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Dictionary of World Biography


Fabergé, Peter Carl (1846–1920). Russian jeweller, of French descent. He achieved fame by the ingenuity and extravagance of the jewelled objects (especially Easter eggs) he devised for the Russian nobility and the tsar in an age of ostentatious extravagance which ended on the outbreak of World War I. He died in Switzerland.

Fabius, Laurent (1946– ). French socialist politician. He was Deputy 1978–81, 1986– , Minister for Industry and Research 1983–84, Premier of France 1984–86, Minister of Economics 2000–02 and Foreign Minister 2012–16, and President of the Constitutional Council 2016– .

Fabius Maximus Verrocosus Cunctator, Quintus (c. 280–203 BCE). Roman general and politician, born in Rome. Three of his ancestors had been Consuls, and two cognomens were added to his birth name: Verrocosus (‘warty’) and Cunctator (‘delayer’). During the Second Punic War, *Hannibal’s Carthaginian army inflicted a heavy defeat on Roman forces at Lake Trasimeno (217) and seemed likely to invade Rome. The Senate appointed Fabius as ‘dictator’ (essentially a short-term appointment to meet an emergency). He pursued a policy of ‘masterly inactivity’ (hence his sobriquet ‘Delayer’), avoiding direct engagement and concentrating on harassing the enemy, guerrilla tactics, ‘scorched earth’ and cutting off supplies. After his term ended, Fabius’ successors determined to defeat Hannibal in open battle, but despite superior numbers suffered humiliating defeat at Cannae (216). The Senate then resumed Fabius’ approach. Hannibal’s army remained in Italy until 203, winning two major battles, but it never threatened Rome again. Fabius was elected Consul five times. The word ‘Fabian’ has passed into the English language, e.g. the Fabian Society, dedicated to achieve socialism by gradual reforms. His grandfather, Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus (d.315 BCE), won several notable battles in the Samnite Wars.

Fabre, Jean Henri (1823–1915). French entomologist. He was a teacher for many years in Ajaccio, Corsica and (from 1852) at Avignon. In 1870 he retired to Serignan, near Orange, and devoted almost all his time to studying insects, which he observed with the utmost patience and precision. His writings about them were published in many volumes as Souvenirs entomologiques, parts of which had been issued separately as, e.g., The Life and Love of the Insect (1911) and Social Life in the Insect World (1913).

Gordon, S., Jean Henri Fabre. 1971.

Fabricius ab Aquapendente, Hieronymus (Geronimo Fabrizi) (1533–1619). Italian physician, born at Aquapendente, near Orvieto. He studied medicine under *Fallopio at Padua and succeeded him as professor of surgery and anatomy 1562–1613. He became actively involved in building the university’s magnificent anatomical theatre, which is preserved today. He acquired fame as a practising physician and surgeon, and made extensive contributions to many fields of physiology and medicine, through his energetic skills in dissection and experimentation. He wrote works on surgery, discussing treatments for different sorts of wounds, and a major series of embryological studies, illustrated by detailed engravings. His work on the formation of the foetus was especially important for its discussion of the provisions made by nature for the necessities of the foetus during its intra-uterine life. The medical theory he offered to explain the development of eggs and foetuses, however, was in the tradition of *Galen. Fabricius is best remembered for his detailed studies of the valves of the veins. He thought the function of these valves was to slow the flow of blood from the heart, thus ensuring a more even distribution through the body. His pupil, William *Harvey, drew on these studies in his work on the circulation of the blood.

Fabritius, Carel Pieterszon (1622–1654). Dutch painter. A pupil of *Rembrandt, and teacher of *Vermeer, he was killed when the Delft gunpowder magazine exploded. The Goldfinch (1654) is a small study of a chained bird.

Fadden, Sir Arthur (‘Artie’) William (1894–1973). Australian politician, born in Queensland. He left school at 14 to join a sugar-cutting gang, later becoming an accountant, municipal councillor in Townsville 1930–33 and member of the Queensland Parliament 1932–35. Member of the House of Representatives 1936–58, Federal Treasurer 1940–41 and Leader of the Country Party 1941–58, after *Menzies’ ejection by colleagues Fadden was Prime Minister August-October 1941 until *Curtin’s Labor Government took over. He kept his party in coalition with Menzies’ re-formed Liberal Party and was Federal Treasurer again 1949–58.

Fadeyeh (originally Bulyga), Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (1901–1956). Russian novelist, born near Kalinin. Educated in Vladivostock, after 1918 he fought against the White Russian army in Siberia, an experience which inspired his first important novel The Nineteen (1927). He was quickly recognised as a leader of a new, Soviet Communist, proletarian literature. He became a member of the board of the Union of Soviet Writers and was connected with the imposition of a stern party line, although in 1947 he suffered from official censure himself. His novel The Young Guard (1946) was criticised as failing to show the Party as dominant, and he rewrote it. His later life was clouded by alcoholism and, after the official denunciation of Stalinism, he killed himself.

Fahrenheit, Gabriel Daniel (1686–1736). German physicist, born in Danzig. Educated in Holland, he eventually settled in Amsterdam as a maker of meteorological instruments. He introduced (1715) mercury as the fluid in thermometers and devised the temperature scale that bears his name, with boiling point of water at 212° and freezing point at 32°.

Faidherbe, Louis Léon César (1818–1889). French soldier and colonial administrator. He began his military career with the corps of military engineers in 1840, and was given his first command, in Algeria, in 1849. In 1852 he went to Senegal as deputy director of engineers, he was made Governor 1854–61 and again 1863–65. He established a strong military presence in Senegal based on the capital Dakar, which he founded. His achievements laid the foundations of the French West African colonies. Recalled to fight in the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, he was defeated near St Quentin (1871).

Fairbanks, Douglas (originally Douglas Elton Ullman) (1883–1939). American film actor. He was famous as the swashbuckling and romantic hero of such films as The Three Musketeers (1921), The Thief of Baghdad (1924) and The Man in the Iron Mask (1929). He formed the film making company United Artists with Charles *Chaplin and Mary *Pickford, and became her second husband. His son, Douglas Elton Fairbanks Jr (1909–2000), also an actor, settled in England in 1946 and was made honorary KBE in 1949.

Fairfax of Cameron, Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Baron (1584–1648). English general and politician. Holding a Scottish peerage, he was eligible to serve in the English House of Commons as MP 1614–29; 1640–48. A moderate in the Civil War, he commanded the Parliamentary army in Yorkshire with only moderate success. He died of gangrene. His son Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Baron Fairfax of Cameron (1612–1671), also a general and politician, served as a volunteer in Holland (1629–37) and when the civil war broke out (1642) gained such distinction as a commander, especially at Marston Moor (1644), that when *Essex had to give up his post as Commander-in-Chief under the Self-denying Ordinance, Fairfax took his place. The Battle of Naseby (1645) was his greatest triumph. Thereafter, he played a conciliatory role: he tried, but failed, to save the king’s life and after refusing to march against the Scots (1650) was superseded by *Cromwell. In 1660 he went to The Hague to arrange for the return of *Charles II.

Faisal (Faisal bin Abdulaziz al Sa’ud) (1906–1975). King of Saudi Arabia 1964–75. Son of King *Ibn Sa’ud, he was Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Saudi Arabia 1953–60, and virtually ruled the kingdom (1958–60) until forced to resign by his half-brother King Sa’ud. Reconciliation took place early in 1964 and in November as a result of Sa’ud’s continued ill health Faisal took his place as King. Murdered by a nephew, also called Faisal, he was succeeded by his brother Khalid.

Faisal I (Faisal bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi) (1885–1933). First King of Iraq 1921–33. Son of *Hussein, grand sherif of Mecca, who made himself king of the Hejaz, he became, during World War I, a leader of the Arab revolt, in which T. E. *Lawrence was prominent. On the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, he became King of Syria in March–July 1920, until expelled by the French. The British then imposed him as king of the mandated territory of Iraq, where he was virtually unknown. He negotiated with Chaim *Weizmann about the possibility of Jewish–Arab cooperation in the Middle East, but by 1930 was protesting about increased Jewish immigration to Palestine. Iraq became fully independent in 1932. He died suddenly in Switzerland; poisoning was suspected. His only son Ghazi (Gāzi) I (1912–1939), who succeeded, was killed in a driving accident, which may have been planned.

Faisal II (1935–1958). King of Iraq 1939–58. Son of King Ghazi and grandson of *Faisal I, he was educated at Harrow School in England. The effective ruler until 1953 was the regent, his uncle Abdul Illah. The proclamation (1958) by Faisal and his cousin, King *Hussein of Jordan, of a federation of their two kingdoms was followed almost immediately by a revolutionary coup d’état led by Brigadier Kassem, in the course of which Faisal and his Prime Minister, *Nuri es-Said, were murdered.

Falkenhayn, Erich von (1861–1922). German soldier. After a successful career in the Chinese Boxer rebellion and elsewhere, he came to prominence in World War I when he succeeded von Moltke as Chief of the General Staff after the defeat on the Marne. His attempt to redeem this by an outflanking movement failed, but he achieved great success against the Russians (1915) and destroyed the Serbian army (1915–16). Deprived of his staff post after failure at Verdun and on the Somme, he conducted a victorious offensive against Romania.

Falkland, Lucius Gary, 2nd Viscount (1610–1643). English courtier, soldier and scholar. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin (his father had served in Ireland as Lord Deputy), he succeeded to the peerage in 1633. To his Oxfordshire home flocked scholars from nearby Oxford, poets, wits and eager spirits with young ideals from London. As a member of the Long Parliament he opposed the authoritarian rule of *Laud and *Strafford, but remained a keen Anglican. In a last effort to avert civil war he became Secretary of State (1642). When the final tragic choice came, he was loyal to the king, but it was known that at the Battle of Newbury he sought and welcomed death. He wrote poems and theological treatises, e.g. Discourses of Infallibility.

Falla (y Matheu), Manuel de (1876–1946). Spanish composer, born in Cadiz. He studied composition in Madrid. After his opera La vida breve (1905; Life is Short) had won him a national prize he continued his studies in Paris (1907–14), *Debussy and *Dukas being major influences. He developed, however, a strikingly original style which embodies much of the dramatic intensity, intricate rhythms and floridity of traditional Andalusian music. He was unusually fastidious and his total output is small. Among his best known works are the ballets Love the Magician (1915) and The Three cornered Hat (1919), for which, last, Massine was the choreographer and *Picasso the designer. Others include Nights in the Gardens of Spain (first performed 1921) for piano and orchestra, a Harpsichord Concerto (1926) and the song cycle Seven Popular Spanish Songs. He lived in Argentina from 1939, died there but is buried in Cadiz.

Fallada, Hans (Rudolf Ditzen) (1893–1947). German novelist. His most famous work Little Man, What Now? (1932), expresses the dilemma and disillusionment that faced the middle classes in Germany in the years following World War I.

Schueler, H. J., Hans Fallada. 1970.

Fallières, (Clement) Armand (1841–1931). French politician. A lawyer, he served as Deputy 1876–90, Premier briefly in 1883, Senator 1890–1906, President of the Senate 1899–1906 and President of the Third Republic 1906–13.

Fallopio (Fallopius), Gabriele (1523–1562). Italian anatomist. Pupil and successor of Vesalius at Padua, he made a notable study of the organs of generation. The Fallopian tubes (ovarian ducts) and the Fallopian aqueduct for the facial nerve (which he first described) are named after him.

Fan Kuan (c.990–c.1030). Chinese painter. A Taoist recluse, his greatest work was Travellers amid Streams and Mountains.

Fanfani, Amintore (1908–1999). Italian politician. An economist by profession, he succeeded de *Gasperi as Secretary-General of the Christian Democratic Party (1954). Prime Minister in 1954, 1958–59, 1960–63 and 1987, he acquired a great reputation as a maker and breaker of governments.

Fangio, Juan Manuel (1911–1995). Argentinian racing driver, born in Buenos Aires. In 1934 he began racing in South America and met with considerable success. In 1949 he went to Europe and subsequently dominated motor racing competitions in the 1950s, becoming World Champion in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956 and 1957. On his retirement in 1958 at the age of 47, he had won 24 Grands Prix, 16 of them World Championship.

Fanon, Frantz (1925–1961). French-African revolutionary theorist, born in Martinique. After army service, he studied in Paris, became a psychiatrist in Algiers and wrote The Wretched of the Earth (1961) which was used as a handbook by revolutionary and student movements in Africa and the US and originated the concept of ‘negritude’. He died of leukemia in Washington DC.

Fantin-Latour, Ignace Henri Jean Théodore (1836–1904). French painter. He studied under Courbet and first exhibited at the Salon in 1861. He was a friend of the Impressionists and painted their portraits, e.g. *Manet’s Studio at Batignolles. Fantasies suggested by the music of *Wagner and *Berlioz, and, above all, his exquisitely delicate flower pieces, are also well known.

Faraday, Michael (1791–1867). English chemist and physicist, born in Newington Butts, Surrey. Son of a blacksmith, he taught himself the rudiments of science while working as a book binder’s apprentice. However, he never mastered mathematics. He attracted the attention of Sir Humphry *Davy with a bound set of notes he had taken at Davy’s Royal Institution lectures in 1813, and was given a post as laboratory assistant under him. In 1827 he became director of the laboratory and was Fullerian professor of chemistry at the Institution (1833–67), where his lectures were popular. He was a member of the Sandemanians, a small sect that tried to revive primitive Christianity and he refused a knighthood. His most important work was in electricity and electrochemistry. He discovered (1831) electromagnetic induction and deduced the laws governing the relative movement of magnets and current-carrying conductors. These discoveries led directly to the generation of electricity and the development of the electric motor. His discovery (1832–33), of the laws of electrolysis (now known as Faraday’s Laws) put this process on a sound quantitative basis. He also studied the liquefaction of gases and was the first to liquefy chlorine and prepare colloidal gold. He also discovered benzene. The records of Faraday’s researches are collected in his Experimental Researches on Electricity. The farad (unit of electrical capacity) is named after him. He shared the Copley Medal with *Poisson in 1832 and *Gauss in 1838 and was given a civil list pension in 1835. In 1845, having recovered from a mental illness, possibly due to exposure to mercury in experiments, he began to work on magnetism again. He found that the plane of polarised light was rotated by a magnetic field and this led him to suggest a connexion between light and electricity. Later he studied the properties of weak magnetic materials. He declined the Presidency of the Royal Society in 1848 and 1858. In 1848, Queen *Victoria gave him a house at Hampton Court where he lived from 1858 (and in which died). His memory and mental capacity declined, and he refused burial at Westminster Abbey.

Pearce Williams, L., Michael Faraday: A Biography. 1965; Russell, C. A., Michael Faraday: Physics and Faith. 2000; Hamilton, J., Faraday: The Life. 2002; Hirshfeld, A. W., The Electric Life of Michael Faraday. 2006.

Farage, Nigel Paul (1964– ). English politician. A commodity trader and former Conservative, he was a founder of the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP: 1993), a member of the European Parliament 1999– , and a leader of the campaign for Britain to leave the EU (2016).

Farel, Guillaume (1489–1565). French Protestant reformer, born in the Dauphiné. From a noble family, he became a Protestant missionary, mainly in Switzerland. After being twice expelled from Geneva he was largely responsible for the town council’s decision to proclaim the Reformation there (1535). He became the friend of *Calvin, who was, however, more closely concerned with administration, and shared with him a brief exile from Geneva (1538). Farel was pastor at Neuchâtel (1544–65). At the age of 69 he married a young wife, an action highly distasteful to the sterner Calvin.

Farinelli (professional name of Carlo Broschi) (1705–1782). Italian castrato or male soprano. Emasculated before puberty, he had a three octave range (tenor to soprano). He achieved remarkable success in London, Rome, Vienna, Paris, and finally Madrid where he became court singer to King *Felipe V of Spain, over whom (from 1737) he exercised an extraordinary influence in affairs of state. He is said to have sung the same four arias each night to ease the king’s melancholy. He returned to Italy in 1759. The French film Farinelli, il castrato was released in 1994.

Farington, Joseph (1747–1821). English landscape painter and diarist. Though he became an RA, his fame rests much more firmly on his diary (first published 1922–28), a vivid presentation of the people and events of his life from 1793 to the day of his death.

Farman, Henri (1874–1958). Anglo-French aviator and designer, born in Paris. He worked with Gabriel and Charles Voison and in November 1909 established a long distance flying record of 232 kilometres in a Voisin-Farman I biplane. With his brother Maurice he began manufacturing aircraft and during World War I many were sold to the French army.

Farnese. Italian ducal family, rulers of Parma from 1545 when Pope *Paul III (Alessandro Farnese) invested his illegitimate son Pier Luigi (1503–1547)—the duchy—until 1731. Alessandro’s sister Giulia was mistress of Pope *Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia). A grandson of Luigi, Alessandro Farnese (1546–1592), Duke of Parma, was the general of *Philip II who (1578) became his governor in the Netherlands. Elisabeth (1692–1766), niece of the last Farnese duke, married and dominated *Philip V, her ambition to obtain the Parma duchy for her son being a constantly disruptive factor in European politics.

Farnsworth, Philo Taylor (1906–1971). American inventor. In 1934 the US Patent Office recognised his priority over *Zworykin in inventing an electronic television system [1927].

Farouk (1920–1965). King of Egypt 1936–1952. Son and successor of *Fuad I, he was educated in England. He followed a vacillating policy during World War II and, in the years that followed, proved himself unable to compete with political turmoil and administrative corruption. At the same time he incurred censure by the extravagance of the court and by much publicised episodes in his ‘private’ life. His exile followed an army revolt under General *Neguib and Colonel *Nasser and he was finally deposed in 1953 when a republic was proclaimed.

Farquhar, George (1678–1707). Anglo-Irish dramatist. He was an actor for a time in Dublin, but after wounding another actor in a stage duel went to London and achieved success with Love and a Bottle (1698), the first of his licentious but witty and amusing comedies. This followed by The Constant Couple (1699), said to have run for 53 nights at Drury Lane, and other plays, brought him esteem with little reward. He managed to obtain an army commission and performed the duties of the title part in his play The Recruiting Officer (1706). Poverty forced him to sell his commission, but a gift from the actor Robert Wilks enabled him to write his last and best play The Beaux Stratagem (1707). Farquhar’s good nature and gift for satire are revealed in his plays, and by taking comedy out of the drawing room into a more realistic outside world he set a trend soon followed by *Goldsmith and others. The Recruiting Officer was the first play performed in Sydney (June 1789).

Farragut, David Glasgow (1801–1870). American admiral, born in Tennessee. The most successful naval commander of the Union in the Civil War, in spite of his long service on the outbreak of the civil war he was at first suspected of Confederate sympathies. Given a command in 1862, he distinguished himself in a number of daring actions, first at New Orleans where he ran the gauntlet of forts to destroy the Confederate fleet on the Mississippi, after which he was made Senior Rear Admiral. In 1863 he won control of more of the Mississippi, which greatly helped *Grant’s Vicksburg campaign. In 1864 he achieved his most outstanding victory off Mobile to end blockade-running by the Confederates. On his famous signal ‘Damn the torpedoes’, his fleet steamed through a screen of mines (then called torpedoes) to overwhelm the Confederate flotilla. The rank of Admiral was created for him in 1866.

Farrakhan, Louis (Louis Eugene Wolcott) (1933– ). African-American political activist, born in New York City. A charismatic orator, he founded ‘the Nation of Islam’ in 1977 and organised the Million Man March in Washington in 1995.

Farrell, James Thomas (1904–1979). American novelist. After a variety of occupations, Farrell achieved fame with his realistic trilogy (completed in 1935) of slum life in Chicago, Studs Lonigan. His later novels include A World I Never Made (1936) and Bernard Clare (1946).

Branch, E. M., James T. Farrell. 1963.

Farrer, William James (1845–1906). Australian wheat breeder. Educated at Cambridge he came to Australia for his health in 1870. Using Darwinian principles and paralleling the work of *Mendel he developed rust and parasite-free wheat strains by cross-breeding. His ‘Federation’ wheat (1901) dominated Australian production for 30 years.

Fasch, Johann Friedrich (1688–1758). German composer. A friend of *Telemann, contemporary of *Bach, he worked in Zerbst. Most of his Church music has been lost but his instrumental compositions illustrate the transition from Baroque to Classical style. He wrote 19 symphonies and 68 concertos.

Fastolf, Sir John (1378–1459). English soldier. Knighted for distinguished conduct at Agincourt and in other engagements, as landlord of huge estates in Norfolk, he is said to have been mean, rapacious and ill-tempered, but he was an educational benefactor and Magdalen College, Oxford, was eventually built from funds left by him. *Shakespeare may have borrowed his name (but nothing else) for his character of Falstaff.

Fatimah (‘Shining One’) (c.610–632). Arab religious. Daughter of *Muhammad by Khadijah, she married her cousin *Ali. Long after her death, Said Ibn Hussein, basing his claim on descent from Fatimah, founded a powerful Shi’ite dynasty (the Fatimite).

Faulkner, William (1897–1962). American author, born in Mississippi. He trained with the Canadian air force in World War I and worked at a succession of odd jobs while trying to sell his poetry and early novels, Soldier’s Pay (1926), Mosquitoes (1927), Sartoris (1929). He gradually secured literary recognition with The Sound and the Fury (1929), As I Lay Dying (1930) and Light in August (1932), with their vigorous and powerful portrayal of upper-class whites, poor whites and African-Americans in the South during a period of social conflict and disintegration, but he did not obtain wide popular responses until the publication of Sanctuary, a ‘horror’ story, employing the stream of consciousness technique, of a girl who becomes a nymphomaniac after rape. Later works include a comic trilogy (The Hamlet, 1940), The Town (1956), The Mansion (1959), Intruder in the Dust (1948), and Requiem for a Nun (1951), later dramatised. His many short stories include A Rose for Emily and the collection Go Down, Moses (1942). The film Long Hot Summer was based on one of Faulkner’s stories. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1949 and in 1955 the Pulitzer Prize for A Fable (1954), an allegory of fighting in the trenches in France.

Blotner, J., Faulkner: A Biography. 2 vols, 1974.

Faure, (François) Félix (1841–1899). French politician. Originally a leather merchant and ship owner, he was Deputy 1881–95, Minister of Marine 1894–95 and President of the Republic 1895–99. He cemented the Franco-Russian alliance by a visit to St Petersburg (1897). An opponent of *Dreyfus, he resisted demands for a new trial and contributed to bitter political division. He died in the arms of his mistress at the Elysée palace.

Fauré, Gabriel Urbain (1845–1921). French composer, organist and teacher, born in Pamiers. A pupil of *Saint-Saëns, he became chief organist at La Madeleine, Paris, 1896–1905, succeeded *Massenet as professor of composition at the Paris Conservatoire 1896–1905 and was Director 1905–20. He encouraged and influenced a whole generation of younger composers including *Ravel. His gentle, lyrical style, though unemphatic, is often harmonically audacious. He wrote a Requiem (1887–88), incidental music to *Maeterlinck’s Pelleas et Melisande (1898) and a Ballade (1881) for piano and orchestra, but is at his best in chamber music (notably the two cello sonatas and two piano quartets), piano music and songs. His La Bonne Chanson (1891–92), settings of *Verlaine, much recorded, is one of his finest works.

Orledge, R., Gabriel Fauré. 1979.

Faust, Johann (or Georg) (c.1480–c.1540). German magician. The real man behind the Faust legends seems to have been a university student, an astrologer, magician, and debaucher, who travelled (or more probably was moved on) about the country, and who, after boasting that he had sold his soul to the devil, died mysteriously. Probably because his journeys made him so widely known, legends soon gathered round him. In 1587 appeared a printed account of his life, and subsequently many differing versions were issued. The Faust legend inspired dramatic works by *Marlowe and *Goethe. *Gounod’s opera Faust (1859) is the most performed, *Busoni’s Doktor Faust (1916–24) the most profound. *Berlioz, *Schumann, *Liszt, *Wagner and *Mahler wrote music inspired by the story.

Fawcett, Dame Millicent (née Garrett) (1847–1929). English political reformer and campaigner for women’s rights, born in Aldeburgh, Suffolk. Sister of Elizabeth Garrett *Anderson, in 1867 she married Henry Fawcett, a political economist who supported her work and was a leading social reformer. She made her first public speech advocating votes for women in 1868, wrote Women’s Suffrage (1912) and led the ‘suffragist’ movement until 1918. (Emmeline *Pankhurst called her much more recent movement ‘suffragette’.) In April 2018 a statue of Fawcett was unveiled in Parliament Square, London, to commemorate the centenary of women’s suffrage in the UK. She also advocated higher education for women, and was co-founder with Henry *Sidgwick of Newnham College, Cambridge.

Fawkes, Guy (or Guido) (1570–1606). English conspirator. He was a Roman Catholic convert of fanatical zeal and took part in the gunpowder plot to blow up the Houses of Parliament to kill King *James I. Arrested in the cellars on 5 November 1605 he revealed, under torture, full details of the plot and was executed soon afterwards. His own role was actually to fire the barrels. November 5 has been commemorated ever since with bonfires burning his effigy and with fireworks.

Edwards, F., Guy Fawkes. 1962.

Fechner, Gustav Theodor (1801–1887). German philosopher and physicist. He was professor of physics at Leipzig 1834–1839, when a nervous breakdown forced him to resign. After recovery he spent the rest of his life in writing and lecturing. His most notable contribution was in the relationship of mind and body, but perhaps of greater interest to the layman is the pantheism expressed in such works as Nanna (1848), concerned with the soul of plants, and Zendavesta (1851), on star life.

Federer, Roger (1981– ). Swiss tennis player, born in Basle. A professional since 1998, he won Wimbledon eight times, between 2003 and 2017, and the Australian Open six times, but his record as No. 1 was interrupted by injuries and surgery.

Feingold, Russ(ell Dana) (1953– ). American Democratic politician. He studied at the University of Wisconsin, in Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar and at the Harvard Law School. A Wisconsin State Senator 1983–93, he was a US senator 1993–2011, and took a courageous line on civil liberties, campaign finances, the death penalty and the Iraq war.

Feininger, Lyonel Charles Adrian (1871–1956). American painter, born in New York. He lived in Germany 1887–1936, was a political cartoonist, then a painter, influenced by Cubism, and taught at the Bauhaus 1919–33. He painted many architectural and marine subjects.

Feisal (name of Arab rulers) see Faisal

Felipe (Philipp) I (called ‘the Handsome’) (1478–1506). King of Castile and Leon 1504–06, Regent of Spain 1506. An Austrian archduke, son of the emperor *Maximilian and Maria of Burgundy, he inherited Burgundy from his mother. He married Juana of Castille (1479–1555), daughter of *Ferdinand of Aragon and *Isabella of Castile and lived in Flanders as an absentee sovereign. He died very suddenly after exercise and was probably poisoned. His wife (later called ‘Juana el Loco’) suffered an immediate mental collapse and travelled about with his corpse until she was restrained in the castle of Tordesillas. The first king of the *Habsburg dynasty in Spain, he was father of the emperors *Charles V and *Ferdinand I.

Felipe (Philipp) II (1527–1598). King of Spain 1556–98. He succeeded on the abdication of his father, Carlos I (the emperor *Charles V), and acquired the whole of the western part of the Habsburg heritage, Spain and Spanish America, the Low Countries, Naples and Milan. He conquered Portugal (1580), but his hope of adding England peacefully to his dominions ended when his second wife, *Mary Queen of England, failed to provide him with an heir. With immense industry but little wisdom the proud and lonely king ruled his vast inheritance. Moreover he considered himself the military arm of the Counter Reformation, destined to bring all Europe back into the Roman Catholic fold, though he was frequently in conflict with the papacy on political issues. He thus provoked a long struggle in the Netherlands and so deprived himself of much of the trade and wealth of Europe’s richest land. Even before the defeat of the Armada (1588) the English privateers had sapped his overseas trade and naval strength. In addition he carried on a long dynastic war with France and felt it his duty to hold the Turks at bay. Meanwhile at home the over-centralised governmental machine creaked ominously, agriculture and industry were ruined by the inflationary flow of gold from Mexico and Peru, the Inquisition produced, indeed, an enforced unity, but the country lost much of its vigour through the imprisonment or expulsion of many of the most industrious citizens (especially those of Moorish descent). Felipe lived aloof in the monastic palace of the Escurial. He was suspected (unfairly) of murdering his eldest son, the unstable Don *Carlos. Although he married four times, only one son survived to succeed him: Felipe III (1578–1621). Pious and benevolent in his private life, he was indifferent to public affairs which he left to his favourite, the Duke of Lerma. Under Felipe III Spanish culture was at its height.

Parker, G., Philip II. 1979.

Felipe (Philipp) IV (1605–1665). King of Spain 1621–65 and Portugal 1621–40. Conscientious but ineffectual, he was dominated (1621–43) by his minister *Olivares, whose unsuccessful wars impoverished Spain, losing Portugal and the Netherlands. Felipe is best remembered as the subject of 10 surviving portraits by *Velázquez.

Felipe (né Philippe) V (1683–1746). First Bourbon King of Spain 1700–24, 1724–46. A grandson of *Louis XIV of France, he was named by the childless *Charles II of Spain as his successor. By permitting Philippe to become King Felipe, Louis provoked the War of the Spanish Succession. By the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) Spain ceded the Spanish Netherlands to Austria and some possessions, including Gibraltar, to Britain, but Felipe was able to retain his Spanish throne. He was much under the influence of two women: the Princesse des Ursins, his first wife’s maid of honour, and his second wife, Isabella (Elizabeth) Farnese, whose ambitions for her children moulded the foreign policy of the reign. A manic depressive, he abdicated in January 1724 but resumed the throne in September after his son, Luis (Louis) I, died, aged 17. His acute melancholia was soothed each night by the singing of *Farinelli.

Felipe (Philip) VI (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia) (1968– ). King of Spain 2014– . He succeeded on the abdication of his father *Juan Carlos I.

Fellini, Federico (1920–1993). Italian film director. His films, for which he also wrote the scripts, included La Strada (The Road, 1957), Cabiria (the name of the Rome prostitute round whose life the film revolves, 1958), La Dolce Vita (The Sweet Life, 1960) and (1963). Other important works are Clowns (1970), Roma (1972), Amarcord (1974) and Casanova (1975). He received many national and international awards.

Baxter, J., Fellini. 1993.

Fénelon, François de Salignac de la Mothe (1651–1715). French writer and cleric. He came of a distinguished Perigord family, was trained for the priesthood and ordained in 1675. In 1689 he was chosen as tutor to *Louis XIV’s grandson, the Duke of Burgundy, for whose benefit he wrote Fables (published 1716), a series of imaginary dialogues between famous men in the manner of *Lucian, and his best known work, Les Aventures de Telemaque (imaginary adventures of Odysseus’s son). Published without his consent, with keys to the characters, this was a main cause of his withdrawal from court (1699) to his bishopric of Cambrai, to which he had been appointed in 1695. His Explication des l’qaximes des saints sur la vie intérieure (1697), a defence of quietism (i.e. ‘interior inspiration,’ opposed to the extreme dogmatism of *Bossuet), was condemned by the Pope, a verdict immediately accepted by Fenelon.

Feng Yuxiang (1882–1948). Chinese soldier and warlord. Known as ‘the Christian general’, his forces twice occupied Peking (Beijing), in 1924 and 1928. A lifelong enemy of *Chiang Kaishek, he fought Japanese militarism in China from 1933.

Fenner, Frank John (1914–2010). Australian biologist, born in Ballarat. A graduate of Adelaide University, he was active in promoting the use of myxomytosis to combat a rabbit plague, worked with Macfarlane *Burnet on ‘acquired immunological tolerance’ and became foundation professor of microbiology at Australian National University, Canberra 1949–73. He was awarded the 1995 Copley Medal of the Royal Society for leading WHO’s international campaign for the elimination of smallpox and won the Australian Prime Minister’s Science Prize in 2002.

Ferber, Edna (1887–1968). American author. Her popular novel Showboat (1926), was transformed into a successful Broadway musical by *Hammerstein and *Kern, and later filmed. Saratoga Trunk (1941) and Giant (1953), were also filmed. She collaborated with G. S. Kaufman in writing the successful play Dinner at Eight. A Kind of Magic (1964) was autobiographical.

Ferdinand (Fernando) I (1503–1564). Holy Roman Emperor 1556–64. In 1521 his brother, the emperor *Charles V, gave Ferdinand the *Habsburg estates in Germany and made him President of the Imperial Executive. Having married Anna, sister of the king of Hungary and Bohemia, he was able to claim both thrones on his brother-in-law’s death (1526). Bohemia he secured without difficulty but in Hungary a rival claimant, János Zápolya, with Turkish support was able to prevent him obtaining anything but the royal title, a strip of land in the northwest, and Croatia. Ferdinand played a conciliatory part in the struggle between Roman Catholics and Protestants and negotiated the compromise known as the Peace of Augsburg (1555). After Charles abdicated (1556), Ferdinand became Emperor.

Ferdinand I (Ferdinand Karl Leopold Joseph Francis Marcelin von Habsburg-Lothringen) (1793–1875). Emperor (Kaiser) of Austria, King of Hungary, Bohemia and Dalmatia 1835–48. Son of *Franz II and Marie Theresa of Naples and Sicily (double first cousins), he was genetically handicapped, hydrocephalic, suffered severe epilepsy, frequent seizures, a speech impediment and sexual dysfunction. However, his diaries suggest that he was not feeble-minded. He ruled through his counsellors, notably *Metternich and his rival Anton, Graf von Kolowrat. He abdicated in December 1848 in favour of his nephew *Franz Joseph, retiring to Prague, where he died.

Ferdinand I (Ferdinand Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry) (1861–1948). Tsar of Bulgaria 1908–18 (knyaz [prince] from 1887). Son of Prince Augustus of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, he was chosen as Prince of Bulgaria, then still under Turkish suzerainty, after the abdication of Alexander of Battenberg. By adroit political manoeuvring, which earned him the epithet ‘Foxy’, he was able (1908) to declare Bulgaria’s complete independence. He was a leading spirit in the creation of the alliance that deprived Turkey of almost all of its European territory in the First Balkan War (1912), but Bulgaria’s excessive demands provoked the Second Balkan War (1913), in which most of Bulgaria’s gains were transferred to its former allies. Ferdinand aligned his country with Germany in World War I. After defeat, forced to abdicate in favour of his son *Boris III, he lived in Germany and was active as author, botanist, entomologist and philatelist.

Ferdinand (Ferdinando/Ferdinannu) I (1751–1825). King of the Two Sicilies 1816–25. King of Naples (as Ferdinand IV) 1759–99, 1799–1805, 1815–16 and of Sicily (as Ferdinand III) 1759–1816. He became king as a minor when his father, of whom he was the third son, became *Carlos III of Spain (1759). In 1768 he married *Maria Carolina, daughter of *Maria Theresa of Austria, and fell completely under her dominance and that of her favourite minister, the British Sir John Acton. Ferdinand was driven from Naples by the French revolutionary armies in 1798 and again in 1806 by Napoléon who made his brother Joseph *Bonaparte, and later Joachim *Murat, kings of Naples while Ferdinand ruled in Sicily under British protection. His restoration (1815) and, in 1816, the uniting of Naples and Sicily as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies were followed by ruthless repression of all liberal opinion, and Ferdinand only retained his throne with Austrian support.

Ferdinand I (Ferdinand Viktor Albert Meinrad von Hohenzollern) (1865–1927). King of Romania 1914–27. Born in Sigmaringen, Germany, brought up as a Catholic (unusual in that dynasty), he married Princess Marie of Edinburgh (1875–1938), a granddaughter of Queen *Victoria. Adopted as heir to the throne of his uncle *Carol I, he succeeded in 1914. In 1916 Romania joined the Allied alliance and declared war on the Central Powers. Although Romania was occupied by German troops (1917–18), the final Allied victory added Transylvania, the Banat, Bukovina and Bessarabia to its territories. Ferdinand was much distressed by the scandals involving his eldest son, who eventually became *Carol II.

Ferdinand (Fernando) II (known as ‘the Catholic’) (1452–1516). King of Aragon 1479–1516 and, as Ferdinand V, King of Castile and Leon 1469–1504. Son of John (Juan) II of Aragon, and a member of the Trastámara dynasty, he succeeded his father in 1479. His kingship of Castile he owed to his marriage (1469) to his kinswoman *Isabella, sister of King Henry IV (d.1474). It was only after a civil war that Isabella’s position, with Ferdinand as consort, was secure (1479), Ferdinand’s third throne, that of Naples, was gained by conquest (1504). His main purpose was to achieve religious and national unity throughout Spain. He resumed the war against the Moors and by 1492 had forced Granada, the last Moorish kingdom to surrender. He obtained the cession from France of Roussillon and Cerdagne (1493) and of Navarre (1512). To secure religious unity he expelled from his kingdoms all Jews and Moors unconverted to Christianity, thus depriving Spain of many of its ablest citizens, and to ensure Catholic orthodoxy he secured a Papal Bull setting up the Inquisition. Though Aragon and Castile retained their separate administrations he took every possible measure to centralise the government, the nobles were deprived of feudal privileges, and their castles were destroyed, royal magistrates supplanted elected officials in the towns, royal councils were set up to advise the ruler in both kingdoms and royal courts of justice were established. The power of the Cortes (parliament) steadily declined. Ferdinand and Isabella sponsored *Columbus’s voyage to America (1492) and from 1494, taking advantage of the Pope’s arbitrary division of the territories of the New World, they steadily enlarged Spain’s colonial empire in Central and South America. The occupation of the Canary Islands in the Atlantic was completed by 1496. When Isabella died (1504), the throne of Castile passed to their daughter Juana, known as ‘the Mad’ for whom her husband *Philip of the Netherlands acted as regent. When Philip died (1506), Ferdinand assumed the regency and so was able to hand over to his grandson the emperor *Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), son of Philip and Juana, a dynastically united country, great in wealth and power.

Ferdinand II (1578–1637). Holy Roman Emperor 1619–37. A grandson of *Ferdinand I, he was educated by Jesuits and was chosen by the older archdukes as the most suitable person to head the dynasty and restore Roman Catholicism throughout the Habsburg lands. In 1617 he became King of Bohemia, in 1618 of Hungary and in 1619 he was chosen to succeed the emperor Matthias, who had died in that year. It was in Bohemia, where Protestantism was strong, that the accession of so rigid a Catholic caused most alarm, the nobles rebelled and invited *Frederick V of the Palatinate (husband of the British princess *Elizabeth, daughter of *James I and VI) to be king. He ruled for a single winter before he was defeated at the White Mountain (1620) and expelled, but Ferdinand’s measures were so repressive that other princes took alarm and war continued, to become the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48). Ferdinand did not live to see its end. In his own territories, however, Protestantism was effectively suppressed.

Ferdinand II (1810–1859). King of the Two Sicilies 1830–59. Son of Francis I of Sicily and grandson of Ferdinand I, his attempts to maintain autocratic rule in face of the political ferment that eventually produced the unification of Italy led him to ever harsher measures of repression. His inhuman bombardment of rebellious cities while subduing the revolution of 1848–49 earned him the nickname ‘Bomba’. His son Francis II (1836–1894) was driven out by *Garibaldi (1861).

Ferdinand VII (1784–1833). King of Spain 1808 and 1814–1833. After being *Napoléon’s tool in the manoeuvres by which his father *Charles IV was induced to renounce his rights, he was enticed over the frontier and held in captivity while Napoléon’s brother Joseph Bonaparte occupied the Spanish throne. After his restoration by the Allies (1814), he abrogated all constitutional reforms and enforced a policy of extreme reaction. A rebellion made him accept constitutional government for three years (1820–23), but then, having regained liberty of action with the aid of French troops sent in response to his appeal to the powers, he pursued a policy of reaction and vengeance until his death. The loss of the Spanish American colonies and his revocation of the Salic Law (which guaranteed male succession) for the benefit of his infant daughter *Isabella, were other features of his disastrous reign.

Ferdowsi (Firdausi or Firdosi) (Hakim Anu i-Qasim Ferdowsi Tusi) (c.940–1020). Persian poet, born in Tus. For about 35 years he devoted himself to the Shahnameh (The Books of Kings), the longest epic ever written by a single poet, with 62 stories, 990 chapters, and about 55,000 rhyming couplets, some added by later editors. It is three times longer than *Homer’s Iliad, and 12 times longer than the German Nibelungenlied. An epic history of the Persian kings, both real and legendary, up to the Muslim conquest of 641, Shahmenah remains enormously popular and is venerated by Zoroastrians. Matthew *Arnold took the theme of his poem Sohrab and Rustum from it.

Ferguson (of Raith), Adam (1723–1816). Scottish philosopher and historian. Educated at St Andrews and Edinburgh universities, he was a chaplain in the Black Watch and held chairs in philosophy in Edinburgh 1759–85. He was an important thinker in the Scottish Enlightenment and one of the peace negotiators with the American colonists 1778–79. His Essay on the History of Civil Society (1767) was a pioneering work in sociology and emphasised the role of conflict in historical development. It was read closely by *Hegel and Karl *Marx.

Fermat, Pierre de (1601–1665). French mathematician. A lawyer by profession in Toulouse, he was one of the founders of the modern theory of numbers, he developed a form of calculus that influenced *Newton’s investigations and anticipated *Descartes’ work on analytical geometry, and he deduced much of the mathematical theory of probability and the principles of permutations and combinations. He published no written works and his achievements can only be gathered from his correspondence with Descartes, *Pascal and others and rough notes. ‘Fermat’s last theorem’ (1637), hypothesised that the equation an + bn = cn , when the exponent is greater than 2, has no solutions in positive integers. A general proof, appropriate to all numbers, challenged mathematicians for centuries and thousands of attempts were made. In 1993 Andrew *Wiles provided a solution, which contained a flaw, but after radical revision, in 1995 his proof of Fermat (after 358 years) was accepted.

Mahoney, M. S., The Mathematical Career of Pierre de Fermat. 1973; Aczel, A. D., Fermat’s Last Theorem. 1996; Singh, S., Fermat’s Last Theorem. 1997.

Fermi, Enrico (1901–1954). Italian-American physicist, born in Rome. Specialising in nuclear and particle physics, he studied at Pisa, Göttingen and Leyden. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1938 for his work on radioactivity and in that year emigrated to the US to escape Fascist anti-Semitism (which discriminated against his wife). Professor of physics at Columbia University 1939–45, he built in Chicago (1942) the first ‘atomic pile’ for sustained and controlled nuclear fission, and cooperated in the research which resulted in the first atom bomb. Element 100 was named fermium in his honour.

Fermi, L., Atoms in the Family. 1954.

Fernandel (Fernand Joseph Désiré Contandin) (1903–1971). French comedy actor. He is best known for his performances in such films as Carnet de bal (1937), Coiffeur pour dames (1953) and five films (1951–66) based on Giovanni Guareschi’s novels about Don Camillo, an ingenious and ingenuous Italian priest and his rivalry with the Communist mayor.

Rim, C., Fernandel. 1952.

Fernel, Jean François (1497–1558). French physician and anatomist. An innkeeper’s son from Montdidier, he studied astronomy and astrology, philosophy and mathematics in Paris. One of his early works, the Cosmotheoria, contains a good estimate of the degree of meridian. For a career he took up medical studies, and received a licence to practise in 1530. He soon became one of the most sought-after physicians in France, especially after saving the life of the dauphin’s mistress, Diane of Poitiers. His attempts to treat *François I’s syphilis without having recourse to mercury, however, met no success. Fernel published a number of works on the theory of medicine, which became influential texts for future teachers. His basic point of view was traditional and Galenic. His physiology depended upon a view that bodily conditions were the product of the interaction of humours, temperaments and innate spirits. He emphasised the importance of empiricism and personal observation, and denied the role of astrological forces in disease. His magnum opus, the posthumously published Universal Medicina, contained some new observations, especially on the systole and diastole of the heart. He also gave a good description of appendicitis.

Sherrington, C. S., Endeavour of Jean Fernel. 1946.

Ferranti, Sebastian Ziani de (1864–1930). English electrical engineer, born in Liverpool. At 18 he patented a dynamo, which was followed by a period of prolific designing of electrical plant and machinery. From a small generating station in Bond Street he supplied central London with electricity, and in 1890–91 he built and designed the equipment for the Deptford power station, which introduced the use of voltages far higher than previously possible. He was elected FRS (1930). Succeeding members of the family have continued to direct the firm.

Ferrari, Enzo (1898–1988). Italian designer of racing cars. He was President of Ferrari Automobili SpA Sefac 1940–77.

Ferraro, Geraldine Anne (1935–2011). American politician. Trained as a lawyer, she became a Democratic Member of the House of Representatives 1979–85, and became the first woman vice presidential candidate of a major party in 1984.

Ferraro, G., Ferraro: My Story. 1986.

Ferrier, Kathleen Mary (1912–1953). English singer. First a telephonist, she did not take up singing professionally until she was 30, but from 1946, when she made her operatic debut in *Britten’s Rape of Lucretia, she was recognised as one of the greatest of modern contraltos. Bruno *Walter used Ferrier in the *Mahler revival, especially Das Lied von der Erde (1952) and he recorded extensively with her. She died (1952) of cancer.

Rigby, C., Kathleen Ferrier: A Biography. 1956.

Ferry, Jules François Camille (1832–1893). French politician. In 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, he joined the ‘Government of National Defence’, later became a leader of the republican left and, after several ministerial appointments, was Prime Minister 1880–81 and 1883–85. As Minister of Public Instruction he organised the modern educational system of France, based on free, compulsory, non-religious primary education. As Prime Minister he was also the principal builder of the French colonial empire in North Africa and Indo-China. In 1887 he was shot at by a madman.

Fessenden, Reginald Aubrey (1866–1932). American engineer and inventor, born in Québec. He worked for *Edison, *Westinghouse, the US Weather Bureau and General Electric, taking out over 500 patents (second only to Edison). He developed amplitude modulation (AM) and on 24 Dec. 1906 made the first broadcast of music and speech. In 1906 he also established the first two way radio link across the Atlantic (*Marconi).

Feuchtwanger, Leon (1884–1958). German author, born in Munich. He sprang into European fame with his historical novels The Ugly Duchess (1923) and Jew Süss (1925), in which he employed a realistic technique unusual in books of his genre. He left Germany in 1933, was arrested in France by the Nazis in 1940, but made a daring escape to the US, where he made his home.

Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas (1804–1872). German philosopher. After studying theology at Heidelberg he was attracted by philosophy, but having gone to Berlin to work under *Hegel he reacted against philosophical idealism. He argued that all religious feelings were projections of human needs or wish fulfilments, and that God was a deification of self. Later he tried to work out a philosophy (naturalistic materialism) that would be consonant with a program of human betterment, and so in some measure he prepared the way for *Marx. He coined the phrase ‘Man is [ist] what he eats [isst]’. His Essence of Christianity (1841) was translated into English by George *Eliot.

Kamenka, E., The Philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach. 1970.

Feydeau, Georges (1862–1921). French dramatist. His father, Ernest Aimé Feydeau (1821–1873), was the author of the novel Fanny (1858). He first won acclaim with his play La Tailleur pour dames (1887), which was followed, at approximately yearly intervals, by a series of light comedies, mostly in the tradition of bedroom farce, culminating with La Dame de chez Maxim (1899). Later with such plays as La Main passe (1904) he went deeper, to reveal the pathos and absurdity of marital relationships in disintegration. The fortune he made from his plays he lost by speculation, and in later years his need for money spurred him to write many one-act farces. Comparative oblivion followed his death, but recent reassessment, noting that he, like his characters, veered ‘between extremes of happiness and depression’, sees his plays as ‘acted out fantasies’. Renewed interest in him was followed in 1966 by the revival in London of two of his plays A Flea In Her Ear and The Birdwatcher.

Feyeraband, Paul (1924–1994). Austrian philosopher. He taught in the US, UK and Europe, and became a controversial writer on the history and philosophy of science, arguing vigorously for cultural pluralism and against rigid systematic positions.

Feynman, Richard Philips (1918–1988). American physicist, born in New York. Educated at MIT and Princeton, he worked on the ‘Manhattan project’ which produced the first atomic bomb, then taught at Cornell 1945–50 and the California Institute of Technology 1950–88. He shared the 1965 Nobel Prize for Physics for his development of ‘quantum electrodynamics’ with Julian *Schwinger and Sin-Itiro *Tomonaga. He was a brilliant public lecturer, best known for The Feynman Lectures on Physics (1963), wrote a discursive autobiography Surely You’re Joking Mr Feynman! (1985), became a gifted artist (selling under the name Ofey) and bongo-drum player. In the presidential commission on the space shuttle ‘Challenger’ disaster (1986) Feynman was central in identifying the causes of the accident.

Gleick, J., Genius: Richard Feynman and Modern Physics 1992; Mehra, J., The Beat of a Different Drum. 1994.

Fibiger, Johannes Andreas Grib (1867–1928). Danish pathologist. He studied with *Koch and von *Behring and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1926 for identifying an organism, Spiroptera carcinoma, which he believed to be the primary agent for cancer. His work was discounted after Yamagiwa Katsusaburō (1863–1930) came up with more plausible (but unrewarded) explanations.

Fibonacci, Leonardo Pisano Bigolio, also known as Leonardo of Pisa (c.1170–1240). Italian mathematician. who traded in Algeria, he was one of the greatest early writers on arithmetic and algebra. In his Liber abaci (Book of the Abacus, c.1202) he introduced the Arabic system of numerals into Europe. In later works he made highly original applications of algebra to geometry. He enjoyed the patronage of *Friedrich II. ‘Fibonacci numbers’, named for him but probably of Indian origin, are used in search techniques and in describing biological systems such as tree branching or the arrangement of pine cones: the sequence is 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89 and so on, where each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two.

Gies, J., and Gies, F., Leonardo of Pisa and the New Mathematics of the Middle Ages. 1969; Hemenway, P., The Secret Code. 2008.

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb (1762–1814). German philosopher. He was an admirer of *Kant and after meeting him he wrote the Kritik aller Offenbarung (1792), which established his reputation in learned circles. He was appointed (1793) to a chair of philosophy at Jena, which he had to give up on being accused of atheism (1799). He continued to lecture in Berlin and in 1805 he was given a professorship at Erhangen. His Addresses to the German Nation, delivered in Berlin (1807–1808) after the humiliating defeat suffered by Prussia at the hands of Napoléon, did much to rekindle national spirit. However, it was an empire of reason based on a system of public education rather than military success that he saw as paving the way to revival. His philosophical system has been called ‘transcendental realism’: it propounds that all reality depends on our personal, conscious egos and ultimately on an entity he calls the pure or infinite ego. In his ethics he stresses the importance of the individual conscience. His son Immanuel Hermann von Fichte (1797–1879) was also a moral philosopher and theist.

Field, John (1782–1837). Irish pianist and composer, born in Dublin. A child prodigy, he was a pupil of *Clementi, for whom he worked (in his piano warehouse) for some years. After a tour with Clementi he made his name and settled in St Petersburg (1804) as a fashionable teacher. He is best known as the creator of ‘Nocturnes’ (of which he left 16), a form later developed by *Chopin.

Piggott, P., The Life and Music of John Field. 1973.

Field, Marshall (1834–1906). American businessman and philanthropist. In Chicago he gradually built up the department store of Marshall Field & Co. (founded in 1881) and through his skill and innovations amassed a great fortune, much of which he devoted to, educational purposes. He founded the Field Museum of Natural History and was the principal donor to the University of Chicago built on land he gave in 1890. His grandson Marshall Field III (1893–1956) abandoned commercial activities for newspaper publishing in 1936. He acquired the liberal New York paper P.M. and started the Chicago Sun, which supported Franklin D. *Roosevelt.

Field, Winston Joseph (1904–1969). Rhodesian politician, born in England. He became a tobacco farmer, served in World War II, entered parliament in 1957 and defeated the moderate Sir Edgar Whitehead to become Prime Minister 1962–64. He was displaced by Ian *Smith, even more intransigently opposed to whites sharing power with the black majority.

Fielding, Henry (1707–1754). English novelist and dramatist, born in Somerset. Educated at Eton and Leyden University, having already produced a play in 1728, he wrote 20 more in as many years, many of them dramatic burlesques of which the best known is Tom Thumb (1730). Pasquin (1736) and The Historical Register for the Year 1736 (1737) were political and social satires. Official reaction to them led to the passing of the Licensing Act. Thwarted in his dramatic aspirations, Fielding became a barrister (1740) and was a notable Westminster magistrate 1748–54. Meanwhile he had tried his hand at novels and political journalism. His novel Joseph Andrews (1742) was intended as a satire on Samuel *Richardson’s sentimental romance Pamela, while The History of the Life of the Late Mr Jonathan Wild the Great, an ironic attack on the idea of popular heroes, describes the role of a gang leader in a manner curiously modern. This was the third volume of his Miscellanies, published in 1743, the first two containing essays, poems and plays. His greatest novel was Tom Jones or the History of a Foundling (1749). In it he carries out, in its most perfect form, his conception of the ‘comic-epic’ novel, so closely followed by *Dickens. His last novel was Amelia (1751), concerned with the fortunes of one whom Samuel *Johnson described as ‘the most pleasing heroine of all the romances’. Meanwhile Fielding had used his magistrate’s position to wage war on the evils of society and his pamphlets show a wise and liberal mind. But his health was giving way: in 1754 he started on a voyage but died and was buried in Lisbon. His short trip is described in The Journal of Voyage to Lisbon (published in 1755). His sister Sarah Fielding (1710–1768) also wrote novels (e.g. The Adventures of David Simple, 1744) and translated from the Greek.

Rogers, P., Henry Fielding: A Biography. 1979.

Fields, Dame Gracie (née Grace Stansfield) (1898–1971). English singer and actress, born in Rochdale, Lancashire. A cotton mill worker, after achieving her first important stage success in Mr Tower of London (1918–25) she became, through her wit, warmth of personality and fine singing voice, one of the most popular stars of music hall and musical comedy. She was created a DBE in 1979.

Fields, W(illiam) C(laude) (originally Dukenfield) (1880–1946). American actor, born in Philadelphia. At the age of 11 he ran away from home and embarked upon a successful vaudeville juggling career. From 1915 to 1921 he had a comic juggling act on Broadway in the Ziegfeld Follies. In 1923 his first comic role on stage was in Poppy in which he created the grandiose fraud character type and his first important film was Sally of the Sawdust in 1925. By 193l he was writing, directing and improvising action in Hollywood. Noted for his Mr Micawber in David Copperfield (1935) as well as for comic roles in such films as The Bank Dick (1940), My Little Chickadee (1940) and Never Give a Sucker an Even Break (1941). He was one of America’s greatest comedians. His style was pretension-pricking humour, characterised by wooden expression and nasal drawl. He played the cynic’s role on and off the stage.

Fillmore, Millard (1800–1874). 13th President of the US 1850–53. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in up-state New York, an active Whig, US Congressman 1833–35, 1837–43 and Comptroller of New York State 1848–49. Elected Vice President of the US in 1848, he assumed the presidency on the death of Zachary *Taylor (1850). The last Whig President, he lost much support in the North for compromising on slavery and enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act, but was more successful in foreign affairs, with Daniel *Webster as Secretary of State. In 1852 he lost the Whig presidential nomination to Winfield *Scott, who was then defeated by Franklin *Pierce. He travelled in Europe 1855–56 and, although not a ‘nativist’, accepted nomination as the candidate of the American (or ‘Know Nothing’) Party in 1856, running behind *Buchanan and *Fremont but carried only one state (Maryland). He supported *Lincoln in the Civil War and *Johnson after it.

Raybeck, R. J., Millard Fillmore: Biography of a President. 1959.

Filmer, Sir Robert (c.1590–1653). English political writer. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, he was an ardent advocate of divine right, imprisoned in Leeds Castle from 1644. His posthumous Patriarcha, or the Natural Power of Kings (1680) was attacked by *Locke.

Finsen, Niels Ryberg (1860–1904). Danish physician, of Icelandic parentage. He discovered that ultraviolet light has therapeutic properties, especially in the cure of lupus vulgaris (tuberculous infection of the skin) and smallpox, and in 1903 was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine.

Finzi, Gerald (1901–1956). English composer. His works included concertos for clarinet, cello and piano, and Dies natalis (settings of poems by *Traherne).

Firdausi see Ferdowsi

Firestone, Harvey Samuel (1868–1938). American inventor and manufacturer. He invented pneumatic rubber tyres, used in the Model ‘T’ *Ford, replacing solid rubber tyres. He invented tractor treads and other specialist tyres.

Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1309–1388). Turkic ruler in India; Sultan of Delhi 1351–88. A member of the Tughlaq dynasty, he assumed power reluctantly and, although a fervent Muslim, promoted tolerance of other religions. He faced several rebellions, lost much territory, but built much infrastructure around Delhi—canals, madrasas (educational institutions), hospitals, public baths and gardens. His regime was both benevolent and corrupt. He wrote a memoir and created a library.

Fischer, Bobby (Robert James) (1943–2008). US chess champion, born in Chicago. He learned to play chess at the age of six, and won the US Junior Championship at 13. At 16 he left school and in 1958 became the youngest player ever to attain rank of Grand Master. In 1958 he also won the US championship and in 1972 defeated Boris Spassky to become World Chess Champion, the first American to hold the title officially. In 1975 he refused to meet Russian challenger Anatoly Karpov and lost the crown by default. Often regarded as the finest player of all time, he died in Reykjavik.

Fischer, R. J., My 60 Memorable Games. 1969.

Fischer, (Hermann) Emil Louis (1852–1919). German chemist. One of the foremost organic chemists of the 19th century, he elucidated the structure of many naturally occurring substances, e.g. sugars, purines, amino-acids and polypeptides. This work opened the way for later investigations into the structure of proteins, Professor of Chemistry in Berlin 1892–1919, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1902) for his work on sugar and purine syntheses. With Adolf von *Baeyer he developed barbiturates. Depressed by war, and suffering from cancer, he committed suicide.

Fischer-Dieskau, Dietrich (1925–2012). German baritone. He had the largest repertoire of any singer of modern times, recording 600 of *Schubert’s songs, appeared in operas by *Mozart, *Verdi and *Wagner, and performed sacred music by *Bach and *Brahms. He took up a second career as a conductor in the 1970s, edited Schubert’s works and was a gifted painter.

Fischer von Erlach, Johann Bernhard (c.1656–1723). Austrian architect, town planner and architectural historian, born near Graz. Trained in Italy, he was one of the great masters of Baroque. Oval cupolas and high transepts are characteristic of his heavily ornamented churches, of which the Collegiate Church at Salzburg (1694–1707) and the Karlskirche (dedicated to St Carlo *Borromeo) at Vienna (begun 1715) are among the finest. Among his secular buildings in Vienna are the Court Library, the Trautson Garden Palace and the town house of Prince *Eugène (the last two having remarkable staircase halls). He took a scholarly interest in the architecture of antiquity and in buildings from Asia.

Fish, Hamilton (1808–1893). American politician and lawyer, born in New York City. Educated at Columbia, he became an attorney, and a Member of the US House of Representatives 1843–45. Governor of New York 1849–50 and a US senator 1851–57, he worked closely with *Lincoln during the Civil War. He served in President *Grant’s Republican administration as a notably honest Secretary of State 1869–77, and negotiated settlement (1871) of the Alabama dispute, resulting from Britain’s sale of warships to the Confederacy.

Fisher, Andrew (1862–1928). Australian Labor politician, born in Scotland. He worked as a coal miner from the age of 12 until 1885, then emigrated to Queensland. There he worked as a collier and engine-driver before becoming a Member of the Queensland Legislature (1893) and of the Federal House of Representatives 1901–15. He led the Labor Party 1907–15, and was Prime Minister 1908–09, 1910–13 and 1914–15. In 1910 he became the first Australian Prime Minister with a majority in both Houses of Parliament. He established the Commonwealth Bank, maternity allowances, pensions for old age (1909) and invalidity (1910), supported Douglas *Mawson’s Antarctic Expedition, strengthened the arbitration system, promoted the railway link with Western Australia, chose Canberra as the national capital, issued the first banknotes, currency and stamps, created the Royal Australian Navy and the Australian Flying Corps (1911). In his last term, at the onset of World War I he promised aid to Great Britain ‘to the last man and the last shilling’. He was Australia’s High Commissioner in London 1915–21, his intellectual powers failed and he remained in London.

Day, D., Andrew Fisher: Prime Minister of Australia. 2008.

Fisher, Geoffrey Francis, Baron Fisher of Lambeth (1887–1972). English Anglican prelate. He succeeded William *Temple as headmaster at Repton 1914–32, and was promoted Bishop of Chester 1932–39 and Bishop of London 1939–45. On Temple’s death he became Archbishop of Canterbury 1945–61. He crowned Queen *Elizabeth II in June 1953. His Church leadership was marked by a program of reform of Church law, and by increasing commitment to the Ecumenical movement. He was created a life peer on his retirement in 1961.

Fisher, Herbert Albert Laurens (1865–1940). English historian and Liberal politician. Educated at Winchester, Oxford, Paris and Göttingen, he was Vice Chancellor of Sheffield University 1912–16, a Liberal MP 1916–26 and President of the Board of Education 1916–22. The ‘Fisher Act’ (1918) extended compulsory education to the age of 14 and proposed part-time continuation schools until 18. Warden of New College, Oxford 1925–40, he wrote History of Europe (3 vols, 1935) and received the OM (1937).

Ogg, D., Herbert Fisher, 1865–1940. 1947.

Fisher, Irving (1867–1947). American economist. Trained as a mathematician, he was Professor of Political Economy at Yale 1898–1935 and his influence on contemporary economic thinking was second only to J. M. *Keynes. He wrote Mathematical Investigations in the theory of Value and Prices (1892), Nature of Capital and Income (1906) and Theory of Interest (1930), and developed the theory of index numbers as a measure of economic change and the modern theory of investment appraisal.

Fisher, St John (1469–1535). English cardinal, theologian and martyr, born in Beverley, Yorkshire. A humanist, he wanted to reform the church from within but was strongly opposed to *Luther. He became Bishop of Rochester 1504–35 and Chancellor of Cambridge University 1504–35. He brought *Erasmus, who much admired him, to teach in Cambridge. Alone of the bishops, he opposed *Henry VIII in getting his marriage with *Catherine of Aragon annulled and in his subsequent quarrel with the Pope. For refusing to take the oath required under the Act of Succession (1534), he was imprisoned with Sir Thomas *More and in recognition Pope *Paul III created him a cardinal. Incensed, Henry ordered him to be tried for denying the King’s ecclesiastical supremacy, and he was hastily condemned and executed on Tower Hill. He was canonised in 1935.

Fisher, John Arbuthnot, 1st Baron Fisher of Kilverston (1841–1920). English Admiral of the Fleet, born in Ceylon. He joined the Royal Navy in 1854 and served in the Crimean War. As First Sea Lord 1904–10, he was responsible for major changes in dockyards, gunnery, new ship design and the development of submarines and torpedoes. He became the main proponent of the ‘Dreadnought’ class of battleships, designed to counter an anticipated German naval threat. In fact, the ‘Dreadnought’ campaign helped to encourage Germany to respond with a similar program. He received the OM in 1904. In October 1914, *Churchill restored him as First Sea Lord after Prince Louis of *Battenberg had been sacked because of hysteria about his German origin. Fisher and Churchill had a classic love-hate relationship: he had misgivings about Gallipoli but failed to communicate them and resigned in May 1915. In any case, his age and eccentricities had become an embarrassment.

Morris, J., Fisher’s Face. 1995.

Fisher, Sir Ronald Aylmer (1890–1962). English mathematical statistician. Educated at Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge, his The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection (1930) provided statistical reconciliation for the researches of *Darwin and *Mendel, also arguing for *Galton’s eugenics. He taught at Cambridge 1943–59, received the Copley Medal in 1956, then worked for CSIRO in Adelaide, where he died. He became a consultant to the tobacco industry, attempting to refute links between smoking and lung cancer.

Fitzgerald, Lord Edward (1763–1798). Irish nationalist. A younger son of the 1st Duke of Leinster and Lady Emily Lennox, he fought against the American Revolution 1781–83, was elected to the Irish Parliament (1783), and, while in Paris (1792), declared himself a supporter of the French Revolution, renouncing his title. Back in his own country he joined the revolutionary United Irishmen, again visited the Continent to secure help and returned to prepare a rising. He was wounded in Dublin in May 1798, while resisting arrest, and died in the following month before he could be tried and (presumably) executed.

Pakenham, T., The Year of Liberty. 1969.

Fitzgerald, Edward (1809–1883). English poet and translator. Famous for his version of The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám, he was educated at Cambridge, lived quietly in Suffolk, and became the friend of *Thackeray, *Tennyson and *Carlyle. He used his knowledge of Greek, Spanish and Persian to translate plays of *Aeschyhus, *Sophocles and, with special success, those of the Spanish dramatist *Calderon. His method, which was to convey the spirit of the original rather than write an exact translation, was triumphantly displayed in his Rubáiyát. Here the metre, almost as much as the words, suggests the languid, sensuous atmosphere of the Persian background. It appeared, anonymously, in 1859. After *Swinburne and *Rossetti praised it The Rubáiyát became phenomenally popular and much of that popularity remains.

Martin, R. B., With Friends Possessed: A Life of Edward Fitzgerald. 1985.

Fitzgerald, Ella (Jane) (1917–1996). American jazz and ballad singer, born in Virginia. She worked with orchestras and in cabaret from the 1930s but achieved her first wide acclaim in the 1950s as the star singer of Norman Granz’ Jazz at the Philharmonic concerts. She recorded many albums, either solo or with jazz musicians such as Louis *Armstrong. Her voice was noted for its sweetness of tone and its range. Her style has been widely copied.

Fitzgerald, F(rancis) Scott (Key) (1896–1940). American novelist, born in Minnesota. His novels vividly express the desperation and futility of a section of American life during the ‘Jazz Age’, his own term for the 1920s. His books include The Beautiful and Damned (1922), The Great Gatsby (1925), All the Sad Young Men (1926), Tender Is The Night (1934), his unfinished novel about Hollywood, The Last Tycoon (1941), and a posthumous collection, The Crackup (1945). Despite popular success he fell into an inner despair and became an alcoholic. Several novels and films have been based on his life. His wife Zelda (née Sayre) (1900–1947), also a writer, had a series of mental breakdowns and was kept in hospitals; she died in a fire.

Miller, J., F. Scott Fitzgerald. 1966; Donaldson, S., Fool for Love: F. Scott Fitzgerald. 1983; Prigozy, R. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to F. Scott Fitzgerald. 2002; Cline, S., Zelda Fitzgerald: Her Voice in Paradise. 2003.

Fitzgerald, George Francis (1851–1901). Irish physicist. Professor of natural philosophy at Dublin 1881–1901, he is best known for the hypothesis he put forward (1893) to explain the failure of the *Michelson-Morley experiment to show the earth to be moving through the ‘ether’. He suggested that because of its electrical structure, all matter in motion contracts in the direction of motion. This ‘Fitzgerald contraction’ now forms an essential part of relativity theory. Fitzgerald was the first to suggest that the tail of a comet is formed by the pressure of solar radiation.

FitzGerald, Robert David (1902–1987). Australian poet. Trained as a surveyor, he wrote lyrical verse in the 1920s but in the late 1930s and after World War II he developed as a narrative poet with a strong leaning towards philosophy. His best known works are probably Moonlight Acre (1938), Between Two Tides (1952) and Southmost Twelve (1962).

FitzGerald, R. D., Forty Years’ Poems. 1965.

Fitzherbert, Maria Anne (née Smythe) (1756–1837). English morganatic wife. Twice widowed, she married George, Prince of Wales (later *George IV), in 1785. This marriage, although canonically valid, contravened the Royal Marriages Act since the consent of the king had not been obtained; she was, moreover, a Roman Catholic. She continued to live with George until 1803 except for a short interval (1795) after he married *Caroline of Brunswick.

Leslie, A., Mrs Fitzherbert. 1960.

FitzRoy, Robert (1805–1865). English naval officer and meteorologist. A descendent of *Charles II (via the Dukes of *Grafton), he joined the navy at the age of 12, was captain of HMS Beagle in two journeys of exploration: first (1828–30) a hydrographic study of the South Atlantic, then (1831–36) with Charles *Darwin to explore South America, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa. As Governor of New Zealand 1843–45, he was sympathetic to the Māori but made enemies with white settlers and was withdrawn. In 1854 he became the first director of what became the Meteorological Office, designed an efficient barometer and published weather ‘forecasts’ (his coinage). Promoted Vice-Admiral and elected FRS, he experienced a religious conversion, denounced Darwin’s On the Origin of Species, for which he felt some moral responsibility, and cut his throat. He has been the subject of books, plays and films. His half-brother Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy (1796–1858), soldier and administrator, served at Waterloo, was MP 1831–32 and after some minor postings was appointed Governor of New South Wales 1846–55, succeeding the unpopular Sir George Gipps. His term included the beginning of the Gold Rush, the end of transportation of convicts, the separation of Victoria from New South Wales, the first university, railways and long arguments about the nature of constitutional government in the colonies. He held the title of Governor-General of all Australian possessions 1851–55. FitzRoy made some powerful enemies, including J. D. *Lang and Robert *Lowe.

Nichols, P., Evolution’s Captain: The Dark Fate of the Captain Who Sailed Charles Darwin Around the World. 2003; Thompson, H., This Thing of Darkness. 2005.

Fitzsimmons, Bob (Robert Prometheus) (1862–1917). English boxer, born in Cornwall. Brought up in New Zealand, he migrated to the US (1890) and became world heavyweight boxing champion (1897) when he defeated Jim *Corbett. In 1899 he lost the title to James J. Jeffries.

Odd, G., The Fighting Blacksmith. 1976.

Flagstad, Kirsten Marie (1895–1962). Norwegian dramatic soprano. Both her parents, two brothers and a sister were all musicians. She made her operatic debut in 1913, and achieved her greatest success from 1935 in Wagnerian roles, as Isolde, Brünnhilde, Elsa, Kundry and Sieglinde, also excelling as Leonora in Fidelio and as Dido in Dido and Aeneas. She made notable recordings with the tenor Lauritz *Melchior and the conductor Wilhelm *Furtwangler.

Flaherty, Robert Joseph (1884–1951). American film producer, of Irish descent. Explorations in the Canadian Arctic (1910–16) inspired Nanook of the North (1922) and so set the pattern of his career as the pioneer producer of documentary films. To their making he brought knowledge, sympathy and poetic imagination. Other successes include Man of Aran (1934), Elephant Boy (1935) and The Louisiana Story (1949).

Flambard, Rannulf (d.1128). Norman administrator in England. He entered royal service under *William I and rose to greatness as justiciar and Bishop of Durham (1089) under *William II. *Henry I deprived him of the wealth he had amassed by extortion and he was imprisoned in the Tower of London, but escaped to Normandy. He seems then to have become reconciled to Henry and returned to rule his see of Durham with his usual efficiency and rapacity.

Flammarion, Camille (1842–1925). French astronomer. His many books and lectures did much to popularise the science. He erected a private observatory at Juvisy, near Paris, and made it available to amateur observers. His own work included the study of double and multiple stars and of the surface of the moon.

Flamsteed, John (1646–1719). English astronomer. He was appointed by *Charles II the first Astronomer Royal at Greenwich Observatory (1674) and for over 40 years made stellar observations of an accuracy hitherto unknown; they were published with a catalogue of 300 stars (completed by Abraham Sharp) in Historia Coelestis Britannica (1712). In spite of meagre financial support, Flamsteed made many improvements in observational technique but his conscientious methods led to long delays in responding to requests for observations and to consequent quarrels with *Newton and *Halley.

Flanagan, Richard (1961– ). Australian novelist, born in Longford, Tasmania. He won a Rhodes Scholarship to Oxford, wrote non-fiction and novels, including Gould’s Book of Fish (2002), The Unknown Terrorist (2006) and The Narrow Road to the Deep North (2013), which won the Man Booker Prize in 2014.

Flandin, Pierre Etienne (1889–1958). French politician. He was Prime Minister 1934–35 during the critical period after *Hitler came to power, but as Foreign Minister (1936) he was unable to secure British cooperation in resisting his military reoccupation of the Rhineland. During World War II he served in *Pétain’s Government 1940–41.

Flaubert, Gustave (1821–1880). French novelist, born at Rouen. Son of a prosperous physician, he went to Paris to study law, which he soon abandoned for writing (1844). Throughout adult life he was subject to hysterico-epileptic fits, the fear of which induced in him a profound pessimism. He was forced, in consequence, to leave Paris (1846) and thereafter lived quietly in the family home at Croisset, near Rouen. In 1846 he met the poet Louise Colet (1810–1876), and though their love affair lasted till 1855, it seldom ran smoothly. It may have been syphilis, too, which induced the tendency, against which he struggled, to an excessive and almost frenzied romanticism of style. In 1849 he made a long visit to Egypt with his friend Maxime Du Camp (1822–1894). This marked the beginning of travel photography.

His masterpiece Madame Bovary (1857) was in part a conscious effort, made on the advice of friends, to retreat from high romanticism and concentrate on realism. It was a carefully documented account of provincial middle-class dullness as background to a story of a woman’s infidelity. Its (unsuccessful) prosecution for obscenity ensured the novel’s success. For his next novel, Salammbô (1862), set in the highly coloured background of Carthage and with a violent and romantic theme, he also applied the rigid discipline of exact documentation and even visited Tunis for the purpose, one of the very few occasions he left his country home. The partly autobiographical L’Education sentimentale (1869), though praised by critics, was not popular. It is lightened by the portrait of the heroine, Madame Arnoux, inspired by Madame Schlesinger, the object of Flaubert’s early but unrequited love. La Tentation de Saint Antoine (1876) had begun in 1845 as a series of highly dramatised pen pictures of the temptations that might have beset the saint; the final version was a controlled and objective work. The unfinished novel Bouvard et Pécuchet was published posthumously in 1881. Flaubert also wrote some passionate and pessimistic short stories.

Steegmuller, F., Flaubert and Madame Bovary. 1977; Barnes, J., Flaubert’s Parrot. 1985; Winock, M., Flaubert. 2013/16.

Flaxman, John (1755–1826). English sculptor, born in York. Brought up in London, the influence of the classical revival is shown in the designs for pottery decoration that he did for Josiah *Wedgwood 1775–85. He then spent seven years in Rome, to which period belong such ambitious works as Cephalus and Aurora (now at Port Sunlight). In 1793 his illustrations to Homer gave him an international reputation. Examples of statues by him are to be seen in Westminster Abbey and St Paul’s Cathedral (e.g. *Nelson). His work is remarkable for its purity of line and its cool style.

Flecker, James Elroy (1884–1915). English poet and dramatist. He joined the consular service, served in Constantinople, Smyrna and Beirut, and died in Switzerland of tuberculosis. His poetic works include The Bridge of Fire (1907), Forty Two Poems (1911) and, best known of all, The Golden Journey to Samarkand (1913). His play Hassan was successfully produced in London after his death.

Fleming, Sir Alexander (1881–1955). Scottish bacteriologist, born in Ayrshire. He studied at St Mary’s Hospital, London, and while Hunterian professor at the Royal College of Surgeons 1919–28 devoted himself to the problem of discovering an effective antibiotic substance that would kill bacteria without harming cell tissue. In 1919 he identified Lysozyme, a mucus secretion, but took it no further. In 1928 he discovered, accidentally, the germ-killing qualities of the mould penicillium notatum, now known as penicillin. A decade later *Florey and *Chain began work on it and, under the pressure of war needs, a technique was worked out for large-scale manufacture. Professor of bacteriology at London University 1928–48, elected FRS in 1943, knighted in 1944, he was President of the Society for Microbiology 1945–55. He shared the 1945 Nobel Prize for Medicine with Florey and Chain, both of whom detested Fleming who played no role in the development of penicillin but reaped much of the credit.

MacFarlane, R. G., Alexander Fleming: the Man and the Myth. 1984.

Fleming, Sir (John) Ambrose (1849–1945). English physicist. His investigations into the ‘Edison effect’ led to his most important work, the development of the thermionic valve and its application to radio technology. He also did important work on the electrical resistance of materials at low temperatures, and on various forms of electric lamp. Professor of electrical engineering at London University 1885–1926, he received the Hughes Medal of the Royal Society in 1910 and was knighted in 1929.

Fleming, Ian Lancaster (1908–1963). British writer. Educated at Eton, Munich and Geneva, he became a journalist and worked in the City of London before being engaged in naval intelligence in World War II. In 1953 he published Casino Royale, the first of his spy stories, featuring James Bond as hero, with a secret service background and a mixture of heroic adventure, sex, mystery, and sadism. The James Bond series has sold by the millions: among the best known books are Moonraker, Dr No, From Russia With Love and Diamonds Are Forever. Several achieved even greater popularity as films, including the sensational Goldfinger, released just after his death. His brother, Peter Fleming (1907–1971), achieved early success with his travel books Brazilian Adventure (1933) and News From Tartary (1936). Peter’s works include a novel, The Sixth Column (1951), Invasion, 1940 (1957) and The Siege of Peking (1959). He married the actor Dame Celia Johnson (1908–1982).

Amis, K., The James Bond Dossier. 1965; Lycett, A., Ian Fleming. 1995.

Fleming, Renée (1959– ). American soprano, born in Pennsylvania. She made her operatic debut in Houston in 1988, followed by Covent Garden in 1989 and the New York Metropolitan in 1991. Her rich voice and strong dramatic sense made her outstanding in operas by *Händel, *Mozart, *Rossini, *Verdi, *Massenet, and Richard *Strauss. She recorded extensively and made sound tracks for films.

Fletcher, John (1579–1625). English poet and dramatist, born in Rye. Son of a vicar who eventually became Bishop of London, after studying at Cambridge University, he may have been an actor when (from about 1606) he began writing plays. His association with Francis *Beaumont produced one of the most interesting collaborations in literary history. Over 50 have survived of which Fletcher was at least part-author: the best known are those he wrote with Beaumont, e.g. The Knight of the Burning Pestle (1609), Philaster (1611) and The Maid’s Tragedy (1611). He probably wrote about 10 plays with Philip *Massinger (e.g. The False One and The Spanish Curate) and is supposed to have collaborated briefly with *Shakespeare, notably on Henry VIII. Works by Fletcher alone include The Faithful Shepherdess, Valentinian, The Wild Goose Chase and The Island Princess. He died of the plague.

Fleury, André Hercule de (1653–1743). French statesman. Having been almoner to *Louis XIV and created Bishop of Frejus, he became (1726) a cardinal and the chief adviser of *Louis XV, whose tutor he had been. Until his death he virtually ruled France. His great service was to restore order to the French economy, which had been practically ruined under Louis XIV. He consistently strove to maintain peace in Europe and ensured that France played a minimal part in the War of Polish Succession. He was, however, pushed by court intrigue into the War of the Austrian Succession (1741).

Flexner, Simon (1863–1946). American pathologist. While in the Philippines (1900) he established the bacillus that bears his name and causes one form of dysentery. He developed (1907) a serum to cure spinal meningitis, and showed (1909) that poliomyelitis is caused by a virus. He was Director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York 1920–35.

Flinders, Matthew (1774–1814). English navigator and cartographer, born in Lincolnshire. Inspired by Robinson Crusoe, he joined the Royal Navy in 1789, learning his seamanship under Captain William *Bligh. He went to Australia in 1795 and on one of several voyages discovered the strait between Tasmania and the mainland named after George *Bass, a surgeon who accompanied him. Almost immediately after his return to England (1800) he was appointed to command HMS Investigator in a scientific expedition (1801–03) that carefully mapped the southern coast up to Sydney, then circumnavigated the mainland. On his voyage back to England, his ship was breached on the Great Barrier Reef but he returned to Sydney after a voyage of 1100 km in a six-oared cutter. When his ship HMS Cumberland needed repairs in Mauritius, he was detained there for six years by a suspicious governor and only released in 1810 (despite *Napoléon’s order to free him). On Mauritius he prepared a map (1804) with the name ‘Australia or Terra Australis’ (first used by *Mercator in 1538). In England, although broken in health, he completed A Voyage to Terra Australis (1814) and an atlas. Lachlan *Macquarie took up the name Australia instead of New Holland and it was officially adopted in 1824. Flinders died in London; his grave was lost but relocated in 2019. About 100 places in Australia are named for him.

Estensen, M., The Life of Matthew Flinders. 2003.

Flood, Henry (1732–1791). Anglo-Irish politician and orator. He entered the Irish parliament in 1759, and his powers as an outstanding orator brought him to prominence. He became leader of a reform group seeking ultimate independence. In 1775 he became Vice Treasurer of Ireland under the British Viceroy. In 1779 he relinquished this post and returned to his efforts for legislative autonomy; in this (achieved 1782) he worked with Henry *Grattan. He challenged Grattan’s leadership of the patriotic reform movement in 1783, but his attempt to reform the Irish parliament failed in 1784, and he lost much of his support.

Florensky, Pavel Aleksandrovich (1882–1937). Russian Orthodox theologian, philosopher, mathematician and polymath, born in Azerbaijan. Ordained as a priest, he published on a great variety of topics including aesthetics, art history, geometry, mathematics and physics. He was exiled from 1928, then shot by the NKVD.

Flores y Aramburu, Juan José (1800–1864). Venezuelan/Ecuadorian general and politician. He fought under *Bolívar in the war of independence against the Spanish. When Gran Colombia began to disintegrate, Flores led the secession of Ecuador and became its first President 1830–34. A conservative and clericalist, Flores negotiated with the liberals that their leader Vicente Rocafuerte should succeed him as president, while he remained as head of the army. Flores was again President from 1839, but his constitutional amendment (1843) extending the presidential term to eight years was regarded as treacherous and he agreed to go into pensioned exile (1848). He attempted to regain power in 1860.

Florey, Howard Walter, Baron Florey of Adelaide and Marston (1898–1968). Australian pathologist, born in Adelaide. Son of a shoe manufacturer, he was educated at St Peter’s College and the University of Adelaide and in 1921 qualified in medicine and won a Rhodes Scholarship. In Oxford he worked under Sir Charles *Sherrington on blood flow in the capillaries of the brain and carried out research in the US (1925–26), Spain (1929) and France (1931). He became a lecturer in pathology at Cambridge 1931–37, professor of pathology at Sheffield 1932–35 and Sir William Dunn professor of pathology at Oxford 1935–62. At Oxford he worked on two discoveries by Alexander *Fleming of material that seemed to have promising anti-bacterial properties—Lysozyme, a mucus secretion (identified in 1919) and penicillium notatum, a blue-green mould found on foodstuffs, especially bread, cheese, fabric and leather (noted in 1928). Neither had been pursued by Fleming. Lysozyme proved to be ineffective and Florey decided (1939) to concentrate on penicillin. Florey’s leading collaborator was Ernst *Chain who developed a technique for extracting, synthesising and concentrating the active ingredient from the mould. Successful experiments were carried out on mice (May 1940) and humans (Jan.–Feb. 1941) and its importance as a non-toxic systemic chemotherapeutic agent was recognised. Techniques were developed for its large scale manufacture in the US and Australia. Florey was knighted in 1944 and shared the 1945 Nobel Prize for Medicine with *Fleming and *Chain. (Fleming received much of the public acclaim for penicillin, but Florey won the highest professional rewards: their relationship was very uneasy.) Awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society (1957), he became President of the Royal Society 1960–65 and in 1965 received both a peerage and the Order of Merit. He was Provost of Queen’s College, Oxford from 1962 until his sudden death from angina. He advised on the establishment of the John Curtin Medical School at The Australian National University, Canberra and was Chancellor of ANU 1965–68. Reserved and laconic until his last years, he was distant from his great Australian contemporary F. M. *Burnet. Penicillin is estimated to have saved 50 million lives since 1944. Florey’s portrait appeared on the Australian $50 banknote 1973–95.

Bickel, L., Rise Up to Life. 1972.

Florio, John (Giovanni) (1553–1626). English-Italian linguist and translator, born in London. His father, a Reformed pastor, had been exiled from Italy, his mother was English. He tutored at Oxford. Like *Shakespeare, he enjoyed the patronage of the Earl of Southampton and may have known him—even wilder conjectures suggest that he was Shakespeare. He translated *Montaigne’s Essays into English (1603) and coined many new words.

Fludd, Robert (1574–1637). English physician and philosopher. Son of a well-to-do family with court connexions, he studied at St John’s College, Oxford. He then toured Europe, mainly pursuing medical studies. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1609, and built up a lucrative London practice. In middle age, he began to set down on paper a full system of natural philosophy, in which he was dismissive of the authority of *Aristotle, *Galen and the universities. Fludd sought to build up a new synthesis based on a mixture of personal observation, the truths of Scripture, and Neo Platonic and Hermetic writings. He thought the universe was suffused with powers of sympathy and antipathy. Man was the microcosm. He was filled with spirit from the Divine Principle, the Sun. Just as the earth circled around the sun, so in man, blood circulated round the body. Fludd denied the validity of Aristotle’s four elements; he believed the Bible revealed the three original elements to be light, darkness and water. Heat and cold were derivatives of light and dark. Fludd stands at the crossroads between magic and science. He believed in an occult universe, yet supported most of the new scientific discoveries of his day, seeing in them proof of his own magical explanations. Thus, for instance, *Gilberd’s magnetic researches proved the truth of universal attraction and repulsion.

Debus, A., The Chemical Dream of the Renaissance. 1968.

Flynn, Errol (originally Leslie Thompson) (1909–1959). Australian film actor, born in Tasmania. He attracted international attention for his striking good looks and his legendary dissipation. He appeared in 63 films, usually in swashbuckling roles.

Fo, Dario (1926–2016). Italian dramatist, actor and director. He founded the theatre groups ‘La Nuova Scena’ (1968) and ‘La Comune’ (1970). He was awarded the 1997 Nobel Prize for Literature for his satirical plays.

Foch, Ferdinand (1851–1929). French marshal, born in Tarbes. Trained by the Jesuits, he joined the army (1869) but saw no service in the Franco-Prussian War. The turning point in his career came when he was an instructor 1894–99 at the École de Guerre. In this post, through his book Principles and Conduct of War (1899), and later as the school’s director 1907–11, he influenced a generation of officers and military thinkers with his strategic doctrines and with his views on the importance of the offensive. At the outbreak of World War I, as Commander of the 9th Army he played a notable part in the victory of the Marne. In the next two years his main task lay in coordinating the French, British and Belgian roles on the Allied left flank. He retired with *Joffre (1916) but after the failure of *Nivelle’s offensive he became Chief of Staff (1917). When the Germans broke through (March 1918) the necessity for a unified Allied command was at last recognised and Foch was appointed Generalissimo. His policy of husbanding his reserves until the enemy had fought to a standstill and then using them for a series of devastating attacks swept the Allied armies forward to their final victory. He accepted the German surrender in a railway carriage at Compiègne (November 1918). He later supervised the carrying out of the military clauses of the peace treaty. He was made a Marshal of France, a Member of the Académie française, and a British field marshal, GCB and OM.

Marshall-Cornwall, J., Foch. 1972.

Fogel, Robert William (1926–2013). American economic historian, born in New York City. In Time on the Cross (1974), with Stanley N. Engerman, he argued that slavery had been economically efficient in the southern states. He pioneered ‘cliometrics’, the application of economic theory and quantitative methods to explain historic change and shared the 1993 Nobel Prize for Economics with Douglass North.

Fokine, Michael (1880–1942). Russian dancer and choreographer. One of the founders of modern ballet, Isadora *Duncan inspired him to escape from the rigid classical discipline of the Imperial Ballet to create ballets in which dancing, music and scenery are combined in a related whole. Le Cygne (The Dying Swan, 1905) and Chopiniana (later known as Les Sylphides, 1906) were early works. His great period was with *Diaghilev in Paris (from 1909) when he created Petrushka, Scheherazade, The Firebird and Le Spectre de la rose. He left Russia for France at the outbreak of the Revolution and during World War II moved to the US.

Fokker, Anthony Herman Gerard (1890–1939). Dutch aircraft designer, born in Java. He set up a factory in Germany (1912) and it was Fokker fighters, with their forward-firing machine gun, that gave the Germans their air superiority in the early part of World War I. He also designed effective biplane and triplane bombers. After the war Fokker concentrated mainly on civil aircraft built in Holland. In 1924 he set up a factory in the US and became an American citizen. He pioneered the use of lightweight metal fuselages in aircraft. He wrote an autobiography, The Flying Dutchman (1931).

Folger, Henry Clay, Jr (1857–1930). American industrialist and collector. A lawyer, he worked for John D. *Rockefeller at Standard Oil. He became obsessed with the works of *Shakespeare and, with his wife, Emily Clara Folger (née Jordan) (1858–1936), established the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, which opened in 1932. It has the world’s largest collection of Shakespearean material, including 82 First Folios.

Mays, A. E., The Millionaire and the Bard. 2015.

Fonda, Henry (Jaynes) (1905–1982). American actor, born in Nebraska. After early stage success, he appeared in more than 80 films, including The Grapes of Wrath (1940), The Ox-Bow Incident (1943), Mister Roberts (1955: also on stage), War and Peace (1956: as Pierre), Twelve Angry Men (1957) and On Golden Pond (1981) which won him an Academy Award. His daughter Jane Fonda (1937– ), an actor, won Academy Awards with Klute (1971) and Coming Home (1978). She was also an effective political activist and promoter of aerobics. She married Ted *Turner in 1991. His son, Peter Fonda (1939–2019), an actor and director, was best known for his film Easy Rider (1969).

Fontanne, Lynn (née Lillie Louise) (1887–1983). Anglo-American actor, born in London. She married Alfred *Lunt in 1922 and achieved early success in plays by *Shakespeare, *Shaw, *Chekhov and *Coward. They often appeared together and dominated the New York stage for decades. However, she made only four films, and some television and radio productions.

Fontenelle, Bernard Le Bovier, Sieur de (1657–1757). French philosopher and scientist, born in Rouen. Educated by the Jesuits, he wrote elegant popular dialogues, arguing the relative merits of ancient v. modern books, and proposing new scientific theories e.g. *Copernicus. He produced some original mathematical writings, trying to develop a general theory of the calculus. He became a great celebrity, and was accorded extensive public honours. Elected to the Académie française in 1691, he became its perpetual secretary in 1699. For 40 years he edited the publications of the Académie. He delivered lengthy funeral eulogies on scientists, emphasising the importance of science in an enlightened society, subtly reinforcing the ideas of *Descartes v. *Newton. He was even prepared to accept that there might be life on other systems in the Universe—evidence of his own mild religious heterodoxy. He claimed to have ‘never run, never lost his temper and never made ha ha’.

Fonteyn, Dame Margot (née Margaret Hookham). (1919–1992). English ballerina. She made her debut (1934) with the Sadler’s Wells Ballet, then joined the Royal Ballet where she became prima ballerina, establishing a reputation as one of the most sensitive and accomplished interpreters of classical ballet. She became President of the Royal Academy of Dancing in 1954 and received a DBE in 1956. In 1955 she married Roberto Arias (1918–1989), then Panama’s Ambassador to Britain. He became a paraplegic after an assassination attempt and she moved to Panama to nurse him. However, she made occasional appearances in London and some international tours with her new partner Rudolf *Nureyev.

Foot, Michael Mackintosh (1913–2000). British Labour politician. Member of a notable Cornish political family, he was educated at Oxford, became a prolific polemical journalist, was MP 1945–55 and 1960–92, editor of Tribune 1948–52 and 1955–60 and biographer of Aneurin *Bevan. He was Secretary of State for Employment 1974–76 and Lord President of the Council 1976–79, succeeding James *Callaghan as Leader of the Labour Party 1980–83.

Jones, M., Michael Foot. 1994.

Foote, Eunice Newton (née Newton) (1819–1888). American scientist, inventor, painter, and women’s rights activist, born in Connecticut. She lived and worked in Seneca Falls, NY. She published an important paper, ‘Circumstances affecting the heat of the sun’s rays’ (1856) on the role of carbon dioxide and water vapour in absorbing solar radiation, anticipating John *Tyndall’s more detailed work (published in 1861).

Forbes, George William (1869–1947). New Zealand politician. He formed a United coalition of the National and Reform parties and was an unsuccessful Prime Minister 1930–35 during the depression.

Forbes-Robertson, Sir Johnston (1853–1937). English actor-manager. Trained as an artist, and a reluctant thespian, he was acclaimed for his acting in *Shakespeare (notably Hamlet) and *Shaw.

Ford, Ford Madox (formerly Ford Hermann Hueffer) (1870–1939). English novelist, critic and poet, born in Merton. A grandson of the Pre-Raphaelite painter Ford Madox *Brown, he helped Joseph *Conrad to master English and collaborated with him in The Inheritors and Romance. The best known of Ford’s 60 books are the quartet of novels dealing with the moral crisis of World War I. Some Do Not, No More Parades, A Man Could Stand Up and The Last Post (1924–28). He wrote studies of Henry *James and Joseph Conrad and many critical essays and poems.

Saunders, M., Ford Madox Ford: A Dual Life. 2 vols, 1996.

Ford, Gerald R(udolph) (1913–2006). 38th President of the US 1974–77. Born in Omaha, Nebraska, he was originally Leslie Lynch King, taking his stepfather’s name when his mother remarried. Educated at the University of Michigan and Yale Law School, he was a notable university footballer, graduated in law and served in the US Navy 1942–46, practising law in Grand Rapids, Michigan 1946–49. As a Member of the US House of Representatives 1949–73, he was a conservative moderate and internationalist. He sat on the *Warren Commission of enquiry into the assassination of President *Kennedy 1963–64 and became Minority Leader in the House of Representatives 1965–73. On the resignation of Spiro *Agnew in 1973, President *Nixon used the provisions of the 25th Amendment of the US Constitution for the first time to nominate Ford as 40th Vice President. When Nixon resigned in August 1974, Ford automatically succeeded him as 38th President of the US, nominating Nelson *Rockefeller as his Vice President. The pardon he granted to Nixon was intended to bring a rapid end to the Watergate trauma, but aroused much controversy. He retained Henry *Kissinger as Secretary of State and continued Nixon’s foreign policies. He survived two assassination attempts in 1975. In 1976 he sought election in his own right, narrowly survived a challenge for the Republican nomination by Ronald *Reagan and in November Jimmy *Carter won the election.

Ford, Henry (1863–1947). American motor manufacturer, born at Greenfield, near Dearborn, Wayne County, Michigan. Son of William and Mary Ford, farmers who emigrated from Ireland in 1847, he was educated at rural schools, learnt how to repair watches and clocks, and by the age of 15 had set up a machine shop and sawmill on his father’s farm. He had constructed a gas engine and other appliances when he joined the *Edison company in Detroit (1890). In 1893 he built his first petrol driven car, capable of 25 mph (40 kph). He helped to form the Detroit Automobile Company (1899) which made custom cars, then left to develop his own racing car (‘999’), which broke records and attracted business partners. In 1903 he founded the Ford Motor Company and in his first year sold 1700 Model ‘A’ cars—2–cylinder, petrol driven vehicles—at a time when most automobiles were electric or steam driven. In later years he worked his way through much of the alphabet. He was President of the Ford Motor Co. 1903–19, 1943–45.

In 1908 (also the year when William C. *Durant founded General Motors), Ford produced the famous Model ‘T’, the first mass-produced vehicle: 4–cylinder, petrol driven, with a soft canvass hood and available only in black. This inaugurated the era of ‘motoring for the millions’. He developed the production techniques of Ransom *Olds, introducing a continuous, moving assembly line (conveyor belt) in 1913. He sold 300,000 Model ‘Ts’ in 1914, the first to have a left-hand steering wheel. The price fell steadily, from $825 in 1908 to $260 in 1925. In 1911 he won a court action to break George Selden’s patent for a petrol engine. He adopted Harvey * Firestone’s pneumatic rubber tyres for smoother riding.

Ford was originally a benevolent, paternalistic employer. Advised by the liberal James Joseph Couzens (1872–1936), his general manager, in 1914 he introduced the $5 day for workers (far more than his competitors), cut daily hours from 12 to 8, pushing for the goals of high wages, high productivity and low prices, a community of interest for employer, employee and customer, and—he hoped—an alternative to socialism. He also introduced profit-sharing for employees and employed blacks, not just in menial roles. However, he refused to allow trade unions in his factories.

He also abominated banks and the stock market, bought out other investors and the family established sole ownership after 1917.

Ford had an instinctive grasp of marketing strategies, pushing the idea that the motor car was a freedom machine, which took people away from the tyranny of the familiar. Ford was the first company to conduct mass advertising campaigns and create a dealer network. More than 15,000,000 ‘flivvers’ or ‘Tin Lizzies’, as they were known, were produced (1923 was the peak year).

As a fervent isolationist, he opposed World War I and in 1915 chartered a ‘Peace Ship’ and sailed to Europe in the hope of negotiating peace. Nevertheless, after the US entered the war (1917), Ford became a leading manufacturer of armaments and engines for trucks, aircraft and tanks.

In 1918 Ford stood unsuccessfully in Michigan for the US Senate as a Democrat and was promoted as a potential candidate for the presidency. In the 1920s, with Ford at the height of his fame, he was revealed in a libel action as cranky, anti-foreign (and particularly anti-Jewish), deeply prejudiced and ill-informed, which was reflected in his appalling newspaper the Dearborn Independent and his book The International Jew (1920). His famous phrase ‘History is bunk’ was a defensive reaction to ridicule about his shaky and romanticised grasp of America’s past. But he had his admirers, *Hitler among them.

In 1921 Ford began manufacturing in Britain and Europe. Ford’s Model ‘T’ lost its market dominance, despite the low cost, because General Motors (now run by Alfred P. *Sloan) offered a variety of models, more comfortable and stylish. Ford produced a new Model ‘A’ in 1928; the V-8 engine followed in 1932. In the 1930s, Ford opposed *Roosevelt’s ‘New Deal’, imposed a rigorous conformity on his workers and employed company police to suppress strikes and keep unions out. This led to bloodshed, much to the dismay of Ford’s son Edsel. In 1941 it was agreed that employees could join the Automobile Workers’ Union (UAW).

Ford was a curious mixture of philanthropy, philistinism, credulity and hatred. He set up (1936) the Ford Foundation to stimulate education and social research. In World War II his company was a major supplier to the armed forces. He also set up a museum of Americana (‘Greenfield Village’) at Dearborn and founded a major hospital.

Ford became the greatest pioneer of the car based society, mass production and the ‘Fordist’ model of industrial production, with profound implications for the development of cities, leisure and work, the creation of road building, vehicle service and petrol supplying industries. All these changes had a major political and cultural impact. In Aldous *Huxley’s ironic and prophetic novel Brave New World (1932), the calendar dates from 1908, ‘the year of our Ford’. His son, Edsel Bryant Ford (1893–1943) was President of the Ford Motor Co. 1919–43. The unsuccessful ‘Edsel’ model (1957) became a synonym for failure. Edsel’s son Henry Ford II (1917–1987) was company President 1945–79, introduced new models such as the Mustang and Thunderbird and promoted employment opportunities for African-Americans.

Lacey, R., Ford. 1986.

Ford, John (1586–c.1640). English dramatist. Little is known of his life and many of his plays have been lost. In some of his best known works, e.g. ‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore (c.1626), a tragedy of incestuous passion, he explores some of the more devious paths of sexual psychology, in others he was evidently influenced by the publication (1621) of *Burton’s Anatomie of Melancholie to analyse the effects of despair. Perkin Warbeck (1634) is an example of his skill with a chronicle play. He also collaborated with *Dekker, Rowley and *Webster.

Ford, John (Sean O’Fearn) (1895–1974). American film director, born in Maine. He made 65 short silent films 1917–29 and 70 sound films 1928–66. Up the River (1930) was the film debut for Spencer *Tracy and Humphrey *Bogart. Ford won four Academy Awards for best director, a record, for The Informer (1935), The Grapes of Wrath (1940), How Green Was My Valley (also best picture, defeating Citizen Kane, 1941) and The Quiet Man (1952), and two more Oscars for documentaries. The Searchers (1956), a Western starring John Wayne and Jeffrey Hunter, is generally regarded as his masterpiece, being ranked among the greatest films ever made, although it won no Academy Awards. Other films include Stage Coach (1939), Long Voyage Home (1940), Wagonmaster (1950) and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962). His work influenced Orson *Welles, Ingmar *Bergman, *Kurosawa Akira, Satyajit *Ray, Alfred *Hitchcock and François *Truffaut.

McBride, J. and Wilmington, M., John Ford. 1975.

Forde, Frank (Francis Michael) (1890–1983). Australian Labor politician, born in Queensland. A Federal MP 1922–46, he was Deputy Leader of the ALP 1935–46, Minister for the Army 1941–46 and Prime Minister for one week (July 1945) between *Curtin’s death and *Chifley’s election as party leader.

Forester, C(ecil) S(cott) (1899–1966). English novelist. Best known for his stories of the adventures of Captain Horatio Hornblower, RN, in the Napoléonic Wars, his first success was the novel Payment Deferred (1926), later dramatised. Among his other writings are historical biographies, e.g. of *Louis XIV and *Nelson, and the screenplay for the film The African Queen (1951).

Forrest, Edwin (1806–1872). American actor. A notable Shakespearian, at his best in tragic parts such as Lear or Othello, he performed with great success in New York and in London (1836–37). His rivalry with W. C. *Macready led to a riot at the Astor Place Opera House, New York (1849), in which 20 people were killed.

Forrest, Sir John (1847–1918). Australian surveyor, explorer and politician, born in Bunbury, Western Australia. As a member of the WA survey department, he explored vast areas of its interior and published Exploration in Western Australia (1876). Surveyor-General of Western Australia and MLC 1883–90, when responsible government was introduced, he became the first premier of WA 1890–1901, and was made KCMG (1891), PC (1897) and GCMG (1901). On Federation, elected a Commonwealth MP 1901–18, he was first a Protectionist, then a WA Independent, Liberal and National. He served as Minister for Defence 1901–03 and Commonwealth Treasurer 1905–07, 1909–10, 1913–14 and 1917–18. Eager to become Prime Minister, he failed narrowly with his colleagues. In February 1918 it was announced that he would be created Baron Forrest of Bunbury, the first Australian peer, but letters patent were never issued. He died of skin cancer, at sea, while sailing to London for medical treatment and to take up his peerage.

Crowley, F., Big John Forrest 1847–1918. 2000.

Forrest, Nathan Bedford (1821–1877). American soldier, born in Tennessee. Brought up in poverty, he made a fortune as a cotton planter and slave trader and on the outbreak of the Civil War joined the Confederate army (1861). He raised a cavalry regiment and won fame for his daring, especially in raiding enemy communications in Tennessee, Mississippi and Alabama. In April 1867 he became the first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan.

Forrestal, James Vincent (1892–1949). American administrator. An investment banker, he was Undersecretary 1943–44, then Secretary 1944–47, of the Navy, and became the first US Secretary of Defense 1947–49. He committed suicide, after a mental breakdown due to Cold War stress.

Forster, E(dward) M(organ) (1879–1970). English novelist, born in London. Educated at Tonbridge School (the ‘Sawston’ of two of his novels) and at King’s College, Cambridge, he spent much of the years 1904–07 in Italy and Greece and he came to contrast the truth and passion of the Mediterranean world with conventional English life. During this time he wrote his first two novels,Where Angels Fear to Tread (1905) and The Longest Journey (1907), both of them remarkable for their sensitive analysis of the delicate balance in human relationships. The novel A Room With a View appeared in 1908 and Howards End in 1910, the latter’s theme being the two-fold struggle in which the middle class characters were engaged, the outer one within the class structure and the inner one between the passionate and conventional sides of their natures. These and the collection of short stories, The Celestial Omnibus (1911), received critical rather than popular acclaim. He lived in India before and after World War I and as secretary to the Maharajah of Dewas (1921) collected material for his final novel, A Passage to India (1924). This sympathetic study of the problems of overcoming barriers of race, class and nationality won the Femina Vie Heureuse and James Tait Black Prizes, and made him a major figure in English literature. His reputation increased with every novel he did not write. He produced three volumes of essays, Aspects of the Novel (1927), Abinger Harvest (1936) and Two Cheers for Democracy (1951), and the libretto for Benjamin *Britten’s opera Billy Budd (1953). He lived with his mother 1925–45 and became a resident Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge from 1946. He was made a CH in 1953 and OM in 1968. After his death his homosexuality was freely discussed and entered as a factor into critical revaluation; an early novel, Maurice (1913–14), on the theme, was published in 1971. All six novels were filmed, including three (Room with a View, Maurice, Howard’s End) by the Merchant-Ivory group, and David *Lean’s A Passage to India (1984), with Peggy *Ashcroft as Mrs Moore.

Kirkpatrick, B. J., A Bibliography of Forster. 1965; Furbank, P. N. E.M. Forster: A Life. 1979.

Forster, John (1812–1876). English writer. Best known as the friend and biographer of Charles *Dickens (3 volumes, 1872–74), he worked in political journalism, succeeded Dickens as editor of the Daily News, and edited the Examiner (1847–56). He wrote several historical studies of the struggle between *Charles I and parliament, and biographies of *Goldsmith, *Landor and (unfinished) of *Swift.

Foster, Jodie (Alicia Christian) (1962– ). American film actor and director, born in Los Angeles. She achieved instant recognition for her role as a child prostitute in *Scorsese’s Taxi Driver (1976), won Academy Awards for The Accused (1988) and The Silence of the Lambs (1991), then became a director, winning Emmys and Golden Globes.

Foster, Norman Robert, Baron Foster of Thames Bank (1935– ). English architect, born in Manchester. He studied at Manchester and Yale, collaborated with Buckminster *Fuller, attracted international interest with the Sainsbury Centre for the Visual Arts, Norwich 1974 and won many awards. He was the architect for the new Hong Kong airport, the new Reichstag, Berlin, the redevelopment of the British Museum, and major works in Tokyo, Barcelona, Frankfurt and Nîmes. He received the OM (1997) and a peerage (1999). In London, the Millennium Bridge (2000), City Hall (2002) and 30 St Mary Axe (a.k.a. ‘the gherkin’, 2003) are already iconic. His Millau viaduct bridge, in Provence, the world’s tallest, opened in 2004, on time, on budget and without a life lost in construction.

Foster, Stephen Collins (1826–1864). American songwriter. Largely self-taught, he wrote about 200 songs (Old Folks at Home, My Old Kentucky Home, De Camptown Races etc.), performed and made famous by touring minstrel troupes. He had no financial acumen, and poverty and alcoholism led to his death in hospital.

Howard, J. T., Stephen Foster, America’s Troubadour. 1953.

Foucault, Jean Bernard Leon (1819–1868). French physicist. He demonstrated (1851), by means of a pendulum, the rotation of the earth, and invented (1852) the gyroscope. Between 1849 and 1862 he perfected a laboratory method of measuring the velocity of light using a rotating mirror. He also devised highly accurate methods of testing lenses for spherical and chromatic aberration.

Foucault, Michel (1926–1984). French philosopher. Professor of the history of systems of thought at the Collège de France 1970–84, he wrote extensively about the use of ‘the conventional wisdom’ as an instrument of power against cultural deviation e.g. in the treatment of insanity, criminality, sexuality (Madness and Civilisation 1961, Discipline and Punishment 1975, History of Sexuality 1976–84). He died of AIDS.

Macey, D., The Lives of Michel Foucault. 1993.

Fouché, Joseph, Duke of Otranto (1759?–1820). French politician. He played a devious part in the politics of the Revolution, in the course of which he checked a rising in the Vendée and suppressed a revolt in Lyons with extreme ferocity. He became (1799) Minister of Police under the Directory and then under *Napoléon Bonaparte, whom he had helped to power. While Napoléon was absent with his armies, Fouché maintained order at home with ruthless efficiency and in the course of his work amassed so many private secrets that he became a source of universal terror. Wealth and honours were showered upon him but by 1810 he was already intriguing with the royalist exiles as a precaution against Napoléon’s downfall. He succeeded briefly in retaining office under the restored Bourbons (1815) but was exiled as a regicide and lived in exile at Trieste until his death.

Fouquet, Nicolas (1615–1680). French official. A protégé of *Mazarin, he became Superintendent of Finances and built the great chateau and gardens at Vaux-le-Vicomte, enraging (1661) *Louis XVI with its lavishness but inspiring construction of Versailles. Fouquet was jailed for life on charges of corruption.

Fouquier-Tinville, Antoine Quentin (1746–1795). French politician. Notorious for the ferocity with which he carried out his duties as public prosecutor during the Revolution, he was executed after the ending of the Terror.

Fourcroy, Antoine François de (1755–1809). French chemist. His father was a poor apothecary, who started his son in life as a copying clerk. Through the patronage of Vicq D’Azyr, young Fourcroy was enabled to study medicine. He became a doctor in 1780 and took to lecturing privately and at the Jardin du Roi, becoming professor there in 1784. He had a distinguished career in public life, becoming a member of the National Convention 1793–95. He was asked to advise on the practicality of mass gassings of counter-revolutionaries—a real 20th-century touch. A professor at the École Polytechnique in 1795, a consul in 1801 and Minister for Public Instruction 1802–08, he played a large part in the introduction of the metric system of weights and measures. As a chemist, Fourcroy supported *Lavoisier’s explanation of the role of oxygen in combustion. Most of his own research was on the chemical composition of various constituents of animal bodies. He analysed the composition of gall and kidney stones, trying to find effective solvents for them. He published extensive analyses of mineral waters and their medicinal properties. He carried out experiments on the constituents of muscle fibre, finding a high nitrogen content. He also pursued researches into herbal medicines, conducting analyses of cinchona bark.

Smeaton, W. A. Fourcroy. 1962.

Fourier, (François-Marie) Charles (1772–1837). French socialist, born in Besançon. Son of a prosperous draper, he spent much of his early life as a commercial traveller in Holland and Germany. Gradually he became convinced of the evils of a competitive society and the harm done to the individual by the suppression of natural passions by ‘civilisation’. His ideas and theories, set out in three major books (1808–29), attracted little attention during his lifetime, except among his disciples, and he died poor and ignored. His interests ranged over a wide religious and psychological field, but on the practical side he proposed that society should be based on life in communities (phalanges) of 1620 people, enough to include most varieties of talent and temperament in communal buildings, and entirely self-sufficient. Each man would be allowed to change his occupation when he wished, and would be paid a minimum wage, and the conventional idea of marriage was to be abandoned. Colonies set up on these lines in France rapidly failed, those established (notably by *Greeley) in the US flourished for a time and then died out. The Israeli kibbutz bears some resemblance to Fourier’s phalanx.

Fourier, (Jean Baptiste) Joseph, Baron Fourier (1768–1830). French mathematician, born in Auxerre. Son of a tailor, he studied and later taught at the military school in his birthplace. During the Revolution, he became prominent in local politics. In 1795 he was appointed teacher at the École Polytechnique. He carried out research in Egypt 1798–1801. On *Napoléon’s fall he conformed to the new regime of *Louis XVIII, and was rewarded in 1822 with the position of Perpetual Secretary to the Académie des Sciences. Fourier was a fertile thinker in the fields of mathematics and physics. He produced novel techniques in his theory of the functions of the real variable, which served as the starting point for more rigorous formulations from *Riemann and *Cantor. But his most important work lay in developing a mathematical approach to heat. Through much of the 18th century, heat had been studied as part of chemistry. French science at the beginning of the 19th century became far more concerned with the physics of heat. Fourier’s contribution was to produce a series of equations to quantifying and theorising about heat diffusion and heat flow. He was interested in problems of probability and the use of statistics. He anticipated the ‘Greenhouse effect’ (1824) by proposing that surface heat on Earth was retained by the atmosphere: without it, mean temperature would be 33 degrees Celsius lower and the Earth would be too remote from the Sun to support life.

Grattan-Guinness, I., and Ravetz, J., Joseph Fourier 1768–1830. 1972.

Fowler, Henry Watson (1858–1933) and Francis George (1871–1918). English lexicographers. They wrote The King’s English (1906) and compiled the Concise Oxford Dictionary (1911–14). After his brother’s death, H. W. Fowler wrote the Dictionary of Modern English Usage (published 1926).

Fowler, Sir John, 1st Baronet (1817–1898). British civil engineer. At first, he worked for small railway companies designing track systems and, with his partner Benjamin *Baker, built an underground system for the London Metropolitan Railway, earning huge fees. He became President of the Institution of Civil Engineers 1865–67. He attempted to perfect a smokeless engine, but it failed. With Baker he designed and built the Firth of Forth railway bridge (1882–90).

Fox, Charles James (1749–1806). English Whig politician, born in London. Son of Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, and Lady Caroline Lennox, he was a descendant of *Charles II through his mother. Educated at Eton and Oxford, his father bought him a seat in the House of Commons in 1768, at the age of 19; he sat almost continuously until his death. He was Junior Lord of the Treasury under Lord *North 1770–74 until *George III dismissed him because he opposed coercive measures against the American colonies. In opposition he campaigned violently for triennial parliaments and relief from legal disabilities for Roman Catholics and dissenters; he also attacked the royal influence in parliament. When North fell (1782), Fox became Secretary of State under *Rockingham, whose death a few months later caused him to resign. He now came to terms with North but the coalition ended when George III by personal intervention killed Fox’s India Bill (1783). During the first years of William *Pitt’s ministry, which immediately followed, Fox led the opposition. He moved the impeachment of Warren *Hastings (1788), strongly supported the French Revolution (breaking off his cherished friendship with Edmund *Burke over this issue) and consistently opposed Pitt’s foreign policy which he considered unduly sympathetic to European despotism. He especially denounced, too, Pitt’s wartime suspension of habeas corpus (1794). In 1795 Fox married his mistress, Mrs Elizabeth Armistead, and after 1797 was seldom seen in parliament, but he returned in 1803 to try to prevent the rupture of the Peace of Amiens (1802) with France. On Pitt’s death he became Foreign Secretary in the ‘All the Talents’ administration of *Grenville (1806), but died of dropsy a few months later when he was about to introduce a bill for the abolition of the slave trade (eventually secured in 1807). Fox was a close friend of the Prince of Wales (later *George IV), but as it became clear that the prince’s opposition to his father was personal rather than political, the intimacy lessened. Fox’s fondness for drink and gambling (in 1793 his friends paid £70,000 to provide for him and clear his debts) won him a dubious reputation that weakened his authority as a national leader. But he was a generous-minded and much loved friend and the principles he stood for were those of liberty—political and individual—tolerance and justice. *Burke characterised him as ‘the greatest debater the world ever saw’.

Hobhouse, C., Fox. 1948; Derry, J. W., Charles James Fox. 1972; Mitchell, L., Charles James Fox. 1992.

Fox, George (1624–1691). English religious leader, born in Fenny Drayton, Leicestershire. Founder of the Society of Friends (‘Quakers’), he was the son of a weaver. At the age of 19 he heard an ‘inner voice’ and became an itinerant preacher. He disliked the outward ceremony of religion (for him the ‘Church’ was the worshippers, not the building) and he often interrupted services to preach his own belief that everyone has direct access to God. He rejected the Calvinist doctrine that only the elect could escape predestined damnation: salvation, he held, was open to all who heard the inner voice of God. He believed in pacifism and opposed capital punishment. In about 1650 he founded the Society of Friends. He and his followers were constantly persecuted and Fox was imprisoned, at various times, for a total of six years. He and his supporters travelled widely in North America, the West Indies and the Continent, and by 1660 their numbers had grown to 60,000. He married (1669) Margaret Fell, a widow of the judge at whose house the Friends had met as early as 1652. A prolific writer, he kept a valuable Journal.

Wildes, H. E., The Voice of the Lord. 1965.

Fox, William (né Wilhelm Fuchs) (1879–1952). American film producer, born in Hungary. His parents migrated to New York in 1879. After working in the fur and garment industry, he bought theatres, distributed films and in 1915 founded the Fox Film Corporation, running it until a hostile takeover in 1930, which he regarded as a Wall Street conspiracy. Jailed for bribing judges in 1936 and 1942, he died forgotten. His name is preserved in 21st Century Fox and Fox News.

Krefft, V., The Man Who Made the Movies. 2017.

Fox Quesada, Vicente (1942– ). Mexican politician. He studied at Harvard, became President of Coca-Cola Mexico, a leader of PAN (National Action Party) and Governor of Guanajuato 1995–99. In 2000, Mexico’s PRI (Party of Revolutionary Institutions) was defeated in a presidential election for the first time since 1929. Fox served as President of Mexico 2000–06 and with his cowboy style had a strong affinity with George W. *Bush.

Foxe, John (1516–1587). English Protestant clergyman. Author of the book celebrated as Foxe’s Book of Martyrs, this work, completed (in Latin) in 1559 and translated in 1563, contains (with much else) a prejudiced but valuable account of the persecution of Protestants under *Mary I. He subscribed to, and enhanced the belief that, the English were ‘an elect nation’. During Mary’s reign Foxe had lived in Strasbourg and Basle but returned to England after *Elizabeth’s accession.

Mozley, T. F., John Foxe and His Book. 1948.

Fracastoro, Girolamo (1477–1553). Italian scientist and poet, born in Verona. Member of a patrician family, he studied philosophy and medicine at Padua University. From 1502 he taught medicine at Padua and perhaps served as a physician in the Venetian army. He spent the bulk of his life cultivating his medical and general cultural interests with the literati of the day in Verona or on his estates near Monte Baldo. His interests ranged widely, from science to poetry, taking in mathematics, geography and astronomy. He is mainly famous for two books, one a poem on syphilis, which he named, and in the other he proposed the concept of ‘contagion’, hypothesising that tuberculosis was infectious.

Fragonard, Jean Honoré (1732–1806). French painter and engraver. A master of the Rococo, a pupil of *Chardin and especially of *Boucher, he went to Italy having won the Prix de Rome. On his return he was commissioned to design a tapestry by *Louis XV and subsequently became famous for his delicate pictures of the gay and graceful world in which he moved. The 11 paintings of The Progress of Love (1771–72, in the *Frick Collection, New York) are elegant and erotic. He is ranked as one of the major painters of the 18th century.

Wildenstein, G., The Paintings of Fragonard. 1960.

Frame, Janet (Nene Janet Paterson Clutha) (1924–2004). New Zealand author, born in Dunedin. Educated at Dunedin Teachers College and Otago University, her painful shyness led to misdiagnosis and treatment as a schizophrenic, events unforgettably described in her autobiography An Angel at my Table (1984) and depicted in Jane Campion’s film of the same name (1990). She wrote novels, poetry and books for children.

France, Anatole (Anatole François Thibault) (1844–1924). French writer, born in Paris. His father was a bookseller and he early devoted himself to writing. His philosophy, as expounded in, e.g. Le Jardin d’Epicure (1895), was tolerant and undogmatic—a person is born a believer or not, as he is born blond or brunette, beliefs are only personal opinions. Similar views appear in La Rôtisserie de la Reine Pédauque (1893),Le Lys rouge (1894). Histoire comique (1903) and La Révolte des anges (1914). Few writers display a more orderly arrangement of thought or have a clearer or simpler style. His earlier novels, e.g. Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard (1881), Le Livre de mon ami (1885) and Thaïs (1890), already show his tendency to criticise and ridicule what would be called today the ‘establishment’, and after his liaison with Madame de Caillavet his criticism became more biting. He was a strong partisan of *Dreyfus and his sympathies are clearly expressed in L’Affaire Crainquebille (1902) and L’Île des Pingouins (1908), possibly the greatest of his works. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1921.

Francesca, Piero della see Piero della Francesca

Francesca da Rimini (Francesca da Polenta) (c.1255–1285?). Italian beauty. Heroine of one of the world’s famous love stories, she was the daughter of the Lord of Ravenna, on Italy’s Adriatic coast, and was given in marriage, in return for military services, to Gianciotto Malatesta, the Lord of Rimini, a hunchback. She fell in love with her brother-in-law, Paolo, and on discovery both were put to death by her husband. *Dante relates a conversation with her in Inferno and the story of Francesca and Paolo was the subject of 28 operas (including one by *Rachmaninoff), a symphonic poem by *Tchaikovsky, art works by *Ingres, *Delacroix, *Rodin, *Doré and *Watts, and a play by *D’Annunzio.

Francesco see Francis

Francis (Franciscus in Latin) (Jorge Mario Bergoglio) (1936– ). Pope 2013– : No. 266 from St *Peter. Born in Buenos Aires of Italian descent and ordained in 1969, he was Provincial of the Jesuits in Argentina 1973–79, then taught theology and studied in Germany. A prudent opponent of the Argentinian dictatorship which collapsed in 1983, he became Auxiliary Bishop of Buenos Aires 1992–98 and Archbishop 1998–2013. He ran second in the 2005 conclave that elected *Benedict XVI. Elected by cardinals on the fifth ballot in March 2013, he was the first non-European pope since St Gregory III in 741, the first Jesuit, the first from the Southern Hemisphere and the first to take the name Francis, invoking the memory of St *Francis of Assisi. Regarded as cautious but open, he lived simply in Rome, was regarded as a crusader for the poor and for social justice, strongly resistant to curial influence and open to dialogue. He took a strong position against paedophilia, abortion and euthanasia, but thought that the church’s approach to sexual issues generally was unduly rigid and unforgiving.

Francis I and II of France see François I and II

Francis I and II of the Holy Roman Empire see Franz I and II

Francis (Francesco) II (1836–1894). King of the Two Sicilies (Naples and Sicily) 1859–61. Successor of *Ferdinand II, the conquest of his kingdom by *Garibaldi and his enforced abdication ensured the unification of Italy. Francis then lived in exile in Austria.

Francis Ferdinand see Franz Ferdinand

Francis Joseph see Franz Joseph

Francis, Sir Philip (1740–1818). Anglo-Irish politician and pamphleteer, born in Dublin. Through Whig patronage, he was appointed to clerkships in the civil service. The ‘Letters of Junius’, published anonymously 1769–72, were strongly critical of the governments of *Grafton and *North; Francis was almost certainly the author. Appointed as a member of the Supreme Council of Bengal 1774–80, with a very large salary, he formed a profound dislike of Warren *Hastings, the Governor-General. In 1780 he fought a duel with Hastings and was wounded. Having made a fortune, he returned to England and was a Whig MP 1784–90; 1802–07. He was the driving force behind the prosecution in the impeachment and long trial of Hastings, providing much of the grossly exaggerated evidence. An enthusiast for the French Revolution, he campaigned against the slave trade and for parliamentary reform. He hoped to be offered the governor-generalship of Bengal in 1795 and 1806 but had to be consoled with a knighthood (1802).

Francis of Assisi, St (Giovanni di Bernardone) (1181/2–1226). Italian friar, founder of the Franciscan Order, born in Assisi. The son of a prosperous merchant, he was nicknamed Francesco because of his father’s travels in France. After a self-indulgent youth, he went on military service, fought against Perugia and spent a year in prison. After serious illness, he became an ascetic, taking vows of poverty, prayer and care for the helpless, working joyfully with lepers and social outcasts, went on a pilgrimage to Rome (1206) and was disowned by his father. In February 1209 he felt that he had been commissioned by Jesus to ‘repair my house’ (i.e. the Church). He left Assisi, and went to Rome with 11 followers to persuade Pope *Innocent III to sanction a new order, the Friars Minor (OFM) called ‘grey friars’ from their habit. Formal authorisation was given in 1215, but Francis was never ordained a priest. In 1212, a second order, nuns soon known as ‘poor Ladies’, was established by his follower St Clare (c.1193–1253): they are now called ‘poor Clares’. The Friars Minor expanded rapidly, sending missionaries through Italy, France, Spain and North Africa. Francis himself visited Dalmatia, Egypt (where he persuaded the Ayyubid Sultan to grant his order guardianship of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, and secured better treatment for Christian prisoners) and Palestine (1219–20). Francis’s teaching was joyful, with a celebration of nature as the mirror of God’s creation, including sun, moon and stars, flowers and reverence for animals. Nevertheless he practised stern self-denial. In 1221, when his first order already had 5000 members, he established a third, for the laity. From 1223 he withdrew from active direction of the Franciscans, retiring to a monastery at Monte La Verna (Alvernia). Here in 1224 he received the stigmata, carefully concealed while he lived, and was sick and almost blind until his death. Pope Gregory IX named him a saint in 1228, but the title had been popularly conferred long before. His aim was to ‘walk in the footsteps’ of Jesus and in 1926 *Pius XI called him ‘the second Christ’. In 1979 *John Paul II named Francis patron saint of ecologists.

Moorman, J. R. H., Sources for the Life of Saint Francis of Assisi. 1967.

Franck, César Auguste (1822–1890). Belgian-French composer, born in Liège. When barely 11 he toured as a concert pianist. After his family had moved to Paris he entered the Conservatoire (1837) but was withdrawn by his father to resume concert playing. Franck received little attention as a composer during his lifetime but attracted a circle of admiring disciples, including the composer Vincent d’*Indy. His compositions are clearly influenced by the music of *Beethoven, *Liszt and *Wagner (especially Tristan und Isolde) and his orchestration reveals his preoccupation with the sonorities and registration of the organ. Organist at St Clotilde from 1859, he worked closely with the organ builder Aristide *Cavaillé-Coll and became professor of organ at the Paris Conservatoire (1872). A late developer, his greatest works were the Piano Quintet (1878–79), symphonic poem Le Chasseur maudit (1882), Variations symphoniques for piano and orchestra (1885), Violin Sonata in A (1886), Symphony in D Minor (1886–88), symphonic poem Psyche (1887–88) and String Quartet in D (1889). He also wrote many pieces for organ and piano, several songs and much Church music, including the oratorio The Beatitudes (1869). He was injured by a horse-drawn bus in Paris and died of pleurisy.

Stove, R. J., César Franck: His Life and Times. 2011.

Franco (Bahamonde), Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teodulo (1892–1975). Spanish Generalissimo and Chief of State (Caudillo), born in El Ferrol. He joined the army in 1907, served in Morocco and became Spain’s youngest general in 1926, commanding the Foreign Legion. He crushed a rising of miners in Asturias (1934), became Chief of the General Staff 1935–36 until the Popular Front government demoted him to command in the Canary Islands. The Civil War began in July 1936 with an army mutiny in Morocco. Franco joined the Insurgents, flew to Morocco and organised the Foreign Legion and Moorish troops. After General José Sanjurjo was killed in a plane crash in October 1936, Franco became Caudillo and his only potential rival, General Emilio Mola, soon died the same way. In 1937 he became leader of Falange Española, after José Antonio *Primo de Rivera had been executed by the Loyalists. With strong Italian and German aid, Franco defeated the Loyalist government of *Azaña and occupied Madrid on 1 April 1939. Franco set up a corporate state, killed about 100,000 opponents in the next five years and offered to join *Hitler and *Mussolini if the Axis powers would pay for it. Spain technically remained neutral in World War II although Franco sent the ‘Blue Division’ (47,000 strong) to fight on the Russian front. The Axis defeat put Franco in a precarious position. The Cold War saved him and *Eisenhower set up US military bases in Spain (1953). Tourism became a major factor in the Spanish economy and the Falange lost its ideological fervour. Franco arranged that the Bourbon monarchy would be restored on his death (*Juan Carlos) and some political liberalisation took place.

Gallo, M. S., Spain under Franco. 1973; Preston, P., Franco. 1993.

François I (1494–1547). King of France 1515–47. Born in Cognac, son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, descended from a younger branch of the *Valois dynasty, he was a cousin of *Louis XII. In 1514 he married Claude (1499–1524), daughter of Louis and *Anne of Brittany, and succeeded as king in 1515.

In 1519 despite heavy bribes, he failed to secure election as Holy Roman Emperor. This began the long rivalry with, and mutual detestation of, the successful candidate, *Charles V, which was the central feature of his reign. At the Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520) he tried unsuccessfully to win the support of *Henry VIII of England. Captured by imperial troops at Pavia (1525), he was kept as a prisoner in Madrid until 1526, signed a humiliating treaty and two of his sons were kept as hostages for four years. In 1530 he established French as the national language, replacing Latin in official documents in 1539. The Franco-Ottoman Alliance, the first between Christian and Muslim states, was settled with Sultan *Süleyman (‘the Magnificent’) in 1536 and survived until 1798. France and the Ottoman Empire combined against Charles V and his Empire, but when peace was secured (1546) neither side had made significant gains. François’ reign overlapped with *Luther’s challenge to Papal authority and the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. At first, influenced by his sister *Marguerite of Navarre, he was sympathetic to reform but then saw it as challenging all authority, including his own. French Protestants, known as ‘Huguenots’, mostly followers of *Calvin, were persecuted, exiled, and sometimes massacred. This continued until 1598 when *Henri IV became king.

François established the nucleus of an efficient centralised administration. It was with his encouragement that *Cartier crossed the Atlantic and claimed the Gulf of the St Lawrence for France. He was also a notable patron of the arts. He began reconstructing the Louvre in its modern form, built the huge chateau on the Loire at Chambord and palaces at Fontainebleau and Saint-Germain-en-Laye. He admired *Erasmus, patronised *Rabelais, bought the Mona Lisa in 1517 and summoned *Leonardo da Vinci to live (and die) at Amboise. He died at Rambouillet and was buried in St Denis. His symbol was the salamander.

Seward, D., Prince of the Renaissance: Life of François I. 1973.

François II (1544–1560). King of France 1559–60. The son of *Henri II and *Catherine de’Medici, he married (1558) *Mary Queen of Scots. During his brief reign his uncles (François and Charles de Guise) persecuted the Protestants.

François de Sales, St (François Bonaventure de Nouvelles) (1567–1622). French Catholic bishop and religious writer, born in Sales (Savoy). Brought up at the family chateau, he was a law student in Padua before becoming a priest. His success in converting Swiss Calvinists led to his becoming Bishop of Geneva 1602–22, living at nearby Annecy in his native Savoy. His spiritual friendship with Jeanne Françoise de Chantal (later canonised) led to their founding, jointly, the Order of the Sisters of the Visitation. His Introduction to the Devout Life and the mystical Treatise on the Love of God are the best known of his religious works.

Frank, Anne (1929–1945). German-Jewish diarist, born in Frankfurt-am-Main. The family fled to Amsterdam in 1933 to escape Nazi rule. When Germany occupied Holland in 1940 they went into hiding, living in attic rooms of a factory/warehouse, supplied with food by Dutch employees. They were betrayed by Dutch informers in 1944 and were taken to Bergen-Belsen where she died of typhus with her mother and sister; only her father, Otto Frank (1889–1980), survived. On returning to Holland, he was given the diary kept by his daughter 1941–44. The Diary of a Young Girl was published in 1947 and established her as a symbol of Jewish suffering under Hitler. The book sold more than 30,000,000 copies. The book’s quality of writing, especially its vitality and candour, aroused some initial scepticism, now completely dispelled. An unexpurgated version was published in 1997. Anne Frank House is preserved as a museum.

Frank, Hans (1900–1946). German Nazi politician. A lawyer, he was a Reichstag member 1930–34 and Minister without Portfolio in *Hitler’s Government 1934–40. As Governor-General of Poland 1939–45 he supervised deportations and exterminations of millions of Jews. He provided his extensive diaries to the prosecutors at the Nuremberg war crimes trials and converted to Catholicism, was convicted and hanged, apparently dying repentant. However, his son Niklas Frank was unforgiving, describing him as ‘a slime-hole of a Hitler fanatic’.

Frankfurter, Felix (1882–1965). American jurist, born in Vienna. Professor of Administrative Law at Harvard 1914–39, he was a close friend of Franklin D. *Roosevelt and a valued adviser in the early days of the New Deal. As a justice of the US Supreme Court 1939–62, he combined strong liberal sympathies and conservative respect for judicial procedure.

Franklin, Aretha Louise (1942–2018). African-American singer, songwriter and pianist, born in Tennessee. Known as the ‘Queen of Soul’, she toured and recorded extensively, had a strong emotional appeal and won many awards.

Ritz, D., Respect. 2014.

Franklin, Benjamin (1706–1790). American statesman and scientist, born in Boston. His father, a tallow chandler, married twice and had 17 children: Benjamin was the 15th, the 10th by the second wife. His schooling was brief and he was largely self-educated, helped in this by being apprenticed, at the age of 12, to his half-brother James, a printer. Printing led to journalism and his career really started (though from 1724 he had already spent 18 months in London) when by 1728 he was settled in Philadelphia as owner of the Pennsylvania Gazette. He also published (1732–57) Poor Richard’s Almanack, which achieved enormous success. Many of ‘Poor Richard’s’ pithy aphorisms, some borrowed, some original, became proverbial. Franklin continued to be a powerful coiner of aphorisms, e.g. ‘Remember that time is money’; ‘Lost time is never found again’; ‘They who give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety’; ‘There never was a good war or a bad peace’; ‘In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.’

After starting a fire service (1736) and being postmaster (1737), he extended his interest in education by helping to found the American Philosophic Society (1743) and the Philadelphia Academy (1751), which developed into the University of Pennsylvania. He invented (c.1740) the ‘Franklin stove’ and ‘Pennsylvania fireplace’ for efficient heating and cooking, bifocal spectacles, a flexible catheter and the glass harmonica. Meanwhile he had become interested in electrical phenomena. With his famous kite experiment (1752) he proved that lightning is a form of electricity, produced a satisfactory explanation of the difference between positive and negative charges, and invented the lightning conductor, which brought him fame, the Copley Medal in 1753 and election to the Royal Society in London in 1756. He also explained the operation of the Gulf Stream. His early writings on population anticipated *Malthus, and he argued for the wave theory of light and that temperature affects electrical conductivity.

After 1750, political interests now became increasingly important. He was a Radical member of the Pennsylvania Assembly 1751–64 and deputy postmaster for the American colonies 1753–74. As agent for the Assembly he visited England 1757–62 and was lionised in social and scientific circles. Again in England 1764–75, he played a conciliatory part in the quarrels between England and the American colonies and helped to secure the repeal of the Stamp Act (1766). When, however, a breach became inevitable, he returned to America to play a leading but always conciliatory part in the fight for independence. He helped to draw up the Declaration of Independence (1776), became the most successful of the three commissioners sent to enlist French aid (1776–78), and was Minister to France 1778–85. He helped to negotiate, and was a signatory to, the Treaty of Versailles (1783) by which American independence was finally recognised. In 1784 he collaborated with *Lavoisier in an important investigation, established by *Louis XVI, of animal magnetism (then currently in vogue: *Mesmer) and which set out the principles of experimental method.

President of Pennsylvania 1785–88, he sat in the convention which drew up the US Constitution 1787–88. His wisdom and moderation in politics and the breadth of his scientific and political achievements make Franklin one of the greatest figures of American history.

His illegitimate son William Franklin (1731–1813), his scientific co-worker who became Governor of New Jersey 1763–76, remained loyal to *George III and later withdrew to live in England.

van Doren, C., Benjamin Franklin. 1948; Isaacson, W., Benjamin Franklin: An American Life. 2003; Lemay, J. A. L., The Life of Benjamin Franklin. 3 vols, 2005–08.

Franklin, Sir John (1786–1847). English Arctic explorer, born in Lincolnshire. He joined the navy (1801), fought under *Nelson at Trafalgar and, when peace came, made several voyages of Arctic exploration after 1818. As Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) 1837–43, working with Alexander Maconochie (1787–1860), he promoted humane treatment of transported convicts. In 1845 with his two ships, the Erebus and Terror he began his last voyage, in search of a northwest passage, from which no survivor returned. After several expeditions had sought in vain, a full record was found in a cairn at Point Victoria by John *Rae: the party had been caught in the ice on the west side of King William Island and Franklin had died in June 1847. The others left the ships but succumbed to scurvy and starvation. His second wife, Lady Jane Franklin (née Griffin) (1791–1875), was an indefatigable traveller, supporter of education and science, who campaigned for expeditions to establish what had happened to her husband’s expedition but was enraged by John *Rae’s report (1854) which suggested that Franklin’s mission, while gallant, had been incompetently planned. Some human remains, providing evidence of cannibalism, were found in 1997 followed by the wrecks of HMS Erebus (2014) and HMS Terror (2016).

Lamb, G. F., Franklin, Happy Voyager. 1956; Alexander, A., The Ambitions of Jane Franklin: Victorian Lady Adventurer. 2013; Brandt, A., The Man Who Ate His Boots. 2013.

Franklin, Rosalind Elsie (1920–1958). English biophysicist. Educated at Cambridge, after early research on gas-phase chromatography, she pursued physical chemical work on the structure of coals and carbonised coals. She worked in Paris 1947–50, using the techniques of X-ray diffusion to illuminate the study of carbons, and from 1951 at King’s College, London on the problems of virus structure. Her priority had been developing models of carbon structure and investigating changes under high temperatures. She now concentrated on X-ray diffraction pictures of DNA and her experiments demonstrated that the patterns of DNA crystallinity were compatible with a helical structure. She hoped to build up a picture of the structure using empirical means, while at the same time investigating various theoretical models (e.g. anti-parallel rods in pairs back-to-back). Her own attempts to find a satisfactory helical structure were pre-empted by *Crick and *Watson’s ‘double helix’ solution, which appeared in Nature for 25 April, 1953. They had access (and this is a matter of ongoing controversy) to vital X-ray photographs taken by her which they interpreted correctly and she did not. She devoted the next few years to further research on coal, and to improving her earlier X-ray pictures. She died of ovarian cancer before the Nobel Prize was awarded to Crick, Watson and her collaborator Maurice *Wilkins in 1962. She worked very closely on viruses with Aaron *Klug, also a Nobel Laureate, who admired her greatly.

There is an extensive literature on Franklin, now regarded as a classic victim of misogyny. Asteroid 9241 Rosfranklin, two universities, many buildings, laboratories and awards have been named for her.

Klug, A., ‘Rosalind Franklin and the Discovery of the Structure of DNA’, Nature, 219 (1968), pp. 808, 844; Maddox, B., Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA. 2002.

Franks, Oliver Shewell Franks, Baron (1905–1992). British scholar and administrator. Educated at Oxford, he was professor of moral philosophy at Glasgow from 1937, but worked in the Ministry of Supply during World War II, becoming its permanent secretary 1945–46. He was Provost of Queen’s College, Oxford 1946–48 until *Attlee made him Ambassador to the US 1948–52, then Chairman of Lloyd’s Bank 1954–62. He delivered the BBC’s Reith Lectures in 1954 on Britain and the Tide of World Affairs. In 1960 he was memorably defeated by Harold *Macmillan for the chancellorship of Oxford University in a campaign in which Macmillan said that he was the candidate of the bookies and Franks of the parsons. Provost of Worcester College 1962–76, he chaired the Royal Commission on Oxford University 1964–66. He received the OM in 1977. He refused invitations to run the Treasury, the BBC, The Times, the Bank of England, British Rail and NATO. In 1982 he conducted an enquiry into the origins of the Falklands War. The Times obituary wrote of him that beneath an icy cold exterior was an icy cold interior.

Danchev, A. Oliver Franks: Founding Father. 1993.

Franz (Francis) I (Franz Stefan von Lothringen) (1708–1765). Holy Roman Emperor 1745–66. Born in Nancy, he succeeded his father Leopold, Duke of Lorraine in 1729. However, after the War of the Polish Succession he gave up Lorraine to *Louis XV’s father-in-law, Stanisław *Leszczynski, ex-king of Poland, and accepted instead (1737) the grand duchy of Tuscany. In 1736 he married *Maria Theresa of Austria and in 1745 was elected Emperor. His children included *Joseph II, *Leopold II, and *Marie Antoinette. He became a freemason.

Franz II (1768–1835). Last Holy Roman Emperor 1792–1806, first Emperor of Austria 1804–35. Son of the emperor *Leopold II, he declared war on the French Revolutionary Government in 1792, and his territory was whittled away in constant wars with France. In imitation of *Napoléon, and to consolidate his rule over his remaining possessions, he declared himself (1804) Emperor of Austria, and when Napoléon, having conquered most of Germany, set up (1806) the Confederation of the Rhine, Franz abandoned the empty title of Holy Roman Emperor, which was never revived. From 1809–13 he was, on the advice of *Metternich, Napoléon’s unwilling ally; to cement the alliance his daughter *Marie Louise was married to the French emperor. After Napoléon’s disastrous retreat from Russia, Franz rejoined his former allies (1813) and took part in the campaign of liberation. After Napoléon’s downfall he was, under Metternich’s continuing guidance, a constant supporter of the reactionary regimes which followed.

Franz Ferdinand (Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria von Habsburg-Este), Duke of Hohenberg (1863–1914). Austrian Archduke, born in Graz. A nephew of the emperor *Franz Joseph and a ferocious hunter, he claimed to have killed 300,000 animals, travelled the world, and shot kangaroos, koalas and platypuses in Australia (1893). From 1896 he was heir presumptive to the throne and married, morganatically, his mistress Countess Sophie von Chotek in 1899. The assassination of Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo (28 June 1914) by the Bosnian Serb Gavrilo *Princip precipitated World War I. Ironically, Franz Ferdinand favoured internal autonomy for the subject nationalities of Austria-Hungary.

Franz Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl von Habsburg-Lothringen) (1830–1916). Emperor (Kaiser) of Austria 1848–1916 and King of Hungary 1867–1916. Born (and died) at the Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna. Son of Archduke Franz Karl (1802–1878), he ascended the throne, after a year of revolutionary turmoil, due to the incapacity of his uncle, Kaiser *Ferdinand, who abdicated in his favour. He agreed to modest constitutional reforms but his army suppressed rebellion in Hungary. In 1851 he abolished the constitution and exercised personal rule until 1867. In that year, following the loss of Austrian territories in North Italy (1859–60) and defeat by Prussia (1866), he agreed to the establishment of a ‘dual monarchy’, Austria-Hungary, two semiautonomous countries, one Imperial (Kaiserlich), the other kingly (Königlich), with two prime ministers and only three common ministries: War, Foreign Affairs and Finance. Croatia and Slovenia were attached to Hungary, the other Slav provinces to Austria. His life was marked by a series of personal tragedies: the execution of his brother, the Emperor *Maximilian, in Mexico (1867), the suicide of his only son *Rudolf at Mayerling (1889), the assassination of the Empress *Elisabeth (1898) and of his nephew and heir *Franz Ferdinand (1914). For the rest of his reign Franz Joseph struggled for peace abroad and a preservation of the status quo at home. In the process of time he became a revered institution, his subjects willing to await his death before change. His last days were darkened by the calamity of World War I. With his industry, grasp of detail and great sense of duty, Franz Joseph had the qualities of a conscientious civil servant but lacked the vision and inspiring leadership of a great ruler. He was impulsive in youth, listless in middle life, stoic in old age but long remained a venerated memory, rich with nostalgia, in Vienna. His grandnephew *Karl (Charles) I, the last emperor of Austria, was forced to abdicate in November 1918.

Corti, E., Vom Kind zum Kaiser. 1950; Bled, J.-P., Franz Joseph. 1992; Palmer, A., Twilight of the Habsburgs. The Life and Times of Emperor Franz Joseph. 1994; Beller, S., Francis Joseph. 1996; Van der Kiste, J., Emperor Francis Joseph. 2005; Owens, K., Franz Josef and Elisabeth. 2013.

Fraser, Lady Antonia (Margaret Caroline, née Pakenham) (1932– ). English biographer, historian and novelist, born in London. A member of the *Pakenham family, educated at Oxford, she married (Sir) Hugh Fraser in 1956, wrote biographies of *Mary, Queen of Scots, *Cromwell and *Charles II, won the Wolfson History Prize with The Weaker Vessel (1984), and created the detective Jemima Shore (the basis of a television series). In 1980, she married Harold *Pinter, and received a DBE in 2011 and a CH in 2018.

Fraser, Bruce Austin, 1st Baron Fraser of North Cape (1888–1981). British admiral of the fleet. As Third Sea Lord and Controller of the Navy 1939–42, he directed a vast expansion, including construction of special ships for combined operations. He commanded the Home Fleet 1942–44, and organised the operation by which the battlecruiser Scharnhorst was sunk. He commanded the British Pacific Fleet 1944–46 from his headquarters in Sydney and was the British signatory to the Japanese surrender (Tokyo, 1945). He was First Sea Lord of the Admiralty 1948–51.

Fraser, (John) Malcolm (1930–2015). Australian Liberal politician, born in Melbourne. A grazier’s son, educated at Oxford, he became a Member of the Australian Parliament 1955–83, serving as a minister 1966–71 and 1971–72, resigning in March 1971 after a clash with J. G. *Gorton. In March 1975 he became Leader of the Liberal Party and pushed a hard-line policy which led to the Senate deferring Supply to E. G. *Whitlam’s Labor Government. When the Governor-General, Sir John *Kerr dismissed Whitlam for failing to secure Supply, Fraser was appointed Prime Minister 1975–83. He won the 1975 and 1977 elections with massive majorities and 1980 more narrowly. In the election of March 1983, he was defeated heavily by Bob *Hawke and resigned the Liberal leadership. He was awarded the CH (1977) and AC (1988). He became co-chairman of the Commonwealth ‘eminent persons’ group working to end apartheid in South Africa 1985–86. He left the Liberal Party in 2009 as a protest against its harsh policies against refugees.

Ayres, P., Malcolm Fraser. 1987; Simons, M., with Fraser, M., Malcolm Fraser: The Political Memoirs. 2010.

Fraser, Peter (1884–1950). New Zealand politician, born in Scotland. He emigrated in 1910, became a trade union leader in Auckland and on the formation of the New Zealand Labour Party (1916) became a committee member. He was elected to parliament (1918), became Minister for Education and Health 1935–40 and Prime Minister 1940–49, coping with New Zealand’s role in World War II and post-war reconstruction. He received a CH in 1945.

Fraser, Simon (Thomas) (1776–1862). Canadian explorer, born in New York State. At 18 he joined the North West Company which sent him (1805) to extend the company’s activities beyond the Rocky Mountains. The expedition proved to be difficult and dangerous. In British Columbia in 1808, he explored the Fraser River (Sto:lo in the local language), later named for him by David Thompson. Unsuccessful in business, he left valuable journals of his explorations. Simon Fraser University was founded in 1965.

Fraunhofer, Joseph von (1787–1826). German optical physicist, born in Bavaria. Trained as a maker of optical instruments, while working to perfect an achromatic lens he invented a spectroscope that observed and recorded more than 300 dark absorption lines in the solar spectrum, and are now called ‘Fraunhofer lines’. (*Wollaston had noted a few lines in 1802. Their significance was explained in 1858 by *Kirchhoff.) Professor of physics at Munich 1823–26, he was ennobled in 1824.

Frazer, Ian Hector (1953– ). Australian medical scientist, born in Glasgow. Educated at Edinburgh University, he began work in Australia in 1981, and, with Jian Zhou, developed a vaccine for human papilloma virus (HPV)—the first designed to prevent cancer—which is being administered widely to girls to reduce the risk of cervical cancer. Elected FRS and FAA, he was Australian of the Year in 2006, won the Balzan Prize in 2008 and received an AC in 2012.

Frazer, Sir James George (1854–1941). British anthropologist, born in Glasgow. He was a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge 1879–1941 and taught briefly (1907) at Liverpool. His greatest work, The Golden Bough (2 volumes, 1890, expanded into 12 volumes by 1915), is still greatly admired as a monumental source book for ritual beliefs throughout the world, although the interpretations he offered are no longer entirely accepted. His other major works are Totemism and Exogamy (1910) and Folklore in the Old Testament (1918). He received the OM in 1925.

Downie, A., Frazer and the ‘Golden Bough’. 1970.

Frederick or Frederick William. German or Prussian Kings and Emperors see Friedrich or Friedrich Wilhelm

Frederick V (of Wittelsbach, known as ‘the Winter King’) (1596–1632). King of Bohemia 1619–20. Elector Palatine 1610–20, he was elected King of Bohemia when the Diet deposed the emperor *Ferdinand II, an event that marked the beginning of the Thirty Years’ War. He ruled only for a winter until his defeat at the battle of White Mountain (1620). He married Elizabeth, daughter of *James I, and his children included Prince *Rupert and the Electress *Sophia, mother of *George I.

Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange (1584–1647). Dutch soldier and statesman. Son of *William the Silent, he became regent for the princes of Orange on the death of his half-brother *Maurice of Nassau. He was the first member of the House of Orange to assume quasi-monarchical powers in his fight to free the country of Spanish domination. His military successes, domestic policies and international diplomacy all paved the way for an honourable peace with Spain in 1648.

Frederick Louis (or Lewis), Prince of Wales (1707–1751). British prince, born in Hanover. Son of *George II, with whom he quarrelled bitterly, he was Prince of Wales 1727–51 and father of *George III. Incorrigibly addicted to intrigue, he plotted against Robert *Walpole, was a major promoter (and occasional player) of cricket and lawn tennis, suffering injuries in both. He died from a burst abscess in the lung: his parents did not attend the funeral. The dismissive lines: ‘Here lies Fred/ who was alive and is dead/ but there’s no more to be said’ were unduly harsh.

Frederik IX (1899–1972). King of Denmark 1947–72. Son of *Christian X, he married Princess Ingrid of Sweden (1935). Lacking male heirs, he sponsored a constitutional amendment to enable his eldest daughter, now Queen *Margrethe II, to succeed.

Frege, (Friedrich Ludwig) Gottlob (1848–1925). German mathematician and philosopher. One of the pioneers of modern logic, he was particularly interested in the close connexion between logic and mathematics. His thinking exerted a strong influence on Bertrand *Russell, who nevertheless criticised some of his propositions.

Frei (Montalva), Eduardo (1911–1982). Chilean Christian Democratic politician. A lawyer and academic, he led the conservative, anti-fascist Christian Democrats and was President 1964–70. His son Eduardo Frei (Ruiz-Tagle) (1941– ), was elected President in 1993 at the head of a centre-left coalition which received 58 per cent of the vote. He served 1994–2000.

Freire, Nelson (1944– ). Brazilian pianist, born in Boa Esperança. He played *Mozart in public at the age of 4, later studying in Brazil and Vienna. His international career began in 1959 and he won awards for his CDs of *Mozart, *Beethoven, *Chopin, *Liszt, *Brahms and *Debussy.

Frémont, John Charles (1813–1890). American soldier and explorer. Known as ‘the Pathfinder’, his surveys established various feasible overland routes from east to west in America. One of the first US senators elected from California 1850–51, he became the first Republican candidate for president in 1856, losing to *Buchanan. He was Major General in charge of the Department of the West 1861–62 until forced to resign. During the California gold rush he made a fortune which he then lost in railway speculations, resulting in a charge of fraud. He was Governor of Arizona territory 1878–83.

Nevins, A., Fremont: Pathfinder of the West. 1955.

French, John (Denton Pinkstone), 1st Earl of Ypres (1852–1925). English field marshal, born in Kent. He commanded the cavalry in the Boer War (1899–1901) with Douglas *Haig as his chief of staff. Chief of the Imperial General Staff 1912–14, promoted to field marshal in 1913, although closer to the Liberals than the Conservatives, he was obliged to resign for giving unauthorised undertakings that the army would not act against the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), despite its threat to use force against Home Rule for Ireland (‘The Curragh Mutiny’). Despite this professional setback, he was chosen as Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) to France on the outbreak of World War I. He commanded during the retreat from Mons, the subsequent counter-attack at the Marne, the first two battles of Ypres, and the Battle of Loos (autumn) which he mishandled, leading to his recall and replacement by Haig. He became Commander-in-Chief of the Home Forces 1915–18 and Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland 1918–21, at a time of civil war. His memoir 1914 (1919) was regarded as grossly self-serving. He was rewarded after every failure: the OM when he resigned over Ulster (1914); made Viscount French after his defeats in Flanders (1916); £50,000 when the war ended, and he was commanding the home forces, culminating in the earldom of Ypres (1922) after his disastrous term in Ireland. He was indiscreet in his private life, and often in debt. His sister Charlotte Despard (née French) (1844–1925) was a writer and social activist, a friend of Eleanor *Marx, a Catholic convert, and passionate suffragette.

Clark, A., The Donkeys. A History of the BEF in 1915. 1961; Holmes, R., The Little Field Marshal. 2004.

French, Robert Shenton (1947– ). Australian jurist, born in Western Australia. He graduated in science and law and was mildly involved in the Liberal Party. A Justice of the Federal Court 1986–2008 and President of the National Native Title Tribunal, he was appointed Chief Justice of the High Court 2008–17 by the *Rudd Government.

Frescobaldi, Girolamo (1583–1643). Italian composer. Organist of St Peter’s, Rome, from 1608, he was regarded as one of the first great masters of composition for the organ and, through his pupils, a strong influence on European baroque music.

Fresnel, Augustin Jean (1788–1827). French physicist. An engineer by profession, he became interested in physical optics and was the first to produce the optical effects now known as interference fringes. His discovery that these effects resulted from interference between two beams of light gave great support to the wave theory of light. He also gave a clear explanation of polarisation and diffraction and invented the compound lighthouse lens. His many honours included the Rumford Medal of the British Royal Society.

Freud, Lucian Michael (1922–2011). British painter, born in Berlin. Son of an architect and grandson of Sigmund *Freud, he migrated to England with his family in 1933. He became a powerful and disturbing figurative painter, with a deep impasto and convincing representation of flesh. He made several self-portraits, some nude, and studies of *Elizabeth II, Francis *Bacon, David *Hockney, Frank *Auerbach, the Australian-born performance artist Leigh Bowery, and of his mother. He received a CH in 1983 and the OM in 1993.

Feaver, W., The Lives of Lucian Freud. 2019.

Freud, Sigmund (1856–1939). Austrian-Jewish founder of psychoanalysis, born in Freiburg, Moravia (now Príbor, Czech Republic). He lived in Vienna from 1860, was educated first by his parents, then at the Leopoldstädt Obergymnasium, entered the Vienna University medical school in 1873 but did not graduate until 1881, because of a distracting preoccupation with zoology. The writings of *Goethe and *Darwin influenced him and he was well read in the classics. Freud passed through sharply contrasting periods of influence by successive mentors. He worked at the Physiological Institute 1876–82 with Ernst von Brucke (1819–1892), who insisted that all nervous disorders had purely physical causes, and at the General Hospital (1882–85) was an enthusiastic advocate for cocaine as a ‘magical’ and harmless drug for depression and indigestion. Appointed a lecturer in neuropathology at Vienna University (1885), he studied in Paris for four months at the Salpêtrière Hospital under Jean Martin *Charcot, and on his return in 1886 began in private practice and married Martha Bernays (1861–1951). With Josef *Breuer he worked on hypnosis as a cure for hysteria and they published Studies in Hysteria (1895). Freud modified Breuer’s cathartic treatment, which forced patients to confront suppressed (unconscious) memory of trauma, developing ‘free association’ instead of hypnosis in the technique of psychoanalysis. A Berlin otolaryngologist, Wilhelm Fliess (or Fließ) (1858–1928), proposed some bizarre theories of his own (e.g. linking sexual organs and the nose) but encouraged Freud’s self-analysis, leading to his identification of the Oedipus complex (*Sophocles) and theories of infantile sexuality, partly drawn from his own experience. His controversial ‘seduction’ theory was proposed, then withdrawn, accusations of sexual molestation being then mostly attributed to fantasy. Freud regarded The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) as his greatest achievement, arguing that repressed desires and frustrations were revealed in dreams: once exposed to the conscious (waking) mind, neuroses should disappear. By 1900 he had discounted possible physical causes for neurological problems, transferring interest from the body to the psyche (soul in Greek). In 1902 he was given the title of Extraordinary (i.e. Associate) Professor, being promoted to Ordinary Professor in 1920, but with no department. In 1908 he founded the International Psycho-Analytical Association, visiting the US in 1909. His early disciples, notably Carl *Jung, Alfred *Adler and Otto Rank, later departed from Freudian orthodoxy, rejecting infantile sexuality, and founded their own schools. Freud’s work was highly subjective, philosophical, intuitive and speculative rather than clinical and statistical. Opponents have described it as a closed system, analogous to religion or politics, failing the scientific criteria of testability and replicability (proposed by *Popper). Other major works include Totem and Taboo (1913), Civilisation and its Discontents (1930) and Moses and Monotheism (1939). In The Ego and the Id (Das Ich und Das Es, 1923), he proposed three levels of mental activity: the ‘I’ (conscious and rational), the ‘Id’ (instinctive unconscious desires) and the ‘Over-I’, (‘Überich’ or ‘Superego’: ethical control mechanism, often unconscious). From 1923 he suffered, stoically, from cancer of the jaw and in 1938, after *Hitler’s Anschluss in Austria, he left for Britain where he was welcomed and admitted as FRS, working in London until his death aged 83.

Extraordinarily prolific and a master of German prose, between 1915 and 1938 Freud was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Medicine 32 times and once for Literature (by Romain *Rolland). All nominations failed and his claims were probably superior in literature than in medicine. His followers compared him to *Copernicus and *Darwin but whatever his scientific credentials, Freud raised fundamental questions about human existence and his theories have had immense influence not only in psychology but in art (e.g. *Klee, *Picasso, *Dali, *Miró), literature (*Proust, *Musil, *Kafka, *Joyce); film (*Fellini, *Bergman), education and child rearing, anthropology and mythology. W. H. *Auden wrote of Freud ‘he is no more a person now but a whole climate of opinion’. He remained intensely controversial. His scientific methodology was criticised by Popper and *Medawar, his theories attacked by feminists as ‘phallocentric’, while Jeffrey Masson, having worked in the Freud archives, attacked his modification of the seduction theory as evasive.

His daughter Anna Freud (1895–1982) became a pioneer child psychiatrist in London. Grandsons included the painter Lucian *Freud, and Sir Clement Raphael Freud (1924–2009), broadcaster, chef, writer on food, and Liberal MP 1973–87: the brothers never spoke to each other.

Clark, R. W., Freud: The Man and the Cause. 1980; Gay, P., Freud. A Life for Our Time. 1985; Jones, E., Sigmund Freud: Life and Work. 3 vols, 1953–57, 1996; Ferris, P., Dr Freud. 1997; Kerr, J., A Most Dangerous Method: The Story of Jung, Freud and Sabina Spielrein. 1993.

Freyberg, Bernard Cyril Freyberg, 1st Baron (1889–1963). New Zealand soldier. Trained as a dentist, in World War I he won the VC and DSO with two bars and became the friend of Winston *Churchill and Rupert *Brooke. In World War II he commanded the New Zealand forces in Greece, Crete, North Africa and Italy. He was Governor-General of New Zealand 1946–52.

Freyre, Gilberto de Mello (1900–1987). Brazilian scholar, born in Recife. He made a detailed study of Brazilian social conditions. He visited many countries and his lectures and sociological writings won him an international reputation. His greatest work is Casa Grande e Senzule (Masters and Slaves, revised edition 1956), a penetrating study of Brazilian plantation life before the abolition of slavery. His other works include Sobrados e Mucambos (Mansions and Shanties) and (in English) Brazil: An Interpretation (1945).

Frick, Henry Clay (1849–1919). American industrialist. He supplied coke for Pittsburgh’s steel mills, then worked with Andrew *Carnegie, becoming a founder of the US Steel Corporation (1901), with a very bad record in labour relations. He is now remembered for the Frick Collection, paintings largely bought through Joseph *Duveen, on show in his mansion at 1 East 70th Street on 5th Avenue, New York. A second Frick Art Museum is in Pittsburgh.

Frick, Wilhelm (1877–1946). German Nazi administrator. A colourless civil servant and police administrator, he was the first Nazi to hold office, as Minister for the Interior in Thuringia 1929–33. *Hitler’s Minister for the Interior 1933–43 and Protector of Bohemia and Moravia 1943–45, he was hanged at Nuremberg.

Friedan, Betty (née Betty Naomi Goldstein) (1921–2006). American feminist writer, born in Peoria, Illinois. Educated at Smith College, she wrote The Feminine Mystique (1963), a primary text for the women’s liberation movement, founded the National Organisation for Women in 1966, taught at several universities, but was outflanked by more radical feminists. She wrote The Fountain of Age (1992) as a vigorous protest against the concepts of statutory senility and ‘ageism’.

Friedman, Milton (1912–2006). American economist. The most influential of conservative American economists, he was a trenchant critic of Keynesian theories, advocating a monetarist position, i.e. that changes in money supply precede changes in economic activity rather than following on. A professor of economics at Chicago University 1948–76, he received the Nobel Prize for Economic Science in 1976.

Friedrich (Frederick) I (known as Barbarossa) (c.1122–1190). Holy Roman Emperor 1155–90 and German King 1152–90. Son of the Hohenstaufen Duke of Swabia, he was linked through his mother with the Guelph dynasty. After his election as German King (1152) he was in a position to end the long dynastic feud that had rent Germany. He established his power in Northern Italy (1154) and was crowned Emperor by Pope *Adrian IV in Rome (1155). In 1158 his capture of Milan and enforcement of imperial claims in Lombardy produced a strained relationship between the papacy and empire, exacerbated when *Alexander III succeeded Pope Adrian. The imperialists elected an anti-pope and Friedrich was excommunicated. Time after time he returned to Italy to repair the damaging effects of his absence. He even captured Rome (1167) but was forced by the ravages of the plague to retire. In 1174 he found the Lombard cities again in revolt but, after a severe defeat at Legnano (1176), he made peace with the pope (1177) and eventually with the Lombards. Free now to deal with his Guelph cousin *Heinrich (‘the Lion’) who had been causing trouble in Germany, he deprived him of his estates and drove him into exile (1180). On his way to Palestine for the 3rd Crusade, of which he was chosen leader, Friedrich was drowned in a river in Asia Minor. He had an attractive personality and the qualities of a great ruler. There is a tradition that he is not dead, but sleeping, and one day will awake to defend Germany at a time of crisis.

Munz, P., Frederick Barbarossa. 1969.

Friedrich I (1657–1713). First King of Prussia 1701–13. He succeeded his father, *Friedrich Wilhelm, the ‘Great Elector’, of Brandenburg in 1688 and assumed the title of king in 1701. He ranged himself against France in the War of the Spanish Succession and his policy throughout his reign was to sustain the Habsburg cause. He founded the Berlin Academy of Arts (1696) and Sciences (1707) and the University of Halle (1694) and was the patron of *Leibniz. An attempt to give peasants hereditary leases of his domains was foiled by the nobles.

Friedrich II (1194–1250). Holy Roman Emperor 1220–50 and German King 1215–50. Grandson of Emperor *Friedrich I (Barbarossa), he was son of the emperor *Heinrich VI, on whose death (1198) he inherited the throne of Sicily, where he was born. When orphaned at the age of 4 he was taken under the guardianship of Pope *Innocent III. He received papal support during his struggle against Otto of Bavaria for recognition as German king, which ended with Friedrich’s coronation (1215) after Otto’s defeat at Bouvines. He was crowned Emperor (1220) in Rome, having promised, in return for the Pope’s aid, to give up the throne of Sicily to his son and lead a crusade. He delayed his start until 1227 and was excommunicated when, on the plea of illness, he almost immediately returned. He resumed his crusading activities, however, when having taken as his second wife the daughter of the King of Jerusalem he went to Palestine (1229), induced the Saracens to give up Jerusalem (where he was crowned King) and secured peace in the Holy Land for 10 years. He reformed and centralised the government of Sicily but allowed the German princes yet more autonomy (1231), while his protracted struggle in Italy during the last 20 years of his reign failed to break the resistance of the papacy and the Lombard League. He suffered a severe defeat at Parma (1248) but was preparing a new campaign when he died. The conception of unified imperial rule over Italy and Germany had again proved impractical. Friedrich was a brilliant but unstable figure, capable of both great cruelty and scientific detachment. His court at Palermo became a great artistic and cultural centre, he was fluent in six languages, a legal reformer (his code for Sicily proved an enduring achievement), a natural historian (he wrote a textbook on ornithology) and a religious sceptic. Described by the English chronicler Matthew *Paris as ‘the wonder of the world’ (Stupor Mundi), he fostered Greek, Jewish and Islamic cultural heritages and insisted on the use of Arabic numerals instead of Roman.

Masson, G., Frederick II of Hohenstaufen. 1973; Kantorowicz, E., Frederick the Second Wonder of the World. 1931. English translation 2019.

Friedrich II (Friedrich der Grosse or Frederick the Great) (1712–1786). King of Prussia 1740–86. Born in Berlin, he was the son of *Friedrich Wilhelm I and Sophia, daughter of *George I of Britain. His taste for music, poetry and philosophy and his predilection for French culture infuriated his boorish and tyrannical father, and the two lived in a state of mutual hatred. After an attempt by Friedrich to escape to England had been foiled, he was imprisoned and forced to watch the beheading of Hans von Katte, his friend and accomplice (1730). After 15 months he submitted to his father. Rewarded with the gift of a country estate at Rheinsberg, in 1733 he married Elisabeth Christina of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1715–1797) but they soon separated and there were no children. Until 1740 he led the agreeable life of a dilettante, reading much, corresponding with *Voltaire and other writers and conversing with the witty and the wise. His historical reading imbued him with a lust for fame, while his lifelong practice in concealing his thoughts and deeds from his father had left him with few scruples. A gifted librettist, flautist and composer, he employed C.P.E. *Bach, and J. S. *Bach dedicated The Musical Offering (1747) to him.

His accession coincided with the crisis caused by the death of the emperor *Charles VI, who, lacking male heirs, had spent his last years in getting promises (the Pragmatic Sanction) from European rulers to support the transfer of his hereditary dominions to his daughter *Maria Theresa. Friedrich Wilhelm had promised with the rest, but Friedrich, whose most valued inheritance was a fully trained and finely equipped army, revived an old claim to the duchy of Silesia which he invaded when it was denied. Friedrich’s victories at Mollwitz (1741) and Chotusitz (1742) decided Maria Theresa to yield Silesia by the Treaty of Breslau (1742), but Austrian successes against Bavaria and its French ally alarmed Friedrich and in 1744 he again intervened. Another series of victories enabled him to emerge from the War of Austrian Succession with his possession of Silesia confirmed. Maria Theresa, however, retained the Habsburg territories and her husband, *Franz of Lorraine, was elected Emperor.

The years of peace witnessed a diplomatic revolution. Maria Theresa, eager for revenge, came to terms with France (with the result that Britain was allied with Friedrich in the ensuing Seven Years’ War) and gained the alliance of Empress *Elizabeth of Russia. Friedrich, after receiving no reply to a demand for a declaration of their intentions, invaded Saxony (1756). In 1757 the Austrians, who had invaded Silesia, had to withdraw after his great victories of Rossbach and Leuthen. But numbers began to tell. Friedrich held his own in 1758, but in 1759 suffered a crushing defeat by Austrians and Russians at Kunersdorf and spoke of suicide. He rallied in 1760 but ultimate defeat seemed certain when the Tsarina died (January 1762) and was succeeded by Friedrich’s admirer *Peter II, who left the alliance. Friedrich, thus saved, was glad to retain his position of 1756 by the Treaty of Hubertsburg (1763). The acquisition of West Prussia in the first partition of Poland with Austria and Russia (1772) enabled him to link East Prussia and Brandenburg. But from 1756 his time was mainly taken up with peaceful restoration of his country. The addition of Silesia had doubled the population of Prussia and his own efforts did much to increase its wealth. He played the role of benevolent despot, travelling constantly, remedying troubles as he went. A state bank, a state porcelain factory, and a silk industry were started, he bribed settlers to come in and cultivate reclaimed land. His personal extravagances were few. The small palace of Sans Souci, near Potsdam (1745–47) was built by Georg von Knobelsdorff to Friedrich’s design. And yet he continued to dislike and despise the people for whom he did so much. When Voltaire lived in Berlin and Potsdam (1750–53), the two found that it was distance that had lent the enchantment, but Friedrich remained true to his allegiance to French culture. He was a prolific writer in French, and is regarded as one of the ‘enlightened despots’. His skill and acumen, both military and political, laid the foundations for Prussia’s domination of the future Germany, but equally his aggressive policies and defiance of international obligations set a pattern that Germany was to follow. He died at Sans Souci but was only buried there, with his dogs, and according to his wishes, in 1991.

Horn, D. B., Frederick the Great and the Rise of Prussia. 1964; Blanning, T., Frederick the Great: King of Prussia. 2015.

Friedrich III (1415–1493). Holy Roman Emperor and German King 1440–93. A cousin of Albrecht II (1397–1439), king of Hungary, Bohemia and king-elect of Germany, he was Duke of Austria, elected as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor in 1440, but not crowned by the Pope, in Rome, until 1452. The first *Habsburg Emperor, he had the longest reign until *Franz Joseph. Emotionally remote, regarded by contemporaries as weak and indolent, he proved successful in avoiding conflict, was known as ‘the Peaceful’ and arranged dynastic marriages to expand Habsburg influence. He died after an amputation of his leg. His son *Maximilian I succeeded.

Friedrich III (1831–1888). German Emperor and King of Prussia 1888. In 1858 he married Princess *Victoria of Great Britain and adopted her political views, based on British political practice; he therefore found himself in opposition to his father, *Wilhelm I, and *Bismarck (there was deep mutual dislike). After a reign of only 99 days he died of cancer of the throat and was succeeded by his son *Wilhelm II.

Friedrich Wilhelm (known as the ‘Great Elector’) (1620–1688). Elector of Brandenburg 1640–88. He built up his state, which had been enlarged though much weakened by the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48). To hold its scattered possessions together he managed by extreme frugality to build up a small standing army (about 30,000 men) which enabled him to pursue a foreign policy that varied in accordance with the amount of subsidy he could exact for the use of his troops. By changing sides in the war between Sweden and Poland he was able to secure the independence (1657) of the Prussian duchy which he had formerly held as a Polish fief. Internally his rule was based on a compromise with the nobility. He established a centralised bureaucracy but allowed the nobles increased powers on their own estates and over their serfs. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by *Louis XIV, Friedrich Wilhelm encouraged a large influx of Huguenot refugees, who helped the growth of industry. He founded libraries, introduced educational reforms and extended Berlin as the capital.

Schevill, F., The Great Elector. 1948.

Friedrich Wilhelm I (1688–1740). King of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg 1713–40. His father, whom he succeeded, was *Friedrich I, his wife, Sophia Dorothea, daughter of *George I of Great Britain. It was the centralised administration and the army that he perfected that enabled his son *Friedrich II to turn Prussia into a great power. Friedrich Wilhelm ruled as a complete autocrat and martinet, his court was like an officers’ mess. Anyone, such as his son, who opposed him he treated with savage intolerance, but despite his scorn for culture he introduced compulsory elementary education. His army was at once his pride and delight. To fill its ranks he compelled the peasants to enlist and the young nobles to become officer cadets, and he trained and equipped it to be the finest instrument of policy in all Europe. The collection of tall men for his personal guard was a favourite hobby, and kidnapping one of the methods used to indulge it. It was asserted that the forcible mating of its members with tall women was a way by which he hoped to secure future recruits. But he was reluctant to subject such a magnificent body of men to war and his foreign policy was to avoid conflict.

Friedrich Wilhelm II (1744–1797). King of Prussia 1786–97. He succeeded his uncle, *Friedrich II (‘the Great’), but proved a feeble administrator, dependent on favourites. He joined Austria in an ineffective attempt to overthrow by force the French Revolutionary government (1792–95). During his reign Prussia gained territory by the partitions of Poland (1792 and 1795).

Friedrich Wilhelm III (1770–1840). King of Prussia 1797–1840. The son of *Friedrich Wilhelm II, who came to the throne shortly before *Napoléon Bonaparte seized power, his vacillating character made him incapable of coping with events which precipitated him into war against France (1806), and he was heavily defeated at Jena. The humiliation of the Treaty of Tilsit impelled him to turn to *Stein, *Hardenburg and *Scharnhorst, whose reforms and administration braced Prussia for its part in the final overthrow of Napoléon, after which, as a member of the Holy Alliance, he grew increasingly reactionary.

Friedrich Wilhelm IV (1795–1861). King of Prussia 1841–61. Succeeding his father, *Friedrich Wilhelm III, after a long reactionary rule, he was essentially a romantic medievalist. The liberal revolutionaries of 1848 mistakenly thought he was sympathetic to reform. He agreed to some minor changes and opened up dialogue with the Catholic Church but refused to become ruler of a united democratic Germany, and would have preferred reviving the Holy Roman Empire under Austrian leadership. He yielded to the reactionaries around him headed by his brother, the future Kaiser *Wilhelm I, crushed the revolutionary forces and imposed a constitution (1850) that left the balance of political power virtually unchanged. In 1858 he became insane and his brother acted as regent.

Friedrich, Caspar David (1774–1840). German painter. A leading Romantic, with some parallels to his contemporary *Turner, his luminous landscapes are marked by melancholy and spirituality.

Friese-Greene (originally Greene) William (1855–1921). English pioneer of cinematography. Originally a portrait photographer in Bristol, he took out (1889) the first patent for camera and projector using celluloid film with perforated edges. He also worked on colour and stereoscopic films but lacked the finance necessary to exploit his discovery and died in poverty.

Frink, Dame Elizabeth (1930–1993). British sculptor and graphic artist. She studied at the Chelsea School of Art, and taught sculpture there 1953–60 and at St Martin’s School of Art 1955–64. Her powerful bronzes are in many public collections and she illustrated The Odyssey (1974) and The Iliad (1975).

Frisch, Karl von (1886–1982). Austrian zoologist, born in Vienna. He studied in Munich, and later held chairs at Breslau, Munich and Graz. He conducted research on recognition and communication first in fish and later in bees. He demonstrated that fish had sharp hearing and could distinguish between colours and degrees of brightness. His most famous work established that honeybees orient themselves through the sun and can recall patterns of polarisation even when it is not visible, and that they communicate with other bees by dancing movements: wagging dances for distant food, round dances when food is close. He shared the 1973 Nobel Prize for Medicine with his fellow ethologists Konrad *Lorenz and Nikolaas *Tinbergen.

Frisch, Max Rudolf (1911–1991). Swiss novelist and playwright, born in Zürich. Trained as an architect, his novel I’m Not Stiller (1954) became a critical success, but he was better known for his plays, influenced, as he acknowledged, by Bertolt *Brecht and Thornton *Wilder. His main concern was with man’s destiny and the difficulties of realising it through the normal behaviour patterns of a modern society. His first play was Nur Singen sie Wieder (Now They Are Singing Again, 1945), the best known, Andorra (1962).

Weisstein, U., Max Frisch. 1967.

Frisch, Otto Robert (1904–1979). Austrian-Jewish-British physicist, born in Austria. A nephew of Lise *Meitner, he graduated from the University of Vienna and worked with P.M.S. *Blackett in London and Niels *Bohr in Copenhagen. At Birmingham University he conducted research on nuclear fission. With Rudolf *Peierls, he wrote the Frisch-Peierls memorandum (March 1940) which outlined how an atomic bomb could be built using a modest amount of uranium-235. He worked on the ‘Manhattan Project’ to construct the bomb 1943–45. In 1947 he became Jacksonian professor of natural philosophy at Cambridge, head of the nuclear physics section of the Cavendish Laboratory and a Fellow of Trinity College, being elected FRS in 1948.

Frisch, Ragnar (1895–1973). Norwegian economist. Professor of Economics at Oslo 1931–65, he was editor of the journal Econometrica 1933–55 and pioneered the use of advanced statistical techniques in economic theory. He shared the first Nobel Prize in Economic Science in 1969 with Jan *Tinbergen.

Frith, William Powell (1819–1909). English painter. His huge paintings, notable for their almost photographic realism, are packed with incidents and reveal many details of historical interest about Victorian England. They include The Great Exhibition (1851), Derby Day (1858) and The Railway Station (1862). He became an RA in 1852.

Frobenius, Johannes (c.1460–1527). German printer, born in Bavaria. By establishing himself (1491) at Basle he made the city the centre of the German book trade. He published a Latin Bible, a Greek New Testament and editions of several of the early Fathers of the Church. Among those who prepared his publications for the press were *Erasmus and *Holbein. He also printed the works of *Hippocrates and *Galen.

Frobisher, Sir Martin (1535–1594). English sailor and explorer, born in Yorkshire. Originally, with John *Hawkins and others, a privateer in the Indies, he sailed (1576) with a small expedition in search of the Northwest Passage. From Labrador he brought back some black earth believed to contain gold. Two other expeditions (1577 and 1578) brought further supplies but attempts to extract gold failed. He was knighted for his part in the Armada battles, after which he married and attempted to settle down. Soon he was at sea again on the lookout for Spanish treasure ships but was mortally wounded in an attack on Brest.

Froebel, Friedrich Wilhelm August (1782–1852). German educationist. Founder of the Froebel method for teaching small children, he worked with *Pestalozzi in Switzerland (1807–09) and in several books developed his theories, based on the belief that children up to the age of seven should grow naturally and spontaneously like a plant or an animal, and that the development and coordination of mind and body should be helped by activities most calculated to achieve this purpose. Froebel opened (1807) his first Kindergarten (children’s garden) in Blankenburg, Thuringia where traditional schooling was replaced by methods involving the more spontaneous and creative activities he had advocated in his books. The rest of his life was spent in founding schools and training teachers.

Lilley, I. M., Friedrich Froebel. 1967.

Froissart, Jean (c.1333–1405). French chronicler. He observed, and wrote in vivid detail about 14th-century life and events. He travelled widely in search of information for his Chroniques and in England was received by *Edward III and Queen *Philippa (who also came from Hainaut). Although a chief source for the period in which he lived, his record is of the life of courts and chivalry and does not provide an authentic broad picture of the century of the Hundred Years War and its attendant misery. He also wrote verses in a wide range of forms, including a metrical romance about the Round Table.

Fromm, Erich (1900–1980). German-American social psychologist, born in Frankfurt. Educated at Heidelberg, he lived in the US from 1922. His work attempted to link the teachings of *Freud and *Marx, applying psychoanalytical method to sociology. In The Fear of Freedom (1941) he postulated that humans have eight basic needs: relatedness, transcendence, rootedness, sense of identity, frame of orientation, excitation and stimulation, unity, effectiveness. Later books included The Art of Loving (1956) and The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness (1973).

Friedman, L. J., The Lives of Erich Fromm. Love’s Prophet. 2013.

Frondizi, Arturo (1908–1995). Argentinian politician. Son of Italian immigrants, he made his reputation as a lawyer by defending left-wing political prisoners, and as a politician (he became a deputy in 1946) by leading the opposition to *Perón. In the first constitutional elections held after Perón’s overthrow, Frondizi, leader of the left wing of the Radical party, was elected President (1957). However, he failed to rally the country behind him and to cure the inherent economic ills and was deposed (March 1962).

Frontenac, Louis de Buade, Comte de (1620–1698). French colonist. As Governor of New France in North America 1672–82 and 1689–98 he constructed a chain of forts and trading stations from Québec to the Gulf of Mexico with the aims of linking the colonies, encouraging commerce and confining the English settlers to the coastal territories. His remarkable success in winning the confidence of the Indians enabled him to make them his allies against the English.

Le Sueur, W. D., Count Frontenac. 1964.

Frost, Robert (Lee) (1874–1963). American poet, born in San Francisco. He studied briefly at Dartmouth College and Harvard, later working as carpenter, teacher 1905–12 and farmer. He lived in England 1912–15 and there published his first books of poetry,A Boy’s Will (1913) and North of Boston (1914). Frost was professor of English at Amherst College for long spells between 1916 and 1938 and later gave lectures at Harvard. His later publications included Mountain Interval (1916), New Hampshire (1923), From Snow to Snow (1936),Witness Tree (1942) and Steeple Bush (1947). His Complete Poems was issued in 1951.In the Clearing appeared in 1962. He won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1924, 1931, 1937 and 1943. His poetry belongs in scene and character to rural New England, and extols self-reliance, self-knowledge and the simple life, conveying moreover, by the subtlest means, a hint of the mysterious or even the macabre to the most commonplace scene. He ranks among the greatest poets of the century.

Thompson, L., Robert Frost. 3 vols, 1966, 1970, 1974; Meyers, J., Robert Frost. 1996.

Froude, James Anthony (1818–1894). English historian and novelist, born in Devon. Son of a clergyman, educated at Westminster School and Oxford, he took deacon’s orders, but, because of increasing scepticism, never became a priest. His greatest work was The History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada (12 volumes, 1856–70). This was followed by The English in Ireland in the Eighteenth Century (3 volumes, 1871–74). His novels, and his Tudor history, came under savage attack, but his industry and close reading of the archives in Britain and Europe was exceptional. Professor of modern history at Oxford 1892–94, he was the close friend and literary executor of Thomas *Carlyle and wrote Life of Carlyle (1884), a work of unparalleled frankness for the era. He also wrote biographies of *Bunyan, *Disraeli, *Luther and Julius *Caesar. Despite his gifts, Froude is no longer read. His writing had an obsessive quality which repels, but he had extraordinary flashes of insight.

Brady, C., James Anthony Froude: An Intellectual Biography of a Victorian Prophet. 2013.

Fry, C(harles) B(urgess) (1872–1956). English gentleman athlete. Educated at Wadham College, Oxford, he was a scholar who won blues for athletics, cricket and football, and held the world’s long jump record 1893–95. He captained the English XI (at the age of 40) against Australia and South Africa (1912), made 30,886 runs in first class cricket and was regarded as the greatest batsman of his time. A journalist, he ran as a Liberal for the House of Commons 1921, 1923, 1924, claimed to have been offered the Albanian throne and represented India at the League of Nations. Paranoid after 1929, he became a fawning admirer of *Hitler in the 1930s.

Fry, Christopher (originally Arthur Raymond Harris) (1907–2005). English dramatist, born in Bristol. Although he had written The Boy with a Cart for a pageant in 1938, he spent many years first as a teacher and then in directing repertory before he achieved his first major success with The Lady’s Not for Burning (1948). Other plays included Thor, with Angels (1949),Venus Observed (1950) and The Dark Is Light Enough (1954). Ring Round the Moon (1950) was adapted from a play by *Anouilh and Tiger at the Gates (1955) from Jean *Giraudoux. Fantasy, lyricism and verbal facility almost give the effect of improvisation making him one of the rare successful verse dramatists of the 20th century.

Fry, Elizabeth (née Gurney) (1780–1845). English Quaker and pioneer of prison reform. She interested herself early in social reform, and in 1813 she was appalled by the condition of women prisoners in Newgate. She gave them decent clothing, and read and explained the Bible to them. In 1817 she formed an association which extended its activity to prisons outside London and to convict ships.

Fry, Joseph (1728–1787). English chocolate manufacturer. A Quaker, and at first a doctor, he manufactured pottery in Bristol before founding (1764) the famous chocolate factory, basis of the family’s fortunes. He also became famous as a type-founder. His great-grandson, Sir Edward Fry (1827–1918) was an eminent jurist in international disputes and father of Roger *Fry.

Fry, Roger Elliot (1866–1934). English art critic and painter. Curator of painting at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art 1905–10 and art adviser to J. P. *Morgan, he coined the term ‘post-impressionism’, did much to secure recognition for *Cézanne, and later *Matisse and *Picasso, and was a leading member of the ‘Bloomsbury’ group (Clive *Bell). His writings on art reflect an exact and formal approach to the exposition of aesthetic principles. His criticism appeared chiefly in essays, collected in Vision and Design (1921) and Transformations (1926). He maintained that the merits of a painting depended only on its form and that its content was unimportant.

Fuad I (1868–1936). King of Egypt 1922–36. Born in Cairo, he was the youngest son of *Ismail Pasha. He succeeded his brother Hussein as Sultan of Egypt (1917) and became King (1922) when the British protectorate ended. His reign consisted mainly of a struggle between the king and the popularly elected Wafd party under its leaders *Zaghlul Pasha and *Nahas Pasha.

Fuchs, Klaus Emil Julius (1911–1988). German physicist. Son of a theologian, he joined the German Communist Party (KPD) in 1932, and fled to England from Nazi Germany (1933). He gained a PhD from Bristol and a DSc from Edinburgh, and was interned on the Isle of Man and in Canada (1940). In 1941 he became assistant to Rudolf *Peierls, working with him in New York and Los Alamos in the ‘Manhattan Project’ which developed the atomic bomb (1943–45). Head of the theoretical physics department at the Harwell Atomic Energy Establishment from 1946, in 1950 he pleaded guilty to having supplied secret information to the Russians, and was sentenced to 14 years’ imprisonment. Released in 1959, he took up a scientific position in East Germany.

Fuchs, Sir Vivian Ernest (1908–1999). British geologist and explorer. From undergraduate days at Cambridge he took part in many scientific expeditions. From 1947 he worked in the Falkland Islands Dependencies as leader of the survey and later Director of the Scientific Bureau. He is best known as the leader of the Commonwealth Trans-antarctic Expedition (1957–58) in connexion with the International Geophysical Year. The crossing was successfully achieved when his party met Sir Edmund *Hillary coming from New Zealand by the South Pole. With Hillary he wrote The Crossing of Antarctica (1958).

Fuentes, Carlos (1928–2012). Mexican novelist and diplomat. Educated in Mexico City and Geneva, he worked for the Foreign Ministry, was Ambassador to France 1974–77 and held chairs at Columbia, Harvard and Pennsylvania. His novels included A Change of Skin (1967), Terra Nostra (1975), The Old Gringo (1985) and The Campaign (1991). The Buried Mirror (1992), reflections on Spain and the New World, was also a television series.

Fugard, Athol (1932– ). South African playwright, novelist, actor and director. Born to an English-Afrikaner family, he wrote a number of plays that condemned apartheid in a broader context of intolerance, alienation and loss of identity and directed the Serpent Players in Port Elizabeth. His plays include Blood Knot (1960), Boesman and Lena (1970), A Lesson from Aloes (1979) and A Place with the Pigs (1988).

Fugger. South German (Swabian) merchant family. They ultimately achieved immense wealth and influence as one of the earliest bankers of Europe. Three brothers, of whom Jakob Fugger (1459–1525) was the most important, developed a successful business centred on Augsburg, involved with trade, silver and copper mining and banking. Through loans to the Emperor *Maximilian and *Charles V, Jakob, in addition to acquiring great riches, became a count and received grants of land. He built the first model town in Europe (the Fuggerei in Augsburg), which still exists. The family was staunchly Catholic and did much to oppose Lutheranism during the Reformation.

Fujimori (Fujimori), Alberto Kenya (1939– ). Peruvian politician. Son of Japanese immigrants, educated in Peru, France and the US, he became a university administrator, and was elected as President of Peru 1990–2000, defeating Mario *Vargas Llosa. After serious accusations of corruption, he exiled himself to Japan and resigned there. He was extradited to Peru in 2007 and after four trials was convicted of murder, kidnapping, bribery and embezzlement and sentenced to four prison terms, 25 years in total. He suffered from cancer and heart disease. He was pardoned, controversially, in December 2017, then re-arrested on murder charges. His daughter, Keiko Sofia Fujimori Higuchi (1975– ) contested the presidential elections in 2011 and 2016.

Fulbright, J(ames) William (1905–1995). American Democratic politician. A Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, he taught law at the University of Arkansas and became its president 1939–41, Member of the House of Representatives 1943–45 and Senator 1945–75. He instituted the Fulbright Scholarships for the interchange of teachers and students between the US and foreign countries.

Fulk (Foulque), Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem (1092–1143). French nobleman, born in Angers. A member of the Angevin dynasty, he was Count of Anjou 1109–29. His son *Geoffrey, progenitor of the *Plantagenet dynasty in England, was the father of *Henry II. A wealthy Crusader, as a widower Fulk married Melisende, daughter of *Baldwin II, and succeeded him as King of Jerusalem 1131–43.

Fuller, J(ohn) F(rederick) C(harles) (1878–1966). English soldier and military historian. He served in South Africa, India and France, retiring as a major general in 1933. His many books and lectures influenced German and Russian strategic thinking, but were largely ignored in Britain. He joined *Mosley’s fascist movement, was an enthusiast for *Hitler and for the occult. He wrote The Decisive Battles of the Western World, and their Influence upon History (3 vols, 1954–56).

Fuller, Melville Weston (1833–1910). American judge. A Chicago lawyer, after a relatively minor career in Democratic politics in Illinois, he was nominated by Grover *Cleveland to be Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court 1888–1910. A strict constructionist, he defended states’ rights and struck down social legislation.

Fuller, (Richard) Buckminster (1895–1983). American engineer, architect and inventor. Twice expelled from Harvard, he worked in industry for many years and gradually evolved construction techniques designed to maximise efficiency and minimise costs in producing houses and vehicles by devising interchangeable modular units. His ‘Dymaxion’ automobile, an omnidirectional vehicle with high safety and low operating cost, was ignored by the motor industry. In 1917 he invented the geodesic dome which combined maximum strength with minimum structure and within 30 years 50,000 had been built. He lectured at several universities and his many books include Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (1969).

Fuller, (Sarah) Margaret (1810–1850). American literary critic and feminist. She edited The Dial (1840–42), the magazine of the New England Transcendentalists, and became the friend of *Emerson and *Thoreau. She wrote Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845). In order to take part in the revolutionary movements of 1848 she went to Italy where she married Marquis Ossoli. On the way back to America both were drowned in a shipwreck.

Fuller, Thomas (1608–1661). English writer and divine. He was author of the Worthies of England (1662), short biographical sketches of English notables; a history of the Church; and numerous other works, e.g. Good Thoughts in Bad Times (1645), which remain readable not only for their quaint facts of which he was an ardent collector but because of his wit and homely commonsense. In the Civil War he had been chaplain of the Royalist armies but was unmolested during the Commonwealth.

Fulton, Robert (1765–1815). American inventor and engineer, born near Lancaster, Pa. From a poor Irish family, almost uneducated, he became a successful painter and lived in England 1786–97, where he invented machines for sawing marble and twisting rope and many devices for improving canal navigation. While living in France (1798–1806) he built a primitive type of submarine. In 1803 he experimented with a steamship on the Seine. Later, back in the US he launched the Clermont which in tests on the Hudson River, New York State (1807), proved much more efficient than William *Symington’s earlier Charlotte Dundas. He built (1815) the first steam warship, the Fulton, of 38 tons.

Funk, Casimir (1864–1967). Polish-American biochemist, born in Warsaw. He studied in Switzerland, worked in Berlin, Paris and London, then migrated to the US in 1915. He studied the diseases caused by specific deficiencies in diet and his paper (1917) on the subject aroused immediate interest. He coined the word ‘vitamin’ for the critical food substances already identified by Frederick *Hopkins (1906) which he had called ‘accessory food factors’.

Furet, François (1927–1997). French historian, born in Paris. He was a professor at the School of Higher Studies in social sciences 1961–77 and its president 1977–85. He emerged as the leading modern historian of the French Revolution with his Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution (1988), which emphasised political rather than economic factors. He directed the Raymond *Aron Institute 1985–92 and was elected to the Académie française in 1997. Professor at Chicago University 1985–97, he died there after a tennis accident.

Furtwängler, Wilhelm (1886–1954). German conductor and composer, born in Berlin. Noted for his romantic interpretations of the German masters, he was chief conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic 1922–27, 1938–50, the New York Philharmonic 1927–30 and the Vienna Philharmonic 1930–33. He remained in Germany during World War II (receiving *Goering’s patronage) and both before and afterwards conducted in London and many leading cities as well as at Bayreuth and Salzburg. In 1952 he was awarded the Grand Cross of Merit by the West German Government.

Fuseli, Henry (1741–1825). Swiss painter. He modified his surname of Fussl to be more Italian-sounding. After a brief career as a minister of religion he went to Berlin to study art (1763), and later went to London where *Reynolds encouraged him. His style with its range of imagination, movement and distortion is often in the same mood, but at a less elevated level, as the work of *Blake.

Tomoroy, P. T., The Life and Art of Henry Fuseli. 1972.

Fust, Johann (c.1400–1466). German printer. He lent money to finance the printing of *Gutenberg’s first books, but having sued him successfully for repayment he took over his equipment (1455) and, in partnership with his son-in-law Peter Schöffer, printed a number of fine editions.

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