Roman world. He first opened a school at Mytilene in 310 but moved it to Athens in 306. Epicureanism, in which the senses, the only arbiters of reality, are judged infallible, has been widely misunderstood since it equates ‘pleasure’ with moral good. Pleasure, however, Epicurus regards as absence of pain in matters concerned with ethics and morals, an untroubled mind, a state only to be reached through the practice of virtue. He both practised and preached moderation in physical pleasures. Epicurus adapted the atomic theory of *Democritus to the needs of his own system, e.g. by postulating that some soul atoms may depart from strict mathematical precision and swerve in their paths, thus allowing for free will. Little remains of his writings, but his doctrines were presented by the Roman poet *Lucretius in the philosophical poem De rerum natura.

Epstein, Sir Jacob (1880–1959). American-British sculptor, born in New York. Of Jewish-Russian-Polish parentage, he lived in England from 1905. His massive monumental pieces, in which distortion is used as a conscious technique for purposes of composition or emphasis, aroused at first much public protest. They include Oscar *Wilde’s tomb in Paris (1912), Rima, a memorial to W. H. *Hudson in Hyde Park (1925), Genesis, a stone carving of a pregnant woman (1931), Ecce Homo a controversial figure of Christ (1933), and Adam (1938–39). Christ in Majesty, for Llandaff Cathedral (1957) and Victory over the Devil, at Coventry Cathedral (1958) are very powerful. He made vigorous and realistic bronze busts, in the manner of *Rodin, of such celebrities as *Shaw, *Einstein and *Churchill.

Buckle, R., Jacob Epstein, Sculptor. 1963; Gardiner, S., Epstein. 1993.

Erasmus, Desiderius (‘the desired beloved’, originally Geert Geerts) (1466?–1536). Dutch humanist scholar and theologian, born probably in Rotterdam. He was the illegitimate son of a clerk Rogier Geert (or Gerard) in whose home at Gouda he was brought up. After the death of his father (1484) his guardians induced him to enter an Augustinian monastery, an experience which left him with a deep dislike of monastic life. Later he became a secular priest and was secretary to the Bishop of Cambrai, who sent him (1495) to the University of Paris where he acquired an unrivalled command of Latin. He remained in Paris to teach until invited by one of his pupils to visit England (1499–1500), where he first gained the friendship of Thomas *More and John *Colet. A second brief visit (1505–06) followed and after some years in Italy he was invited to return once more and became a Reader in Greek and Fellow of Queen’s College, Cambridge 1511–14. He spent the years 1514–21 mainly in Basle, and from 1517 was in Louvain where the introduction of the new humanist studies gained his approving encouragement. Already he had written his most notable work, Adages, a collection of classical proverbs (1500), Praise of Folly (1509), a witty and satirical attack on the corruption, ignorance and superstition of both society and the Church, and Colloquies (1519) a collection of dialogues, which incidentally throw much light on his own life and convey a vivid and detailed picture of the times he lived in. In 1516 appeared his edition of the Greek text of the New Testament together with a Latin translation. After leaving Louvain he returned to Basle where he spent most of the rest of his life engaged in violent religious controversies, letter writing and preparing critical editions of the works of early Fathers of the Church such as St *Jerome and St *Augustine. He often attacked the shortcomings of the clergy and abuses within the Church but he refused to join *Luther’s schismatic movement and constantly appealed for moderation. Erasmus, witty and provocative, but not an original thinker or writer, stood for reasoned debate and examination, opposing confrontation. His influence among contemporary scholars and theologians of his day was immense and no one of his time was held in greater esteem.

Bainton, R. H., Erasmus. 1970; Jardine, L., Erasmus, Man of Letters. 1993.

Erastus (originally Lüber or Leibler), Thomas (1524–1583). German-Swiss theologian and philosopher. A qualified physician, he went to Heidelberg University as professor of medicine (1557), then to Basle (1580). A follower of the Protestant reformer *Zwingli, he denied that excommunication, whether the sentence was imposed by the Pope or, for example, Presbyterian elders, was valid, claiming that the state has supreme authority over a Church in matters (except those concerned with doctrines) arising within its boundaries. This tenet (known as Erastianism) was later used to justify complete subordination of ecclesiastical to secular authority.

Eratosthenes (c.276–194 BCE). Greek astronomer, born in Cyrene (Shahat, Libya). He was employed by *Ptolemy III as librarian at Alexandria. He reasoned that the earth was a sphere and made one of the first estimates of its circumference by measuring the angle of the shadow cast by the sun at different points. His other contributions to science include a work on chronology and a treatise on geography which was used by *Strabo. Blind and tired of life, he is said to have starved himself to death.

Erckmann-Chatrian. French literary partnership of Emile Erckmann (1822–1899) and Alexandre Chatrian (1826–1890). They both came from Lorraine, and some of their stories and novels reveal their local associations; others recall the macabre fantasies of Edgar Allan *Poe. The best known, e.g. Histoire d’un conscrit (1864) and Waterloo (1865), present a common soldier’s attitude to the Revolutionary and Napoléonic wars.

Erdoğan, Recep Tayyip (1954– ). Turkish politician, born in Istanbul. Mayor of Istanbul 1994–98, he was imprisoned briefly for breaking rigid anticlerical laws and in 2001 he founded the Justice and Development Party (AK Parti), a moderate Islamist group, critical of the *Atatürk secularist tradition. He was Prime Minister of Turkey 2003–14. He maintained diplomatic relations with Israel, denounced the *Assad regime in Syria and sought close ties with the US. Massive protests in Istanbul against the AKP by radicals and secularists in June 2013 were violently suppressed by police. Erdoğan was elected as President of Turkey 2014– after the office was changed to provide for direct popular voting.

Following a Referendum in 2017, an executive Presidency was created and after Erdoğan’s re-election in June 2018 the regime became increasingly authoritarian.

Erdös, Pál (1913–1996). Hungarian mathematician, born in Budapest. A child prodigy, in 1934 he left Hungary for Britain, then to the US in 1938, and later Israel, becoming notorious as an eccentric itinerant, publishing 1525 papers with 511 collaborators. He wrote important papers on phase transitions, complexity theory, probability, and prime numbers, won the Wolf Prize for Mathematics in 1985, was elected FRS in 1996 and died attending a conference in Warsaw.

Hoffman, P., The Man Who Loved Only Numbers. 1998.

Erhard, Ludwig (1897–1977). German economist and Christian Democratic politician. He was a teacher and later director of the Nuremberg Trade High School 1928–42. Entering politics in 1945, he was Bavarian Minister for Economic Affairs (1946), Economic Director in the American and British zone of occupation 1947–49 and, under Chancellor *Adenauer, became Federal Minister for Economic Affairs 1949–63. He was an ardent advocate of competitive ‘free market’ economy and gained wide praise for his major contribution to the remarkable postwar recovery (the ‘economic miracle’) of West Germany. He succeeded Adenauer as Chancellor of the German Federal Republic 1963–66.

Eric the Red (c.950–c.1003). Norse explorer. According to the Icelandic saga that bears his name, he was banished from Iceland (982) on a charge of homicide, then, again outlawed, he discovered and named Greenland, and spent three years (982–985) exploring the southwest coast. He established two colonies there that survived until the 14th century. His son was *Leif Ericcson.

Ericsson, John (né Johan) (1803–1889). Swedish-American engineer and inventor. He invented a hot-air engine and moved to England in 1826 to exploit it, remaining there 13 years. His locomotive Novelty competed (unsuccessfully) with *Stephenson’s The Rocket. His outstanding contribution was his screw propeller for ships (patented 1836). In 1839 he went to the US where he applied his propeller to merchant and war ships. He is particularly remembered for designing the Monitor, a new type of turreted ironclad warship with very low free-board which proved its worth in the Civil War. In his later years he constructed a sun-motor.

Erigena, Johannes Scotus (c.810–870). Scots-Irish theologian and philosopher. He became head of a school at the court of the Frankish king *Charles the Bald. He was deeply versed in Platonism and derived from it the doctrine that all that exists emanates from a divine source. His attempt to reconcile Greek sources with the Bible and works by the Christian Fathers was later misunderstood and he was denounced by the Council of Paris (1210) and by Pope Honorius III (1225). Erigena’s work prepared the way for medieval scholasticism.

Erlander, Tage Fritiof (1901–1985). Swedish Socialist politician. Originally a journalist, worked on an encyclopaedia for nine years, and entered the Riksdag in 1933. He initiated major educational reforms, and was Prime Minister of Sweden 1946–60, a period of great prosperity.

Ernst August, King of Hanover see Cumberland, Ernest Augustus, Duke of

Ernst, Max (1891–1976). German artist, born in the Rhineland. With *Arp, he brought Dadaism (1916–22) from Paris to Cologne. With Arp, too, he made the transition to Surrealism. In his earlier work he had made much use of frottages. i.e. rubbings taken from, e.g., floorboards or any surface that would create interesting patterns, and collages, pictures composed of pieces of paper, cloth etc. stuck to a background, not so much for their plastic value as to combine disparate, anecdotal elements. For his later Surrealistic work he developed the techniques of painting. His paintings, more perhaps than those of any of his Surrealist contemporaries, evoke the emotional atmosphere of dreams.

Waldberg, P., Max Ernst. 1958.

Erskine, Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron (1750–1823). British advocate, born in Edinburgh. Called to the bar in 1778, he rapidly won a great reputation. In 1779 he successfully defended Admiral Keppel, charged with incompetence, and in 1781 he secured the acquittal of Lord George *Gordon, who was charged with treason in connexion with the riots that bear his name. Some of his later defences of unpopular characters, such as Tom *Paine, cost him temporary loss of favour. In 1806–07 he was Lord Chancellor. He advocated the emancipation of black slaves, and in the 1820s he supported the independence of Greece.

Erté (Romain de Tirtoff) (1892–1990). Russian-French designer and artist, born in St Petersburg. In Paris from 1912, he was a prolific designer of sets and costumes for opera and ballet, then turned to furniture, posters, lithography and fashion.

Esarhaddon (d.669 BCE). King of Assyria 681–669 BCE. After succeeding his murdered father *Sennacherib, he appeased the Babylonians by rebuilding their city and making it into a second capital. In 675 he attacked Egypt and annexed the Nile Delta. It was while advancing to put down a rebellion there that he died. His son *Ashur-bani-pal was the last of the great Assyrian kings.

Esau. Old Testament character, son of *Isaac and Rebecca, elder twin of Jacob, and ancestor of the Edomites according to Hebrew tradition. His name means ‘hairy’. He became a nomadic hunter, and Jacob a shepherd. Jacob, though the younger, was the dominant character, and he persuaded Esau into selling him his birthright for some red pottage; he also took the father’s blessing intended for the first born. He fled to escape the furious Esau, but on his return, 20 years later, Esau forgave him.

Escher, Maurits Cornelis (1898–1972). Dutch graphic artist. His lithographs, engravings and drawings explored visual paradoxes such as three-dimensional representation, the ambiguity of relations between substance and shadow or upper and lower planes on cubes, and the phenomenon of ‘strange loops’ (e.g. quasi-fugal forms such as the representation of two hands, each drawing the other, or a waterfall in which the source is lower than the base but where each isolated element of the design is logically consistent: only the totality is impossible). He achieved considerable posthumous fame.

Hofstadter, D. R., Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. 1980.

Escoffier, (Georges) Auguste (1846–1935). French master chef. After being chef on the staff of *Napoléon III in the Franco-Prussian War, he came to London, where he gained an international reputation as chef at the Carlton and Savoy hotels. At the Savoy he invented the famous Pêche Melba in honour of the soprano Nellie *Melba.

Henboden, E., and Thalamas. P., G. A.Escoffier. 1955.

Escrivá de Balaguer, St Josemaría (1902–1975). Spanish cleric. He founded Opus Dei (‘The work of God’) as a lay movement in 1928, and it received papal approval in 1950. A charismatic but controversial figure, he was beatified in 1992 and canonised in 2002.

Esenin, Sergei Aleksandrovich see Yesinin, Sergei Alexandrovic

Esher, 2nd Viscount, Reginald Baliol Brett (1852–1930). English official and courtier. Son of a judge, educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, he was a Liberal MP 1880–85, then played a mysterious, influential but sometimes enlightened role as an adviser to Queen *Victoria, *Edward VII and *George V, especially on army and civil service reform and arranging funerals. He persuaded Edward VII to establish the Order of Merit (OM) in 1902. With A. C. Benson, he edited the highly sanitised The Letters of Queen Victoria (3 volumes, 1907), covering the period 1837–61, declined the viceroyalty of India (1908) and played a significant but ill-defined role with British Intelligence in France during World War I.

Lees-Milne, J. The Enigmatic Edwardian. 1986.

Espartero, Baldomero Joaquin Fernandez (1793–1879). Spanish soldier and politician. He fought against and was captured (1826) by *Bolívar in the War of South American Liberation. He returned to Spain, fought with distinction (1833–39) against the Carlists (*Carlos, Don) and was created Duque de la Victoria (1839). He became regent (virtually dictator) 1841–43 for the young queen *Isabella. Exiled in London 1843–48, he was again Prime Minister 1854–56. In 1870, he refused an offer of the crown following Isabella’s deposition (1868).

Espronceda y Delgado, José de (1808–1842). Spanish poet and revolutionary. Often compared with *Byron, as a student he became involved in revolutionary societies and from 1827 to 1831 was an exile in London and Paris, where he came under the romantic influence of *Scott, Byron and *Hugo. He returned to Madrid (1833), where he became notorious as a man-about-town, and his growing success as a poet modified his revolutionary sentiments. His two best known works, El Estudiante de Salamanca (1839) and El Diablo Mundo (1841), are based on the legends of Don Juan and Faust.

Essex, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of (1566–1601). English soldier and courtier. After distinguished service in the Netherlands under his stepfather, *Leicester, he returned to England (1587) and soon became a favourite of Queen *Elizabeth I. He offended the queen by marrying Sir Philip *Sidney’s widow (1590) but regained her favour by his courage in the attack on Cadiz (1596). In 1598, during one of many quarrels with the queen, he burst out with the insolent remark that the conditions she imposed were as ‘crooked as her carcass’ and was never really forgiven. Sent to Ireland (1599) to fight the French insurgents, he not only failed but returned to England without permission to find himself in disgrace. After some months of house arrest, early in 1601 he tried to organise a rising of the citizens of London to regain his position by force. The attempt was a hopeless failure and Essex was arrested, tried for high treason, convicted and beheaded. He was a patron of literature and himself a minor poet.

Lacey, R., Robert, Earl of Essex, an Elizabethan Icarus. 1971.

Essex, Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of (1591–1646). English nobleman and soldier. Educated at Eton and Oxford, the earldom was restored to him by *James I in 1604. In 1606 he married Frances Howard (1590–1632); both were children, the union apparently unconsummated and annulled in 1613. Frances was involved in the murder of Sir Thomas *Overbury, go-between with her lover James I’s favourite Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, whom she later married. Essex gained some military experience fighting for the Protestant cause in Europe. During the Civil War, Essex was the first Captain-General and Chief Commander of the Parliamentary Army 1642–43, with varied success. He was compelled to resign in the moves which led to the formation of the New Model Army and died shortly afterwards.

Snow, V., Essex the Rebel. 1971.

Esterhazy, (Marie Charles) Ferdinand Walsin (1847–1923). French soldier, of Hungarian ancestry. He stole secret military papers and sold them to the Germans in order to pay his gambling debts. The need for a scapegoat and anti-Jewish feeling in the French army led to the wrongful arrest and conviction of *Dreyfus (1894). In 1899 Esterhazy confessed and went to live in England. He changed his name to Fitzgerald and became a grocer in Hertfordshire.

Esther (also Edissah or Hadassah) (5th century BCE?). Israelite heroine, probably legendary. In the Old Testament Book of Esther, she was queen to *Ahasuerus, King of Persia, saving her people from destruction. Her story was the subject of many paintings and an oratorio by *Händel.

Estrada, Joseph Marcelo Ejercito [‘Erap’] (1937– ). Filipino actor and politician. A popular movie and television star, close to the *Marcos family, he became a mayor, senator and vice president 1992–98. He succeeded *Ramos (who opposed his election) as President of the Philippines 1998–2001. Although impeachment proceedings on corruption charges collapsed, he lost support of the armed forces and resigned (January 2001) after massive demonstrations. He was arrested and jailed.

Ethelbert see Æthelberht

Ethelred I and II see Æthelred I and II

Etherege, Sir George (1635–1691). English Restoration dramatist. While working at the embassy at Constantinople he married a rich widow and was sent to the imperial court at Ratisbon. On return to England he spent much time in a court circle of witty, amoral friends. Influenced by *Molière, his comedies, e.g. She Would lf She Could (1667–68) and The Man of Mode or Sir Fopling Flutter (1676), anticipated *Congreve and *Sheridan. His early work, The Comical Revenge or Love in a Tub (1664) was a prototype for Restoration comedy and influenced Congreve and *Goldsmith.

Underwood, D., Etherege and the Seventeenth Century Comedy of Manners. 1959.

Etty, William (1779–1849). English painter. He studied under *Lawrence, but owed much to the Venetian colourists seen during visits to Italy. He became an ARA in 1824 and an RA in 1828. He was admired by *Delacroix, and is best known for luscious and voluptuous nudes and for large compositions, notable especially for their sense of design, on historical subjects or fanciful themes, e.g. Youth at the Prow and Pleasure at the Helm (National Gallery, London), Cleopatra and Joan of Arc.

Eucken, Rudolph Christian (1846–1926). German philosopher. His system, influenced by the ‘Idealist’ school, expounds and examines oppositions, e.g. between the spiritual life and modern materialism, which Eucken strongly attacked. Professor of philosophy 1874–1920 at Jena, he won the Nobel Prize for Literature (1908).

Euclid (c.330–260 BCE). Greek mathematician. Little is known about him except that after studying in Athens he lived in Alexandria. The 13 books of his The Elements of Geometry systematised existing knowledge of mathematics. The sections on geometry have remained the basis of standard textbooks for more than 2000 years. He also wrote treatises on astronomy, optics and musical harmony, but most of his works are lost.

Berlinski, D., The King of Infinite Space; Euclid and His Elements.2013.

Eugène of Savoy, Prince (François Eugène de Savoie-Carignan) (1663–1736). Franco-Italian-Austrian marshal, born in Paris. Son of the Comte de Soissons and a nephew of *Mazarin, brought up in the French court, he quarrelled with *Louis XIV and joined the imperial forces in 1683. He fought with great distinction against Turkey and, having risen to the rank of field marshal, won the brilliant and decisive Battle of Zenta (1697), as a result of which the Turks were driven from Hungary and forced to sign the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699). In the War of the Spanish Succession he fought the French first in Italy and then on the Danube, where he invited *Marlborough to join him in resisting a French threat to Vienna. The result was the great victory of Blenheim (1704) by the combined armies. Another campaign in Italy followed, after which he joined Marlborough in Flanders in the Battles of Oudenarde (1708) and Malplaquet (1709). After Marlborough’s recall he was Supreme Allied Commander until the end of the war. In 1716 he was again fighting the Turks and after a victory at Petwordein he captured Belgrade. Much of the rest of his life was spent in the collection of books and pictures and the building of the Belvedere Palace in Vienna. Much admired by *Friedrich II and *Napoléon as one of ‘the seven great captains’, he never married.

Eugénie (Marie Eugénie de Montijo de Guzman) (1826–1920). Empress consort of the French 1853–71. Born in Spain, she married *Napoléon III in 1853. A celebrated beauty, she became a leader of fashion and maintained a gay and brilliant court. She was an ardent (ultramontanist) supporter of the papacy and it was through her influence that a French garrison preserved the pope’s rule in Rome after the unification of the rest of Italy. When the emperor abdicated after defeat in the Franco-Prussian War she lived with him in England and remained there after his death. Their son *Napoléon Eugène Louis was killed fighting in Africa. She commuted between Chislehurst and Menton, dying on a visit to Madrid.

Euler, Leonhard (1707–1783). Swiss mathematician, born at Basle. Pupil of Jean *Bernouilli, he joined him (1727) at the newly opened Academy at St Petersburg. He held professorships there from 1730 to 1741, then spent 25 years at the new Academy of Sciences at Berlin, returning (1766) to St Petersburg where, though blind, he continued to work for the rest of his life. To a great extent he laid the foundations of modern mathematics. His works include a survey of analytical mathematics, with important contributions to the theory of equations and the first complete textbook on the calculus. He also carried out notable work in astronomy and physics.

Euripides (480–406 BCE). Athenian dramatist. Younger than *Aeschyhus and *Sophocles, he reveals a more ‘modern’ attitude to psychology, especially that of women, but his techniques are often inferior to those of Sophocles. He makes much use of the clumsy device known as deus ex machina by which a god is made to appear by a mechanical device to complete the denouement. His use of a prologue to explain the legend and outline the play is in itself a confession that the action is not self-explanatory. Traditional elements of Greek tragedy, e.g. the chorus, whose singing, dancing, explaining and bewailing often hold up action, seem to irk him but he found nothing to take their place. *Aristophanes ridiculed him unmercifully and found his language often pretentious and obscure. Of more than 80 plays which he has said to have written, only 18 survive. Among the most popular is Medea, the story of Jason’s wife who, afraid of being supplanted, poisoned her children to leave her husband childless. Phaedra’s unrequited passion which brings violent death to her stepson Hippolytus is told in the play that bears his name. The legends of Agamemnon’s kin are told again in Iphigenia among the Taurians, Iphigenia at Aulis, Electra and Orestes. The remainder include Alcestis and Ion (founder of the Ionian race), The Trojan Women and Hecuba (both revealing the poet’s detestation of war), The Bacchae, a horrifying portrayal of the orgiastic celebrations of Dionysian rites, and The Cyclops, a semi-burlesque. His first plays appeared in 455 and the last probably c.408.

Murray, G., Euripides and His Age. 1965.

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.260/5–340). Roman-Greek theologian and historian, probably born in Caesarea Maritima. Bishop of Caesarea (c.313), he played a conciliatory part at the Council of Nicaea (325) but is best known for his History of the Christian Church, as a result of which he became known as the ‘Father of Church History’. From *Gibbon onwards, historians have accused him of exaggerating the extent of Christian persecution and martyrdom. His Life of Constantine, a panegyric, asserts that the emperor was actually baptised but provides little detail. His Chronicle is the basis of many dates accepted in Greek and Roman history.

Wallace Wadrill, D. S., Eusebius of Caesarea. 1960.

Eustachio, Bartolomeo (1520–1574). Italian anatomist. After being personal physician to the Duke of Urbino and others, he taught anatomy at the Collegia della Sapienza in Rome. He rediscovered the Eustachian canal (auditory tube) of the ear, and the Eustachian valve in the foetus. He also studied and described the thoracic duct, larynx, adrenal glands and kidneys.

Evans, Sir Arthur John (1851–1941). British archaeologist. Educated at Harrow and Oxford, he went to Ragusa (Dubrovnik) in 1871 as Manchester Guardian correspondent, but was expelled by the Austrians (1882) for implication in a South Slav rising. Meanwhile he had developed an interest in antiquities inherited from his father. Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 1884–1908, his interest in Minoan seals led to the negotiations that at last enabled him to start upon the excavations at Knossos, Crete, upon which his fame rests (1899–1907). Knowledge of the fascinating ‘Minoan’ civilisation (named after the legendary King Minos), which lasted from c.2500–c.1100 BCE and was at its peak c.1550–c.1400 BCE, was due almost entirely to the work of excavation and reconstruction carried out by Evans for many years from 1899. His results, published in The Palace of Minos (1921–35), created a sensation, although some doubts have been expressed about certain of his conclusions. He was among the founders of the British Academy (1902).

Evans, J., Time and Chance. 1943; Brown, A., Arthur Evans and the Palace of Minos. 1983.

Evans, Dame Edith Mary (1888–1976). British actor. Her first parts were the title roles in Troilus and Cressida (1924) and later Romeo and Juliet and Cleopatra. She was perhaps seen at her best in comedy, e.g. as Millamant in *Congreve’s The Way of the World (1924) and as Mrs Malaprop in *Sheridan’s The Rivals (1945–46). Modern plays in which she achieved striking successes were The Dark is Light Enough (1954) and The Chalk Garden (1956). She also made films, e.g. The Queen of Spades (1948) and as a formidable Lady Bracknell in The Importance of Being Earnest. She was awarded the DBE in 1946.

Evans, Gareth John (1944– ). Australian lawyer and Labor politician, born in Melbourne. A barrister (QC) and academic lawyer, he was a senator 1978–96, Attorney-General 1983–84 and Foreign Minister 1988–96. Federal MHR 1996–99, he became Deputy Leader of the ALP 1996–98. He served as Chief Executive Officer of the International Crisis Group, Brussels, 2000–09, was a prolific author and Chancellor of The Australian National University 2010–19.

Evans, Mary Ann see Eliot, George

Evatt, Herbert Vere (1894–1965). Australian lawyer, writer and Labor politician, born in East Maitland. A gold medallist from Sydney University, he became a State MP 1925–30 and a KC. A justice of the High Court 1930–40, he resigned to re-enter politics and served under *Curtin and *Chifley as Minister for External Affairs and Attorney-General 1941–49. He represented Australia in the British War Cabinet 1942–43, became one of the architects of the United Nations and was President of the UN General Assembly 1948–49. Leader of the Opposition 1951–60, he defeated *Menzies’ referendum (1951) to ban the Communist Party. However, the ALP split in 1955, partly over attitudes to Communism, with the majority reluctantly supporting Evatt’s approach and an overwhelmingly Catholic minority hiving off to form the Democratic Labor Party (DLP). Evatt’s erratic leadership style, and concerns raised by his response to the defection of a Russian spy, Vladimir Petrov, also contributed. Evatt was Chief Justice of New South Wales 1960–62, but his memory and intellectual powers soon failed.

Crockett, P., Evatt: A Life. 1993; Murphy, J. W., Evatt. A Life. 2016.

Evelyn, John (1620–1706). English diarist, born at Wotton, Surrey. He grew up on the family estate and studied at the Middle Temple, London, and Balliol College, Oxford. At heart a Royalist, during the Civil War he lived in Europe 1643–52. On returning to England he lived for nearly 50 years at Sayes Court, Deptford, spending the last years of his life at Wotton, which he inherited in 1696. His diary, discovered at Wotton in 1817, remains an outstanding contribution to English letters. With that of *Pepys (though far less intimate), it provides an important and delightful record of the life of the period. Of his many other interests, garden-making and especially arboriculture are manifested in his Sylva (1664). He was Secretary of the Royal Society 1671–80. The best edition of the Diary is edited by E. S. de Beer (1956).

Keynes, G. L., Evelyn, A Study in Bibliophily and a Bibliography of His Writings. 1968.

Everest, Sir George (1790–1866). English surveyor. Surveyor-General of India 1830–43, the world’s highest mountain (Chomolungma in Tibetan, Sagamatha in Nepali) was mapped and named for him (1852).

Everett, Edward (1794–1865). American orator, scholar and administrator. He was the first American to be awarded a PhD, at Göttingen in 1817. He became the first professor of Greek at Harvard 1819–25, a Congressman 1825–35, Governor of Massachusetts 1836–40, Minister to Great Britain 1841–45, President of Harvard University 1846–49, US Secretary of State under Fillmore 1852–53 and US Senator 1853–54. When *Lincoln delivered his famous address at the opening of the military cemetery at Gettysburg (19 Nov. 1863), Everett was principal speaker.

Eyck, Hubert van (c.1366–1426) and Jan van Eyck (c.1390–1441). Flemish painters, born in Maaseik. There is some documentation about Jan’s life, and 18 works can be confidently attributed to him. He was probably influenced, or even taught, by the so-called ‘Master of Flémalle’, Robert *Campin of Tournai. Jan was painter to the Count of Holland in The Hague 1422–25, worked for *Philippe le Bon (Philip the Good), Duke of Burgundy in Lille 1425–30 and went on two diplomatic missions to Spain and Portugal, living in Bruges from 1431 where he married and was buried. Hubert’s reputation depends on the inscription on the frame of the great altarpiece in Sint Baafskathedral (St Bavo), Ghent, stating that he began the work, and his brother Jan completed it by 1432. Hubert’s very existence has been questioned, let alone his relationship to Jan. The Ghent altarpiece is a polyptych: opened up, there are 12 paintings, dominated by The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb and God the Father, and powerful studies of Adam, Eve, the Virgin and John the Baptist. When the wings are closed, 12 smaller paintings are seen. *Durer called it ‘stupendous’ and the mastery of oil painting was unsurpassed to that time. His works are characterised by uncompromising realism, rich and brilliant colouring (his development of a paint that had great lasting qualities was an ancillary accomplishment), acute sensitivity to surfaces and textures, and a miniaturist’s passion for detail. The Man in the Red Turban (1433), in London, is thought to be a self portrait, and a portrait of his wife Margaret van Eyck is in Bruges. Other masterpieces include The Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami (1434, London), Cardinal Albergati (1435, Vienna), The Virgin of Canon van der Paele (1436, Bruges, only identified as van Eyck’s work in 1847) and The Virgin and Chancellor Rollin (1436, Louvre). Entirely unemotional, Jan’s painting moves us by its absolute truth and attention to detail and its marvellous rendering of textural effects. Returning six panels of the Ghent altarpiece which had been sold to Germany was a specific condition (Art. 247) in the Treaty of Versailles. One panel was stolen in 1934.

Baldass, L., Van Eyck. 1952; Dhanens, E., Van Eyck. 1973; Harbison, C., Jan van Eyck. The Play of Realism. 1991; Graham, J., Inventing Van Eyck. The Remaking of an Artist for the Modern Age. 2007.

Eyre, Edward John (1815–1901). English explorer and administrator, born in Bedfordshire. He emigrated to Australia in 1833, became a grazier and made the first direct crossing from Sydney to Adelaide (1838). In 1840 his most famous expedition advanced northwards from Adelaide into the interior. When unable to proceed further he turned westward and reached the head of the Great Australian Bight. Having sent the expedition back, with his overseer and three Aboriginals, he set out for Albany, in the extreme southwest. He arrived there with a single indigene in July 1841 after great hardships. Publication of his experiences brought him a Royal Geographical Society medal and considerable fame. He became a magistrate and ‘protector of the aborigines’, studying their language and customs. He was Lieutenant Governor of New Zealand 1846–53 and worked to improve relations between whites and Maoris. As Governor of Jamaica 1864–66, he suppressed a black revolt led by George Gordon at Morant Bay (October 1865), imposed martial law and more than 400 were executed. He was recalled and never given official employment again. Attempts were made to have him tried for murder (1867, 1869) and British intellectuals were bitterly divided between his opponents (*Mill, *Spencer, *Darwin *Huxley) and supporters (*Carlyle, *Dickens, *Ruskin, *Tennyson).

Dutton, G., The Hero as Murderer. 1967.

Eyre, Sir Richard Charles Hastings (1943– ). English theatre, film and opera director, born in Devon. Educated in Cambridge, he was director of the National Theatre, London, 1987–97, and showed exceptional versatility, from *Shakespeare, *Ibsen, *Williams and *Stoppard to Guys and Dolls. He directed his first opera in 1994, and his triumphs include Carmen and The Marriage of Figaro at the New York Met.

Ezekiel (fl. c.590–610 BCE). Hebrew prophet. Little is known of his life except that he was among those deported by *Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon (597). The book of the Bible ascribed to him presents problems of authorship. The first 25 chapters, though apparently written in Babylon, predict the fall of Jerusalem, which actually took place in 586. This portion denounces neighbouring nations, while Chapters xxxiii–xxxix predict the reunification of Israel and Judah under a king of the House of *David. The last chapters paint an idealised picture of the restored state with its temple worship renewed and reformed. Much of this last section may well have been added later, though the earlier portions were probably written by Ezekiel himself, confusion being caused by an editor’s attempt to weld together parts written at different times.

Ezra (5th century BCE). Hebrew priest and scribe. He led a group of returning exiles from the court of the Persian king *Artaxerxes I or II. He revived the Jews’ conception of themselves as an exclusive and chosen people bound together by their unique religious observances. The Biblical book of Ezra is believed to be part of a larger whole containing also Chronicles and Nehemiah.


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