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Dictionary of World Biography

H

Haakon VII (Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel) (1872–1957). King of Norway 1905–57. Born near Copenhagen, known as Prince Carl of Denmark, a member of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg dynasty, he served in the Danish navy and in 1896 married his cousin Princess Maud of Wales (1869–1938), daughter of the future *Edward VII. When Norway’s union with Sweden was dissolved, he was chosen (1905) to be king of the newly independent Norway, and revived the name Haakon, last used in 1380. His father became King of Denmark as Frederik VIII in 1906. In 1940 he led the resistance of his country to German aggression, at home and later from England. His son *Olaf V succeeded to the Norwegian throne.

Haber, Fritz (1868–1934). German chemist, born in Breslau (Wroclaw). A non-practising Jew (and Lutheran convert), he was educated at Karlsruhe and became professor of physical chemistry there 1908–11, and Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry, Berlin 1911–33. With Carl *Bosch, he developed (1908–09) a process for nitrogen fixation from the air, which led to production of ammonia and nitrates on an industrial scale, a discovery that made him very rich and transformed the manufacture of fertilisers, herbicides and explosives. His contributions to German agriculture and munitions were vital in World War I, and he also promoted the use of chlorine and mustard gases as weapons. His award of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1918 was controversial as Haber faced investigation as a war criminal. He also invented the herbicide Zyklon B, later used in Nazi extermination camps. Despite his fanatical patriotism, he had to leave Germany in 1933, was unhappy in Cambridge and soon died in Basle.

Haber, L. F., The Poisonous Cloud. 1986.

Habermas, Jürgen (1929– ). German social theorist. He taught philosophy at Heidelberg, Frankfurt and Starnberg. In his major texts, notably Theory and Practice (1963, translated 1973), he proposed a major anti-positivist critique of human knowledge, arguing that science is not value-free, and that reason is often applied as an instrument of authority and oppression.

Habibie, B(ucharuddin) J(usuf) (1936–2019). Indonesian engineer and politician. Educated at Aachen, he was an aeronautical engineer with Messerchmitt, became Minister for Research and Technology 1978–98 and *Soeharto’s Vice President 1998. His family controlled 80 companies in the power, transport and engineering sectors. On Soeharto’s sudden resignation in May he became President of Indonesia 1998–99 and promised some moderate reforms. He supported a plebiscite in East Timor which resulted in a vote for independence, provoking extraordinary violence, directed by the Indonesian army and militia supporters, leading to intervention by a UN peace-keeping force. Habibie lost credibility and withdrew as a presidential candidate in 1999.

Habsburg (or Hapsburg). German dynasty. Deriving its name from a castle in Switzerland, it gradually extended and consolidated its territories until the head of the house became Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, with many outlying territories besides. From the time of *Friedrich III (German King 1440–93) the imperial title was held almost continuously by members of the Habsburg house until the end of the Holy Roman Empire (1806) when *Franz II assumed the title of Emperor of Austria which remained with the dynasty until the last emperor, *Karl (Charles), was deposed after World War I. His son Otto von *Habsburg-Lothringen became the pretender.

Through marriage, the Habsburgs acquired Spain which they ruled from 1516 to 1700. *Philip (Felipe), son of the emperor *Maximilian, married Juana, heiress of Ferdinand and Isabella of Aragon and Castile. Their son *Charles V became King of Spain, as Carlos I, before his election as Holy Roman Emperor. The partition after his abdication left the imperial title and the central European lands to his brother *Ferdinand, Spain with its overseas possessions, and the Low Countries to his son *Felipe II. The Bourbons succeeded the Habsburgs in Spain when *Carlos II died in 1700. The Habsburgs made a fine art of dynastic marriages and this was a major factor in their immense success.

Taylor, A. J. P., The Habsburg Monarchy, 1809–1918. 1948.

Habsburg-Lothringen, Otto von (baptised as Franz Joseph Otto Robert Maria Anton Karl Max Heinrich Sixtus Xavier Felix Renatus Ludwig Gaetan Pius Ignatius) (1912–2011). Austrian-German political activist, writer and former Archduke. Son of *Karl I, last Kaiser of Austria and King of Hungary, and Zita of Bourbon-Parma, he was the final Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary 1916–18. Exiled from Austria 1919–66, he grew up in Spain, lived in France, Switzerland, the US and Bavaria and was fluent in seven languages. From 1922 monarchists recognised him as Emperor-King (Kaiser-König) since his father never formally abdicated. Francisco *Franco offered him the Spanish throne in 1961 but he declined. After years as a stateless person, he became a German citizen in 1978. A conservative, deeply opposed to Nationalism, Nazism and Communism, he was President of the International Pan-European Union 1973–2004 and a Member of the European Parliament 1979–99.

Hadid, Dame Zaha Mohammad (1950–2016). Iraqi-British architect, born in Baghdad. Trained in Beirut and London, her works included museums, art galleries, bridges and offices in England, Scotland, China, Japan, Germany, Italy, France and Australia. The first woman awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize (2004), she won the Stirling Prize in 2010 and 2011 and the RIBA Gold Medal in 2015. Her works were described as ‘sweeping fluid forms of multiple perspective points and fragmented geometry’.

Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus) (76–138). Roman Emperor 117–38 CE. He was probably born in Italica, Hispania Baetica, near modern Seville, where his Italian colonising family had settled about 250 years earlier. Educated in Rome and well-connected there, he gained advancement through his father’s cousin, the future emperor *Trajan. He became Tribune of the plebs in 105 and Praetor in 106. He was made a provincial governor, on the Danube, in 107 and a consul in 108. This rapid rise was largely due to the favour of the politician Lucius Licinius Sura. Sura died shortly afterwards and Hadrian’s advancement seemed at an end, but in 117 Trajan adopted him, assuring his succession when he died in August. He made lengthy tours of the Empire, 121–125 and 128–c.133. A philhellene, he preferred the eastern provinces and did much for the arts and for religious and public life in Greece. His tours in the rest of the Empire, however, had lasting results in the form of defence systems (such as Hadrian’s Wall—Vallum Hadriani—in Britain, which marked the north-west boundary of empire) and both military and civil administrative reform. His periods of rule in Rome also produced judicial reforms of great importance. He rebuilt *Agrippa’s Pantheon (118–25) to his own design: it is the oldest building in the world still in daily use. Hadrian’s Villa in Tivoli demonstrates his passionate interest in architecture and travel. (He was also a poet.) When his lover Antinous (d.130) drowned in the Nile, Hadrian proclaimed him divine and named a city for him. In 134 he made a last journey to Judaea to crush the Second Jewish Revolt (partly caused by his own ban on circumcision which he considered inhumane) and renamed Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina. He nominated *Antoninus Pius as his successor and died near Naples. Hadrian’s Mausoleum in Rome (now Castel Sant’Angelo) was begun in 139.

Yourcenar, M., Memoirs of Hadrian. 1954.

Haeckel, Ernst (1834–1919). German zoologist. In 1861 he became lecturer in Medicine at Jena, in 1862 Professor of Zoology and in 1865 Director of the Zoological Institute. Although medically qualified, he had no desire to practise medicine clinically. Zoology was his first love, and much of his scientific career was occupied in work in comparative anatomy and morphology. The publication of Charles *Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859) made an enormous impact on him. He accepted evolution readily. Thereafter his detailed zoological work was increasingly concerned with evaluating structure in terms of evolutionary adaptation. He was above all interested in the way in which the embryonic development of each individual creature showed (as he claimed) its own evolutionary history, or, as he put it ‘ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny’.

Unable to accept either traditional Christianity or dogmatic materialism, Haeckel developed his own philosophy of Nature, ‘monism’, a form of pantheism which celebrated the progressive emergence of ever higher forms in Nature. Partly as a result of this, Haeckel gradually swung over to more Lamarckian forms of evolutionary theory, emphasising the participation of Will in the evolutionary process.

Hemleben, J., Ernst Haeckel. 1964.

Håfiz (or Hafez) (pen name of Khwāja Shams-ud-Dīn Muhammad Hāfiz-e Shīrāzī) (1325/6–1389/90). Persian lyric poet and mystic, born in Shiraz, where he lived and died. The name ‘Hafiz’ is given to scholars who have memorised the entire Qu’ran. His poetry was held to be so sweet that he was called ‘Chagarlab’ (‘sugarlip’). He was a Sufu, one of the mystic philosophical sects of Islam, and while his poetry superficially deals with sensuous delight and beauty and may be seen simply as love songs, it yet possesses a deeper esoteric significance. His tomb is a shrine and is visited by pilgrims from all parts of Iran. He was much admired by *Goethe.

Arberry, A. J., The Ghazals of Håfiz. 1947.

Hagen, Walter Charles (1892–1969). American golfer. Hagen, who played a notable part in the history of American golf, won the American Open championship twice, the British four times and took part six times in the competition for the Ryder Cup (once as a non-playing captain).

Haggard, Sir H(enry) Rider (1856–1925). English author, born in Norfolk. He worked as an official in South Africa 1875–82, married, then returned to England. His African experiences provided the background of very successful adventure novels, which pioneered the ‘lost world’ literary genre: King Solomon’s Mines (1885), She (1887), Allan Quatermain (1887) and Ayesha or The Return of She (1905).

Higgins, D. S. (ed.), The Private Diaries of Sir Henry Rider Haggard. 1980.

Hague, William Jefferson, Baron Hague of Richmond (1961– ). English Conservative politician. MP 1989–2015, Welsh Secretary 1995–97, in June 1997 he became the Conservative Party’s youngest leader since *Pitt the Younger, resigning after his defeat in 2001. He served as Foreign Secretary 2010–14. First Secretary of State 2010–15 and Leader of the House of Commons 2014–15. He wrote William Pitt the Younger (2005).

Hahn, Otto (1879–1968). German physical chemist. In 1918, with Lise *Meitner, he discovered the radioactive element No. 91 (protactinium = Pa) and in 1935 found evidence of four other elements corresponding to the atomic numbers 93, 94, 95, 96. In 1938 he succeeded in splitting the uranium atom and this basic discovery, as developed by Meitner and O. R. *Frisch, led to the production of the atomic bomb. Paradoxically, scientists expelled from Germany realised the implications of Hahn’s discovery before Hahn himself. He remained in Germany through World War II as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem 1928–46, won the 1944 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, and was President of the Max *Planck Institute at Göttingen 1946–60.

Hahnemann, Christian Friedrich Samuel (1755–1843). German physician and founder of homoeopathic medicine. He studied medicine at Leipzig, Vienna and Erlangen where he graduated in 1779. He practised in Saxony, and settled in Dresden. He cultivated interests in medical chemistry, and published on related subjects, including the treatment of venereal diseases with mercurous oxide. From 1796 onwards he developed his own medical views, to be known as homoeopathy, spelt out in Organon der rationellen Heilkunde (Organon of Rational Healing, 1810). He had been persistently worried about harm caused by drugs ordinarily used. Hence he recommended testing out drugs on healthy persons, and ensuring the absolute purity of drugs, which were to be administered to patients in very small quantities. He believed that a drug that produced in a healthy body identical primary symptoms to those produced by a disease, was likely to be efficacious in curing the disease, since it would set up reactions in the body.

Hahnemann’s fame grew (although he caught the anger of apothecaries since he prepared all drugs himself, and refused to administer more than one drug to patients at a time). In 1835 he remarried and set up in Paris, where he managed a large practice until the age of 88. Doctors were soon practising the homoeopathic system in almost every European country. In the US Konstantin Hering (1800–1880) was commissioned to attack it, was converted and devoted his life to further research.

Hobhouse, R. W., Christian Samuel Hahnemann. 1961.

Haidar Ali (1728–1782). Indian ruler. He served as a soldier under the Maharaja of Mysore, whom he virtually displaced as ruler. He fought successfully against the Mahrattas and also the British, with whom, however, he formed an alliance. When help under this alliance was refused in a renewed war against the Mahrattas he allied himself with the French, and ravaged the Carnatic to within 40 miles of Madras. He was ultimately defeated by Sir Eyre Coote. His son was *Tippoo Sahib.

Haig, Alexander Meigs, Jr (1924–2010). American soldier and administrator. Educated at West Point and Georgetown University, he was deputy to Henry *Kissinger in the National Security Administration 1970–73, Vice Chief of Staff in the US Army 1973, and, as White House Chief of Staff and Assistant to the President 1973–74, took a critical role in the resignation of Richard *Nixon and the transition to Gerald *Ford. He was Commander-in-Chief of US and NATO forces in Europe 1974–79 and became Secretary of State under Ronald *Reagan 1981–82.

Haig, Douglas, 1st Earl Haig of Bemersyde (1861–1928). Scottish field marshal, born in Edinburgh. Son of a whisky distiller, he was educated at Brasenose College, Oxford. Inspector General of cavalry in India (1903–06), he was again there (1909–11) as Chief of the General Staff. Meanwhile he had been Director of Military Training at the War Office in London. During World War I he took the 1st Corps to France (1914), commanded the 1st Army (1915) and after Sir John *French’s recall was Commander-in-Chief on the Western Front from 1915 until the end of the war. He was thus responsible for the Battle of the Somme (1916), the Passchendaele campaign (1917) and the final victorious offensive (1918), undertaken in cooperation with Marshal *Foch. He was granted an earldom, the OM and a KT and voted £100,000 in 1919. He retained the confidence of the British public throughout the war despite his bitter quarrels with the Prime Minister, *Lloyd George, but in recent years his handling of the British armies has been severely criticised, especially since the publication (1952) of his private papers. He was devoted to the welfare of ex-servicemen and the creation of the British Legion was largely his work. He asserted that in future wars, horses would still be more significant than aircraft or tanks.

Sixsmith, E. K. G., Douglas Haig. 1976.

Haile Selassie (1891–1975). Emperor of Ethiopia 1930–74. His father Ras Makonnen, had been cousin of the emperor *Menelik, and before succeeding to the throne he was known as Ras Tafari. The Rastafarian movement, very strong in the Caribbean, was named for him. He led the revolt against Menelik’s grandson Lij *Iyasu and acted as regent for Menelik’s daughter Zauditu from 1917 until her death (1930), when he succeeded her on the throne. The Italian conquest of his country forced him to take refuge in England (1936) but in World War I the British drove the Italians from Ethiopia and restored him to his throne (1941). Despite his attempts at social and economic reform, such as abolishing the slave trade and setting up a parliament, his country remained one of the most backward in Africa. He was deposed in 1974 and smothered to death.

Kapuscinski, R., The Emperor. 1983.

Hailsham of St Marylebone, Quintin McGarel Hogg, Baron (1907–2001). English Conservative lawyer and politician. His father was Douglas Hogg, 1st Viscount Hailsham (1872–1950), Attorney General 1922–24, 1924–28 and Lord Chancellor 1928–29, 1935–38. He became a barrister, served as MP 1938–50 (leaving the Commons reluctantly on his father’s death) and again 1963–70, having renounced his viscountcy to contest the Tory leadership on *Macmillan’s resignation (1963). Lord President of the Council 1957–59, 1960–64, Minister for Science and Technology 1959–64, he accepted a life peerage in 1970 and was Lord Chancellor 1970–74, 1979–87. He was awarded a CH (1975) and KG (1988). His grandfather, also Quintin Hogg (1845–1903), founded the Polytechnic in Regent Street, London (1880).

Haitink, Bernard (1929– ). Dutch conductor. He was principal conductor or music director of the Netherlands Radio Philharmonic Orchestra 1955–61, the Concertgebouw Orchestra, Amsterdam 1964–88, London Philharmonic Orchestra 1967–79, Glyndebourne Opera 1978–88, Royal Opera House, Covent Garden 1987–2002 and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra 2006–10. He received an honorary KBE and CH.

Hakluyt, Richard (1552–1616). English geographer. He may have acquired his passionate interest in geography from a cousin, a lawyer to the Muscovy Company. A student and lecturer at Oxford (c.1570–1588), he was ordained but became increasingly absorbed in reading about and discussing the great exploratory voyages of his time. By 1582 he had gained the friendship of *Drake, *Gilbert, *Raleigh and other great seamen, and had written a book on the American discoveries. In 1583 an appointment as chaplain to the British Embassy in Paris gave him the opportunity to gather information about explorers of other countries. His greatest work, Principal Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation, appeared in 1589 (enlarged edition 1598–1600). After being appointed rector of Wetheringsett, Suffolk (1590), he worked hard as a propagandist for further American colonisation. In 1602 he became a canon of Westminster Abbey where he is buried. The Hakluyt Society was formed in 1846.

Haldane, J(ohn) B(urdon) S(anderson) (1892–1964). English scientist, born in Oxford. He was the son of John Scott Haldane (1860–1936), an experimental physiologist who worked on the problem of gas exchanges in the blood, e.g. why divers suffer from ‘the bends’ and how poor ventilation in mines causes death, receiving the CH in 1928 and the Copley Medal in 1934. They experimented together, sometimes as ‘human guinea pigs’. J. B. S. was educated at Eton (which he hated, but became school captain) and Oxford, graduating in mathematics and classics. He served in the Black Watch in World War I, then pursued research in genetics and went to Cambridge as Reader in Biochemistry in 1923. In 1933 he became professor of genetics at University College, London, emigrating to India in 1957. Haldane’s major area of scientific work lay in relating evolutionary biology to the development of studies of heredity. He did important research on the genetic origins of colour blindness and haemophilia. He was also concerned with populational studies in evolutionary biology. During World War II he worked for the admiralty investigating the physiological aspects of life in, and escape from, midget submarines and similar underwater work. He used himself (and his friends!) as an experimental subject.

Haldane was a dedicated populariser of science in such books as Daedalus, or Science and the Future. A committed Marxist, he saw a future in which socialism and science together provided better living conditions and a more rational society for everyone. He helped the Republican Government in Spain during the Civil War, but broke with the Communist Party on the *Lysenko issue.

Clark, R. W., J. B. S.: The Life and Work of J. B. S. Haldane. 1968.

Haldane, Richard Burdon, 1st Viscount Haldane of Cloan (1856–1928). Scottish lawyer and politician, born in Edinburgh. Educated in Germany. he became a barrister, QC (1890), and Liberal MP 1885–1911. As Secretary of War 1905–12, he carried through major reforms in the armed forces, then became Lord Chancellor 1912–15 until forced from office by anti-German hysteria: he was given the OM as a consolation prize. He joined the Labour Party after the war, became its leader in the Lords and was Lord Chancellor again 1924. A distinguished amateur scientist and neo-Hegelian philosopher, he became FRS in 1906. He was the brother of John Scott *Haldane.

Hale of Richmond, Baroness, Brenda Marjorie Hale (1945– ). English jurist, born in Leeds. Educated at Cambridge, she was a law professor at Manchester, justice of the High Court 1994–99, then the first woman appointed to the Court of Appeal 1999–2003 and as a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary 2004–09. A justice of the newly constituted Supreme Court of the United Kingdom 2009–20, she became Deputy President 2013–17 and President 2017–20.

Hale, Sir Matthew (1609–1676). English judge. Neutral in the Civil War, although he defended some Royalists ( *Laud), he became a judge in the Court of Common Pleas (1654) under *Cromwell, sat in parliament 1660, and was Chief Baron of the Exchequer Court 1660–71 and Lord Chief Justice 1671–76. He wrote History of the Pleas of the Crown.

Hales, Stephen (1677–1761). English scientist. He became an undergraduate at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge in 1696, decided upon a career in the Church, and became curate of Teddington in 1709, remaining there for the rest of his life, much of which he gave over to scientific research. He was a convinced adherent of Newtonian natural philosophy, accepting the particulate nature of matter and a largely mechanistic set of explanations (he always preferred physics to chemistry). Like Robert *Boyle, he excelled in detailed experiments in which accurate weighing, measuring and recording were all important. Much of his work concerned experiments on plants, written up in his Vegetable Staticks (1727). He studied the rise of sap, measuring its pressure, and the variations of that pressure according to time of year and climatic conditions. He carried out impressive experiments upon transpiration.

The pressure of blood in animal arteries also drew his attention. He performed experiments to gauge its force in horses, oxen, dogs etc. He conducted important experiments on air. Although he did not recognise that air is made up of a mixture of gases, he did collect the vapours severally given off by different substances, in some cases as a result of burning. To collect these he invented the pneumatic trough. The ill effect of bad air in spreading disease concerned him, and led him to invent systems of ventilators that could be used on ships, in prisons and hospitals.

Halévy, Jacques François Fromental (1799–1862). French composer, writer and administrator. A pupil of *Cherubini, he wrote 30 operas, including La juive (1835), La reine de Chypre (1841) and La dame de pique (1850), taught *Gounod and *Bizet and was admired by *Berlioz and *Wagner.

Halifax, Charles Montague, 1st Earl of (1661–1715). English Whig politician. As *William III’s Chancellor of the Exchequer 1694–97, he was responsible for the establishment of the National Debt by issuing the first government loan to which the general public could subscribe. He moved the bill that established the Bank of England (1694) and gave it power to issue paper currency. He came into literary prominence as an author with Matthew *Prior of a parody of *Dryden’s Hind and the Panther and later was a patron of *Addison and *Congreve.

Halifax, 1st Earl of (new creation), Edward Frederick Lindley Wood (1881–1959). English Conservative politician. Son of the 2nd Viscount Halifax (1839–1934), a leading Anglo-Catholic, he was educated at Eton and Oxford, became a Tory MP 1910–25 and Minister for Education 1922–24 and Agriculture 1924–25. Created Baron Irwin on his appointment as Viceroy of India 1926–31, he tried to guide India towards dominion status by conciliatory policies, negotiating with *Gandhi, but after continued agitation he took repressive measures. Back in England, he was Minister for Education again 1932–35, Chancellor of Oxford University 1933–59 and Leader in the House of Lords 1935–38, 1940. He succeeded *Eden as Foreign Secretary 1938–40, and was the primary instrument for Neville *Chamberlain’s appeasement policy until a sudden conversion (September 1938) convinced him that Nazism had to be resisted, but he later equivocated. When Chamberlain resigned (May 1940), Halifax was a possible successor as prime minister and the first preference of *George VI, but, recognising that he lacked *Churchill’s aggression and advocacy skills and was unacceptable to the Labour Opposition, he withdrew from consideration. Ambassador to the US 1941–46, created earl in 1944, he received the OM in 1946, but was harshly criticised in The Second World War by Churchill, who privately dubbed him ‘the holy fox’.

Birkenhead, Lord, Lord Halifax. 1965; Roberts, A. The Holy Fox. 1997; Lukacz, J., Five Days in London, May 1940. 1999.

Halifax, George Savile, 1st Marquess of (1633–1695). English politician and author. A Member of Parliament 1660–85, he was instrumental in securing the rejection of the bill for the exclusion of *Charles II’s brother James, Duke of York, from the succession (1681). For this he was made Marquess of Halifax (1682), and when the Duke became King as *James II, Halifax was made Lord President of the Council, but was soon dismissed for opposing the repeal of the Test Acts and the Habeas Corpus Act. Later he was one of the committee of peers that negotiated with *William of Orange about his accession as King. Known as ‘the Trimmer’, he attempted to vindicate his policies in The Character of a Trimmer (1688). He was actually a shrewd statesman whose advice, if taken, could have saved James’s throne.

Foxcroft, H. C., A Character of the Trimmer. 1946.

Hall, Asaph (1829–1907). American astronomer. From 1862–91 he worked at the naval observatory at Washington. In 1877 he discovered the two satellites of Mars: Phobos and Deimos.

Hall, Charles Martin (1863–1914). American chemist. In 1886, simultaneously with Paul Heroult (1863–1914), his exact contemporary in France, he discovered the technique of electrolytically smelting aluminium from bauxite. He helped to found the American Aluminium Company in 1890, became its Vice President and left a fortune to Oberlin College.

Hall, Sir Peter (Geoffrey) (1932–2014). English geographer and planner. Educated at St Catherine's College, Cambridge, he held chairs at Reading, Berkeley and London and wrote Cities in Civilization (1998).

Hall, Sir Peter (Reginald Frederick) (1930–2017). English director. Educated at St Catherine’s College, Cambridge, he produced and acted in repertory and became Director of the Royal Shakespeare Co., Stratford, 1960–68 and the National Theatre, London 1973–88. He was outstanding in *Shakespeare, *Chekhov, *Beckett and *Pinter, directed operas by *Monteverdi, *Mozart, *Verdi, *Wagner and *Britten, and some films and television. He delivered the Clark Lectures in Cambridge (2000).

Hall, (Marguerite) Radclyffe (1886–1943). English author. She wrote several interesting novels including Adam’s Breed (1924) before achieving a succès de scandale with Well of Loneliness (1926), a sympathetic study of lesbian characters.

Hall, Rodney (1935– ). Australian novelist, poet, musician and actor, born in Warwickshire. He grew up in Queensland from 1948. He twice won the Miles Franklin Award, for Just Relations (1982) and The Grisly Wife (1993), and was short-listed three times for the Man Booker Prize. Other novels include Kisses of the Enemy (1987), The Day We Had Hitler Home, (2000) The Last Love Story (2004) and Love Without Hope (2007). He published 13 volumes of poetry, chaired the Australia Council 1991–94 and wrote the autobiographical popeye never told you (2010).

Hall, G(ranville) Stanley (1844–1924). American psychologist. President of Clark University, Mass. 1889–1920, and an important educator, he was Sigmund *Freud’s first disciple in the US.

Hallam, Arthur Henry (1811–1833). English poet. A friend of *Tennyson, In Memoriam was inspired by his early death. His father, Henry Hallam (1777–1859), presented careful, accurate and well-documented accounts of medieval and English constitutional history from a Whig viewpoint. He also wrote a history of European literature (4 volumes 1837–39).

Hallé, Sir Charles (1819–1895). Anglo-German conductor, pianist and teacher. He settled in Manchester in 1848 and founded (1857) the Hallé Orchestra. The first Principal of the Royal Manchester College of Music, he was knighted in 1888.

Haller, Albrecht von (1708–1777). Swiss-German physiologist, born in Bern. He studied medicine under *Boerhaave at Leyden, received his MD in 1727, and in 1736 became professor of anatomy, botany and medicine at the newly founded University of Göttingen. In 1744 he returned to his native Bern, where he spent the rest of his life in research and writing. His major work lay in physiology. He studied the operation of muscle fibres, and defined as irritability their action of contracting when under external stimulus (mechanical, thermal, chemical, or electrical). He recognised that the nerves as such played no part in this process. By contrast, sensibility was a property of tissues imbued with nerves. His studies of irritability and sensibility helped bring a major reorientation of human physiology in the latter part of the 18th century, away from the notion that the body was essentially mechanical in its operation, emphasising instead that the key to bodily function lay in the nervous system.

Haller also pursued researches on the circulation of the blood and the automatic actions of the heart. Having become addicted to opium (taken to relieve pain from gout and constant stomach disorders), Haller recorded his own observations upon its actions. He was an all-round man. Pious in religion, he wrote large quantities of verse, and was a pioneer bibliographer.

Lindskog, G. F., Albrecht von Haller. 1978; Frixione, E., Albrecht von Haller. 2006.

Halley, Edmond (1656–1742). English astronomer. He went at the age of 20 to St Helena to make the first map of the stars of the southern hemisphere, and from there he observed (1677) the transit of Mercury across the sun. By collecting observations of 24 bright comets between 1337 and 1658 he predicted the appearance of the great comet of 1758 (‘Halley’s Comet’) on the grounds that it was the same comet as those of 1531, 1606 and 1682. He similarly predicted its later appearances. His observations on comets were collected in his Astronomiae Cometicae Synopsis (1705) which put forward theories of their motion based on the work of *Newton.

Halley discovered the ‘proper motions’ of the so-called fixed stars. He also compiled charts of magnetic deviation, published the earliest wind map (1688) and was the first to use a barometer to reckon heights. He was professor of geometry at Oxford 1700–03 and succeeded *Flamsteed to become the second Astronomer Royal 1721–42.

Ronan, C. A., Edmund Halley: Genius in Eclipse. 1970.

Halonen, Tarja Kaarina (1943– ). Finnish politician. A Social Democrat, she was a Member of Parliament 1979–2000, Foreign Minister 1995–2000 and President of Finland 2000–12.

Hals, Frans (1581/5–1666). Dutch painter. Of Flemish extraction, he lived in Haarlem. His first important painting was the life-size group portrait The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Civic Guard (1627), which is outstanding and unprecedented in its strong characterisation. His group portraits culminated in Regents of the St Elizabeth Hospital of Haarlem (1641) and Regentesses of the Old Men’s Alms House (1664). In Dutch portrait painting, they assure him a position next to *Rembrandt. Hals also painted genre scenes with dramatic chiaroscuro, and vigorous single portraits of which The Laughing Cavalier (1624) is the best known.

Trivas, N. S., The Paintings of Frans Hals. 1941.

Halsbury, Hardinge Stanley Giffard, 1st Earl of (1823–1921). English lawyer and Conservative politician, born in London. He became Solicitor-General under *Disraeli 1875–80, and served three times as Lord Chancellor 1885–86, 1886–92, 1895–1905. He led the ‘diehards’ against the Parliament Bill (1911) which stripped the House of Lords of its power to veto Budgets. The Laws of England, which he edited (1903–16) and which is continuously updated, bears his name.

Halsey, William Frederick, Jr(‘Bull’) (1882–1959). American Fleet Admiral. He served with destroyers in World War I and by 1938, as Rear Admiral, commanded a carrier division. During World War II he proved himself one of the great fighting admirals in command of the aircraft battle force 1940–42, and then as Commander-in-Chief of the South Pacific area 1942–45 when he conducted the great sweep northwards in support of the army’s island-hopping offensive by which the Japanese conquests were regained. He commanded the 3rd Fleet 1944–45 and destroyed the Japanese navy in the Battle of Leyte Gulf (October 1944).

Hamelin, Marc-André (1961– ). Canadian pianist and composer, born in Montréal. A virtuoso, with exceptional dramatic gifts, he performed works by *Alkan and *Godowsky in addition to the standard repertoire, toured widely and recorded extensively.

Hamilcar (Ḥamílkas) Barca (d.228 BCE) Carthaginian (Punic) general, possibly born in Libya. The Carthaginians were Semites, descended from the Phoenicians (called ‘Punic’ by the Romans). His sons were *Hannibal, Hasdrubal and Mago, all generals. In the First Punic War against the Romans (264–241 BCE), he commanded the Carthaginian army in Sicily and, after destruction of his navy, was forced to accept a humiliating peace (241), and also came under political attack from *Hanno. He drowned after an ambush in Spain.

Hamilton, Alexander (1757?–1804). American statesman, born in Nevis, British West Indies. Illegitimate son of a Scottish merchant, he showed such precocity that he was sent to New York for further study. During the War of American Independence he was aide and confidential secretary to *Washington 1779–81 and later commanded in the field. His marriage (1780) to Elizabeth Schuyler assured him of a favourable social background. After the war he established a successful law practice in New York and attended (1787) the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. Though he would have preferred a more centralised and oligarchic form of government, he defended what emerged (as the best obtainable) in a brilliant series of articles in which he cooperated with James *Madison in The Federalist. Appointment by Washington as the first US secretary of the treasury 1789–93 made him one of the most influential leaders shaping the new state. He consolidated the state debts into a funded national debt, he advocated excise and tariffs as the principal source of revenue and created the first National Bank; opposition to these measures resting on the fact that they placed financial power in federal rather than state hands. Hamilton returned to his law practice in 1793 but remained an important figure behind the scenes in the councils of the Federalist Party. He quarrelled bitterly with Aaron *Burr, blocked his election as President (1800) and Governor of New York State (1804) and was killed by Burr in a duel (July 1804). The musical Hamilton (2014) by Lin-Manuel Miranda was premiered in New York in 2015 and won many awards.

Chernov, R., Alexander Hamilton. 2004; Randall, W. S., Alexander Hamilton. A Life. 2014.

Hamilton, Charles see Richards, Frank

Hamilton, George, 1st Earl of Orkney (1666–1737). Scottish peer and field marshal. Son of the Earl of Selkirk, he fought in Ireland for *William III, was wounded at Namur, and led his troops at Blenheim and Malplaquet. A courtier after 1714, he became the first British field marshal in 1735.

Hamilton, Sir Ian Standish Monteith (1853–1947). British general, born in Corfu. Scholarly, and a fine writer, he passed as an intellectual in the British Army. He served in India and South Africa and was GOC in the Mediterranean 1910–14. He commanded the Anglo-French-ANZAC Dardenelles expedition in 1915, was unrealistically optimistic about its outcome and bore responsibility for its failure.

Hamilton, Richard William (1922–2011). British artist and teacher. An influential teacher at the Institute of Contemporary Art in London, he was a founder of pop art and created many iconic images of artists, performers and consumer society and received a CH in 2000.

Hamilton, Sir William (1730–1803). Scottish diplomat, antiquarian, archaeologist and vulcanologist. Grandson of the 3rd Duke of Hamilton, he was Envoy Extraordinary to the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily 1764–1800. He became an expert on volcanoes (ascending Vesuvius 22 times), earthquakes and was awarded the Copley Medal in 1770. He published his Collection of Etruscan, Greek, and Roman Antiquities (1766–76) in four magnificent volumes; the objects were acquired by the British Museum. His wife, Emma, Lady Hamilton (née Lyon, also known as Hart) (1761?–1815), extravagant, beautiful and fascinating, had been his mistress from 1786. They married in 1791. She became the lover of *Nelson, bore his daughter Horatia Nelson (1801–1881) and died in obscure poverty in Calais.

Sontag, S., The Volcano Lover. 1992.

Hamilton, Sir William, 9th Baronet (1788–1856). Scottish philosopher. Educated at Glasgow and Balliol College, Oxford, he gained a reputation for vast erudition. He was professor of history at Edinburgh 1821–36 then of logic and metaphysics 1836–56. His main interest was to show that human knowledge is relative and is attained only in relation to known properties. J. S. *Mill wrote an extensive examination of his philosophy.

Hamilton, Sir William Rowan (1805–1865). Irish mathematician and astronomer, born in Dublin. A child prodigy, son of a solicitor, he was self-educated. He could speak 13 languages at the age of 12, made notable mathematical discoveries by 17, became professor of mathematics at Trinity College, Dublin, at 22 and received a knighthood at 30. In 1824 he discovered various peculiarities of conical refraction. He made a major contribution to establishing the wave theory of light, linking optics, mathematics and mechanics, in 1827. He followed and expanded *Lagrange in reformulating classical mechanics (1834–35).

On 16 October 1843, in a sudden flash of inspiration, as he was crossing Brougham Bridge, Dublin, he grasped the concept of ‘quaternions’, a three-dimensional algebra or geometry in each object has four scalar variables, which can be processed as a single unit. (*Gauss had a similar insight in 1819 but his work was unpublished until 1900.)

Unlike normal mathematics, the order in which quaternions are multiplied is significant (they are ‘noncommutative’): they led ultimately to the basis of quantum mechanics. However, by 1900 quaternions had largely been displaced by *Gibbs’ ‘vector analysis’ but are still relevant in representing three dimensional transformations (for example, on computers.) The algebra of quaternions is denoted by ‘H’ and was satirised by Lewis *Carroll. Hamilton received awards from Ireland, Russia, Prussia and the United States but was never elected FRS (despite receiving its Royal Medal in 1835). He died at 60, his life shortened by excessive eating and drinking. He suffered agonies from gout. His work is an important element in Thomas *Pynchon’s Against the Day (2006).

Hamlin, Hannibal (1809–1891). American Republican politician, born in Maine. A lawyer and strong opponent of slavery, he served in the US Congress 1843–47, was US Senator 1848–57, 1857–61, and briefly Governor of Maine 1857. Elected with Abraham *Lincoln on the Republican ticket in 1860, he served as Vice President of the US 1861–65. Replaced by Andrew *Johnson at the National Union Convention in 1864, Hamlin returned to the Senate 1869–81 and was Minister to Spain 1881–82.

Hammarskjöld, Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl (1903–1961). Swedish administrator, born at Jonkoping. Son of Hjalmar Hammarskjöld (1862–1953), Conservative Prime Minister 1914–17, jurist and Chairman of the Nobel Prize Foundation 1929–47, he studied law and economics at Uppsala and Stockholm and became a civil servant. Deputy Foreign Minister 1951–53, he succeeded Trygve *Lie as Secretary-General of the United Nations 1953–61. He extended the executive powers of the secretariat, especially by his organisation and utilisation of UN forces in the Congo (1961). While flying to Ndola in Northern Rhodesia on a truce making mission he was killed in an air crash. He was posthumously awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Lash, J. P., Dag Hammarskjöld. 1962.

Hammer, Armand (1898–1990). American businessman, born in New York.The son of a Russian émigré physician, he claimed to have been named for the emblems of the Socialist Labor Party. He became a doctor himself and in 1920 established personal links with *Lenin, leading to trade (wheat for furs, caviar and asbestos). He became a major producer of coal, sulphur and—after 1956—oil and gas (Occidental Petroleum). A tireless self promoter, many of his claims were exaggerated and his great art collection partly acquired by fraud.

Hammerstein, Oscar II (1895–1960). American librettist, producer and publisher. He wrote the lyrics for many successful Broadway musicals including Rose-Marie (composed by Friml, 1924), The Desert Song (Romberg, 1926), Showboat (Kern, 1927) and a series with Richard *Rodgers: Oklahoma! (1943), South Pacific (1949), The King and I (1951) and The Sound of Music (1959).

Hammett, (Samuel) Dashiell (1894–1961). American author. As a young man he worked for the Pinkerton Detective Agency in New York, and gained the experience that helped him become the finest US writer of ‘private eye’ crime fiction. His best known works are The Maltese Falcon (1930) and The Thin Man (1934).

Johnson, D., The Life of Dashiell Hammett. 1983.

Hammond, Philip Anthony (1955– ). English Conservative politician. Educated at Oxford, he became a company director, MP 1997– , Secretary of State for Transport 2010–11; for Defence 2011–14; for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs 2014–16 and Chancellor of the Exchequer 2016–19.

Hammurabi (d.c.1750 BCE). King of Babylonia c.1792–1750 BCE. He conquered all Mesopotamia and renamed Akkad as Babylonia, but is remembered for the code of laws named for him, a copy of which is in the Louvre, essentially derived from earlier codes.

Hampden, John (1594–1643). English parliamentary leader, born in Buckinghamshire. A large landowner, educated at Oxford, he was a Member of Parliament 1621–22, 1624–29, 1640–43. He rarely spoke in Parliament but was a very effective networker and organiser, and was imprisoned in 1627 for refusing to pay a ‘forced loan’. He strongly supported the Petition of Right (1628), aimed at curbing *Charles I’s illegal practices, and in 1636 refused to pay ‘ship money’, a levy previously confined to ports. In 1637 his prosecution before the Court of Exchequer, made him a champion of liberties and the most popular man in England. When Parliament again met (1640) he was active in the impeachment of *Strafford and one of the ‘Five Members’ whom Charles tried to arrest in the House of Commons in 1643. When war broke out he joined the parliamentary army, fought bravely at Edgehill, but died of a wound received in the skirmish of Chalgrove Field.

Adair, J., A Life of John Hampden the Patriot. 1976.

Hamsun, Knut (Pederson) (1859–1952). Norwegian novelist and dramatist, born at Lom, northern Norway. Of poor farming stock, in the 1880s he spent two periods in the United States, where he worked as a dairy farmer, coal miner, shop assistant, fisherman and Chicago tram conductor. Back in Norway he was a school teacher. Deeply influenced by *Nietzsche and *Strindberg, he became passionately concerned with the individual’s role against his environment (in distinction to *Ibsen who, in Hamsun’s view, wrote merely of men struggling within a partly alien society). His novel Hunger (1890), largely autobiographical, later became an outstanding film. Other works were Pan (1894), Victoria (1898), Look Back on Happiness (1912), The Growth of the Soil (19l7) and The Women at the Pump (1920). He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1920. His profound hatred of modern capitalism made him a sympathiser with the Nazis: he collaborated with German occupation forces (1940) and met Hitler. After the war, treason charges were dropped on account of his age but he was fined Kr.500,000 and his reputation suffered for a generation.

Han. Chinese dynasties, of native Chinese stock. The Western Han overthrew the *Qin dynasty, ruled 206 BCE–24 CE and expanded China's boundaries to Korea and Central Asia. Its capital was Xi’an. The Eastern Han ruled 25–220 CE from Luoyang when Buddhism was introduced.

Hancock, John (1736/7–1793). American merchant and politician, born in Braintree, Massachusetts. A rich Boston merchant, he was Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 1780–85, 1787–93, and President of the Continental Congress 1775–77, 1785–86. His large signature was the first on the US Declaration of Independence 1776.

Hancock, Sir (William) Keith (1898–1988). Australian historian, born in Melbourne. He held chairs in Adelaide, Birmingham, Oxford, London and Canberra, became first president of the Australian Academy of the Humanities 1969–71 and founded the multi-volume Australian Dictionary of Biography. His influential books include Australia (1930), a biography of *Smuts (1962, 1968) and Professing History (1976).

Davidson, J., A Three-Cornered Life. 2010.

Hancock, Winfield Scott (1824–1886). American soldier. He fought in the Mexican War (1846–48) but his fame rests on his success in the Civil War and especially at Gettysburg (1863) where, in command of the 2nd Corps, he chose the position that stood firm against all General *Lee’s attacks. He ran unsuccessfully as Democratic candidate for the presidency against *Garfield (1880).

Hand, (Billings) Learned (1872–1961). American jurist. Educated at Harvard, he was a Federal District Court Judge 1909–24 and a Federal Circuit Court Appeals Judge 1924–51, establishing a lasting reputation for the learning, breadth and humanity of his judgments. He had been a supporter of Theodore *Roosevelt, then *Hoover and Franklin *Roosevelt, opposed isolationism and was passed over for the Supreme Court in 1930 and 1932. He turned against judicial activism, and was especially critical of the *Warren Court’s decision in the school desegregation case (Brown v. Topeka, 1954.)

Gunther, G. Learned Hand: The Man and the Judge. 1994.

Händel, George Frideric (1685–1759). German-English composer, born in Hallé, Saxony. Son of a barber-surgeon, he was a child prodigy and from the age of eight played the organ, violin and klavier and composed. His teacher, F. W. Zachau, was the organist of Hallé Cathedral. After studying law at Hallé University (1702), Händel worked as a violinist and conductor at the Hamburg opera (1703–06) where his first two operas Almira and Nero (both 1705) were performed. In 1707 Händel went to Italy where he wrote much music and earned international fame but failed to gain a permanent appointment. In 1710 he was appointed Kapellmeister to the Elector of Hanover, who succeeded to the English throne as *George I (1714). Händel went to London for the production of his opera Rinaldo (1711), and after a brief return to Hanover to resign his appointment, took up permanent residence in England (1712). He was pensioned by Queen *Anne for his Birthday Ode (1713) and received the patronage of the Earl of *Burlington and the Duke of Chandos (1712–15, 1718–20). He composed 40 operas in England of which the best known are Giulio Cesare (1724), Rodelinda (1725), Aleina (1735), Berenice (1737), Serse (Xerxes, 1738).

In 1719 Händel’s patrons founded the Royal Academy of Music as a joint stock company for the promotion of Italian opera and Händel was made director of the project. He also managed the King’s Theatre 1728–34.

After 1735 Händel devoted himself to the composition of oratorio and produced a series of spacious, vigorous dramatic works including Alexander’s Feast (1736), Saul (1738), Israel in Egypt (1738), Messiah (1742), Samson (1744), Belshazzar (1745), Judas Maccabaeus (1745), the lavish and operatic Solomon (1749) and Jephtha (1751). His instrumental works include the suites Water Music (1717) and Music for the Royal Fireworks (1749), 16 concertos for organ and orchestra (1738–40), 18 Concerti grossi for orchestra (1734–39), 16 harpsichord suites, and solo works for a variety of instruments.

Händel’s health began to fail in 1743 and in 1751 he became partially blind. He was operated on by John Taylor, who had been even less successful with J. S. *Bach, and lost his sight completely by 1753. On his death he left £20,000 to charity, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. He was an internationally famous cosmopolitan whose religious works were essentially designed for the theatre and concert hall. *Beethoven considered him the greatest of all composers, and he is still regarded as one of the outstanding musical figures of the 18th century. He never married.

Lang, P. H., George Frederick Handel. 1966.

Haneke, Michael (1942– ). Austrian film director, born in Munich. His parents were actors, he read philosophy at Vienna University, becoming a critic and television director. His powerful films include The Piano Teacher (2001), Caché (Hidden, 2005), The White Ribbon (2009), and Amour (2012), which won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Film.

Hannibal (Ḥanniba’al) Barca (c.247–c.183 BCE). Carthaginian (Punic) soldier, born in Carthage (now in Tunis). Son of *Hamilcar Barca and brother of Hasdrubal (Azruba’al) (245–207 BCE) and Mago (243–203 BCE), both generals, from 221 he commanded in Spain (Hispania) and by 219 had won all of the south as far as the Ebro River, except for the Roman enclave of Saguntum. Its fall (218), by removing the threat to his rear, enabled him to launch the Second Punic War (218–201 BCE). From Cartagena (Spain) he led an army of about 40,000, supported by 37 elephants, to the east of the Pyrenees, into Gaul, down the Rhône Valley, defeating the Gallic tribes that barred his way, and after almost insuperable difficulties crossed the Alps. At the first great battle on the River Trebbia, he scattered the Roman army and, marching on towards Rome, crossed the Apennines (where he lost an eye) and defeated (and killed) Gaius Flaminius at Lake Trasimene (217). Skilful delaying tactics by *Fabius Maximus gave the Romans time to recover but in 216 Hannibal crushed another Roman army under less cautious generals at Cannae, probably Rome’s greatest military defeat. Although not strong enough to take Rome, Hannibal maintained himself in southern Italy and although through the years his army dwindled and he could not get reinforcements, he still managed, by his masterly skill, to win several pitched battles. At last in 207 his brother Hasdrubal marched from Spain in a daring effort to relieve him but before junction could be made was defeated and killed at the Battle of Metaurus river. In 203 Hannibal was finally recalled to Carthage to meet a Roman invasion and in 202 his first defeat was inflicted on him by *Scipio Africanus at Zama, and the war ended, with Carthage losing control of Spain and paying a heavy indemnity. Hannibal became the head of the Carthaginian government but political opposition to his reforms, and Roman pressure, made him a voluntary exile. Hannibal departed for Tyre, then Antioch where, from 196 to 190, he was a general for *Antiochus III, ruler of the Seleucid Empire. After time in Crete, he served Prusias I Cholus, king of Bithynia. There are contradictory accounts of his death, which occurred in Libyssa, on the Sea of Marmara: he may have poisoned himself on learning that Prusias proposed to surrender him to the Romans, or died (blood poisoning?) after a wound to his hand.

One of the greatest generals of antiquity, Hannibal was much admired by *Napoléon and *Freud.

Toynbee, A. J., Hannibal’s Legacy. 1963; Cottrell, L., Hannibal: Enemy of Rome. 1992; Mahaney, W., Hannibal’s Odyssey. 2008; Hoyos, D., Hannibal: Rome’s greatest enemy. 2008; MacDonald, E., Hannibal: A Hellenistic Life. 2015.

Hanno (Ḥannon; also known as Hanno the Great) (3rd century BCE). Carthaginian (Punic) general and oligarch. He was a powerful opponent of *Hamilcar and *Hannibal, who pursued the First and Second Punic Wars against Rome. He favoured the exploration and settlement of North Africa, cultivating relations with Rome and not competing in the Mediterranean.

Hansard, Luke (1752–1828). English printer, born in Norwich. He printed the verbatim reports of debates in the House of Commons and bought the business in 1798. His family owned the concession until 1889. Parliamentary reports are known as Hansard in Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

Hanson, Pauline (née Seccombe) (1954– ). Australian politician. She was a Federal MP 1996–98, founding her own party, Pauline Hanson’s One Nation, which opposed multiculturalism and concessions to Aborigines. Jailed for fraud in 2003, her conviction was overturned on appeal. After repeated defeats, she was elected as a Senator, with three supporters, in July 2016.

Hansson, Per Albin (1885–1946). Swedish Social Democratic politician. He worked as a clerk, journalist and trade union organiser before election to the Riksdag in 1918. He served as Defence Minister 1921–23 and 1924–26. He succeeded Hjalmar *Branting as party leader 1923–46 and was Prime Minister 1932–36 and again, after a short break, 1936–46, dying in office. He promoted the welfare state and maintained strict neutrality during World War II. On his death Tage *Erlander became Prime Minister.

Han Suyin (pen name of Elizabeth Comber, née Rosalie Matilda Kuanghu Chow) (1916–2012). British writer, born in Beijing. Her father was Chinese and her mother Belgian. She studied medicine in Beijing, Brussels and London, then practised in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. She wrote the novels A Many Splendoured Thing (1952), My House has Two Doors (1980) and Tigers and Butterflies (1990), a study of Mao and the Chinese Revolution, and an autobiography.

Hapsburg see Habsburg

Harald Bluetooth Gormsson (Danish: Harald Blåtand Gormsen) (d.c.986). King of Denmark 958–86 and Norway 970–75. Son of Gorm the Old, he introduced Christianity to Denmark, built fortresses and bridges and is commemorated by the Jelling runic stones. Bluetooth wireless technology was named for him in 1997.

Harcourt, Sir William George Granville Venables Vernon (1827–1904). British Liberal politician, born in York. Of remote Plantagenet descent, he was educated at Cambridge, became a barrister (QC), Liberal MP 1868–1904 and Whewell professor of international law at Cambridge 1869–87. He served under *Gladstone as Home Secretary 1880–85, Chancellor of the Exchequer 1886 and 1892–95, and introduced death duties. He succeeded Lord *Rosebery as Leader of the Liberal Party 1896–98, resigning because of opposition to his anti-imperialist policies.

Hardenberg, Karl August von, Prince (Fürst) (1750–1822). Prussian administrator. Originally in the service of *George III (as King of Hanover), he was Prussian Foreign Minister 1804–06; 1807; 1814–18 and Chancellor 1810–22. *Napoléon demanded his dismissal when he conquered Prussia in 1806. As Chancellor, he secured some remarkable reforms, including the emancipation of the Jews and the abolition of serfdom. He was created a prince in 1814 and in the negotiations that followed Napoléon’s downfall he achieved the aggrandisement of his country, especially in the Rhineland. He represented Prussia at the Congress of Vienna 1814–15 but was outwitted by *Metternich. He stayed in office until his death but became increasingly bureaucratic in old age.

Hardie, (James) Keir (1856–1915). British Labour politician, born in Lanarkshire. He worked as an errand boy and in a mine before taking to journalism (1882–87). He became secretary of the newly formed Scottish Mines Federation (1886). He was elected (1892) to parliament for West Ham as the first and then only Labour member. He lost the 1893 election but was elected consistently for Merthyr Tydfil 1900–15. Meanwhile the Independent Labour Party had been formed with Keir Hardie as Chairman 1893–1900. He was the first and most revered leader of the parliamentary party 1900–11, devoting himself to the cause of the unemployed. A lifelong pacifist, he was deeply opposed to the Boer War and disillusioned by the failure of international socialism to stop World War I, but tinged with anti-Semitism.

Morgan, K. O., Keir Hardie. 1975.

Harding, John, 1st Baron Harding of Petherton (1896–1989). British field marshal. He began his army career as a subaltern in World War I, and rose to Chief of Staff, Allied Army in Italy, 1944. In 1955–57 as Governor of Cyprus, he reorganised military and civil resources to combat terrorism, introduced martial law and banished Archbishop *Makarios. He was made a baron in 1958.

Harding, Warren Gamaliel (1863–1923). 29th President of the US 1921–23. Born in Corsica (Blooming Grove), Ohio, son of a homoeopath, educated at Ohio Central College, he was editor and owner of the Marion Star 1884–1914, entering Ohio politics as a state senator 1900–04, Lieutenant Governor 1904–06 and a US senator 1913–21. As a senator, he avoided voting on contentious issues when he could, and his voting record ranked 78th out of 96. He rarely spoke and originated no legislation. He opposed ratification of the Versailles Treaty. Theodore *Roosevelt indicated that he would seek the Republican presidential nomination in 1920 and his sudden death (1919) left an open field. Republican powerbrokers who favoured a weakened presidency secured Harding’s nomination at the Chicago Convention on the 10th ballot. Harding was elected in November 1920 with 60.3 per cent of the vote, defeating James M.*Cox, also from Ohio, promising a return to ‘normalcy’, after *Wilson’s years of strenuous idealism. His Cabinet included some able men (Charles Evans *Hughes, Herbert *Hoover, Andrew *Mellon and Henry *Wallace, Sr) but also small-time fixers (Harry Daugherty and Albert Fall). The ‘Teapot Dome’ scandal involving conflict of interest in the sale of oil leases, and revelations of embezzlement and frauds by people he trusted, destroyed Harding’s reputation after his death. He was surprisingly liberal on racial issues, advocated ending the 12–hour day and child labour, set up the US Budget Bureau, released Eugene *Debs and took the US into the World Court. After visiting Alaska and British Columbia, Washington State and Oregon, he died suddenly in San Francisco, probably of coronary thrombosis, after food poisoning and pneumonia. Tall, handsome, the image of the elder statesman as portrayed in the movies of the time, likeable, with an easygoing temperament, he became a symbol of small-town self-interest, the world of Sinclair *Lewis’ novels. In 20 Presidential ranking lists by US historians and political scientists, Harding scored No. 38 in the aggregate.

Sinclair, A., The Available Man. 1965; Russell, F., President Harding. 1969; Dean, J. W., Warren G Harding. 2004.

Hardinge, Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount (1783–1856). British field marshal. He served under Wellington in Spain and France, succeeding him as Commander-in-Chief 1852–55, and was Governor-General of India 1844–48. His grandson, Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst (1858–1944), was a distinguished ambassador to Russia and France, Foreign Undersecretary 1906–10 and 1916–20 and Viceroy of India 1910–16.

Hardwicke, Sir Cedric Webster (1893–1964). English actor. He first came to prominence with the Birmingham Repertory Company, where he shone in *Shakespeare and *Shaw, was knighted in 1934 and worked in the US from 1937. He took character roles in 75 films, working with *De Mille, *Hitchcock, *Olivier and many other directors.

Hardwicke, C., and Brough, J., A Victorian in Orbit. 1962.

Hardy, G(odfrey) H(arold) (1877–1947). English mathematician. Educated at Winchester and Cambridge, he was a Fellow of Trinity 1900–19; 1931–47, and held chairs in Oxford, Princeton and Cambridge. Close to Bertrand *Russell and J. M. *Keynes, he mentored Srinivasa *Ramanujan, wrote A Mathematician’s Apology (1940), was a passionate advocate for ‘pure mathematics’ and received the Copley Medal (1947).

Hardy, Thomas (1840–1928). English novelist and poet, born in Dorset. The West Country as ‘Wessex’ was the background of his novels and of his whole life. Articled to an architect, he did some work as a restorer of churches before turning to literature. He married (1874) Emma Louisa Gifford and they lived at Max Gate, near Dorchester, built to his own design. His first novel, Desperate Remedies (1871), could be described as a ‘thriller’ and though he became more and more interested in character he never disdained a strong plot or a melodramatic situation. Of the novels that immediately followed, the best known are Under the Greenwood Tree (1872), Far from the Madding Crowd (1874), The Return of the Native (1878), The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886), and The Woodlanders (1886–87). Hardy was by then widely read and esteemed, but Tess of the D’Urbervilles (1891), one of the greatest novels in English, was bitterly assailed by conventional moralists for condoning the immoralities of its tragic heroine. This attitude and similar attacks on Jude the Obscure (1895) so disturbed Hardy that after the publication of The Well Beloved (1897) he wrote no more novels, but found a new reputation as a poet with the publication of Wessex Poems (1898) and Poems Past and Present (1901). He considered the highest pinnacle of his literary achievement was The Dynasts (1904–08), a colossal epic-drama, written in blank verse, of the Napoléonic wars. It embodies, with a classical fatalism, his view of man as a weak creature struggling against the inexorable forces of nature and the gods, but its inflated style alienated many readers.

He received 25 nominations for the Nobel Prize for Literature: all failed. In 1910 he was awarded the OM. In 1913 his wife died, and he married Florence Dugdale in 1914. Hardy continued to write, mainly poetry, into old age.

Gittings, R., The Young Thomas Hardy. 1975; The Older Thomas Hardy. 1978; Tomalin, C., Thomas Hardy. The Time Torn Man. 2006.

Hardy, Sir Thomas Masterman, 1st Baronet (1769–1839). English sailor. He served under *Nelson as flag-captain of the HMS Victory 1803–05. At Trafalgar, it was to him that Nelson, as he died, addressed the (disputed) words ‘Kiss me, Hardy’. He became First Naval Lord 1830–34 and was promoted to Vice Admiral (1837).

Harewood, George Henry Hubert Lascelles, 7th Earl of (1923–2011). English arts administrator. Son of the 6th Earl of Harewood and Princess *Mary, the Princess Royal, he was educated in Cambridge, served in the guards in World War II and was a prisoner in Germany. He was an effective arts administrator in the UK and Australia and an active campaigner against the death penalty.

Hargrave, Lawrence (1850–1915). Australian inventor, born in England. Son of a judge, he migrated to New South Wales in 1865, worked as an engineer, became involved in exploring New Guinea and in astronomical observation. He invented a compressed air engine (1889) and a box kite (1894) in which he flew briefly. The importance of his work was unrecognised by contemporaries.

Hargreaves, James (d.1778). English inventor, born near Accrington, Lancashire. He was working in the calico mills of Robert Peel (the statesman’s grandfather) when, between 1764 and 1767, he invented a ‘spinning jenny’ capable of spinning eight threads at once. He had to move to Nottingham (1768) when fellow workers broke into his house and destroyed the frame. Later he became a partner in a small cotton mill. Delay in patenting (1770) prevented him gaining a great fortune, but he died in comfort.

Harington, Sir John (1561–1612). English poet and inventor. A godson of Queen *Elizabeth, his wit gave him privileges at court although he was sent to the country for a time for fear that his verses might corrupt the ladies-in-waiting. This gave him time to write a complete translation of *Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso (1591) but he had returned by 1596, when he published anonymously Metamorphosis of Ajax, in which he playfully advocated the earliest design for a type of flush water-closet, apparently of his own invention. He was knighted by his friend, the 2nd Earl of *Essex, during his ill-fated Irish campaign.

Harley, Robert, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer (1661–1724). English politician, born in London. Of no strong political convictions he was elected as a Whig (1689) and was Speaker of the House of Commons 1701–05 and (with some overlap) Secretary of State for the North 1704–08. He intrigued with the Tories, shifted his allegiance to that party and became head of a Tory Government as Chancellor of the Exchequer 1710–11 and Lord High Treasurer 1711–14 (the last person to hold that office). An attempt by a French spy to assassinate him made him suddenly popular, he received an earldom from Queen *Anne and made a KG. His government ended the War of Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht (1713).

It was said of him that ‘he grew by persecutions, turnings out and stabbings’. However, he fell from office when his former friend Henry St John, Viscount *Bolingbroke, became a bitter enemy, was impeached, imprisoned for a time, then acquitted. He was a great book collector and a patron of *Swift, *Pope and *Gay. He founded the Harleian Collection of books and MSS in the British Museum.

Harman, Harriet Ruth (1950– ). English Labour politician. MP 1982– , she was Secretary of State for Social Security 1997–98, Solicitor-General 2001–05, Minister of State for Justice 2005–10 and Deputy Leader of the Labour Party 2007–15. She was twice acting Leader of the Labour Party, in 2010 (after the resignation of Gordon *Brown) and 2015 (after Ed *Miliband).

Harman, H. R., A Woman’s Work. 2017

Harmsworth. English journalistic and publishing dynasty. Alfred Harmsworth, who became Lord *Northcliffe, and his brother Harold (Lord *Rothermere), together started (1888) the weekly Answers. Harmsworth also published a number of Sunday magazine papers and in 1896 revolutionised English newspapers with the American-style Daily Mail. In 1903 the brothers pioneered the first newspaper for women, the Daily Mirror. Among their dynastic successors was Northcliffe’s nephew, Cecil Harmsworth King (1901–1987), who held an increasingly powerful position in the newspaper and periodical fields from the 1950s but then fell (1968).

Harnoncourt, Nikolaus (1929–2016). Austrian conductor, born in Berlin. A cellist with the Vienna Symphony Orchestra 1952–69, he founded the Vienna Concentus Musicus in 1953, directing performances of early music with original instruments. He recorded all *Bach’s cantatas and revived works by *Monteverdi and *Rameau, later turning to the Romantic repertoire. His complete set of *Beethoven symphonies was acclaimed in 1992.

Harold Godwinson (or Harold II) (c.1022–1066). King of England 1066. The last of the Saxon rulers, he succeeded (1053) his father *Godwin as Earl of Essex and was virtual ruler under *Edward the Confessor, on whose death (1066) he took the crown. Some three years previously, forced to land in Normandy, Harold had given his oath of loyalty (which he retracted once back in England) to *William of Normandy, who on Edward’s death at once set sail to invade England. Harold found himself faced with enemies in both north and south and met the twofold threat with almost incredible energy. He crushed his rebel brother Tostig, who was aided by Hardrada of Norway, at Stamford Bridge, Yorkshire, on 23 September, and hurried south to fight William of Normandy at Senlac, near Hastings on 14 October. Here, despite gallant resistance, he was defeated and killed. The Bayeux Tapestry shows him being shot in the eye by an arrow but he was probably hacked to death by knights.

Compton, P., Harold the King. 1961.

Harold Harefoot (or Harold I) (1016–1040). King of England 1035–40. Son of *Cnut, born in England, he seized the English throne when his half-brother *Harthacnut was preoccupied with problems in Denmark. He died suddenly in Oxford. When Harthacnut took up his English kingdom, Harold’s body was exhumed, beheaded and dumped in the Thames.

Harper, Stephen Joseph (1959– ). Canadian politician, born in Toronto. He studied economics in Alberta, became MP 1993–97, 2002–16, Leader of the Conservative Party 2004–15, Prime Minister 2006–15, increasing his majority in 2011 but being heavily defeated by Justin *Trudeau and the Liberals in 2015. He had opposed strong action on climate change and, out of office, indicated broad support for Donald *Trump.

Harriman, W(illiam) Averell (1891–1986). American diplomat and Democratic politician. Son of the railway magnate Edward Henry Harriman, he worked with Franklin *Roosevelt on his New Deal and in World War II came to Britain as Lend-Lease administrator (1942–43). As Ambassador to the USSR 1943–46 and to Britain 1946, and in several other official and unofficial roles, he played an important part in the diplomatic history of the war and postwar years. Governor of New York State 1955–59, he failed to win nomination as Democratic presidential candidate in 1952 and 1956. His published works include Peace with Russia? (1960) and Special Envoy (1975). His third wife, Pamela Beryl Harriman (née Digby) (1920–1997), formerly married to Randolph *Churchill, became US Ambassador to France 1993–97.

Harrington, James (1611–1677). English political theorist. He attended *Charles I personally, by order of parliament, both before and at his execution. After the King’s death he retired to write Oceana, a political romance in which, recognising that political power is dependent on economic circumstances, he propounded a more equal distribution of land, leading to government by a senate debating and proposing, the people deciding the legislation, and a magistracy (chosen on a principle of rotation by popular suffrage by the ballot) executing the laws. His theories influenced the doctrines of both the American and French revolutions.

Russel-Smith, H. F., Harrington and the ‘Oceana’. 1971.

Harriot (Hariot or Heriot), Thomas (c.1560–1621). English polymath, born in Oxford. He studied at St Mary Hall, Oxford, became interested in navigation, worked for Walter *Raleigh, visited North Carolina and wrote A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia (1588). He is credited with introducing the potato and tobacco to England and transcribed the Algonquian language. He corresponded about optics with *Kepler, set out the principles of refraction, drew a map of the Moon (1609) and observed sunspots (1610). Imprisoned after Raleigh’s fall, he died of cancer, an early victim of smoking. An exoplanet and a Moon crater are named for him.

Arianrhod, R., Thomas Harriot. A Life in Science. 2019.

Harris, Sir Arthur Travers, 1st Baronet (1892–1984). English airman, born in Gloucestershire. In Rhodesia as a young man, he served in World War I, then remained in the RAF. Marshal of the RAF, known as ‘Bomber Harris’, he was Commander-in-Chief of Bomber Command 1942–45 in charge of the bombing raids on Germany during World War II. His campaign involved area bombing, such as the firestorm of Dresden (February 1945), instead of precision targeting, which remains deeply controversial.

Probert, H., Bomber Harris. His Life and Times. 2006.

Harris, Frank (né John Thomas Harris) (1855–1931). Irish-American journalist, novelist, short-story writer and diarist, born in Galway. He emigrated to the US in 1869, becoming a citizen in 1921 but his most productive years were spent in England and France. A friend and biographer of Oscar *Wilde (1916) and Bernard *Shaw (1931), he became notorious with his My Life and Loves (4 vols, 1922–27), long banned as obscene, now regarded as a triumph of the imagination.

Harris, Joel Chandler (1848–1908). American author. A journalist on the Atlanta Constitution 1876–1900, he collected Negro folk myths and dialect, reproducing many stories of plantation life in his book Uncle Remus (1880–83), and introduced the characters Brer Fox and Brer Rabbit.

Cousins, P. M., Joel Chandler Harris: A Biography. 1968.

Harris, Roy Ellsworth (1898–1979). American composer. A pupil of Nadia *Boulanger, he wrote seven symphonies of which the powerful No. 3 (1937), in one movement, is most performed, and an important piano quintet.

Harrison, Benjamin (1833–1901). 23rd President of the US 1889–93. Grandson of W. H. *Harrison, born and educated in Ohio, he became an attorney, settled in Indiana and rose to Brigadier in the Civil War. A US senator from Indiana 1881–87, he was a compromise Republican choice for the presidency in 1888 and defeated Grover *Cleveland in the Electoral College (although trailing slightly in the popular vote). Although a capable administrator, his high tariff legislation caused distress and he had none of the gifts that command popularity. His attempt to secure a second term in 1892 met overwhelming defeat by Cleveland. The Sherman Anti-trust Law and the Silver Purchase Acts were passed during his term of office.

Sievers, H. J., Benjamin Harrison, 3 vols, 1952–68.

Harrison, James (1816–1893). Scottish-Australian engineer, printer, publisher and politician, born in Dumbartonshire. In Victoria from 1839, he owned and edited The Geelong Advertiser 1842–62, and devised a refrigeration system for ships which enabled Australia to become a meat exporter.

Harrison, John (1693–1776). English horologist. A carpenter’s son, in 1736 he won the Board of Longitude’s prize of £20,000 for constructing an accurate marine chronometer that enabled navigators to calculate longitude accurately and was awarded the Copley Medal in 1749. He did not receive all the prize money until 1773, and only then with the intervention of *George III, after producing his fifth version.

Sobel, D., Longitude. 1995.

Harrison, Sir Rex Carey (1908–1990). British actor. He first appeared on the stage at the Liverpool Repertory Theatre (1924). He performed in both the plays and films of Blithe Spirit, My Fair Lady and Doctor Dolittle.

Harrison, Wallace K(irkham) (1895–1981). American architect. Encouraged by Nelson *Rockefeller, he designed the trylon and perisphere for the New York World’s Fair 1939–40, the United Nations buildings 1947–50, the Metropolitan Opera House and the Lincoln Centre for the Performing Arts 1961–66 and the Exxon Building 1971, all in New York.

Harrison, William Henry (1773–1841). 9th President of the US March–April 1841. Born in Virginia, son of a planter who had been a signatory of the Declaration of Independence, he became a soldier and governor of the newly formed territory of Indiana 1800–12. He won a renowned victory over the Indian chieftain *Tecumseh at Tippecanoe River (1811), was a general in the war of 1812 against the British, a US senator from Ohio 1825–28 and a unsuccessful candidate for president against *Van Buren in 1836. He won the Whig nomination for president in December 1839, defeating Henry *Clay and Winfield *Scott, and after Daniel *Webster declined the vice presidential nomination, it went to John *Tyler. It was his reputation as a war hero (using the slogan ‘Tippecanoe and Tyler too’) rather than his skill as a politician that won his election in November 1840. Harrison, the last president born a British subject, and the oldest to be elected until *Reagan, delivered a speech of record length (100 minutes) at his inauguration, caught cold and died of pneumonia one month later. Harrison was the shortest-serving president, the first to die in office and to be succeeded by a vice president.

Harry (Henry Charles Albert David Mountbatten-Windsor), Duke of Sussex (1984– ). British prince, born in London. Second son of Prince *Charles and Princess *Diana, after a rebellious youth he served in the army 2005–15 and became a helicopter pilot. He married (Rachel) Meghan Markle (1981– ), an American, formerly an actress, in 2018 and was identified with a variety of causes, injured and depressed service personnel and conservation. In 2020 he withdrew from royal duties and announced plans to relocate to Canada, soon changed to California.

Harsanyi, John Charles (1920–2000). American economist, born in Budapest. A pioneer of games theory, he taught in Brisbane 1954–56, Canberra 1959–61, Detroit 1961–63 and Berkeley 1964–90 and shared the 1994 Nobel Prize for Economics with John *Nash.

Hart, Gary (1936– ). American Democratic politician, born in Kansas. Educated at Yale, he became a lawyer in Denver (1967), US senator from Colorado 1973–86 and a leading Democratic presidential contender in 1988.

Hart, Sir Robert, 1st Baronet (1835–1911). British official in China, born in Ulster. A graduate of Queen’s University, Belfast, he worked as a consular official in China 1854–63 then became Inspector General of the Maritime Customs Service 1863–1911. He was a significant influence in reforming infrastructure and administration.

Harte, Francis Bret (1836–1902). American author, born in Albany, New York. He went to California as a youth and won fame by his stories, e.g. The Luck of Roaring Camp (1868) and The Outcasts of Poker Flat (1870). From 1883 he lived in London.

Harthacnut (or Hardicanute) (1018–1042). King of Denmark 1035–42 and of England 1040–42. Born in England, son of *Cnut, he succeeded his father in Norway and his half-brother *Harold Harefoot in England. The last Scandinavian ruler in England, he died suddenly at a wedding feast, probably of a stroke, but he could have been poisoned. The Anglo-Saxon House of Wessex was then restored with *Edward the Confessor.

Hartley, David (1705–1757). English physician and pioneer psychologist, born in Armley, Yorkshire. Son of a poor clergyman, he attended Jesus College, Cambridge, receiving his BA in 1726 and his MA in 1729. Hartley had scruples about signing the 39 Articles, and so took up a career in medicine. He practised in London and later in Bath. His major book was the two-volume Observations on Man, his Frame, His Duty, and his Expectations (1749). In this he attempted to prove that there is no knowledge innate in the mind, nor any innate moral disposition. All our knowledge and ideas are built up by patterns of associations formed in the mind from the data that comes in from our senses. Such patterns of associations are themselves determined by our disposition to pursue pleasure and shun pain. Such a sensationalist psychology and associationist epistemology was not in itself totally original: much is to be found in *Locke. Hartley’s originality lay in giving these a physiological basis. He saw the associations literally as vibrations and pathways of particles in the brain. Hartley was thus the first materialist psychologist in England. He believed his cause-and-effect psychology was compatible with Newtonianism, and also with his Christianity (man’s psychology became part of predestination). It was enormously influential in the development during the next century of a more scientific psychological theory.

Halevy, E., The Growth of Philosophic Radicalism. 1952.

Hartmann, Karl Amadeus (1906–1963). German composer. A pupil of *Webern, he was influenced by *Mahler, *Reger, *Stravinsky and *Berg and wrote eight symphonies. He founded Musica Viva in Munich in 1947.

Hartmann, Karl Robert Eduard von (1842–1906). German philosopher. Known for his synthesis of *Hegel and *Schopenhauer, his reputation for pessimism arises from a mistaken interpretation of his belief that the amount of pleasure in the world is exceeded by the amount of pain. His chief work Philosophy of the Unconscious (1869) was translated into English (1884).

Hartnell, Sir Norman (1901–1979). English couturier. He founded his own business in 1923 and was dressmaker to the Queen by 1940. He designed the wedding and coronation dresses of Queen *Elizabeth II. He was created a KCVO in 1977.

Harty, Sir (Herbert) Hamilton (1879–1941). British conductor and composer, born at Hillsborough, County Down. He was conductor of the Hallé Orchestra 1920–33. He arranged *Händel’s Water Music (1922) and Royal Fireworks Music (1924) for modern orchestra, and composed An Irish Symphony (1924) and concertos for piano and violin.

Harun al-Rashid (763–809). Fifth Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad 786–809. He was born in modern Iran, son of the third caliph and a slave-girl who remained an important influence. He moved his court from Baghdad to Raqqa (modern Syria) in 796 but established the ‘House of Wisdom’ (‘Bayt al-Hikma’) in Baghdad. His fame as a ruler induced even the distant *Charlemagne to send gifts, and word of his generous patronage attracted to his magnificent court artists and scholars from many lands. An underlying cruelty was shown when, from jealously or fear of conspiracy, he ordered (803) the extermination of the Barmecides, a family which for 50 years and more had dominated the administration. Legend, as recorded in The Thousand and One Nights and elsewhere, relates how he walked in disguise through the city to seek adventure and learn the grievances of his subjects. Buried in Mashhad, he appears as a character in many stories, poems and films.

Harvard, John (1607–1638). English clergyman. In 1637 he went as a preacher to Charlestown, Mass., where he died of tuberculosis. He bequeathed his library and half his estate (£779) as the basis of the college, founded in 1636, which took his name in 1638 and became the first university in North America.

Harvey, William (1578–1657). English physician, born in Folkestone. Famous for his discovery of the circulation of the blood, after graduating at Cambridge (1597) he studied under the great anatomist Fabricius in Padua. Elected FRCP (1607) he became physician to St Bartholomew’s Hospital (1609) to King *James I (1618) and to *Charles I (1640). His strong royalist sympathies led him to attend Charles I through the Civil War. He retired from professional life after the triumph of the parliamentary forces and occupied himself entirely with research. As early as 1628 he had published An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and the Blood in Animals in which he wrote that ‘the blood performs a kind of circular motion’ through the bodies of men and animals. Until then physicians knew of the existence of arteries and veins but did not understand that the function of the latter was to enable the blood to return to the heart; they regarded the inexplicable arterial movement as being in the nature of an irrigation of the body. Harvey demonstrated (after actually viewing it in animals) that the heart is a muscle, that it functions as a pump and that it effects the movement of the blood through the body via the lungs by means of the arteries, the blood then returning to the heart through the veins. He pointed out the difference between venous and arterial blood. Harvey’s notable Essays on Generation of Animals (1651) comprise his researches in embryology. The doctrine that every living thing has its origin in an egg was affirmed by him.

Keynes, G., The Life of William Harvey. 1966.

Hasek, Jaroslav (1883–1923). Czech novelist, born in Prague. A journalist and satirist, he became a prisoner of war of the Russians in World War I. He wrote The Good Soldier Svejk (4 volumes, incomplete, 1920–23).

Hashimoto Ryutaro (1938–2006). Japanese politician. He became Leader of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), and Prime Minister 1996–98. He changed the electoral system, introducing single member electorates and won an election in October 1996, resigning after Japan entered a recession.

Hasluck, Sir Paul Meernaa Caedwalla (1905–1993). Australian Liberal politician. An academic, diplomat, war historian and poet, he was a Federal MP 1949–69, a minister from 1951, Foreign Minister 1964–69 and Governor-General of Australia 1969–74. Created KG in 1979, he published five volumes of poetry and an autobiography Mucking About (1977). His notes, making sharp comments on colleagues, including *Casey, *Gorton and *McMahon, were posthumously published as The Chance of Politics (1997).

Hassan II (1929–1999). King of Morocco 1961–99. Son of *Mohammed V, he was educated in France, directed relief operations after the Agadir earthquake (1960), was Prime Minister 1961–63, 1965–67 and wrote memoirs (1979).

Hassanal Bolkiah (Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah ibni Al-Marhum Haji Omar Ali Saifuddien Sa’adul Khairi Waddien) (1946– ). 29th Sultan of Brunei 1967– . Educated at Sandhurst, he succeeded as Yang di-Pertuan (Head of State) on his father’s abdication and was also Prime Minister 1984– . One of the last absolute monarchs, he imposed sharia law. His fortune was estimated at US$20 billion. Britain made him an honorary GCB, GCMG and Admiral of the Royal Navy.

Hasselblad, Victor (1906–1978). Swedish inventor, born in Göteborg. In 1941 he developed a camera for the Swedish Air Force which was launched commercially in 1948, used by NASA on the first moon landing (1969) and in many other space flights.

Hastings, 1st Marquess of, Francis Edward Rawdon-Hastings, 2nd Earl of Moira (1754–1826). Anglo-Irish soldier and politician, born in Dublin. He dropped out of Oxford, bought an army commission and served in a variety of roles in the American War of Independence 1774–81. Created a peer in his own right in 1783, elected FRS, he led a military expedition to France in 1794, but broke with *Pitt for not providing adequate support. In 1797 there was an ill-considered attempt to make Hastings prime minister. Promoted general, he was Commander-in-Chief in Scotland 1803. A Whig and supporter of Catholic Emancipation, he became close to the Prince of Wales but failed in another bid to become prime minister (1812). Appointed Governor-General of Bengal 1813–23, he proved to be relatively successful and secured the cession of Singapore (1819). Governor of Malta 1824–26, he died at sea.

Hastings, Warren (1732–1818). English administrator, born in Oxfordshire. Son of a clergyman, he joined the East India Co. as a writer in 1750, served in Madras 1769–72 and as Governor of Bengal 1772–74. He became the first Governor-General of Bengal (i.e. of nearly all British India) 1774–85, the title of Governor-General of India not being created until 1833, by statute (*Bentinck). He reformed the whole system of administration, set up a board of revenue and established regular law courts for which he had old Hindu law books specially translated. He encouraged William *Jones to found the Asiatic Society of Bengal to study oriental culture (1784) and publish a translation of the Bhagavad Gita (1785). Hastings abolished private trading by the servants of the Company, and moreover successfully held the Mahrattas at bay. Unfortunately three of the four members of his Governor-General’s Council consistently opposed and hampered him; one of them, Sir Philip *Francis, with personal malignancy. When Hastings retired (1785), Francis instigated *Burke, *Fox, *Sheridan and others to impeach him for oppression, maladministration and corruption. From 1788 the trial dragged on for nearly seven years during which his every doubtful action or misdemeanour was exaggerated into a major crime. In 1795 Hastings was acquitted on all charges, and though his whole fortune had gone he could live quietly on a pension provided by the Company. Though perhaps the ablest of the great administrators of British India he was the least rewarded, becoming Privy Counsellor in 1814.

Turnbull, P., Warren Hastings. 1975; Lawson, C., The Private Life of Warren Hastings. 2012.

Hathaway, Anne (1555/6–1623). English wife, probably born in Shottery. In 1582 she married William *Shakespeare, seven or eight years her junior, and bore him a daughter, Susanna (1583) and the twins Judith and Hamnet (or Hamlet, 1585). In his will, Shakespeare left her the furniture and his ‘second-best bed’.

Hatoyama Yukio (1947– ). Japanese politician, born in Tokyo. A Diet Member 1986–2012, he led the Democratic Party of Japan and was Prime Minister 2009–10, introducing major reforms in social welfare and education, but was forced to resign over a financial scandal. His grandfather Hatoyama Ichiro (1883–1959) was Prime Minister 1954–56.

Hatshepsut (d.c.1482 BCE). Egyptian Queen (1504–1482 BCE). Daughter of Thutmose I, she married her half-brother Thutmose II, and on his death proclaimed herself pharaoh. She built the great temple at Deir el-Bahri (West Thebes) and four obelisks at Karnak. After her death, possibly murdered, her stepson and co-ruler *Thutmose III obliterated her name.

Tyldesley, J., Hatchepsut. 1996.

Hatta, Mohammed (1902–1980). Indonesian politician. Trained as an economist in Europe and imprisoned by the Dutch (1933–42), he worked for the Japanese during World War II and during the *Soekarno era was Prime Minister 1948–50 and Vice President 1950–56.

Hatton, Sir Christopher (1540–1591). English lawyer and courtier. He was a great favourite of Queen *Elizabeth, who knighted him and gave him large estates in Dorset including the historic Corfe Castle. He was often her spokesman in parliament and actively prosecuted Anthony *Babington and *Mary Queen of Scots. He became Lord Chancellor 1587–91 and Chancellor of Oxford University 1588–91.

Brooks, E. St J., Sir Christopher Hatton. 1946.

Haughey, Charles James (1925–2006). Irish politician. A lawyer, he was elected to the Dail in 1957, led Fianna Fail 1979–92, and served as Taoiseach (Prime Minister) 1979–81, 1982 and 1987–92.

Dwyer, T. R., Short Fellow: A Biography of Charles Haughey. 1987; O’Brien, J., The Modern Prince: Charles J. Haughey and the Quest for Power. 2002.

Hauptmann, Gerhardt (1862–1946). German dramatist and novelist, born in Silesia. He became an art student before going to Berlin (1885) and turning to literature. His early plays, social dramas influenced by *Ibsen, roused opposition by their ‘naturalism’, a technique he applies, as in Die Weber (1892), to comparatively recent events (e.g. the revolt of the Silesian weavers in 1844) and even to remoter history, e.g. in Florian Geyer (1896) on the Peasant’s War. A transition to fantasy is marked by Hanneles Himmelfahrt (Hannele’s Journey to Heaven, 1893), in which a child’s vision and sordid realism are successfully blended, and the popular Die Versunkene Glocke (The Sunken Bell, 1896). His later plays range through many styles from the realistic to the mystical and classical. Of his novels the best known are the psychological The Fool in Christ: Emanuel Quint (1910) and the classical Atlantis (1912). The verse epic Till Eulenspiegl (1928) symbolically portrayed Germany after World War I. Hauptmann won the Nobel Prize for Literature (1912).

Knight, K. G., and Norman, F. (eds), Hauptmann Centenary Lectures. 1964.

Haushofer, Karl (1869–1946). German soldier and political theorist. After serving in the Bavarian army (1887–1918) and becoming a general, he was appointed (1921) professor of political geography at Munich University. On the basis of *Mackinder’s theory of Eurasian ‘heartland’, he built up a spurious science of geopolitics to justify a special role for Germany. He committed suicide.

Haussmann, Georges-Eugène (1809–1891). French administrator and lawyer. He joined the public service in 1831. *Napoléon III appointed him as Prefect of the Department of the Seine 1853–70, with responsibility for modernising Paris, to accommodate for the large increase in population. He became a Senator in 1857. He created new water supply and sewerage systems, introduced the railways, created boulevards, including the Champs-Élysées, parks (including the Bois de Boulogne and Buttes Chaumont), and built bridges, but tore down hundreds of medieval dwellings. His work had significant influence in Rome, Berlin, Vienna, Madrid, Barcelona, Stockholm, New York and Chicago. He became deeply controversial, spending huge sums of money, masked by some creative accountancy, and was the subject of attack by Napoléon’s enemies. Forced to resign, he was elected as a Deputy, representing Corsica, 1877–81. He is often described, inaccurately, as Baron Haussmann.

Haüy, René-Just (1743–1822). French scientist, born at St Just-en-Chaussée, Oise. He became a priest, taught in Paris and investigated mineralogy and crystallography. In 1802 he became professor of mineralogy at the Museum of Natural History, moving to a chair at the Sorbonne in 1809. His two major works are the Treatise of Mineralogy (1801), and the Treatise of Crystallography (1822). Haüy’s importance lay in effectively redefining the questions to be posed in the study of crystals. The regular forms of crystals had drawn throughout the 17th and 18th centuries a plethora of causal explanations, in terms of shaping forces—some chemical, some physical, some atomistic but none satisfactory. Haüy’s approach was not to explain the causes of the regularly varied forms of crystals, but to try to classify those forms in terms of geometry and above all, he hoped, through the geometry of simple relationships between integers. He envisaged crystals as structured assemblages of secondary bodies (integrant molecules: a concept deriving from Buffon) which grouped themselves according to regular geometric laws. He proposed six types of primary forms: parallelpiped, rhombic dodecahedron, hexagonal dipyramid, right hexagonal prism, octahedron and tetrahedron, and spent much of his career elaborating on this typology of forms.

His approach won strong supporters, but also met many detractors, who believed that physical questions were being neglected in this purely structural, geometrical approach.

Burke, J. G., Origins of the science of Crystals. 1966.

Havel, Vaclav (1936–2011). Czech dramatist and politician, born in Prague. He began publishing essays and plays in 1956, although his works were not performed in Czechoslovakia until 1968. His plays include The Memorandum (1965), The Conspirators (1971), Audience (1975) and Largo Desolato (1985). In 1977 he helped to found Charter 77, a human rights organisation, and was jailed many times. In prison 1979–83, he wrote Letters to Olga (his wife), later dramatised. In 1989, on the collapse of Communism, Havel became the last President of Czechoslovakia 1989–92 in ‘the velvet revolution’, leaving office when he proved unable to maintain political union between Czechs and Slovaks. He was elected President of the Czech Republic 1993–2003.

Havelock, Sir Henry (1795–1857). English general. Originally intended for the law, a collapse in the family’s fortunes made him a soldier, widely read, a good linguist, and full of Baptist missionary fervour. He served in India from 1822, fighting with distinction in Burma, Afghanistan, Gwalior and the Punjab. In the Indian mutiny (1857) he was sent to the relief of Cawnpore and Lucknow. Having reached Cawnpore only to find that on news of his coming all the European women and children had been killed, he fought his way through to Lucknow and so enabled the city to hold out until it was finally relieved by Sir Colin *Campbell. Havelock died of dysentery within a month.

Hawke, Bob (Robert James Lee) (1929–2019). Australian Labor politician, born in South Australia. Educated in Perth, he became a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, returning to join the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) as research officer (1957) and industrial advocate (from 1959). As President of the ACTU 1970–80, he was highly visible on television and gained immense popularity in resolving industrial disputes, and was also National President of the Australian Labor Party 1973–78. He entered the Australian Parliament in 1980, took the Labor leadership from Bill *Hayden in a bloodless coup in February 1983 and a month later defeated Malcolm *Fraser decisively to become Prime Minister, being re-elected in 1984, 1987 and 1990. Hawke converted the ALP to uneasy support of economic rationalism and the domination of the market, and promoted economic links with Asia. Phasing out of tariffs, responding to globalisation, floating the $A, financial deregulation, achieving universal secondary education, universal health care, Commonwealth power over the environment, compulsory superannuation, the Australia Act (1986) were all achieved by Hawke, working closely with his treasurer, Paul *Keating. He also led the successful international fight, with Jacques Yves *Cousteau and Michel *Rocard, to exclude mining from Antarctica for 50 years (1991) and played a significant role in weakening the apartheid regime in South Africa. After 1987 he worried that the pace of change was causing social hardship. In December 1991 Keating defeated Hawke in a Caucus ballot and became Prime Minister.

d’Alpuget, B., Robert J. Hawke. 1982; Hawke, B. The Hawke Memoirs. 1994.

Hawke, Edward Hawke, 1st Baron (1705–1781). English sailor. After much distinguished service he became a full admiral in 1755 when he superseded *Byng in the Mediterranean. After two years he was back in the English Channel. His victory at Quiberon Bay (1759) was one of the greatest in British naval history. Hawke had been lying outside Brest watching the French fleet intended to cover an invasion of England, but in November a gale forced the British to withdraw and so allowed the French, under Admiral de Couflans, to escape. Anticipating rightly that the aim was to join a sister fleet at Rochefort, Hawke intercepted the enemy fleet at Quiberon Bay and, despite the gale and a menacing lee shore, forced action and destroyed it. Member of Parliament 1747–76, he was First Lord of the Admiralty 1766–71 and promoted to Admiral of the Fleet in 1768.

MacKay, R. F., Admiral Hawke. 1965.

Hawker, Harry George (1889–1921). Australian aviator, born in Melbourne. In England he began working with T.O.M. *Sopwith (1911), and in 1912 set records for time aloft (8 hours 23 minutes), distance (1,609 km) and height (3,490 metres). In May 1919 he attempted to cross the Atlantic but was forced to ditch. He designed aircraft and a two-stroke motor cycle and was killed while testing a French Goshawk. His name survived with the Hawker Hurricane fighter and the Hawker-*de Havilland aerospace company.

Hawking, Stephen William (1942–2018). English cosmologist, applied mathematician and theoretical physicist, born in Oxford. Educated at Oxford and Cambridge, he collaborated with Roger *Penrose, was professor of gravitational physics 1977–79 at Cambridge and Lucasian professor of mathematics (a chair that *Newton had held) 1979–2009. His work helped to confirm the ‘big bang’ theory of creation but his best known research is on the nature of ‘black holes’ and their relationship with the laws of thermodynamics. From 1963, Hawking was severely handicapped with a rare form of motor neurone disease (ALS, known as Lou *Gehrig’s disease in the US), which prevented him from moving or writing without assistance and he communicated through a speech synthesiser. His book A Brief History of Time (1988) became a phenomenal bestseller (more than 10,000,000 copies) and was filmed. He also wrote an autobiography, My Brief History (2013). He was awarded the CH in 1989, the Copley Medal in 2007 and the US Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009. He lost in a major dispute about the existence of the *Higgs boson, and the Nobel Prize for Physics eluded him because his conceptual work, although profound, was hard to confirm experimentally.

Hawkins (or Hawkyns), Sir John (1532–1595). English sailor, administrator and slave trader. He was the first Englishman to traffic in African slaves, a venture that ended (1573) when his fleet was destroyed by storms on his third voyage across the Atlantic. He is credited/blamed for introducing tobacco to England. As Treasurer of the Navy 1577–95, he did much to equip the fleet and turn it into an efficient fighting force. Knighted for his services against the Spanish Armada (1588), he harassed the Spanish West India trade for many years and died off Puerto Rico while commanding an expedition to the Spanish Main with his second cousin, Sir Francis *Drake.

Williamson, J. A., Hawkins of Plymouth. 2nd ed. 1969.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1804–1864). American novelist, born in Salem, Massachusetts. From a Puritan family, he developed a taste for solitude and as a young man lived for 12 years the life of a recluse in a single room at Salem, where he wrote the stories collected in two series as Twice-Told Tales (1827–1842). Marriage (1842) to Sara Peabody, as a preliminary to which he had taken a position in the Boston Customs House, restored him to normal life. The couple lived in Concord with *Emerson and *Thoreau among their neighbours. He returned to Salem as surveyor of customs but was dismissed and took up writing again. The result was his masterpiece, the novel The Scarlet Letter (1850), which, against a Puritan New England background, paints a tragic picture of the cumulative effects of prejudice, guilt and sin. Among other works of this productive period were The House of the Seven Gables (1851), the satirical The Blitheswood Romance (1852), and the famous children’s book Tanglewood Tales (1852). He was US Consul in Liverpool 1853–58. His last work of importance, inspired by an Italian visit, was The Marble Fawn (1860).

Crowley, J. D. (ed.), Hawthorne: The Critical Heritage. 1970.

Hay, John Milton (1838–1905). American diplomat and author. At the request of John G. Nicolay, Private Secretary 1861–65 to President *Lincoln, Hay was appointed his assistant, and the two friends wrote the enormous Abraham Lincoln (10 volumes, 1886–90). Hay was US Ambassador to Great Britain 1897–98 and Secretary of State 1898–1905. He enunciated the ‘Open Door’ policy in China and negotiated the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901) with Britain which enabled the US to build the Panama Canal. He was an intimate friend of Henry *Adams.

Hayden, Bill (William George) (1933– ). Australian Labor politician. After 10 years as a Queensland policeman, he was a Member of the Australian Parliament 1961–88, Minister for Social Security 1972–75, and Treasurer 1975 under Gough *Whitlam. Leader of the Labor Party 1977–83, he was displaced by Bob *Hawke but served as Hawke’s Foreign Minister 1983–88 then became Governor-General 1989–96.

Murphy, D. J., Hayden. 1980; Hayden, B., Hayden: an autobiography. 1996.

Haydn, (Franz) Joseph (1732–1809). Austrian composer, born at Rohrau. Second of 12 children, he studied at the St Stephen’s Cathedral choir school, Vienna (1740–49) until his voice broke. In the next eight years he taught himself the fundamentals of composition (studying the works of C.P.E. *Bach), working as a valet to the Italian composer Niccolo *Porpora (who instructed him in writing for the voice), and coaching pupils in the klavier and singing. In 1760 he became assistant Kapellmeister to Prince Esterházy at Eisenstadt and Kapellmeister at the castle at Esterháza (1766), remaining there until 1790. By 1790 he had written more than 70 symphonies, 50 piano sonatas, 125 works for baryton, 60 string quartets and much Church music. Gradually, he acquired a European reputation and his status rose with the Esterházys. From 1781 he was the friend and mentor of *Mozart.

Haydn ran some risk of being written off as a musical bookend, both preceding and following Mozart. He made a unique contribution to the history of music as creator of the string quartet (composing 68, although some doubtful attributions increase the number to 83) and the piano sonata (62). He also composed 20 piano trios. While Giovanni Battista Sammartini (1700?–1775) composed the earliest dated symphony (in 1732), Haydn is the first great master of the form, writing 104, strongly influencing Mozart and *Beethoven. He also composed 32 concertos, 14 operas and 14 Masses. Symphony No. 104 in D major (‘The London’) was the last, and perhaps his greatest, anticipating *Beethoven’s Romanticism. In 1792 he had taught Beethoven briefly, without mutual benefit.

Haydn spent two periods in England (1791–92; 1794–95) at the invitation of the London impresario J. P. *Salomon. He wrote 12 symphonies for Salomon (Nos. 93–104) and six string quartets. Haydn was immensely popular in England and received an honorary Mus D from Oxford (1791).

His Seven Last Words (1796), commissioned for Cadiz Cathedral, was later adapted for string quartet. His finest quartets are the six in op. 76 (1796–97; H. 75–80). His piano sonatas, long neglected, are now available on at least four sets of CDs which make a compelling case for them being in the same league as Mozart’s. The Mass No. 11 in D Minor (Missa in angustiis—Mass in times of fear), first performed in 1798, is better known as ‘The Nelson Mass’, having been played in *Nelson’s presence in 1800. The Mass, joyous, despite its ominous title, has a driving urgency, operatic intensity, with soaring vocal writing, powerful tympani, a piercing trumpet, pulsating strings, obsessive ornamentation and pungent dissonance. The most familiar of his choral works is The Creation (1798), written to an English text, based on Genesis and *Milton’s Paradise Lost, but often performed in German as Die Schöpfung. Die Jahreszeiten (The Seasons, 1801), much performed, is set to a text by Baron Gottfried van Swieten.

His works were catalogued by Antony van Hoboken, with the letter ‘H’.

Robbins Landon, H. C., Haydn: Chronicle and Works. 1980; Rosen, C., The Classical Style. 2nd edition, 1997.

Haydon, Benjamin Robert (1786–1846). English painter. An untalented, frustrated high Romantic, he fought against the Royal Academy and left valuable autobiographical writings. He was a friend of *Wordsworth and *Keats and committed suicide.

Hayek, Friedrich August von (1899–1992). Austrian-British economist, born in Vienna. A second cousin of Ludwig *Wittgenstein, he taught in Austria, Britain (where he was naturalised in 1938) and the US, became a strong opponent of *Keynes and the welfare state, and wrote The Road to Serfdom (1944). He attacked all centralised systems as potentially totalitarian, arguing that liberty grew out of a variety of ‘spontaneous orders’, arising locally. A passionate advocate of the free market, he shared the 1974 Nobel Prize for Economics with Gunnar *Myrdal (a bizarre pairing), became a major influence on Margaret *Thatcher and was made a CH in 1983.

Gamble, A., Hayek. The iron cage of liberty. 1996.

Hayes, Rutherford Birchard (1822–1893). 19th President of the US 1877–81. Born at Delaware, Ohio, he practised law at Cincinnati and rose to be a major-general in the Civil War. Member of the US House of Representatives 1864–67, he became Governor of Ohio 1867–71 and 1875–77. In 1876 he was chosen as a compromise candidate for the Republican presidential nomination and the ensuing campaign against Samuel Jones *Tilden was unusually dirty. Tilden led on the popular vote (4.3 m to 4.04 m), but there were disputed returns from Louisiana, South Carolina and Florida, all under ‘carpetbag’ rule. The returns were referred by Congress to an Electoral Commission which in each case ruled in favour of Hayes by 8 votes to 7. He was then declared elected with an Electoral College vote of 185 to 184. In the ‘Compromise of 1877’, Tilden and the Democrats agreed to accept the result provided that ‘Reconstruction’ ended and Federal troops were withdrawn from the South. This ended Federal action to assist black rights for more than 50 years.

Davison, K. E., The Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes. 1971.

Hazlitt, William (1778–1830). English essayist and critic, born in Maidstone. The son of a Unitarian minister, he was employed on the Morning Chronicle and Examiner in London in 1812, and contributed to the Edinburgh Review 1814–30. Collections of his essays were published in Round Table, Table Talk and Plain Speaker. He wrote a series of contemporary portraits in Spirit of the Age (1825) and a life of Napoleon (1828–30).

Healey, Denis Winston, Baron Healey (1917–2015). British Labour politician. Educated at Oxford, he was a major in the Commandos during World War II, became MP 1952–92, serving as Minister of Defence 1964–70, and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1974–79. He contested the leadership of the Labour Party in 1976 and 1980, but was Deputy Leader under Michael *Foot 1980–83. He was an able writer and photographer.

Healey, D., The Time of My Life. 1989.

Heaney, Seamus (Justin) (1939–2013). Irish poet, playwright and translator, born in Northern Ireland. He taught in Belfast, and was professor of rhetoric at Harvard 1985–97, and of poetry at Oxford 1989–94. He published 13 collections of poetry, adaptations of *Sophocles’ plays Philoctetes and Antigone, a highly praised translation of Beowulf (1999, which he did not much like himself) and Aeneid: Book VI (posthumous, 2016). He received the 1995 Nobel Prize for Literature for ‘works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past’. He declined nomination for the Presidency of Ireland in 2011. Bill *Clinton commented, on Heaney’s death: ‘His mind, heart, and his uniquely Irish gift for language made him our finest poet of the rhythms of ordinary lives and a powerful voice for peace.’

Vendler, H., Seamus Heaney. 2000.

Hearn, Lafcadio (1850–1904). American writer. Of Greek-British parentage, he became a journalist in the US, lived in Japan from 1890, taught there and was naturalised. He wrote several penetrating books explaining Japanese life and culture.

Hearst, William Randolph (1863–1951). American newspaper proprietor, born in San Francisco. The son of a millionaire mine owner, he took charge of his father’s paper, the San Francisco Examiner, in 1887, bought the New York Journal in 1895, and by 1925 owned 25 newspapers in 17 cities. His introduction of the ‘the yellow press’, characterised by banner headlines, sensationalism and lavish illustration, revolutionised journalism. A congressman 1903–07, he ran for the Democratic nomination for president in 1904 (losing to Alton B. *Parker) and was candidate for Governor of New York State in 1906 (losing to Charles Evans *Hughes). After supporting Franklin D. *Roosevelt in 1932 he became an extreme isolationist and Anglophobe. Orson *Welles’ film Citizen Kane (1940) was largely based on his life (with some elements from the Chicago Tribune’s R. R. McCormick).

Heath, Sir Edward Richard George (1916–2005). British Conservative politician, born in Broadstairs, Kent. Son of a carpenter, educated at Chatham House School and Balliol College, Oxford, he served in the army, was a civil servant, and a Tory MP 1950–2001. He was Minister of Labour 1959–60, Lord Privy Seal, in charge of European Community negotiations 1960–63, Secretary of State for Industry and President of the Board of Trade 1963–64. After the 1964 election defeat, Sir Alec Douglas-Home (*Home) retired as Leader of the Conservative Party, and Heath was elected to succeed him (1965), the first to be chosen in a ballot. He was Leader of the Opposition 1965–70, 1974–75. In June 1970 the Conservatives defeated Harold *Wilson’s Labour Government with a small majority. As Prime Minister 1970–74, Heath vigorously pursued entry to the European Community. In an effort to restore the economy and contain industrial strife he called an election in February 1974, was defeated narrowly, and when Wilson called a second election in October 1974, Heath failed to make significant gains. In February 1975, Margaret *Thatcher defeated him in a leadership contest. During her prime ministership, and beyond, he remained truculently on the backbench. A bachelor, he devoted himself to his hobbies. A gifted organist, conductor and yachtsman, he won the Sydney–Hobart yacht race in 1970. He was created KG in 1992. His sexuality is a matter of ongoing speculation—perhaps, like *Ravel, he had none.

Laing, M., Edward Heath: Prime Minister. 1972; Campbell, J., Edward Heath. 1993.

Heaviside, Oliver (1850–1925). English physicist. Despite having little formal education he made important contributions to the knowledge of how radio waves are propagated. In 1902 he put forward the theory that an ionised layer in the atmosphere, now known to be 90–150 km above the earth’s surface, is responsible for the reflection of medium-wave radio signals. The same hypothesis was advanced, almost simultaneously, in the United States by Arthur Edwin Kennelly (1861–1939) and the layer is now known either as the Kennelly-Heaviside or the Heaviside layer. Its existence was confirmed experimentally by Edward *Appleton. Heaviside found difficulty in communicating his findings to others, was often engaged in academic controversies and for the latter part of his life lived as a recluse in Devonshire. Elected FRS in 1891, in 1896 he was awarded a Civil List pension.

Hébert, Jacques René (1757–1794). French revolutionary. A journalist, he was one of the most extreme members of the political faction, the Cordeliers. He was one of the prominent founders of the atheistic cult of Reason. His popularity with the Paris Commune earned him *Robespierre’s animosity and after planning an abortive insurrection he was arrested and executed (1794).

Hedayat, Sadeq (1903–1951). Iranian novelist and playwright. Considered the most important Iranian writer of the 20th century, in his youth he was greatly influenced by *Maupassant, Edgar Allan *Poe, *Chekhov, *Dostoevsky and Franz *Kafka. All these he had discovered during a period in France and Belgium, but in 1930 he returned to Iran and became interested in the Iranian folk tradition. Most of his work is melancholy and deeply pessimistic, most human effort seemed to him absurd. He committed suicide in Paris. His best known works are probably Buried Alive (1930), Neyrangestan (1932) and The Blind Owl (1937).

Kamshad, H., Modern Persian Prose Literature. 1966.

Hedin, Sven Anders von (1865–1952). Swedish explorer and geographer. In 1885 he began a series of expeditions to Central Asia and mapped areas formerly unrecorded. In 1908 he made the first detailed map of Tibet. He wrote My Life as an Explorer (1925). He was sympathetic to *Hitler and the Nazis but deplored the anti-Jewish atrocities.

Hefner, Hugh Marston (1926–2017). American publisher and entrepreneur. In 1953, he founded the magazine Playboy, which played a significant role in the ensuing sexual revolution.

Hegel, (Georg Wilhelm) Friedrich (1770–1831). German philosopher, born in Stuttgart. He studied theology at Tubingen and in his early life was a critic of accepted Christian thought. He then turned to philosophy and, after working at Jena and elsewhere and achieving a growing reputation by his writings, he was appointed (1818) to succeed to the chair formerly occupied by J. G. *Fichte as professor of philosophy at the University of Berlin. His views and those of his followers (known as Hegelianism) greatly influenced subsequent philosophy, sometimes indirectly, sometimes by reaction. Marxism, according to *Marx, is Hegelianism turned right side up, and existentialism owes something to Hegel’s thought. There were also outgrowths of Hegelian idealism in British and American philosophy. Essentially, Hegelianism makes the claim that spirit, sometimes conceived as the human spirit, more often as something transcendental and all-encompassing, is the true reality, and all else is dependent on it. Spirit passes through various stages of development consisting of the attainment of a synthesis, when an antithesis is brought into antagonism with a thesis; this triadic process Hegel described as dialectical. Human history displays this development, as does philosophy itself. Hegel regarded his own philosophy as the furthest point to which philosophy had yet advanced. The chief works published during his lifetime were The Phenomenology of Mind (1807), The Science of Logic (1812–16), Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences (1817) and The Philosophy of Right (1821); much more of his writing was published posthumously. It has been criticised or disdained by many philosophers for its extravagant claims to be setting out a train of necessary truths.

Taylor, C., Hegel. 1975; Plant, R., Hegel. 1983; Singer, P., Hegel. 2001; Beiser, F. C., Hegel. 2005.

Heidegger, Martin (1889–1976). German philosopher, born in Messkirch. Born into a Catholic family, educated at Freiburg University, he studied with *Husserl, and became a professor at Marburg 1923–28. Major influences on his thinking include *Aristotle, St*Augustine, *Kierkegaard, *Nietzsche, *Hölderlin, Buddhism and Taoism.

His best known book Sein und Zeit (1926, translated as Being and Time, 1962) examines the concept of Being, emphasising the word Dasein, a compound of Da (there) and Sein (being), the central element of being human, including ‘being in the world’, ‘being with others’ and ‘states of mind’ (including anxiety, fear and love). He used Husserl’s phenomenological methods. His emphasis on ‘being’ was parallel to the existentialist principle that ‘existence’ precedes ‘essence’ but he objected to being described as an existentialist, although his teaching clearly influenced *Sartre.

‘Being-towards-death’ is the challenge of grasping that life can only be fully understood and realised by coming to terms with extinction, and that ‘being’ is ‘time’, the context in which we live, and it is finite. The deaths of others are irrelevant to the primary subject, a harsh view that throws light on Heidegger’s support of Nazism, which cut him off from Husserl.

He was a professor at Freiburg 1928–45, and rector 1933–34. A member of the Nazi Party 1933–45, Heidegger was deprived of his chair after the war, but resumed lecturing in 1951. He later gave evasive and contradictory explanations about his relations with the Third Reich.

With his emphasis on engagement rather than detachment, physical not metaphysical, the particular and immediate rather than the infinite, abstract and universal, he saw Nazi ideology as a validation of his concepts.

His language was very dense, unusually complex and hard to translate, so his influence on English speaking philosophers has been limited. He wrote about ‘the hermeneutics of facticity’ which meant the interpretation of meaning in the context of the quality or condition of being fact, reality or truth. He argued that ‘intelligibility is suicide for philosophy’, and he proved his point. There is an extensive literature on Heidegger and his work. His students included Hannah *Arendt (also his lover) and Herbert *Marcuse.

Blackham, H. J., Six Existentialist Thinkers. 1952; Ott, H., Martin Heidegger: A Political Life 1993; Collins, J., and Selina, H., Introducing Heidegger. A Graphic Guide. 1998; Skinner, Y., Hitler’s Philosophers. 2013.

Heifetz, Jascha (1901–1987). Lithuanian-Jewish-American violinist, born in Vilnius (then in the Russian Empire). A child prodigy, he performed the *Mendelssohn Violin Concerto at the age of 5, studied with Leopold Auer, made his St Petersburg debut in 1911 and left Russia in 1917. He toured Australia in 1921 and 1927. Regarded as the most brilliant virtuoso performer since *Paganini, Heifetz was in great demand as a concert and recording artist, where his deadly accuracy in bowing and fingering and the extraordinary breathing quality of his tone produced a style of playing that was immediately recognisable. He made memorable recordings of trios with Arthur *Rubinstein, Emanuel Feuerman and—later—Grigor Piatigorsky.Heifetz directed a chamber music group in Los Angeles from the 1960s, and after injuring his right shoulder in 1972 retired from public performance and devoted himself to teaching. His favourite violin was a *Guarneri Del Gesu c.1742. The DVD Jascha Heifetz: God’s Fiddler (2011) is a comprehensive biographical account.

Heine, Heinrich (originally Harry) (1797–1856). German poet, born in Düsseldorf. One of the poor branch of a rich Jewish family, he grew up under the French occupation and became an admirer of *Napoléon. An uncle set him up in his own business (Harry Heine & Co.) in Hamburg, which soon failed. He then studied law in Bonn, literature in Göttingen (under *Schlegel) and philosophy in Berlin (under *Hegel and Friedrich August Wolf). Several love affairs disturbed him. *Goethe snubbed him, and to avoid the civil disabilities aimed at Jews he unhappily accepted Christian baptism in 1825, the year he took out his doctorate in law. He published Reisebilder (‘Pictures of Travel’, 1826) in which he proclaimed his revolutionary sympathies, and Buch der Lieder (‘Book of Songs’, 1827) which established him as Germany’s greatest lyric poet after (or perhaps even ahead of) Goethe. From 1831 his political opinions obliged him to live in Paris where he became an ardent disciple of *Saint-Simon. He worked as a journalist, secretly accepted a pension from the French Government (secured by his admirer *Thiers), had several more unhappy love affairs and became friendly with the brilliant French Romantics including *Hugo, George *Sand, *Chopin, de *Musset and *Berlioz. In 1841 he married Mathilde Eugénie Mirat, a shallow-minded Parisian grisette with whom he had lived since 1835. Heine was torn by many conflicts and he was the Doppelganger of his own poem: the baptised Jew, the expatriate German, the unhappy lover, the unconvinced radical, the bittersweet poet. The pure classical form of his poetry combines exquisite sensitivity and pessimism, marred at times by bitter cynicism, malicious satire and sentimentality. He has been called the ‘poetic psychologist of love’ and his later works, including Romancero (1851) and Last Songs and Thoughts (1853, 1854), were dubbed ‘the swan song of romanticism’. From 1848 he was bedridden with spinal paralysis and suffered acute pain until his death. As a young man he called himself a ‘soldier in the war of the liberation of mankind’, but became cynical about political processes, observing: ‘When the heroes go off the stage, the clowns come on.’ Heine wrote in both French and German and strove to make both nations aware of their mutual artistic and intellectual achievements. He also read English literature extensively. In his penetrating political essays he seemed to anticipate the rise of Nazism, his works were suppressed in Germany (1933–45) and the Nazis insisted that his most famous poem, The Lorelei, was anonymous. Heine’s lyrics were set to music by *Schubert (6), *Schumann (23), *Brahms (6) and Hugo *Wolf (19).

Kaufmann, H. (ed.), Heinrich Heine: Werke und Briele. 10 vols, 1961–64; Kossoff, P., Valiant Heart: A Biography of Heinrich Heine. 1983.

Heinemann, Gustav (1899–1976). German politician. A lawyer, he was a founder of the Christian Democratic Party, then joined the Social Democrats and became Minister of Justice 1966–69. He was President of the Federal Republic of Germany 1969–74.

Heinkel, Ernst Heinrich (1888–1958). German aircraft engineer. He was chief designer for the Albatros Aircraft Company in Berlin before World War I. In 1922 he founded Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke where he built a number of aircraft that were successful in World War II, the He III and He 162, and the first rocket-powered aircraft.

Heinrich (Henry) IV (1050–1106). German King and Holy Roman Emperor 1056–1106. When he came of age (1065) he spent some years in recovering the royal domains in Saxony. He then tried to assert his position in Italy, which led to a quarrel with Pope *Gregory VII whom he declared deposed. The Pope excommunicated Heinrich in reply and forced him to make humble submission at Canossa (1077). Meanwhile in Germany, Rudolf of Swabia had been set up as a rival king and in 1080 he won papal support. Once more the Emperor declared the Pope deposed, once more he in turn was excommunicated. Rudolf having died in battle, Heinrich invaded Italy (1081), entered Rome (1083) and was crowned Emperor by the anti-pope Clement III. In his absence Germany was again in arms with rival kings in the field and as soon as Heinrich had restored some sort of order more rebellions occurred, this time aided by the treachery of his sons. In the last years of his life Heinrich lost his power in both Germany and Italy and died a broken man. He had the vision to see what was needed and to pursue it, but he lacked the power to persuade or conciliate, and the diplomatic skill to divide his enemies.

Heinrich V (1082–1125). German King and Holy Roman Emperor 1106–25. He continued *Heinrich IV’s struggle with the papacy on the question of investiture until a compromise was reached at the Concordat of Worms (1122). He married *Matilda, the daughter of *Henry I of England.

Heinrich VI (1165–1197). Holy Roman Emperor 1190–97. He was elected German King (1169) while his father, the Hohenstaufen emperor *Friedrich I (Barbarossa), was still alive. Immediately after his accession as Emperor he went to Italy to secure the kingdom of Sicily, the heritage of his wife Constance. The Sicilians, however, chose Tancred of Lecce, and Heinrich had to return to Germany to face a rebellion by *Heinrich der Löwe. By making skilful use of the bargaining power which the chance capture of England’s *Richard I, returning from the crusade, put in his hands, he obtained peace. Thus freed, he had little difficulty in mastering Sicily and was crowned at Palermo (1194). Able but ruthless, Heinrich left a sinister reputation behind him.

Heinrich VII (c.1274–1313). Holy Roman Emperor 1308–13. Born in Hainault, and Count of Luxembourg, after election as Emperor and German King he led an army into Italy, with limited success and died near Siena, of malaria. *Dante’s De Monarchia (1313) was written to advocate a universal monarchy with authority over the Pope.

Heinrich der Löwe (Henry the Lion) (1129–1195). Duke of Saxony and Bavaria. Head of the powerful *Guelph family, he played a dominant role in German history for many years, extending his power in the Baltic area and crusading against the Slavs beyond the Elbe. In later years he was in rebellion against the emperors *Friedrich I and *Heinrich VI and suffered temporary banishment and loss of estates. His second wife, Matilda, was a daughter of England’s *Henry II. He was the founder of Munich (München). ‘The Gospels of Henry the Lion’, a manuscript volume illustrated with Romanesque paintings, was sold in London in 1983 for £8.1 million, then the highest priced book in history.

Heinz, Henry John (1844–1919). American food manufacturer, born in Pittsburgh. Of German descent, he sold produce from the family garden as a child. In 1876 he and his cousin founded F. and J. Heinz, which became H. J. Heinz Co. in 1888. He applied himself particularly to high standards of hygiene and quality.

Potter, S., The Magic Number 57. 1959.

Heinze, Sir Bernard Thomas (1894–1982). Australian conductor and teacher, born in Shepparton. Of German descent, he became a violinist, studied in Europe and served as an officer in World War I. Ormond Professor of Music at Melbourne University 1925–56, he promoted free concerts for schools, from 1929 was a driving force in the ABC (originally Australian Broadcasting Company, then Commission, now Corporation), which created orchestras, establishing subscription concerts which were broadcast, and initiated ‘Youth Concerts’. Chief conductor of the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra 1933–53, he succeeded Eugene *Goossens as Director of the NSW Conservatorium 1956–67.

Radic, T., Bernard Heinze. 1986.

Heisenberg, Werner Karl (1901–1976). German physicist. A pupil of Arnold *Sommerfeld, he was professor of physics at Leipzig University 1927–42, then directed the Max *Planck Institutes at Berlin 1942–45, Göttingen 1946–58 and Munich 1958–70. He gained rapid recognition for his work on the general quantum theory in atomic physics, investigation of atomic structure and of the *Zeeman effect. He won the 1932 Nobel Prize for physics for his development of quantum mechanics based on the principle of ‘indeterminacy’, sometimes called the ‘uncertainty principle’, i.e. that the position and momentum of any body (or particle) cannot be simultaneously determined: the more precise the determination of one, the less precise is the other. Thus it is safer to refer to statistical probabilities than to formulate general laws. His ‘uncertainty principle’ is increasingly applied, by analogy, to philosophy and biology. During World War II he was in charge of German research on atomic weapons.

Powers, T., Heisenberg’s War. 1993.

Helena, St (Flavia Julia Helena) (c.248–328). Roman empress dowager, born in Drepanum (modern Bulgaria). Wife of Constantius Chlorus and mother of *Constantine I, she was divorced by her husband, who wanted to marry upwards, and went to live in Trier. Constantine became Emperor in 306. Helena was converted to Christianity about 312, and she was proclaimed as ‘Augusta’ in 325, later ‘Augusta Imperatrix’. According to tradition, in 326 she went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem and there discovered the site of the Holy Sepulchre and the True Cross. Some relics that Helena discovered are displayed in Rome at Santa Croce in Gerusalemme.

Heller, Joseph (1923–1999). American novelist. Educated at Columbia and Oxford, he became an advertising copywriter and taught creative writing. His best known novel Catch-22 (1961), also a successful film, added a new phrase to the language. He also wrote Good as Gold (1979), God Knows (1984) and Picture This (1988).

Daugherty, T., Just One Catch. A Biography of Joseph Heller, 2011.

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von (1821–1894). German physiologist. Professor of physiology at Königsberg 1849–55, Bonn 1855–58, Heidelberg 1858–71 and Berlin 1871–87, in 1887 he became director of the new Physico-Technical Institute at Berlin Charlottenberg. His early researches on animal heat and on the body system as a balance of inputs and outputs, led him to his fundamental memoir of 1847 ‘On the Conservation of Force’, where he set out the mathematical principles of the conservation of energy. In the 1850s he pursued physiological researches on the eye, making early use of the ophthalmoscope. He moved on to studies of the relationships between the ear, the nervous system and the psychology of hearing. He received the Copley Medal in 1873. His students included Max *Planck, Albert *Michelson and Wilhelm *Wien.

Helmholtz wished to free science from religious and metaphysical constraints. He saw scientific investigation and mechanical and mathematical explanations as the essential source of truth about all phenomena, physical and psychological. He believed in the unity of nature, and devoted himself to searching out those great forces which operated throughout it, above all, energy.

Cahan, D., Helmholtz. A Life in Science. 2018.

Helmont, Jan Baptist van (1580–1644). Flemish physician and chemist, born in Brussels. He travelled widely, studied medicine in Antwerp, and was influenced (but not uncritically) by *Paracelsus. Although a practising Catholic, he was challenged by ecclesiastical authorities for questioning miracles. Central to his methodology was the careful weighing of processes; for example, burning wood, weighing the residue and concluding that the lost mass formed gas, with air. He coined the word ‘gas’, from the Greek khaos. He demonstrated that a willow tree, over five years, increased its mass by taking in water, while the amount of soil around the roots was unchanged. He discovered how stomach acid is involved in digestion, and used gravimetry (analysis by weight) to study urine. He came close to identifying enzymes and a genetic code.

Helms, Jesse (1921–2008). American Republican politician. A senator from North Carolina 1973–2003, he took a hard Right position on social and foreign policy issues.

Héloïse (c.1098–1164). French religious. Abbess of Paraclete, Nogent-sur-Seine, she was mistress and wife of the scholar Peter *Abelard. Her uncle Fulbert appointed Abelard her tutor. They fell in love and fled to Brittany where Héloïse bore a son; she was later married to Abelard. Fulbert, in revenge, arranged that Abelard should be attacked and castrated. Héloïse entered the convent of Argenteuil and was later given Abelard’s own foundation of the Community of the Paraclete.

Helpmann, Sir Robert (Murray) (1909–1986). Australian dancer, choreographer and actor, born in Mount Gambier. He made his debut in Australia in 1923, toured with Anna *Pavlova’s company and went to England to join the then Vic-Wells Ballet in 1933. He became their leading male dancer in 1934 and danced with Sadler’s Wells until 1950. His dancing and choreography were always strongly dramatic, and he was also involved in theatrical production. His partners included *Fonteyn,*Ashton and *Nureyev. He choreographed many ballets including La Valse (1939), Miracle in the Gorbals (1946) and The Display (1964). He appeared in 12 films including *Olivier’s Henry V (1944), The Red Shoes (1948), The Tales of Hoffmann (1951) and Don Quixote (1973). He became artistic co-director of the Australian Ballet 1965–76 and received a knighthood in 1968.

Salter, E., Helpmann. 1978; Sexton, C., Sir Robert Helpmann: A Life. 1992.

Helvétius, Claude Adrien (1715–1771). French philosopher, born in Paris. Trained in finance, he became chamberlain to the queen’s household (1749) but was forced to resign public office when his book De l’Esprit (1758) was published. His materialism involved the claim that all thought is derived from sensations, and he argued that self-interest is the motive of all human action. Men, he thought, are originally equal in mental endowment and are made unequal by the influence of environment. His work influenced *Bentham’s utilitarianism.

Hemingway, Ernest (Miller) (1899–1961). American novelist and short-story writer, born in Oak Park, Illinois. Son of a physician, he left school to become a reporter on the Kansas City Star, then during World War I was a volunteer ambulance driver in France and Italy, being wounded and hospitalised (1918). He returned to Europe in 1921 as Paris correspondent for the Toronto Star and later the Hearst papers. The expatriates Scott *Fitzgerald, Gertrude *Stein and Ezra *Pound encouraged and influenced his writing. He evolved a terse and precise prose style, devoid of emotional colouring, meticulous in observing externals. Blood, death and impotence were recurrent themes. Hemingway was preoccupied with war, bullfighting, boxing, big game fishing and hunting, and most admired courage: ‘grace under pressure’, as he put it. Correspondent for Colliers’ magazine during the Spanish Civil War and World War II, his personal experiences provided backgrounds for his short stories, e.g. the collection Men Without Women (1927) and novels, The Sun Also Rises (1926), A Farewell to Arms (1929), and For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940). Hemingway was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for The Old Man of the Sea (1952) and the Nobel Prize for Literature (1954). A number of his novels and short stories were filmed. He lived in Cuba (1946–60), retired to Idaho, had ECT treatment for depression and shot himself.

Meyers, J., Hemingway. 1986.

Henderson, Alexander (1583–1646). Scottish ecclesiastic. Early in his career he began to oppose English control of the Church in Scotland and in 1638 he was elected moderator of the General Assembly of the Covenanters, which established Scottish Presbyterianism despite the declared opposition of *Charles I. He is reckoned as second only to John *Knox in the history of the Church of Scotland.

Henderson, Arthur (1863–1935). British Labour politician, born in Glasgow. As an iron moulder in Newcastle he was active from his early youth in the trade union movement. He served broken terms as MP 1903–18, 1919–22, 1923, 1924–31, 1933–35. General Secretary of the Labour Party 1912–34, he was three times parliamentary Leader of the Labour Party 1908–10 (after Keir *Hardie), 1914–17 and 1931–32 (succeeding Ramsay *MacDonald both times). In the coalition War Cabinet, he served as President of the Board of Education 1915–16 and Minister without Portfolio (de facto Minister for Labour) 1916–17. In MacDonald’s two Labour governments, Henderson was Home Secretary 1924 and Foreign Secretary 1929–31. President of the World Disarmament Conference 1932–33, he received the 1934 Nobel Peace Prize.

Hengest (d.c.488) and Horsa (d.c.455). Jutish chieftains. Forerunners of the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain, according to the chroniclers they were invited by a British king, Vortigern, to help against the Picts, landed at Ebbsfleet (c.449) and were given the Isle of Thanet as a home. They are said to have turned against their hosts, though Horsa was soon killed. Hengest, who according to another legend married Vortigern’s daughter Rowena, is said to have conquered Kent.

Henlein, Konrad (1898–1945). German politician. He led the Sudeten German Youth Movement from 1923 and, when Hitler seized the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia in 1938, he became Gauleiter 1938–39 and Commissioner for Bohemia 1939–45. He committed suicide after capture by the Americans.

Henley, William Ernest (1849–1903). English poet, dramatist and critic. He lost a foot through tuberculosis and spent much of his life in hospital, where he wrote his only remembered poem Invictus (1875). Long John Silver, the creation of his friend R. L. *Stevenson in Treasure Island, was based on Henley. As editor of the National Observer he published work by *Hardy, *Shaw, *Wells and *Kipling.

Henri (Henry) I (c.1008–1060). King of France 1031–60. His reign was a period of fratricidal strife, marked by the loss of Burgundy and defeat by *William, Duke of Normandy.

Henri II (1519–1559). King of France 1547–59. Son and successor of *François I, he continued his policy of strengthening the power of the monarchy. He persecuted his Protestant subjects, the Huguenots, on both religious and political grounds since he feared their disruptive influence. In alliance with Scotland he carried on a war against England notable mainly for the capture of Calais (1558), which had been in English hands for 210 years. He also continued the struggle against the emperor *Charles V and won the frontier bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun. He married (1533) *Catherine de’Medici and their three sons became kings of France.

Henri III (1551–1589). King of France 1574–89, the last of the *Valois. Third son of *Henri II and *Catherine de’Medici, he succeeded his brother, *Charles IX. As Duke of Anjou he had been a candidate for the hand of England’s Queen *Elizabeth, was credited with the victory of Jarnac and other successes in the religious wars and helped to organise the Massacre of St Bartholomew (1572). Elected King of Poland in 1573, he resigned on his accession to the French throne. As King he tried to hold a balance between the extreme Roman Catholic faction under Henri, Duc de *Guise, and the Protestants under *Henri of Navarre, his natural heir. Fearful above all of an attempt by Guise to usurp the crown, he organised his murder (1588) and that of his brother, the cardinal of Lorraine, in the chateau of Blois. Surrounded by his pampered favourites (‘les mignons’), Henri was a despised and sometime ludicrous figure but he had a certain astuteness that enabled him to retain some semblance of royal authority in faction-ridden France. He was assassinated a year later.

Henri IV (Henry of Navarre) (1553–1610). King of France 1589–1610, the first of the *Bourbons. He inherited the sovereignty of Navarre from his mother, Jeanne d’Albret. He was a Protestant, and in 1572 some 4000 Huguenots who had gathered in Paris to celebrate his marriage with Marguerite de Valois, sister of King *Charles IX, were killed in the Massacre of St Bartholomew. Henri escaped by renouncing his faith but was virtually a prisoner until 1576, when he assumed the Protestant leadership. In 1588 he was in alliance with *Henri III of France against the Catholic League, Henri III was assassinated, but a four-year struggle, which included his great victory at Ivry (1590), followed before Henri IV could make his throne secure. Even then it was only by accepting the Catholic faith ‘Paris is worth a Mass’, he is supposed to have remarked that he could gain entry (1594) to his capital. Having made peace with Spain (1596), and by the Edict of Nantes (1598) guaranteed religious freedom for the Protestants, he set himself to restore the country after 30 years of civil war. With the help of his great minister *Sully he reorganised finances, repaired and extended roads and canals, developed agriculture and manufactures (e.g. the silk industry), while at the same time centralising the machinery of government and strengthening the monarchy. He declared as his aim for universal prosperity that every peasant would ‘have a chicken in his pot every Sunday’. His first marriage having been dissolved, he married (1600) Marie de’Medici who became the mother of his successor *Louis XIII. Of his mistresses (the number of whom won him the nickname Le Vert Galant), the best remembered is Gabrielle d’Estrées (d.1599). Henri was assassinated by a fanatic, François Ravaillac, probably of the extreme Catholic faction.

Henrietta Maria (Henriette-Marie) (1609–1669). Queen consort of England 1625–49. Daughter of *Henry IV of France and Marie de’Medici, and sister of *Louis XIII. She married *Charles I in 1625 and became very unpopular by maintaining a French and Roman Catholic entourage at court. A devoted wife and mother, she encouraged Charles’ absolutist tendencies and incurred further odium by going to France (1642) to raise money for armed resistance to parliament. She finally left England (1644) returning only for short visits after the Restoration.

Bone, Q., Henrietta Maria. 1972.

Henry. French and German kings or emperors see Henri or Heinrich

Henry I (‘Beauclerc’) (1068–1135). King of England 1100–35. Fourth and youngest son of *William the Conqueror, born at Selby, Yorkshire, he secured election to the English crown while his elder brother Robert was returning from a crusade. He defeated Robert, who retained possession of Normandy, at Tinchebrai (1106) and held him captive for the rest of his life. He gained the support of the Saxons by a charter restoring the laws of *Edward the Confessor, and by a politic marriage to Matilda, daughter of *Malcolm III of Scotland. The archbishop of Canterbury, *Anselm, was recalled, and a compromise agreed on the investiture dispute (1106). Henry created an efficient administrative machine, controlled the barons and ruled with severity but in accordance with the laws: his appellation ‘the lion of justice’ was well earned. His only legitimate son, William Adelin, was drowned in the White Ship (1120). His daughter *Matilda thus became his natural heir. Henry was posthumously called ‘Beauclerc’ or the Scholar, as a tribute to his learning, which was unusual for a king at his time.

Henry II (Henry Plantagenet, also known as FitzEmpress or Curtmantle/ Courtmanteau) (1133–1189). King of England 1154–89, first of the house of *Plantagenet, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, Count of Anjou. Son of *Matilda (daughter of *Henry I) and Geoffrey Plantagenet, born at Le Mans. He inherited Normandy through his mother and Anjou through his father, his marriage (1152) to *Eleanor of Aquitaine added Poitou and Guienne to his dominions. He curbed the baronial power, worked to integrate the Norman, Old English and Roman laws, organised juries, itinerant judges, assizes, and a central court of justice, and raised a militia. His attempts to limit the Church’s independence and especially the power of the Church courts by the Constitutions of Clarendon (1164) led to his quarrel with his old friend and chancellor *Becket, whom he had appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. Four of Henry’s knights travelled from Bayeux, in Normandy, to Canterbury to kill Becket, assuming that this was his wish. In July 1174 Henry did public penance at Becket’s tomb, was ritually flogged by senior clergy, but managed to avoid major concessions. He warred with *Louis VII of France, invaded Wales and crushed the power of the Norman nobles in Ireland (1171–72). He obtained the overlordship of Scotland by the Treaty of Falaise (1174). Henry was a man of extraordinary ability and energy, the last king who ruled as a chief executive (mostly in absentia). He understood English but spoke in French or Latin. He failed with his own family. His many liaisons—the partly legendary story of Fair Rosamond (Rosamond Clifford) is well known—antagonised his high spirited wife and she in turn influenced his sons against him. He died at Chinon while endeavouring to suppress a rebellion led by *Richard and *John, aided by King *Philip II of France, and was buried at Fontevraud-l’Abbaye, Anjou.

Warren, W. L., Henry II. 2000; Barber, R., Henry II: A Prince Among Princes. 2015; Gold, C., King of the North Wind. 2018; Barratt, N., The Restless Kings. Henry II, His Sons and the Wars for the Plantagenet Crown. 2018.

Henry III (1207–1272). King of England 1216–72. Born in Winchester, he succeeded his father King *John, and declared himself of age in 1227. Five years later he deprived the regent, Hubert de Burgh, of all offices and took over the administration himself. His favouritism towards the relatives of his wife, Eleanor of Provence (married 1236), financial chaos caused by his acceptance from the papacy of the crown of Sicily for his son, and his inefficiency, antagonised the barons and the people alike. He exacted money from the Jews, then subjected them to persecution and murder after the ‘blood libels’ of 1244, culminating in a pogrom after hysteria provoked by the murder of Hugh of Lincoln (1255), one of the worst episodes in English history. He appointed foreigners to bishoprics and at court. Led by Simon de *Montfort, the nobles compelled him to assent to the ‘Provisions of Oxford’ (1258) which transferred power to a commission of barons. His subsequent repudiation of this (with support from *Louis IX of France) resulted in the Barons’ War, the defeat and capture of Henry at Lewes (1264) and his enforced acceptance of humiliating terms of surrender. De Montfort then summoned the first ‘parliament’ (January 1265). The military skill of his son Edward I and a split among the barons turned the scale: de Montfort was defeated and killed at Evesham (1265) and Henry spent the rest of his reign in peace. Westminster Abbey, a large part of which was built in his reign, is a monument to his artistic taste.

Church, S., Henry III. 2017.

Henry IV (1367–1413). King of England 1399–1413, first of the house of *Lancaster. Known as Bolingbroke from his birthplace in Lincolnshire, he was the son of *John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster. He distinguished himself abroad as a soldier and returned to play an important part in the reign of his cousin *Richard II. At first he sided with the king’s baronial enemies but became reconciled with Richard and was created Duke of Hereford (1397). In the following year Richard, whose rule was now unchallenged, found an excuse to banish his former rival and, when John of Gaunt died, he seized the Lancaster estates. Henry’s reaction was to land in Yorkshire and head the forces of discontent. Richard on his return from Ireland found himself confronted with overwhelming strength: he surrendered and was imprisoned in Pontefract Castle from which he never emerged. The vacant throne was seized by Henry but his usurpation was contested. He had to overcome the Welsh under Owain *Glyndwr (1399), the Scottish under the 4th Earl of Douglas (1402), and Sir Henry *Percy (‘Hotspur’), with the adherents of his family, at Shrewsbury (1403) before he could feel secure. To win support Henry had to make concessions to his parliaments and council and to the Church, introducing a law for the burning of heretics and the persecution of the Lollards. Illness in later life made him secretive and suspicious, but he was also devout, and the patron of *Chaucer, *Gower and other poets. He died from a disfiguring disease, probably leprosy.

Kirby, J. L., Henry IV of England. 1970; Given-Wilson, C., Henry IV. 2016.

Henry V (1387–1422). King of England 1413–22. Born at Monmouth, the eldest son of *Henry IV, he distinguished himself as a soldier at the Battle of Shrewsbury (1403) and during his father’s last years of illness proved his ability as an administrator. It is probable that the stories of his wild youth were much exaggerated. As King he aimed to restore the Percys and others to favour, but rallied his countrymen behind him by renewing *Edward III’s claim to the French throne. He invaded France (1415), won the Battle of Agincourt against seemingly insuperable odds and in a few years so asserted his supremacy that in 1420 he was able to conclude the ‘perpetual peace’ of Troyes. By this he married *Catherine of Valois, *Charles VI’s daughter, and was recognised as regent and ‘heir of France’. His death, probably from dysentery, at Vincennes two years later cut short the career of an outstandingly able, devout and successful soldier and administrator. He decreed that laws and proclamations had to be published in English.

Earle, P., The Life and Times of Henry V. 1972; Vale, M., Henry V. 2016.

Henry VI (1421–1471). King of England 1422–61 and 1470–71. Born at Windsor, he succeeded his father *Henry V in infancy, the administration being carried on by his uncles Humphrey, Duke of *Gloucester, and John, Duke of *Bedford, in England and France respectively. In France, where by the Treaty of Troyes he had nominally been king since the death of *Charles VI, national resistance, fired by *Joan of Arc, had steadily increased, nonetheless, the peace policy of his advisers was regarded as a betrayal of his father and the nation. Henry grew up to be devout, timid, scholarly and quite unsuitable to rule. He was a Benedictine confrator and his followers considered him a saint. Henry’s most lasting achievements were his two foundations of Eton College (1440) and King’s College. Cambridge (1441), in which he took great interest and pride. His obvious incapacity, made further evident by his subservience to his wife *Margaret of Anjou (married 1445), encouraged *Richard, Duke of York to assert that he had a stronger claim to the throne than the Lancastrian line. So began the War of the Roses. Throughout the conflict, Henry, intermittently comatose 1453–55, suffered from melancholia and paralysis (presumably catatonic schizophrenia, inherited from Charles VI) and was only a puppet. His armies were defeated and he lost the throne to *Edward IV (son of the dead Richard of York). In 1470, a mere shell, he was restored briefly by *Warwick the Kingmaker until the Lancastrian army was defeated at Barnet (1471). Henry was captured, imprisoned in the Tower of London and died there. The proclamation that he died of ‘pure displeasure and melancholy’ may be correct, but blame has been attributed to Richard, Duke of Gloucester (*Richard III). His only son Edward, was killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury (1471).

Johnson, L., Shadow King. The Life and Death of Henry VI. 2019.

Henry VII (1457–1509). King of England 1485–1509, first of the Tudor dynasty. Born in Pembroke Castle, his father, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (1430–1456), was the son of *Henry V’s widow, Catherine of Valois, his mother, Margaret Beaufort, was descended from *John of Gaunt. He lived in exile in Brittany from 1471, and after the death of *Henry VI and his son, was recognised as Lancastrian leader. In 1485 he landed at Milford Haven and won the Battle of Bosworth Field, Leicestershire, where *Richard III was killed; Henry was recognised as King. To unite the rival houses of Lancaster and York he married Elizabeth, daughter of *Edward IV, but still had to overcome two pretenders, Lambert *Simnel and Perkin *Warbeck. The main purpose of his reign, to restore law and order and build up a strong and efficient administrative system after the chaos of the Wars of the Roses, he successfully achieved. He weakened the nobles by enforcing laws against liveried retainers and inaugurating the Star Chamber, a special court intended to curb the over-mighty subject. Through his notorious agents, Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley, and many dubious expedients he collected fines and forfeits. In his way and by the strictest economy he gave the monarchy the added strength of a full treasury, an achievement helped by a cautious and peaceful policy abroad.

Chrimes, S. B., Henry VII. 1972.

Henry VIII (1491–1547). King of England 1509–47 and of Ireland 1541–47. Born in Greenwich, he was the son of *Henry VII and heir to the throne after the death of his elder brother, Arthur. He fulfilled his father’s dynastic purposes by marrying, within two months of his accession, Arthur’s widow, *Katherine of Aragon. Henry, with *François I of France, and the emperor *Charles V (also King of Spain), was one of the three talented, ambitious rulers who came to power almost at the same time and between them controlled the destinies of Europe. Enabled by his father’s parsimony to pursue an active policy, Henry aimed, with the help of his great minister *Wolsey, to maintain a balance between France and Spain. At the outset of his reign he invaded France and won the Battle of the Spurs, while his army of the north won the Battle of Flodden Field (1513) at which France’s ally, *James IV of Scotland, was defeated and killed. François now tried to win Henry to his side but, though he staged a spectacular meeting at the Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520), he failed in his purpose. Henry, an orthodox Catholic, who had received from the Pope the title of Defender of the Faith for a book on the Sacraments (1521), began to profess doubts about the legitimacy of his marriage to his brother’s widow. Moreover, Katherine was older than Henry and plain, while of all the children she had borne him only one, *Mary, had survived. He was determined to marry *Anne Boleyn but Wolsey failed to get a papal annulment of the marriage and was disgraced (1530). In 1533, after *Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, had declared his former marriage invalid, Henry secretly married Anne. In 1534 his obedient parliament confirmed the invalidity of the marriage with Katherine, severed all links with the papacy and declared Henry Supreme Head of the Church. This was the most important single event of his reign. A very few, e.g. Henry’s old friend and chancellor, Sir Thomas *More, refused to accept this and were executed, but resistance was surprisingly small. Henry now set about making the change profitable by suppressing first the lesser then the greater monasteries and confiscating their property, some of which was used for educational purposes. This action, of which Thomas *Cromwell was the instrument, provoked a rising in the north, the Pilgrimage of Grace (1537), which was crushed with great harshness.

In 1536 Anne Boleyn (mother of *Elizabeth I) was beheaded for adultery and Henry immediately married one of her ladies-in-waiting, *Jane Seymour, who died giving birth to the future *Edward VI (1537). Cromwell’s intention in furthering the fourth marriage, with *Anne of Cleves, was to gain alliance with the German Protestants, but when the lady failed to exhibit the charms of her portraits she was divorced and pensioned. Henry’s next wife, *Catherine Howard, shared Anne Boleyn’s fate, and his last, *Catherine Parr (married 1543), survived him. Despite the fact that he had at different times denied the legitimacy of his daughters, he prescribed in his will the order of succession, which was in fact carried out: Edward, Mary, Elizabeth.

In 1546, six weeks before his death, he founded Trinity College, Cambridge, incorporating two earlier foundations, Michaelhouse (1324) and King's Hall (1337).

Henry was a gifted scholar, poet and musician, a strong ruler with political skills. In his last years he became more and more tyrannical, his suspicions increased and the number of judicial murders, for example, that of the young Earl of *Surrey (1546) mounted, but the memories of handsome, talented, pleasure-loving ‘Bluff King Hal’ remained in the minds of the people and he retained his popularity to the end.

Ridley, J., Henry VIII. 1984; Starkey, D., and Doran, S., Henry VIII: Man and Monarch. 2009.

Henry, Joseph (1797–1878). American physicist, born in Albany, New York State. Son of a labourer, he was largely self-educated, like his contemporary *Faraday. He became a watchmaker’s apprentice, then taught mathematics in country schools. He discovered how to make more powerful electromagnets with improved insulation and by 1832 could lift a ton of iron. He anticipated *Morse’s development of the telegraph by using relays, and discovered the principle of induction (transferring a current or signal from one coil to another) independently of Faraday. The unit of induction is named for him. He designed but did not build the first practical electric motor (1831), but its widespread adoption depended on the development of a reliable power supply (Thomas *Davenport). Henry was professor of physics at Princeton 1832–46, first secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 1846–78 and virtual founder of the US Weather Bureau.

Henry, O. (William Sydney Porter) (1862–1910). American short-story writer, born in North Carolina. His stories written in an ironic, pungent, epigrammatic style, and usually ending with a sardonic unexpected twist, mainly relate some small but fateful incident in the lives of those, even the humblest, who together form New York. Among his books are Cabbages and Kings (1904), The Four Million (1906), The Heart of the West (1907), The Voice of the City (1908).

Henry, Patrick (1736–1799). American politician, born in Virginia. Essentially self-taught, he quickly established himself as a successful lawyer. He was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses (1765), and it was the eloquence and vigour of his speeches that inspired the agitation against the Stamp Act. He quickly became the leader in Virginian politics and summoned the Continental Congress. In the course of a speech urging military readiness he shouted the famous words ‘give me liberty or give me death’. He took part in the events that led to the Declaration of Independence and he was Governor of Virginia 1776–79 and 1784–86, but a quarrel with *Jefferson stultified his later activities. He fought bitterly against the constitution on the grounds that liberty had been betrayed, and delayed its ratification by Virginia for 23 days. He refused all invitations by *Washington to serve in his administration.

Mayer, H., A Son of Thunder. 1986.

Henry (Henrique) the Navigator (1394–1460). Portuguese prince. Son of King *João I of Portugal and a grandson of *John of Gaunt, an expedition to North Africa, which resulted in the fall of Ceuta (1415) and in which he played a distinguished part, fired his interest in exploration. Though he made no voyages himself he planned, charted and sent out more than 30 expeditions to sail south along the Atlantic coast of Africa. His sailors went farther and farther south and at last reached Sierra Leone. Henry also sent explorers overland and they reached Senegal and the Sudan. He financed these expeditions in part by granting licences to merchants, who soon discovered the profits to be won from trade in slaves. He sent out settlers to the uninhabited islands of Madeira and the Azores and established trading posts on the African coast.

Major, R. H., Life of Prince Henry of Portugal. 1967.

Henryson, Robert (c.1425–c.1508). Scottish poet. Possibly a schoolmaster of Dunfermline, his works include the Testament of Cresseid and Morall Fabillis of Esope, a metrical version of 13 fables.

Harvey Wood, H. (ed.), Collected Poems and Fables of Robert Henryson. 1958.

Hensen, Matthew Alexander (1866–1955). African-American explorer. Robert E. *Peary and Hensen were the first explorers to reach the North Pole (1909), but Hensen’s role was played down by Peary.

Henslowe, Philip (1550–1609). English theatre builder and impresario. He made money from timber, animal skins, dyeing, property, pawnbroking and brothels. In 1587 he built The Rose Theatre, the first in Bankside, and the Fortune Theatre in 1598, and The Admiral’s Men played in both. He was the father-in-law of the actor Edward *Alleyn. He kept a valuable diary 1592–1609 with many references to *Shakespeare’s work with a rival company. He also had a financial interest in bearbaiting and animal shows.

Henson, William Samuel (1805–1888). English engineer, born in Nottingham. He improved lace-making machines and, in collaboration with John *Stringfellow, patented a light-weight steam engine (1841), then designed the Henson Aerial Steam Carriage (1843), an ambitious monoplane that failed to fly. He migrated to the US in 1849 and also invented the ‘T’ safety razor.

Henze, Hans Werner (1926–2012). German composer and conductor. He taught in Germany, the UK and Italy, composed eight symphonies, ballets, film scores, chamber music and 10 operas including Elegy for Young Lovers (1961) and The Bassarids (1966), both to libretti by W. H. *Auden and Chester Kallman.

Hepburn, Katharine (Houghton) (1907–2003). American stage and film actor, born in Connecticut. Distinguished by a combination of elegance and eccentricity, she was educated at Bryn Mawr, and made her stage debut in 1928. Her first film was A Bill of Divorcement (1932). Eight of her best and most successful were made with her lover Spencer *Tracy. The Philadelphia Story (1941) and The African Queen (1951) were much admired. She received Academy Awards for four films: Morning Glory (1933), Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967), The Lion in Winter (1968) and On Golden Pond (1981).

Hepplewhite, George (d.1786). English cabinetmaker and furniture designer. After his death his widow published a book of some 300 designs called The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer’s Guide. It is unknown whether the designs were Hepplewhite’s own but they epitomised the taste of his time and have since been identified by his name.

Edwards, R., Hepplewhite Furniture Designs. 1948.

Hepworth, Dame (Jocelyn) Barbara (1903–1975). English sculptor, born in Wakefield, Yorkshire. Trained in Leeds, London, Florence and Rome, she came from a similar background to Henry *Moore. She married the painter Ben *Nicholson in 1933 and gave birth to triplets; they divorced in 1951. She began with abstract or semi-abstract forms, in stone or wood, characterised by pierced shapes and stringed figures, notable for smooth form and texture, later moving on to monumental bronzes. She exhibited at the Venice Biennale (1950), won the Grand Prix at the São Paulo Biennale in 1959 and was represented in the world’s major galleries. She lived at St Ives, Cornwall from 1939 and died there in a fire.

Heraclitus of Ephesus (fl. c.500 BCE). Greek natural philosopher. He wrote a book, On Nature, fragments of which survive as quotations and opinions in the writings of others, from which his views can be gauged. Heraclitus seems to have seen the world in terms of the tensions between pairs of opposites (an instance being a bow string, pulled in different directions). Plenty and hunger, sickness and health, life and death, hot and cold, are some of Heraclitus’s pairs. Yet he also asserts that the two figures in each pair are essentially one, that they contain each other in a dialectical way. From this, Heraclitus draws the conclusion that the universe is a Oneness, but continually in a state of flux. It is probable that Heraclitus was not so much arguing that, because everything changed, nothing could be known, but rather that, although everything changes, these changes are governed by some sort of order and natural law. It is possible that Heraclitus believed that the universe originated out of fire, and that it would at times be restored by cosmic conflagrations.

Kirk, G S. and Raven, J. E., The Pre-Socratic Philosophers. 1957.

Herbart, Johann Friedrich (1776–1841). German philosopher and educationist. A pupil of J. G. *Fichte, with whom he disagreed, he became professor of philosophy at Göttingen and Königsberg. He developed the philosophy of *Kant by stressing the existence of a world of real things behind the world of appearances, and he made an attempt to make psychology a mathematical science. In education, he stressed what are known as the ‘Herbartian steps’: preparation, presentation, comparison or association, generalisation, application.

Dunkel, H. B., Herbart and Herbartianism. 1970.

Herbert, George (1593–1633). English metaphysical and religious poet, born in Wales. Younger brother of Lord *Herbert of Cherbury, and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, he was already making his mark at court, and briefly MP (1624), when he turned against a worldly career and entered the priesthood (1625). In 1629 he became vicar of the parish of Fugglestone St Peter with Bemerton, near Salisbury, Wiltshire, where he remained until he died of tuberculosis. His poems, almost all contained in The Temple (1633), constitute an emblematic survey, for the most part serene, of the interaction of the soul with God. The finest include ‘Love bade me welcome’ and ‘Vertue’. Strikingly homely imagery sometimes contrasts with extravagant conceits and even puns. About 100 of his poems have been set to music, many as hymns. He was a skilled lutenist and wrote poems in English, Latin and French. His chief prose work A Priest to the Temple or the Country Parson (posthumous, 1752) was described by Izaak *Walton as ‘plain prudent useful rules’.

Gardner, H. (ed.), George Herbert Selected Works. 1961; Drury, D., Music at Midnight. The Life and Poetry of George Herbert. 2013.

Herbert of Cherbury, Edward Herbert, 1st Baron (1583–1648). English soldier, diplomat and poet. After fighting in the Low Countries and spending some years in travel, he was Ambassador to France 1619–24. A royalist at the outbreak of the Civil War, he came to terms with parliament and was left undisturbed. In Of Truth (1624) he propounded an anti-empirical theory of knowledge. His Of the Religion of the Gentiles (1663), in which he found satisfactory common factors in all religions, provided a basis for English ‘Deism’. His Autobiography (to 1624), a notable picture of the man and his period, departs from accuracy when it conflicts with his conceit. His poetry, in Latin and English, belongs to the metaphysical school of *Donne.

Herbert, Sidney, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea (1810–1861). English politician. Son of the Earl of Pembroke and a Russian countess, he was an MP 1832–61, at first Tory, then Liberal. Secretary at War 1845–46, 1852–54 and 1859–61, he sent Florence *Nightingale to the Crimea, became her fervent supporter and exhausted himself in the cause of reform.

Herbert, Xavier (original name Alfred Jackson) (1901–1984). Australian novelist, born in Geraldton. He worked as a pharmacist, journalist, miner, fettler, woodcutter and union organiser and his massive novels included Capricornia (1938) and Poor Fellow My Country (1975).

Herder, Johann Gottfried (1744–1803). German philosopher and poet. He studied with Johann Georg Hamann (1730–1788), was influenced by *Vico, rejected universalism and Utopianism, arguing that cultures are shaped by national or regional factors. *Goethe and the German Romantics read Herder closely.

Berlin, I., Vico and Herder. 1976.

Hereward the Wake (c.1035–1072). Anglo-Saxon patriot. After plundering Peterborough with Danish help, he held out for many months against *William the Conqueror in the marshes of the Isle of Ely and was defeated only with difficulty in 1071. Many legends grew up around his name.

Head, V., Hereward. 1995.

Hernández, José (1834–1886). Argentinian poet. His chief works, two poems on Martin Fierro (1872 and 1879), glorify the life of the gauchos (mounted herdsmen) of the pampas. The gaucho poetry of Argentina corresponds to the folksongs of other lands.

Hero of Alexandria (c.10–70 CE). Greek mathematician. Remembered mainly for his mechanical inventions, some of the best known are described in his Pneumatics. They include a simple form of steam turbine, a fire engine pump, a fountain in which the jet is sustained by air compressed by a column of water, and a water-organ. He wrote also on the principles of mechanics and their practical applications.

Herod. Judean dynastic name borne by rulers before and after the beginning of the Christian era. Herod the Great (c.72–4 BCE) was the second son of Antipater the Idumaean (d.43 BCE), appointed as Procurator of Judaea by Julius *Caesar. Mark *Antony made Herod tetrarch of Judaea in 40, and in 31 *Augustus granted him the title of King. The friendship of Rome enabled him to rule in peace and his taste for the magnificent in architecture caused him to rebuild Caesarea and restore Samaria. In 20 he began the reconstruction of the Great Temple at Jerusalem, but his fears and jealousies led to gross cruelties and wholesale butcheries. He made lavish extensions to the great hill fortress of Masada, planning to use it as a last refuge if needed. He was sophisticated and cosmopolitan, travelled widely, owned an estate in Provence and was President of the Olympic games (12 BCE). But with age came mental instability. Every member of the rival Hasmonean dynasty was killed and even several of his own family, the ‘Massacre of the Innocents’ at Bethlehem, although not recorded by *Josephus, would be in keeping with his character. Herod, who is said to have had 10 wives, left his kingdom to be divided among three of his sons—Philip, Archelaus and *Herod Antipas.

Herod Antipas (d.c.40 CE) was tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea 4 BCE–39 CE. *John the Baptist was executed for protesting against his marriage with Herodias, the wife of his half-brother Philip. It was to this Herod that *Pontius Pilate, in an effort to evade responsibility, sent *Jesus for examination after discovering that he was a Galilean, but Herod refused to exercise jurisdiction. Herod travelled to Rome (38) to seek recognition as king, but failed through the intrigues of his nephew *Herod Agrippa and was banished to Lugdunum (Lyon) where he died.

Herod Agrippa I (10 BCE–44 CE), who succeeded his deposed uncle, had been brought up luxuriously in Rome. He suffered an eclipse under the emperor *Tiberius but became a favourite of *Caligula and later of *Claudius. As a result he gradually acquired (37–41) a larger territory than that of his grandfather *Herod the Great and the coveted title of king. In the Acts of the Apostles it is related that he had the apostle St *James put to death, that he imprisoned St *Peter and that he died at Caesarea, being ‘eaten by worms’. His devotion to Jewish observances and national interests won the affection of his subjects.

His son Herod Agrippa II (27–100 CE) was only 17 and was living in Rome when his father died. *Claudius, therefore, took the opportunity of reconverting the kingdom into a Roman province. Herod held family prestige and possessions but no political authority, thus the Roman procurator Festus was present, according to the Acts, when St *Paul made his defence at Caesarea.

Herodotus (c.485–425 BCE). Greek historian, born in Halicarnassus (now Bodrum), Asia Minor. Known as ‘the father of history’, his narrative of the Graeco-Persian wars in the time of *Xerxes was the first to attempt critical assessment of historical data. His style was witty, discursive and sharply observant. A political exile, he lived in Samos and Athens, travelled to Egypt then settled (442) in the Athenian colony of Thurii, in southern Italy, where he died. His rational and scientific approach to writing history (as opposed to chronicles which attempt no explanation of events) was unique in the Greek world, and reflects the influences of Asian philosophy and Athenian experience on the growth of his mind.

Myres, J. L., Herodotus: Father of History. rev. 1971; Gould, J., Herodotus. 1989; Dewald, C., and Marincola, J., (eds.). The Cambridge Companion to Herodotus. 2006.

Heron, Patrick (1920–1999). English painter, born in Leeds. Influenced by *Cézanne and *Matisse, he produced both figurative and non-figurative works, notable for powerful design and strong colour. He also worked with stained glass and wrote criticism.

Herophilus (c.4th century BCE). Greek anatomist, born in Chalcedon, in Asia Minor. He taught and practised medicine at Alexandria. An expert in dissection, Herophilus laid the foundations of modern anatomy and physiology. He carried out important anatomical investigations of the brain, eye, genital organs and vascular system. He argued that it was the brain that was the centre of intelligence and control in the body. He recognised that it was through the nerves that the brain exercised its powers over the extremities of the body. In the brain he distinguished the cerebellum from the cerebrum, and understood the difference in function between sensory and motor nerves. He stressed the distinction between arteries and veins, and (contrary to common opinion) held that the arteries contain blood, not pneuma (spirit). His work on the heart stressed that the pulse was purely involuntary, and caused by the contraction and dilation of the arteries. As a clinician, Herophilus seems to have been particularly interested in gynaecology. He wrote a treatise on midwifery in which he offered accurate descriptions of the ovaries, the cervix and the uterus. He was probably also interested in menstruation, and its relation to general health.

Herreweghe, Philippe (1947– ). Belgian (Flemish) conductor. Trained as a psychiatrist, he worked in Ghent and Paris and won awards for his recordings of J. S. *Bach, *Beethoven and *Berlioz.

Herrick, Robert (1591–1674). English poet. Apprenticed to his father, a London goldsmith, he studied at Cambridge, and on returning to London became friends with Ben *Jonson and his literary set. Before 1627 he had taken holy orders and became rector of Dean Priory, Devonshire 1629–17 and 1662–74, being dismissed during the Puritan supremacy. He was a prolific writer of exquisite love lyrics, Hesperides (1647) containing some 1,200 poems, many in the manner of *Horace, on the general theme of the transience of beauty:

Gather ye rosebuds while ye may

Old Time is still a-flying.

Noble Numbers (1647) contains his religious poems.

Scott, G. W., Robert Herrick. 1974.

Herriot, Edouard (1872–1957). French politician. As Senator 1912–19, Deputy 1919–42, and a leader of the Radical Socialist Party, he was a prominent member of many left-centre coalition ministries between the wars: on three occasions 1924–25, 1926 and 1932 he briefly combined the offices of Prime Minister and Foreign Minister. Meanwhile he was the almost perpetual mayor of Lyon 1905–42, 1945–57. Interned in Germany 1942–45, he became a member of the Académie française in 1946 and the first president of the National Assembly under the Fourth Republic 1947–54. He wrote a biography of *Beethoven (1929).

Herschel, Sir John Frederick William, 1st Baronet (1792–1871). British astronomer, born in Buckinghamshire. Son of William *Herschel, he attended St John’s College, Cambridge. He began to study law, but was persuaded to follow his father into science. In the 1810s he helped his father with his astronomical observations, developed skill in the manufacture of telescopes, made some useful discoveries in optics and attempted the first chemical analysis of the solar spectrum. He produced a catalogue of nebulae and star clusters in the Northern Hemisphere 1825–33. Knighted in 1831, he assisted W.H.F. *Talbot in his pioneering work in photography and later developed the use of sensitised paper and of hypo as a fixing agent. He moved to the Cape of Good Hope in 1834, set up an observatory and produced the massive and definitive Results of Astronomical Observations Made During the Years 1834–1838 at the Cape of Good Hope, the first full stellar map of the Southern Hemisphere. He made the first detailed description of the Magellanic Clouds. He pioneered stellar photography from 1850, interested himself in geophysics and (like *Newton) was Master of the Mint. He twice received the Copley Medal of the Royal Society (1821, 1847). He served on the Royal Commission investigating Oxford and Cambridge universities and was also on the Committee of the Great Exhibition of 1851. He wrote on the philosophy of science, translated The Iliad and published a very popular Outlines of Astronomy (1849). After 1855 he suffered from illness and depression.

Buttmann, G., The Shadow of the Telescope. 1970.

Herschel, Sir (Frederick) William (né Friedrich Wilhelm) (1738–1822). Anglo-German astronomer and composer, born in Hanover. Of Jewish ancestry, son of an oboeist in a military band, he took early to mathematical and scientific studies, but followed his father into becoming a military musician. He went to England in 1757, settling in Bath in 1766 as an organist, concertmaster, composer and music teacher, and building up an income sufficient to enable him to pursue his love of astronomy. He was a prolific composer of symphonies, oboe concertos and keyboard works. From the 1770s he devoted himself to grinding mirrors for Newtonian reflecting telescopes. He began making systematic sweeps of the heavens, and in 1781 discovered a hitherto undescribed object that he first took for a comet, but quickly recognised to be a planet (Uranus). For this discovery he was rewarded by *George III with a pension of £200 per annum and received the Copley Medal. Between 1785–89 he built (assisted by £4000 from George III) his ‘Forty Foot Telescope’, for 50 years the world’s biggest, with a focal length of 12 m and a reflector with a diameter of 1.25 m (49½ inches). With his sister Caroline Lucretia Herschel (1750–1848), also born in Hanover, he undertook massive surveys of the skies, producing numerous catalogues. The first notable woman astronomer, she discovered eight comets and received many awards. (Election as FRS was denied her.) He sought out nebulae, raising the known total from a few hundred to over 2500. He speculated whether nebulae were very distant clusters of stars, or swirling clouds of gaseous material (which might one day coalesce into stars), and also upon the possibility that the whole heavens might have developed out of such nebulae. Amongst his other speculative ideas was a belief that life existed on the moon. He was also one of the discoverers of infra-red radiation in the light of the sun. Asteroid 2000 Herschel, craters on the Moon and Mars, and a gap in Saturn’s rings are named for him.

Hoskin, M. A., William Herschel and the Construction of the Heavens. 1964; Holmes, R., The Age of Wonder. 2008.

Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf (1857–1894). German physicist, born in Hamburg. An assistant of *Helmholtz at the University of Berlin 1880–85, he later became professor of physics at Karlsruhe 1885–89 and Bonn 1889–94. In 1887 he confirmed *Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory of light, by generating and detecting radio waves, which exhibited the same characteristics as light, being subject to polarisation, refraction, diffraction and interference. Hertz failed to recognise the practical importance of his discovery but ‘Hertzian waves’, as they were known until 1910, were used by *Marconi (1896) for transmitting his first wireless signals. In 1892 Hertz demonstrated that cathode rays could penetrate thin foil, contributing to the development of X-rays by *Röntgen. He also described the photoelectric effect (the impact of ultraviolet radiation on a charged object), later explained by *Einstein. Under *Hitler’s regime, Hertz’ work was discounted because, although a Lutheran, his family had been Jewish. The Hertz (Hz) is the SI unit of frequency (formerly cps, cycles per second).

Hertzog, J(ames) B(arry) M(unnik) (1866–1942). South African soldier and politician. A lawyer by training, and a commando leader in the Boer War 1899–1902, he was engaged in Orange Free State politics before becoming (1910) Minister of Justice in *Botha’s national administration. Excluded (1913) for his anti-British views, he formed the Nationalist Party aiming at absolute equality, linguistically and otherwise, between Afrikaaners and English. After bitterly opposing South Africa’s entry into World War I he became Prime Minister 1924–39 and in 1933 entered into a coalition with *Smuts, which ended with his resignation when he demanded neutrality during World War II.

Herzen (Yakovlev), Aleksandr Ivanovich (1812–1870). Russian writer and political philosopher. Morganatic son of a rich nobleman Ivan Yakovlev, who made him his heir, he became a civil servant and was exiled from Moscow (1834–42) for his espousal of radical causes. He evolved a ‘left Hegelian’ philosophy and supported the Westernisers against the Slavophils. He left Russia in 1847 and never returned, living mostly in Paris (where he died) and London. His weekly journal Kolokol (‘The Bell’) was widely circulated in Russia 1857–67. Herzen became disillusioned with the West and developed sympathy with the Slavophils, arguing that peasant communes could be the base for a revolutionary state. Drawn by elements in *Mazzini, *Proudhon, *Bakunin and *Marx, he failed to develop a coherent position of his own or a political machine, but is remembered for his advocacy of glasnost (‘openness’). His memoirs, My Past and Thoughts (1852–55), were a major literary achievement.

Herzl, Theodor (1860–1904). Hungarian Zionist leader, born in Budapest. Trained as a lawyer and journalist, his experience of French anti-Semitism, particularly the *Dreyfus case. led him to propose (in Judenstaat, 1896) a separate Jewish state. He convened the first Zionist Congress in 1897 and became first president of the World Zionist Organisation. He spent the rest of his life in unsuccessful negotiations with various powers in order to acquire land for the new state.

Bein, A., Theodor Herzl. 1957.

Herzog, Chaim (Vivian) (1918–1997). Israeli lawyer, soldier and diplomat, born in Belfast. Educated in Ireland and England, he directed Israeli military intelligence 1959–62, was Ambassador to the UN 1975–78, a Labour member of the Knesset 1981–83 and President of Israel 1983–93. His books included Battles of the Bible (1978) and The Arab-Israeli Wars (1982).

Herzog, Werner (1942– ). German film director. He grew up in poverty in Munich, worked as a welder and became an enthusiastic amateur film maker. His films include Aguirre, Wrath of God (1973), The Enigma of Kaspar Hauser (1974), Woyzeck (1979), Nosferatu (1979), Fitzcarraldo (1982) and Where the Green Ants Dream (1984) (Klaus *Kinski).

Heseltine, Michael Ray Dibdin, Baron Heseltine (1933– ). British Conservative politician, born in Wales. Educated at Oxford, he became a successful publisher and an MP 1966–2001. Secretary of State for the Environment 1979–83 and for Defence 1983–86 under Margaret *Thatcher, he resigned and by challenging her leadership in 1990 virtually forced her out. Under John *Major he became Secretary of State for the Environment again 1990–92 and for Trade and Industry 1992–95. He became Deputy Prime Minister and First Secretary of State 1995–97.

Heseltine, Philip see Warlock, Peter

Hesiod (Hēsiodos) (fl. 700 BCE). Greek poet, born probably in Boeotia. A near contemporary of *Homer, he wrote Theogony, an account of the origin of the Greek gods.

Hess, Germain Henri (1802–1850). Swiss-Russian physical chemist. Professor of chemistry at St Petersburg 1830–50, he made an important advance in thermochemistry when (1840) he showed that the heat change in a chemical reaction is always the same, irrespective of whether the reaction is performed directly or in stages. This is now known as Hess’s Law. It put thermochemistry on a quantitative basis and made it possible to calculate the heat change in reactions where it could not be measured.

Hess, Dame Myra (1890–1965). English pianist. Outstandingly successful from her first appearance (1907) and a noted interpreter of *Bach, she organised a memorable series of lunchtime concerts (in the National Gallery, London) during World War II. She was made DBE in 1941.

Hess, Rudolf Walter Richard (1894–1987). German Nazi politician born in Alexandria. He was with *Hitler from the movement’s beginnings, took part in the Munich Putsch (1923), and by 1933 had become Deputy Leader of the Nazi Party. During World War II, in May 1941 (on the eve of Germany’s attack on Russia) he flew solo to Scotland, a mysterious and never satisfactorily explained exploit, undertaken apparently with the unauthorised aim of offering a compromise peace. While a prisoner he showed signs of mental instability but was tried by the international court at Nuremberg after the war and sentenced to life imprisonment. He appeared to have hanged himself in Spandau prison, but there are troubling discrepancies about how he died and even his identity.

Hess, W. R., My Father Rudolf Hess. 1986.

Hess, Victor Franz (1883–1964). Austrian born physicist. He held appointments at Graz, Vienna and Innsbruck universities before becoming (1921) head of the research department of the US Radium Corporation. He was professor of physics at Fordham University, New York 1938–56. For his work on cosmic radiation he shared with Carl D. *Anderson the Nobel Prize for Physics (1936). Observations on balloon ascents (1911) convinced him that the radiation now known as cosmic was of extraterrestrial origin, a fact not hitherto established.

Hesse, Hermann (1877–1962). German novelist and poet, born in Württemberg. He dealt in vivid, sensuous language, with the problems of divided personality and the individual’s need for harmonious self-fulfilment and integration. His novels include Peter Camenzind (1904, translated 1961), Demian (1919, translated 1958), Steppenwolf (1927, translated 1965) and Das Glasperlenspiel (1943, translated as Magister Ludi, 1949 and again as The Glass Bead Game, 1970). In 1946 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature.

Decker, G., Hesse. The Wanderer and His Shadow. 2018.

Heuss, Theodor (1884–1963). German politician. He was a lecturer in history in Berlin, and a member of the Reichstag 1924–28 and 1930–33, forced out of public life under the Nazi regime. He founded (1948) the Free Democratic party and was first president of the Federal Republic of Germany 1949–59.

Hevelius, Johannes (1611–1687). German astronomer, born and educated in Danzig. He built up what was probably the world’s finest observatory (destroyed by fire in 1679 but subsequently rebuilt), made extensive observations and published them regularly. His maps of the moon were of the highest quality, and traced a whole range of hitherto undescribed mountains and craters. He also made masterly observations of comets, publishing them in his Cometographia of 1668. He thought that comets were exhalations from planets, and believed that they might be the material cause of sunspots. Hevelius’s theoretical notions in science were of much less importance than his skill as an instrument maker, and as an astronomical observer. His magnum opus was the Prodromus astronomiae (1690) which listed 1564 stars arranged alphabetically under constellation and stellar magnitude. This star catalogue was greatly used during the 18th century.

Hewish, Antony (1924– ). British radio-astronomer. Professor of radioastronomy at Cambridge 1971–89, where he established a large Scintillation Array, he supervised the work of Jocelyn *Bell when she first identified pulsars in 1967. Despite his initial scepticism about pulsars, he shared the 1974 Nobel Prize for Physics with Sir Martin *Ryle and Bell was excluded.

Hewitt, Angela (1958– ). Canadian pianist, born in Ottawa. A *Bach and *Mozart specialist, she toured extensively and directed the Lake Trasimeno Festival 2006– .

Hewson, John Robert (1946– ). Australian Liberal politician. Educated at Sydney, Saskatchewan and Johns Hopkins universities, he became an economist and consultant, professor of economics at the University of New South Wales 1978–87, and a merchant banker. A Member of the House of Representatives 1987–95, he was Federal Leader of the Liberal Party 1990–94, and proposed radical changes to Australia’s taxation and welfare systems.

Heydrich, Reinhard (1904–1942). German politician. As the Nazi Deputy Protector of Bohemia and Moravia (Czechoslovakia) during World War II he became notorious for his brutal suppression of the Resistance movement. As a reprisal for his assassination (1942) the village of Lidice was destroyed and its male inhabitants massacred.

Heyerdahl, Thor (1914–2002). Norwegian ethnologist, writer and film maker. Noted for his trans-oceanic scientific expeditions in primitive craft, the voyage of the raft Kon-Tiki in 1947 was intended to demonstrate that Polynesia could have been settled from South America (a view generally rejected). He made two journeys, in the reed boats Ra (1969) and Ra II (1970), from Morocco to Central America. In 1977 in the Tigris, he sailed from Iraq (Mesopotamia) along the ancient trade routes of the Indian Ocean. He led expeditions to Easter Island and the Maldives.

Heyerdahl, T., Kon-Tiki Expedition. 1948; The Ra Expeditions. 1971.

Heyse, Paul Johann Ludwig von (1830–1914). German poet. Leader of the Munich traditionalist school, opposed to radicalism and materialism, his translations were set by Hugo *Wolf in the Spanisches Liederbuch (1889–90) and the Italianisches Liederbuch, (1890–91; 1896). He received the 1910 Nobel Prize for Literature.

Heywood, John (1497?–1580). English musician, playwright and epigrammatist. As a singer and player on the virginals he won favour at court. His ‘interludes’ (i.e. plays or dialogues given not in theatres but in the halls of the nobility, colleges, etc.) included The Play of the Wether (1533) and A Play of Love (1534). Later he published a collection of proverbs and epigrams, in which many familiar phrases, e.g. ‘The fat is in the fire’ first appeared in print. In later life he retired abroad in search of religious freedom. He was the grandfather of John *Donne.

Heywood, Thomas (c.1574–1641). English dramatist. Very little is known of his life though he appears to have joined Philip *Henslowe as actor and dramatist soon after leaving Cambridge. Hevclaimed to have written over 200 plays. The first to be published under his own name was A Woman Killed with Kindness (1603, published 1607), and others include The Rape of Lucrece (1608), The English Traveller (printed 1633), and A Maidenhead Well Lost (1634). Apart from plays his works include An Apology for Actors (1612), much verse, and a miscellany (1624) which might have been called an apology for women.

Clark, A. M., Thomas Heywood: Playwright and Miscellanist. 1967.

Hickok, ‘Wild Bill’ (James Butler) (1837–1876). American crack marksman, scout and marshal, born in Illinois. He worked for a stagecoach company and, in 1861, defeated single-handed an attack on Rock Creek stagecoach station by the McCanles gang. He was a Federal Scout (1861–65) and US Marshal for the district around Fort Riley, Kansas, after 1865. He was shot in the back during a poker game in 1876.

Hicks, Sir John Richard (1904–1989). English economist. Educated at Oxford, he taught at Manchester and Oxford and shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for Economics with Kenneth Joseph Arrow (1921– ) for work on general economic equilibrium theory and risk.

Hideyoshi Toyotomi (1537–1598). Japanese soldier and ruler, born in Nakamura. Son of a peasant, he became a foot soldier, rising in the service of his patron Oda Nobunaga, on whose death (1582) he continued the task of unifying Japan after centuries of civil war. A brilliant strategist, in 1583 he built his famous castle at Osaka, and was made Chief Minister, virtually dictator, in 1585. In 1586 his forces subdued the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku and by 1590 unification was complete. However, his invasions of Korea (1592, 1597) failed. Hideyoshi imposed a rigid class structure and on his death, power was seized by his former rival *Ieyasu Tokugawa, founder of the shogunate.

Higgins, Henry Bournes (1851–1929). Australian politician and judge, born in Northern Ireland. In Melbourne from 1870, he was a barrister, Victorian MP 1894–1900 and an active progressive in the Federation debates. He secured adoption of s.116 of the Constitution, separating church and state, but opposed the final draft as potentially too rigid. He was a Federal MP 1901–06, Attorney-General 1904, Justice of the High Court 1906–29 and first President of the Court of Conciliation and Arbitration 1907–29. In the Harvester case (1907), he established the principle of a ‘fair and reasonable’ basic wage for a family.

Higgs, Peter Ware (1929– ). British theoretical physicist, born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Educated at Kings College, London, he taught in London and was a professor at Edinburgh University 1980–96. The word ‘boson’, a theoretical sub-atomic particle, was coined by Paul *Dirac as a tribute to S. N. *Bose but its existence was not proved until a team from CERN identified ‘the Higgs boson’ in 2012. Higgs received a CH and shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2013, and was awarded the Copley Medal (2015).

Highsmith, (Mary) Patricia (née Plangman) (1921–1995). American novelist and short story writer, born in Texas. Her psychological thrillers, worthy rivals to *Simenon’s, include Strangers on a Train (1950: filmed by *Hitchcock), A Dog’s Ransom (1972), a series based on the character Tom Ripley, and Carol (1990). Edith’s Diary (1977) was a psychological study. She lived in Europe from 1963, first in France, then Switzerland.

Schenkar, J., The Talented Miss Highsmith—The Secret Life and Serious Art of Patricia Highsmith. 2009.

Hilbert, David (1862–1943). German mathematician, born in Königsberg. Professor of mathematics at Göttingen 1895–1930, he was a major contributor to mathematical logic, on the theory of numbers, the theory of invariants and integral equations. In Foundations of Geometry (1899) he tried to establish formal proof of axioms, moving from intuition (assumptions made without verification) to logic. However, his assertion that all mathematical problems were essentially decidable was overturned by the work of *Godel and *Turing.

Hildebrand of Savona see Gregory VII.

Hildegard of Bingen, St (1098–1179). German abbess. Of noble birth, she became a novice at 15, founded a monastery at Rupertsburg, on the Rhine, near Bingen, before 1150, and a daughter house opposite, near Rudesheim. Sometimes called ‘the Sybil of the Rhine’, her range of accomplishment was prodigious: visionary, naturalist, playwright, theologian, poet and composer. She recorded 26 revelations in Scrivas (1141–51) and treatises on natural history and medicine. She made the first clinical description of migraine, complete with a diagram illustrating the characteristic fortification-shaped ‘scintillations’. She wrote lyric poetry and religious music of great beauty. Much is now recorded, including the 1986 anthology called A Feather on the Breath of God, drawn from The Symphony of the Harmony of Celestial Revelations. She also wrote The Play of the Virtues, a morality play with music. She corresponded with popes and emperors, went on four missions throughout Germany and was proposed (unsuccessfully) for canonisation soon after her death. Pope *Benedict XVI proclaimed her a saint and a Doctor of the Church in 2012. Minor planet 898 Hildegard is named for her.

Hill, Octavia (1838–1912). English reformer. She pioneered the movement for public open space and improved housing, both inspired originally by her concern for the living conditions of the poor. She was a founder of the National Trust (1895) and established her first housing project in St Marylebone, London, in 1864 where she was assisted by John *Ruskin.

Hill, O., Homes of the London Poor. 1875; Hill, O., Our Common Land. 1878.

Hill, Sir Rowland (1795–1879). English educationist and administrator, born in Kidderminster. Son of a teacher and influenced by Joseph *Priestley, he taught for 30 years and was a significant educational reformer. He was also actively involved in the planned colonisation of South Australia and the development of railways. He campaigned for uniform penny post (1840), over bureaucratic objections, and is regarded as the founder of modern postal systems. Between 1835 and 1837 he argued that a low postage rate would lead to an increased volume of mail: a flat rate, irrespective of distance, would reduce administrative costs, and stamps should be prepaid, the cost borne by the sender. To achieve this he proposed prepaid adhesive postage stamps or envelopes incorporating a stamp imprint. The penny blue stamp (originally unperforated) was issued in May 1840. Hill became secretary to the Postmaster-General in 1846–54, and to the Post Office 1854–64, was awarded a KCB and elected FRS.

Hillary, Sir Edmund Percival (1919–2008). New Zealand mountaineer. He was one of the party that made a reconnaissance of Mt Everest (1951), and as a member of *Hunt’s expedition (1953) he and the sherpa *Tenzing Norgay were the first to reach the summit: for this feat he was knighted. In January 1958 his New Zealand party in the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition became the first explorers to reach the South Pole overland since *Amundsen in 1911 and *Scott in 1912 , arriving before the expedition leader Sir Vivian *Fuchs, who had been held up by vehicle failure. In 1985 he landed at the North Pole with Neil *Armstrong in a ski-plane. He became High Commissioner in India 1984–89, devoted decades to improving life for the sherpas in Nepal and was awarded a KG in 1995.

Hillel (c.65 BCE–9 CE). Jewish rabbi, born in Babylonia. He became a leader of the Pharisees, president of the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem, an important innovator in scriptural analysis, and a liberal interpreter of the law. His grandson Gamaliel (d.c.50 CE) was the teacher of St *Paul.

Hilliard, Nicholas (c.1547–1619). English miniature painter. Trained as a jeweller, he was the leading English miniaturist 1580–1600 and enjoyed a high reputation also in France, which he visited c.1577. His work was noted for its grace and delicacy, and for his technique of modelling features with flesh tones.

Auerbach, E., Nicholas Hilliard. 1961.

Hilton, Conrad (1887–1979). American hotelier, born in San Antonio, New Mexico. He was originally involved in local businesses including his father’s hotel which he helped to establish. He began buying hotels after his father’s death (1918) and expanded worldwide.

Hilton, James (1900–1954). British writer. He was famous for popular novels including Lost Horizon (1933), Goodbye, Mr Chips (1934) and Random Harvest (1941).

Himmler, Heinrich (1900–1945). German Nazi politician. A poultry farmer, he studied agriculture in Munich, joined the Nazi Party in 1926 and became leader 1929–45 of the Schutz-Staffen (SS: Security Force or ‘Blackshirts’) and, after *Hitler’s accession to power, head of the secret police, the Gestapo and of all police forces in Germany (from 1936). This quiet sinister man, son of a schoolmaster, was thus ultimately responsible for the annihilation of the Jews, the deportations and forced labour, and for tortures and murders on a scale unparalleled in history. He was Minister of the Interior 1944–45 and briefly Commander-in-Chief of the Army 1945. On the eve of Germany’s final defeat in the following year he attempted vainly to come to terms with the Allies. When captured by British soldiers he killed himself by taking poison.

Manvell, R. and Fraenkel, H., Himmler. 1969.

Hindemith, Paul (1895–1963). German composer, violist, pianist and conductor, born near Frankfurt. Leader of the Frankfurt Opera Orchestra 1915–25, he later played viola with the Amar-Hindemith quartet. He worked in a variety of styles, Romantic, expressionist and neo-classical, and advocated the production of gebrauchsmusik (‘utility music’), written on commission to meet a particular demand. He left Germany in 1936 and taught at Yale 1940–53. He composed seven operas, of which Mathis der Maler (1938), based on the life of the painter Matthias *Grünewald, has remained in the repertoire. He wrote more than 50 major works and a number of sonatas for chamber groups and solo instruments. Other major works include Concert Music for Strings and Brass, Op. 50 (1930), Nobilissima visione (ballet, 1938), Symphonic metamorphosis on themes by Carl Maria von Weber (1943), seven string quartets and concertos for cello, viola, violin, piano, clarinet, horn and organ.

Kemp, I., Hindemith. 1971.

Hindenburg, Paul von Beneckendorff und von (1847–1934). German soldier and president, born in Posen (now Poznan, Poland). Son of a Prussian Junker, he became an army cadet at 11, served in the war against Austria (1866) and France (1870–71), retiring as a general in 1911. In 1914 he was recalled and given command of the army in East Prussia with *Ludendorff as his Chief of Staff. The great victory over the Russians at Tannenberg (August 1914) made him a national hero and he remained an immensely popular father figure throughout the war. The combination of Hindenburg (made a field marshal) and Ludendorff—the former providing the dignity and prestige, the latter the strategic skill, lasted throughout the war. Victories on the eastern front (1915–16) were followed, when Hindenburg had been made Chief of General Staff (1916) with Ludendorff, as his assistant, by the stalemate in the west from which the Germans sought to emerge by their great breakthrough in March 1918. When the allied counterattack brought disaster Hindenburg secured an armistice that enabled him to lead the armies back intact to the frontiers, and so create a myth of an undefeated Germany.

He returned to public life when, despite his monarchist sympathies, he was elected (1925) as President of Germany, succeeding *Ebert, and re-elected in 1932, with 53 per cent of the vote, defeating *Hitler. Although his faculties were weakened by old age he tried to delay Hitler’s accession to power but at last gave way and in January 1933 appointed him Chancellor. He died in office.

Wheeler-Bennett, J. W., Hindenburg: The Wooden Titan. 1967.

Hinshelwood, Sir Cyril Norman (1897–1967). English chemist. He became professor of chemistry at Oxford in 1937, and was President of the Chemical Society 1946–48 and of the Royal Society 1955–60. He was an authority on the kinetics of chemical reactions, especially of those involved in the growth of bacterial cells. He shared with *Semenov the Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1956), and was awarded the Copley Medal and the OM (1960). His works include Kinetics of Chemical Change in Gaseous Systems (1926). He was a gifted linguist, classical scholar, painter and music lover. He lived with his mother and never married.

Hipparchus (c.180–125 BCE). Greek astronomer, born in Nicaea (Bithynia). He catalogued the positions of some 1080 fixed stars. He erected an observatory at Rhodes where he discovered inter alia some of the irregularities in the moon’s motion and showed the existence of the precession of the equinoxes, a circular swing of the earth’s axis so slow that it takes 25,000 years to complete each circle. The method of fixing the position of a place on the earth’s surface by giving its latitude and longitude was devised by Hipparchus, and he improved the methods of predicting eclipses and calculated the length of the year to within six minutes. He was also the inventor of trigonometry.

Hippocrates (c.460–c.375 BCE). Greek physician, born on the island of Cos, in the Aegean. Regarded as the ‘Father of Medicine’, he was the first to insist that the art of healing depended on scientific method and clinical observation. His family was in a hereditary guild of magicians, reputed to be descended from Aesculapius, the god of medicine. He visited Egypt and may have studied with *Democritus. In Cos he established a medical school and is said to have taught under the traditional plane tree. The so called Hippocratic collection, which almost certainly comprises not only his own work but that of pupils and followers, consists of more than 70 books on medicine, of which the Aphorisms and the Airs, Waters and Places are among the most important, the section on epidemics is of great interest as are the clinical descriptions, e.g. of pneumonia, malaria and mumps. Knowledge of anatomy was very limited and disease was defined as disharmony of the ‘four humours’ (a doctrine that survived into the 18th century). In the consideration of epidemics, however, the importance of diet, environment and climate is recognised. Descriptions of the ancient instruments are an interesting part of the surgical writings. Hippocrates prescribed a code of medical ethics for his disciples, summarised in the traditional Hippocratic Oath (though the exact wording may not be his), still administered to physicians on qualification.

Hippolytus (c.160–c.236). Greek theologian and anti-pope. He lived in Rome and his defence of the doctrine of the Logos, which implied that the Son, *Jesus Christ, incarnate on earth had a pre-existence as the word (Logos) or creative power of God (cf. St John’s Gospel), brought him into conflict with Callistus, who became Pope in 217, and he seems to have received consecration as an anti-pope. He submitted, however, to Callistus’s successor Pontianus when (235) both leaders were sent as convicts to the Sardinian mines and later martyred. A work entitled Philosophumena, a refutation of heresy, found (1842) at Mt Athos, can almost certainly be attributed to Hippolytus. His Commentary on Daniel (202) is the earliest extant Christian work of its kind.

Hirohito (regnal name Showa, i.e. ‘enlightened peace’) (1901–1989). Emperor of Japan 1926–89. Son of *Yoshihito, he was educated in the Peer’s School in the imperial palace and became the first crown prince to visit Europe (1921–22), acting as regent after his father’s mental collapse. After a comparatively brief liberal period, Japanese politics deteriorated in the 1930s. Military cliques and secret societies imposed their wills on ministers and Hirohito appeared unable or unwilling to intervene, although his actual role remained a matter of controversy. Japan invaded Manchuria (1931) and China (1937) and attacked US bases (1941). After the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Hirohito intervened, making an unprecedented broadcast in support of unconditional surrender, ceding power to General Douglas *MacArthur (1945), who took on a role similar to the Shogun of earlier centuries. The allies agreed not to put the emperor on trial and he proved to be a valuable symbol of adaption and cooperation. In 1971 he returned to Europe and in Britain was restored as an honorary KG. He visited the US in 1975. He was a gifted poet and marine biologist.

Hiroshige Andō (birth name Andō Tokutarō, also known as Hiroshige Utagawa) (1797–1858). Japanese graphic artist, born in Edo (Tokyo). Son of a fireman who worked for the Shogun, he trained in the Ukiyo-e (‘floating world’) tradition of contemporary urban life, publishing his first prints in 1818. His greatest works are landscapes and seascapes, more lyrical than those of his contemporary *Hokusai, produced before 1844. They include the series Fifty Three Stages of the Tokaido Highway. His work influenced *Manet, *Monet and van *Gogh.

Robinson, B. W., Hiroshige. 1964; Oka, I., Hiroshige: Japan’s Great Landscape Artist. 1992; Calza, G. C., Hiroshige: The Master of Nature. 2009; Uspensky, M., Hiroshige. 2012.

Hirst, Damien (Steven) (1965– ). English artist, born in Bristol. Preoccupied with the theme of death and many works feature preserved animals, e.g. and the shark returned in The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living (1991) and A Dead Shark (2003). His complete show, Beautiful Inside My Head Forever, was auctioned in London in 2008 and realised £111 million. Robert *Hughes was a trenchant critic of Hirst’s oeuvre.

Hiss, Alger (1904–1996). American administrator, born in Baltimore. He joined the US State Department in 1936 and, among other important assignments, was secretary to the Dumbarton Oaks Conference (1944), accompanied President *Roosevelt to Yalta 1945 and was Secretary-General of UNCIO (United Nations Conference on International Organisation) at San Francisco 1945–46. In 1947 he became President of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Accused (1949) by Whitaker *Chambers (a self-confessed former Communist) of having been a member of the Communist Party in the 1930s and of having betrayed secret information, he denied the charge on oath but was tried for perjury in 1950, convicted in a second trial and sentenced to five years’ jail. Richard *Nixon’s strong pursuit of Hiss helped to give him national recognition. Released in 1954, Hiss continued to assert his innocence and he had many supporters. In October 1992 former KGB officials announced that their files provided no evidence that Hiss had been recruited as an agent: supporters hailed this as vindication, opponents were sceptical. In 1996, release of the ‘Venona tapes’, intercepts of wartime telegrams to Moscow, appeared to incriminate Hiss, but the material is ambiguous.

Hitchcock, Sir Alfred (Joseph) (1899–1980). English film director. He worked in films from 1919 and lived in the US from 1940. His 59 films (including some remakes) include Blackmail (1929), The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934 and 1956), The Lady Vanishes (1938), Rebecca (1940), Suspicion (1941), Notorious (1946), Rope (1948), Strangers on a Train (1951), Dial M for Murder (1954), Rear Window (1954), To Catch a Thief (1955), Vertigo (1958), North by Northwest (1959), Psycho (1960) and The Birds (1963). His films produced some of the best performances of Cary *Grant and Grace *Kelly.

Durgnat, R., The Strange Case of Alfred Hitchcock. 1974; Ackroyd, P., Alfred Hitchcock. 2015; Wood, M., Alfred Hitchcock: The Man Who Knew Too Much. 2015.

Hitchens, Ivon (1893–1979). English painter. In his landscapes and flower pieces, he carried on the English lyrical tradition into a semi-abstract discipline, relying on an interplay of rich colours.

Hitler, Adolf (1889–1945). Austrian-German Nazi politician, born in Braunau am Inn, Austria. Son of Alois Hitler (originally Schickelgruber) (1837–1903), a middle ranking customs official who married three times, he was third of five children; three died in childhood, only his sister Paula (1896–1960) survived him. Unsuccessful and unhappy at the Linz Realschule, he gave up his studies at 16 because of lung trouble. He was twice rejected as a student at the Vienna Academy of Art, sold drawings and watercolours and lived at the Home for Men until he moved to Munich in 1913. (It is barely possible that he visited relatives in Liverpool in 1912–13.) In World War I he served in a Bavarian regiment, rose to the rank of lance-corporal, was temporarily blinded and won the Iron Cross. In September 1919, employed as an investigator by army authorities, he joined Anton Drexler’s German Workers’ Party. Within a few months his oratory enabled him to displace Drexler and become leader of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsch Arbeiterpartei, or NSDAP), better known by the abbreviated form Nazi Party. After the failure of a Putsch organised by him with the aid of General *Ludendorff (1923) he spent nine months in prison where he dictated to his companion Rudolf *Hess his book Mein Kampf (My Struggle). From 1925 he reorganised his shattered party, helped financially by industrialists who saw in him, with his anti-Semitism, anti-Marxism and extreme nationalism, a barrier against liberals and communists. Thus aided, Hitler asserted an unchallenged despotism within the party and created an effective propaganda machine, using radio and the newspaper Völkischer Beobachter, run by his friend Max Amann (1891–1957), to further his cause.

He organised strong-arm gangs of supporters (SA or ‘Brownshirts’—*Röhm) and also an elite guard (SS or ‘Blackshirts’—*Himmler). The prevailing worldwide depression made his economic theories plausible and acceptable and led numbers of unemployed to join him. In the 1930 election the number of Nazis in the Reichstag rose from 12 to 104 and in July 1932 to 230, though there was a fall to 196 in November 1932. In April 1932 he contested the presidency against *Hindenburg and won 37 per cent of the vote. He cautiously refused to sanction a coup and party rivals called him ‘Adolf Legalité’. In January 1933 a reluctant Hindenburg appointed Hitler, as leader of the largest single party, as Chancellor. The burning of the Reichstag, attributed by the Nazis to the Communists, gave him the excuse to assume dictatorial powers. He proceeded to turn Germany into a one-party state, and to secure his own pre-eminence in the party, purged it of critics and possible rivals in the ‘Night of the Long Knives’ (30 June 1934), in which about 1000 people, including von *Schleicher, *Röhm and *Strasser, were slaughtered by the SS. Röhm’s SA was downgraded and the SS became the main uniformed party organisation.

On Hindenburg’s death (1934) Hitler became President though he preferred the title Der Führer and while indulging his own phobias by a reign of terror against Jews and communists he carried away the majority of his countrymen by frenzied eloquence, elaborate propaganda and by his spectacular successes in foreign policy, apart from an unsuccessful coup in Austria (June 1934). In startling succession came rearmament, military reoccupation of the Rhineland (1936), and political union (Anschluss) with Austria (March 1938), overwhelmingly endorsed by referendum.

In September 1938, the Munich Pact, made by Hitler, *Mussolini, *Chamberlain and *Daladier, agreed that Hitler could take the German-speaking Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia, making it indefensible. (*Beneš and *Stalin were not invited to Munich.) Suggestions that the army would have deposed Hitler if he had then failed seem implausible.

Britain and France failed to cooperate with Russia against German expansion: appeasement was popular at home, they hoped to buy time and many saw Hitler as the only barrier to Communism. In March 1939 Hitler occupied the remainder of Czechoslovakia and secured a diplomatic volte face in August with the signing of a Non-Aggression Pact in Moscow by *Ribbentrop and *Molotov. Stalin’s promise to support Hitler when he invaded Poland made World War II inevitable. The Wehrmacht began fighting Poland on 1 September, followed on 3 September by Britain and France declaring war. In June 1940 German armies quickly crushed the Allied forces and after the collapse of France only Britain still held out. Although Hitler’s decision to attack Russia in June 1941 (‘Operation Barbarossa’) was to prove a fatal error, his run of success lasted into 1942. Then the joint strength of Britain and Russia, joined by the US, inexorably broke Hitler’s boasted ‘Thousand Years Reich’ in its ‘Fortress Europa’. He ordered a ‘final solution’ (‘Die Endlösung’ i.e. extermination) in January 1942 for Europe’s Jews and about 6 million died, 75 per cent of them in concentration camps. Millions of Slavs were also killed in the camps. The total death toll in Hitler’s war was about 38 million, of which 7 million were German and 22 million Russian. Only a small minority of Germans raised the slightest opposition to Hitler and there was only one serious conspiracy when he narrowly escaped death at Rastenberg, East Prussia (July 1944), from a bomb planted by a staff officer Col. Klaus von *Stauffenberg. When defeat finally came Hitler and Goebbels were in the bomb-proof Führerbunker in besieged Berlin. There he married his mistress Eva *Braun, and there, on 30 April 1945, she bit into a cyanide capsule and he shot himself in the head. Both bodies were incinerated and the remains were soon found by Russian troops, Hitler being identified conclusively by complicated dental work. However, Soviet propaganda asserted that there was no definitive evidence of Hitler’s death and that he might have survived and been working with the West.

Hitler was a vegetarian, fanatical anti-smoker and liked children and animals. Like *Goethe’s Mephistopheles, Hitler was ‘the spirit that denies’, the supreme sceptic, ‘a rationalist and realist’ (in Alan Bullock’s words) who rejected Christianity, despised attempts to revive the old Teutonic religion and in his political testament turned even against patriotism, declaring that Germany and its army were ‘not worthy of him’. Only Stalin, ‘a beast, but a great beast’, won his admiration in the end.

Bullock, A. L. C., Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. 1969; Trevor-Roper, H., The Last Days of Hitler. 4th ed. 1971; Fest, J. C., Hitler. 1974; Bullock, A. L. C., Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives. 1991; Kershaw, I., Hitler, 1899–1936: Hubris. 1998; Rosenbaum, R., Explaining Hitler. 1998; Kershaw, I., Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis. 2000; Simms, B., Hitler: Only the World Was Enough. 2019; Longerich, P., Hitler: A Life. 2019.

Hnatyshyn, Ray (Ramon John) (1934–2002). Canadian lawyer and Progressive Conservative politician. Of Ukrainian descent, he was a lawyer in Saskatchewan, Member of the House of Commons 1974–88, Minister for Energy 1979–80, Minister for Justice 1986–88, and Governor-General of Canada 1990–1995.

Hoare, Samuel John Gurney, 1st Viscount Templewood (1880–1959). English Conservative politician, born in London. Son of a baronet, educated at Harrow and Oxford, he was an MP 1910–44, served in World War I, and became Secretary of State for Air 1922–24; 1924–29; 1940. He initiated, as Secretary of State for India 1931–35, the act of 1935 which granted provincial self-government. As Foreign Secretary 1935 he was forced to resign by a storm of protest against the Hoare-*Laval Pact which proposed a partition of Ethiopia and recognition of the Italian conquests. He returned as Home Secretary 1937–39 and served during World War II in the sensitive post of Ambassador to Spain 1940–44, retiring with a peerage. He became an active opponent of capital punishment.

Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679). English philosopher, born at Malmesbury. Son of a clergyman, educated at Oxford, he was employed for most of his life by the Cavendish family as tutor and secretary. This career left him with much leisure for study of both classical authors and contemporary thinkers. Some of the latter, such as *Galileo and *Descartes, he met while visiting the Continent; in England he knew *Bacon and others distinguished in the arts and letters. His own philosophical writing seems to have stemmed from a chance discovery of *Euclid’s geometry. This was a natural step to the ‘mechanical philosophies, then current (which regarded the universe in motion, rather than the universe at rest, as the natural state of things). From these matured his own distinctive contribution to human thought.

Meanwhile the Civil War had broken out in England and when the royalist cause faced defeat, Hobbes, who in 1640 had written in defence of the royal prerogative, took refuge on the Continent and for a time (1647) was mathematics tutor to Prince Charles (*Charles II). He was allowed to return in 1651, the year of the publication of Leviathan, the greatest of the works in which his political philosophy is expounded. He was in disfavour after the Restoration and his sketch of the Civil Wars, Behemoth (1680), was suppressed. In his extreme old age he wrote verse translations of the Iliad and Odyssey. In his ethics, rejecting as he did the supernatural and also any religious basis for morality, he regarded human action as directed solely by egoistic motives which, if given free play as in the natural state, would make man’s life ‘nasty, brutish and short’. Self-interest therefore leads men to what he calls a ‘social contract’ whereby they give up their natural rights of aggression in return for the security of a society controlled by a ‘sovereign’, who may be an individual or a republic. Should he fail in his side of the contract the sovereign may be deposed. Although Hobbes held the rationalist view that philosophy ought to be a matter of rigid deduction from premises, his own work is empirical in nature and its acute semantic analysis sometimes foreshadows the philosophy of the present age.

Warrender, H., The Political Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. 1957.

Hobbs, Sir Jack (John Berry) (1882–1963). English cricketer. He was one of the greatest batsmen of his time and the first professional cricketer to be knighted (1953). During his first-class career with Surrey (1905–34) and England (1907–30) he scored a record total of 61,237 runs with 197 centuries. It was not only his play but his personality that endeared Hobbs to the crowd.

Hobsbawm, E(ric) J(ohn Ernest) (1917–2012). British historian, born in Alexandria. Of Polish-Jewish ancestry, he grew up in Austria and Germany, studied at King’s College, Cambridge, and taught social history at Birkbeck College, London, 1947–82. He joined the Communist Party in 1936 and, despite his hostility to some aspects of Soviet rule, remained in the decaying British party until 1991. Polyglot and polymath, he was a compelling writer whose works included the bestselling The Age of Revolutions: Europe 1789–1848 (1962) and The Age of Extremes (1994). His books were probably the most widely read and translated of any modern historian and he received a CH in 1998. As ‘Francis Newton’, he was also a jazz critic.

Evans, R. J., Eric Hobsbawm: A Life in History. 2019.

Hochhuth, Rolf (1933– ). German playwright. He achieved immediate recognition with Der Stellvertreter (1963, translated as The Deputy or The Representative), a scathing and controversial accusation of Pope *Pius XII’s passivity over *Hitler’s extermination campaigns. Soldiers (1967), an attack on *Churchill’s alleged wartime complicity in atrocities, was initially banned in Britain.

Ho Chi Minh (1890–1969). Vietnamese Communist leader, born in Annam. (His real name was Nguyen That Thanh, later changed to Nguyen Ai Quoc. Ho Chi Minh means ‘he who enlightens’.) Son of a mandarin, he left Annam in 1911, worked as a merchant seaman (in the US 1915–16), assistant pastry cook to *Escoffier in London and a photographic retoucher in Paris. A foundation member of the French Communist Party (1920), he lived in Moscow, Bangkok, Canton, Hong Kong and Shanghai 1923–30. He founded the Indo-Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong (1930) and, on his return after 30 years (1941), the Vietnamese Independence League (Vietminh). In March 1945 the Japanese proclaimed Vietnamese independence with Ho as President of the Democratic Republic (DRV), and they withdrew leaving him in control in September. Ho formed the Lao Dong (‘Workers Party’) in 1951 and retained office until he died. The French soon tried to reimpose their rule and established a puppet state in the South under *Bao Dai. War with France continued until 1954, then a temporary partition at the 17th parallel was followed by war between North and South in which the Americans played an increasingly dominant role from 1963 (rising to a peak in 1969). Like *Mao, Ho was an able strategist, poet and patriotic hero.

Lacouture, J., Ho Chi Minh. 1968.

Hockney, David (1937– ). English painter, designer and photographer, born in Bradford. Influenced as a painter by pop art, he soon evolved his own distinctive, witty, spare, narrative style. He designed sets and costumes for productions of The Magic Flute (1977), Triple Bill (*Satie, *Poulenc, *Ravel, 1980) and Tristan and Isolde (1987). His experimental photographic collages (‘joiners’), presenting a collage of images that convey a sense of time and motion, were recorded in his book, Cameraworks (with Lawrence Wechsler 1984,) He moved to California in 1963 but returned, increasingly, to Yorkshire after 1997. His A Bigger Grand Canyon (1998) is in the Australian National Gallery, Canberra. In Secret Knowledge: Rediscovering the Lost Techniques of the Old Masters (2001), both a book and television documentary, he argued plausibly that use of camera obscura and lens by artists after 1400 had a major effect on painting technique and the rapid development of realism. (The book was revised in 2006.) He was elected RA in 1991, received a CH in 1997 and the OM in 2012. He donated his largest painting Bigger Trees Near Warter (2007, 4.5 m x 12.2 m) to the Tate Gallery.

Hockney, D., David Hockney. 1976; Hockney, D., That’s the way I see it. 1993; Evans, G., Hockney’s Pictures: the Definitive Retrospective. 2004; Hockney, D., A Yorkshire Sketchbook. 2012; Hockney, D., A Bigger Picture. 2012.

Hodgkin, Sir Alan Lloyd (1914–1998). British physiologist. In 1963 he shared (with Sir Andrew *Huxley and Sir John *Eccles) the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, for his discovery of the chemical processes by which impulses travel along individual nerve fibres. He received the Copley Medal (1965) and the OM (1973). President of the Royal Society 1970–75, he became Master of Trinity College, Cambridge 1978–84.

Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot (née Crowfoot) (1910–1994). English biochemist, born in Cairo. She became Wolfson research professor of the Royal Society 1960–77 and professorial Fellow of Somerville College, Oxford. She was specially distinguished for her use of X-ray techniques in the determination of the structures of biochemical compounds, notably penicillin and vitamin B12, the latter essential to combat pernicious anaemia. She was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1964), and in 1965 received the OM, the first woman so honoured since Florence *Nightingale. She became the first (and so far the only) woman to become a Copley Medallist of the Royal Society (1976).

Hodgkin, Sir (Gordon) Howard (Eliot) (1932–2017). English painter, born in London. His sensual paintings, reminiscent of *Vuillard and *Matisse, were marked by brilliant colour and luscious texture. He received a CH in 2003.

Auping, M., Edelfield, J., Sontag, S., Howard Hodgkin Paintings. 1995; Graham-Dixon, A., Howard Hodgkin. 2001.

Hodgson, Ralph (1871–1962). English poet. One of the ‘Georgian’ group of English poets, simplicity, metrical facility and delicate irony distinguish his work. Some of his poems, e.g. Time, You Old Gypsy Man, attained wide popularity. He lived in Japan (1924–38), then in Ohio, publishing nothing between 1917 and 1958.

Hofer, Andreas (1767–1810). Austrian inn-keeper and patriot. He had fought against *Napoléon 1796–1805 and when his native Tyrol was transferred by the emperor from Austria to Bavaria, he organised and led a local rising (1809). Twice in that year he drove out the Franco-Bavarian troops; twice Austrian submission to the French terms brought them back. In October 1809 he roused the country once again but this time the enemy were in overwhelming force. He was forced into hiding, betrayed and shot.

Hoff, Jacobus Henricus Van’t see Van’t Hoff, Jacobus Henricus

Hoffman, Dustin (1937– ). American actor, born in Los Angeles. His films include The Graduate (1967), Marathon Man (1976), Tootsie (1982), Rain Man (Academy Award, 1988), Hook (1991) and I ♥ Huckabees (2004). As a stage actor he performed on Broadway and in London and made his debut as a film director with Quartet (2012).

Hoffman, Philip Seymour (1967–2014). American actor, born in New York State. He first appeared on television in Law & Order (1991) and in film in 1992. His films include Capote (2005), where he won an Academy Award and a Golden Globe for his portrayal of Truman *Capote, Doubt (2008), The Master (2012) and A Late Quartet (a.k.a. Performance, 2012). He was a memorable Willy Loman on Broadway in 2012. He died of a drug overdose.

Hofmann, August Wilhelm von (1818–1892). German chemist. After working with *Liebig, he went to London, encouraged by Prince *Albert, to be superintendent of the newly founded Royal College of Chemistry 1845–65. W. H. *Perkin was a student. He returned to Germany as professor of chemistry at Berlin 1865–92. Organic chemistry was the main field of his research and his production of aniline from coal products led to the development of the great synthetic dye industry in Germany. Awarded the Copley Medal in 1875, he devised three dimensional models of molecules.

Hoffmann, Felix (1868–1946). German-Swiss chemist. In August 1897, working for Bayer & Co., he synthesised both aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and heroin. Aspirin was sold worldwide (originally in powdered form) from 1899. Hoffmann, an isolated figure, lived and died unknown.

Hofmann, Josef Casimir (Józef Kazimierz) (1876–1957). Polish-American pianist, born in Krakow. He made his debut in Warsaw at the age of six, became Anton *Rubinstein’s only pupil and settled in the US in 1898. He made only a few, poor recordings, but contemporaries regarded his playing as a unique combination of poetry, precision and passion. He was a prolific (but now unperformed) composer, director of the Curtis Institute, Philadelphia 1927–38 and a successful inventor (including a pneumatic shock absorber). Alcoholism crippled his final years.

Hofmannsthal, Hugo von (1874–1929). Austrian poet and dramatist, born in Vienna. His poems, written for the most part in early life, mainly display a nostalgic melancholy over a civilisation in decay, a mood evident, but less so, in his plays, which he first began writing in his teens. The best, however, date from his later life when he took themes mainly from the Middle Ages or classical antiquity, as in Elektra (1903) and the morality play Jedermann (Everyman) of 1912. He also wrote the libretti for Richard *Strauss’s operas Der Rosenkavalier (1911), Ariadne auf Naxos (1912), etc. With Strauss and Max *Reinhardt he founded the Salzburg Festival.

Kobel, E., Hugo von Hofmannsthal. 1970.

Hofmeyr, Jan Hendrik (1845–1909). South African politician. A member of the Cape Parliament from 1879, he worked to promote the political interests of the Dutch through the Afrikaaner Bond. He distrusted *Kruger’s extreme nationalistic policy in the Transvaal, but broke with Cecil *Rhodes (with whom he had hitherto worked closely) over his part in organising the Jameson Raid (1895). Hofmeyr was in Germany during the Boer War but afterwards was prominent in the negotiations that led to the union of South Africa.

His nephew, Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (1894–1948), a Rhodes Scholar, became professor of classics at Witwatersrand University 1917–24, then Vice Chancellor. A Unionist MP 1929–48 and a racial liberal, he was a minister 1933–38, 1939–48 and *Smuts’ Deputy Prime Minister until his sudden death.

Hogarth, William (1697–1764). English artist. At 15 he was apprenticed to a silver engraver, and was an independent engraver by 1720, painting being then a spare-time study. From 1730 he painted his moral series of narrative pictures: A Harlot’s Progress (c.1731), A Rake’s Progress (c.1735) and Marriage à la Mode (c.1742–44). These were painted to be later engraved, and the engravings sold widely. They are today regarded as unique, but of lesser quality as paintings than his more spontaneous work, portraits such as The Shrimp Girl and Hogarth’s Servants. He published his theories in An Analysis of Beauty in 1753.

Antal, F., Hogarth and His Place in European Art. 1962.

Hogben, Lancelot Thomas (1895–1975). English population geneticist. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, he wrote the bestsellers Mathematics for the Million (1933) and Science for the Citizen (1938), and devised the synthetic universal language Interglossa (1943).

Hogg, James (1770–1835). Scottish poet. Known because of his calling and the Lowland district where he practised it as the ‘Ettrick Shepherd’, he was still almost illiterate when Sir Walter *Scott, whom he helped with his collection of border ballads, discerned his talent. He went to Edinburgh (1810) and was introduced to the literary world. The Mountain Bard (1807) contained his early ballads. The Queen’s Wake (1813), in which 17 bards competed before *Mary Queen of Scots, includes his best known poem, Kilmeny.

Hohenstaufen. German dynasty, deriving its name from an ancestral castle in Swabia. Members of it were German kings and Holy Roman emperors from 1238 to 1254. The most important were *Friedrich I, *Heinrich VI, and *Friedrich II.

Hohenzollern. German dynastic family, deriving its name from a castle in Swabia. The family’s prominence began when Graf (Count) Friedrich von Hohenzollern was made elector and margrave of Brandenburg (1415). A later Hohenzollern, Albrecht of Brandenburg, grandmaster of the Teutonic Knights, dissolved that order and became first Duke of Prussia (1525). Brandenburg and Prussia subsequently became a kingdom under Hohenzollern rule, and its ruler (then *Wilhelm I) became the first emperor of the united Germany formed in 1871 after the Franco-Prussian War. The dynasty thus ruled as electors of Brandenburg 1415–1701, kings of Prussia 1701–1918 and German emperors 1871–1918.

Hokusai Katsushika (1760–1849). Japanese graphic artist, born at Edo (Tokyo). Brought up by the affluent Nakajima family, he worked in a bookshop and was apprenticed first to a woodblock engraver, then to the artist Katsukawa Shunsho. His first published works (1780) are in the Ukiyo-e (‘floating world’) tradition, depicting contemporary urban life: street scenes, actors, lovemaking, processions. He moved frequently (about 90 times) and changed his name (about 20 times) so the complete range of his activity is not known. He concentrated on drawing, painting and print-making of innumerable studies of landscapes and seascapes, animals, birds, many of them published in book form or as illustrations of novels and poems. His Thirty Six Views of Mt Fuji (1826–33) are regarded as his greatest achievement and the summit of Japanese graphic art: this series includes the famous The Breaking Wave off Kanagawa. He wrote an autobiography Once Hokusai, Today the Old Man Mad about Drawing (1835). His Manga (or Ten Thousand Sketches) appeared in 15 volumes (1812–75). From about 1890 his work was known and admired in Europe.

Holbein, Hans (1497/8–1543). German painter, born in Augsburg. His father Hans Holbein the Elder was a painter in the city. He settled in Basle c.1514, at first working as a printer’s designer. His paintings changed after 1526, becoming softer and richer in colouring; it is possible (although there is no evidence) that he had visited Italy and seen work of the Italian Renaissance. His Madonna of Burgomaster Meyer (1526) combines this Italian richness with northern realism. In 1526 he came to England with an introduction (from *Erasmus) to Sir Thomas *More. His outstanding group portrait of More’s family was the main work of this visit. He came back to England in 1532 and stayed for some years at the court of *Henry VIII. In 1537 he painted a mural at Whitehall (only the cartoon survives) showing the king with his third queen, *Jane Seymour, and his parents. His famous study of Henry VIII was for this mural, and was copied after the destruction of Whitehall Palace in 1698. Later royal portraits, although beautiful in technique, were impersonal compared with this strongly characterised piece.

Wilson, D., Hans Holbein. 1996.

Hölderlin, (Johann Christian) Friedrich (1770–1843). German poet. Trained for the Lutheran ministry, he fell in love with Greek mythology and his employer’s wife and became a schizophrenic (from 1806). His lyric poetry was largely unrecognised until the 20th century.

Holdsworth, Sir William Searle (1871–1944). English legal historian, born in London. Vinerian Professor of Law at Oxford University 1922–44, he wrote a History of English Law, in 17 volumes, the first published in 1903, the last in 1966, long after his death. Awarded an OM in 1943, his work is now regarded as deficient in understanding the social and economic context of law.

Holiday, Billie (Eleanora Fagan) (1915–1959). American jazz singer. Singing professionally from 1930, she worked with Benny *Goodman and Count *Basie, developing a powerful emotional style singing the blues. Portrayed in the film Lady Sings the Blues (1972), her early death was the result of heroin addiction.

Holinshed, Raphael (d.c.1580). English chronicler. He was commissioned by a London printer, Reginald Wolfe, to compile the Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 volumes, 1577). Holinshed himself wrote the history of England; others contributed the Scottish and Irish sections. The Chronicles were much used by *Shakespeare, especially for Macbeth, King Lear and Cymbeline.

Holland, Henry Richard Fox, 3rd Baron (1773–1840). English politician. His ideas were formed by his uncle Charles James *Fox. He served as Lord Privy Seal 1806–07 and as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster twice 1830–34, 1835–40. He supported enlightened initiatives to abolish the slave trade and the Test Act, and was influential through his hospitality at Holland House in London on the leading personalities, political and literary, of his day.

Holland, Sir Sidney George (1893–1961). New Zealand politician. Wounded in World War I, he ran an engineering business, succeeded his father as MP 1935–57 and by 1940 was Leader of the National party in opposition to Labour. He was Prime Minister 1949–57, fought against the trade unions, reduced regulations, and restored the death penalty. He was awarded a GCMG and CH.

Hollande, François Gérard Georges Nicolas (1954– ). French Socialist politician, born in Rouen. Educated at ENA, he worked for *Mitterrand, was a deputy in the National Assembly 1988–93, 1997–2012, and First Secretary of the French Socialist Party 1997–2008. His first wife was Ségolène *Royal. As candidate of the Socialist and Left Radical Party, he defeated Nicolas *Sarkozy and was President of France 2012–17. His popularity fell in 2014 and hovered between 12 per cent and 30 per cent in the polls, but rose after he reacted strongly to terrorist attacks in Paris (2015). He did not seek re-election in 2017.

Hollerith, Herman (1860–1929). American engineer. He taught at MIT and combined *Jacquard’s punch cards with electromagnetic sensors which could ‘read’ them automatically (1885). His machines were used to tabulate the results of the 1890 US census. He founded the Tabulating Machine Company (1896) which later became part of IBM (International Business Machines).

Hollingworth, Peter John (1935– ). Australian cleric. He was Anglican Archbishop of Brisbane 1990–2001 and Governor-General of Australia 2001–03.

Hollis, Sir Roger Henry (1905–1973). English civil servant. Educated briefly at Oxford, he worked in business in China, then entered the civil service. He was Director-General of the British counter-espionage agency MI5 (Military Intelligence, section five) 1956–65. MI5’s conspicuous lack of success in that period led to continuing but unproved accusations that Hollis was a Soviet ‘mole’ (concealed agent).

Hollows, Fred(erick Cossom) (1929–1993). Australian-New Zealand ophthalmologist, born in Dunedin. Trained in New Zealand and England, he worked in Australia from 1965, and initiated a campaign on indigenous eye health, particularly trachoma. He set up eye clinics to treat cataract and other conditions in Nepal, Eritrea and Vietnam, became Australian of the Year in 1990, received an AC in 1991 and established the Fred Hollows Foundation in 1992.

Holm, Sir Ian (1931– ). English actor. He played character roles in many films and was an outstanding Lear.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1809–1894). American author and physician, born at Cambridge, Massachusetts. He spent most of his life in or near Boston and was among the last and best known of that traditional and exclusive group that gave Boston its cultural ascendancy. He studied in Paris (1833–35) and gained a Harvard MD (1836), as a professor at Dartmouth College 1839–41 and at Harvard 1847–82 he gave popular and important lectures on anatomy. He is best known, however, for his humorous and genial essays and verses, contributed to the Atlantic Monthly. Some of these were collected in The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table (1858), The Professor at the Breakfast Table (1860), and The Poet at the Breakfast Table (1872). He also wrote novels, and memoirs of his friend Ralph Waldo *Emerson.

His son, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr (1841–1935), after fighting in the American Civil War took a degree in law at Harvard (1866). He achieved international legal fame as a result of his Lowell lectures (published 188l). Theodore *Roosevelt appointed him to the US Supreme Court (1902). He ranks as one of the greatest of all Supreme Court justices and as a liberal (except for Buck v. Bell [1927] which approved of forced sterilisation without the subject’s consent). At a time when a majority of his colleagues declared social legislation controlling wages and other labour matters unconstitutional he disagreed with their conservative attitude and earned himself the title of ‘The Great Dissenter’. In 1927 he wrote: ‘Taxes are the price we pay for civilisation’. He retired in 1932, aged 91. His lengthy correspondence with Sir Frederick Pollock and Harold *Laski was published.

Tilton, E. M., Amiable Autocrat. 1947.

Holst, Gustav (Theodore von) (1874–1934). English composer, born in Cheltenham. Grandson of a Swedish teacher of harp and piano, he began his career as an organist and choirmaster, and studied at the Royal College of Music under Sir Charles *Stanford. He worked as a trombonist and as a teacher. He was director of music at St Paul’s Girls’ School, Hammersmith 1906–34, where he conducted the orchestra and at Morley College 1907–34. Highly original, he was imbued in the English tradition, including folksong, but was far broader, with a knowledge of Indian music and German romanticism. The orchestral suite The Planets (1914–16) is the most performed British work in the international repertoire. Other works include the St Paul’s Suite for strings (1913), The Hymn of Jesus (1917), an opera The Perfect Fool (1922), Egdon Heath (a homage to *Hardy, 1927) and Hammersmith (for military band, 1931). His daughter Imogen Holst (1907–1984) was a conductor, composer and writer who worked closely with *Britten.

Holst, I., Gustav Holst. 1938.

Holt, Harold Edward (1908–1967). Australian Liberal politician, born in Sydney. A Melbourne lawyer and Member of the House of Representatives 1935–67, he was a minister under Sir Robert *Menzies 1940 and 1949–66, succeeding him as Prime Minister 1966–67. Often underrated, in his 23 months in office he took the opportunity to initiate reforms that Menzies refused to tackle: the 1967 Referendum on Aborigines, phasing out the White Australia Policy, engaging with Asia, relaxing censorship, early stages of promoting the arts, and a conciliatory approach to trade unions. However, he was uncritical in his support of US action (‘All the way with LBJ!’) in Vietnam. He drowned while swimming at Portsea, and was commemorated, oddly, in his former electorate, by a Memorial Swimming Centre.

Frame, T., The Life and Death of Harold Holt. 2004.

Holub, Miroslav (1923–1998). Czech immunologist, poet and essayist. He was a prolific researcher in pathology and immunology, wrote extensively on the philosophy of science (e.g. The Dimension of the Present Moment, 1990) and published 14 volumes of poetry, including Vanishing Lung Syndrome (1990).

Holyoake, Sir Keith Jacka (1904–1983). New Zealand Nationalist politician. He first entered parliament in 1932 and was Deputy Prime Minister 1949–57. He succeeded Sir Sidney *Holland 1957 and was Prime Minister and Foreign Minister 1960–72. He was Governor-General 1977–80 and became the first New Zealand Knight of the Garter (KG) in 1980.

Home, Alec (Alexander Frederick) Douglas, Baron Home of the Hirsel (1903–1995). British Conservative politician, born in London. Son of the 13th Earl of Home, educated at Eton and Oxford, (as Lord Douglass) he was MP for Lanark 1931–45, 1950–51. Parliamentary private secretary to Neville *Chamberlain 1938–39, he was hospitalised with spinal tuberculosis during World War II and devoted himself to study. Undersecretary for Foreign Affairs in *Churchill’s caretaker ministry 1945, he succeeded to the peerage in 1951 and received the KT in 1962. Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations 1955–60 and Foreign Secretary 1960–63, when Harold *Macmillan resigned (October 1963) he emerged as a compromise choice as Prime Minister, in preference to R. A. *Butler, Lord *Hailsham and Reginald *Maudling. The Earl of Home renounced his six peerages four days after becoming Prime Minister and as Sir Alec Douglas-Home won a Scottish by-election: for 15 days he was a member of neither House. He lost the October 1964 election to Harold *Wilson (wits said that electors faced the choice of ‘Dull Alec’ or ‘Smart Alec’) but the result was unexpectedly close. He resigned as Conservative Leader in July 1965 after organising the party’s first formal election procedure and Edward *Heath succeeded. Home was Foreign and Commonwealth Secretary 1970–74 and accepted a life in peerage in 1974.

Douglas-Home, A.F., The Way the Wind Blows. 1976.

Homer (Hómēros = ‘hostage’) (fl. 750–700 BCE). Greek epic poet. Tradition has attributed to Homer the authorship of The Iliad, the story of the siege of Troy (or Ilium) and other events during the Trojan War, and The Odyssey, which, except for the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Pentateuch, constitute the oldest surviving literature of antiquity, with an incomparable influence on Western culture. Nothing certain is known about the date of Homer’s birth, and seven places (Argos, Athens, Chios, Colophon, Rhodes, Salamis and Smyrna) claimed him. One tradition asserts that he was born near Smyrna (now Izmir), the illegitimate son of Maion, travelled extensively collecting material for his epics, becoming blind and spending the rest of his life as a wandering minstrel. Some legends say that he spent his last years as a blind beggar at the gates of Thebes, declaiming the ballads and stories that were later incorporated in The Iliad and The Odyssey. He is thought to have died (if he lived at all) on the island of Ios.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, some historians concluded that Homer never existed and that works attributed to him were merely anthologies of older ballads and legends. George *Steiner argues that The Iliad was ‘the product of an editorial act of genius’, converting a voluminous oral tradition at the beginning of written language (at the same time that Hebrew scriptures were organised and put on papyrus) while The Odyssey was a literary creation, the first novel. Steiner suggests that the early ascription of blindness to Homer was made by the Homeridae, professional singers of the two epics, to mask their own illiteracy.

On balance, critical opinion now supports Homer’s authorship of The Iliad largely because such a large personality comes through the words, rather than mere syntheses of legends. The Anglo-American classicist Bernard Knox commented: ‘The architecture of the poem is magnificent, and it strongly suggests the hand of one composer …’

Homeric scholars, including Martin *West and Peter Green, now argue convincingly that The Odyssey was written a generation or two after The Iliad (perhaps as late as 650 BCE) by another editor of genius, strikingly different in voice, warmth, point of view and vocabulary, and West has ‘P’ as author of The Iliad and ‘Q’ The Odyssey.

Both works are characterised by vivid and precise descriptions and sharp observation of human behaviour. The Iliad is notable for Homer’s constant use of fixed, or recurring, epithets, e.g. ‘the wine-dark sea’, ‘Hector, breaker of horses’, ‘the prudent Penelope’, ‘Tiryns of the mighty walls’, varying the choice [‘the stalwart Odysseus’ or ‘Odysseus, sacker of cities’, ‘brilliant Achilles’ or ‘god-like Achilles’, ‘magnificent, brave Paris’ or ‘appalling Paris’] according to the length of line available. Ships can be ‘black’ or ‘hollow’ or ‘fast moving’, depending on whether one, two or three syllables are needed. Often the fixed epithet is used ironically, when a brilliant or god-like character is doing something stupid or appalling.

The Iliad describes the siege of Troy (or Ilion in Greek, Ilium in Latin), a powerful city-state in Anatolia, the northwest of modern Turkey, south of the Dardanelles, 35 kilometres from Gallipoli. In the Trojan War, between 1194 and 1184 BCE, during the Bronze Age, Achaeans (Greeks) from the mainland attacked and destroyed Troy. The Iliad begins abruptly with the rage of Achilles, a deadly Greek warrior, commander of the Myrmidons, against his overlord King Agamemnon, and his withdrawal from action. The Iliad covers a period of only 45 days, at the end of the war and has been described as ‘an Iron Age reminiscence of Bronze Age culture’.

In The Iliad, Homer’s approach is God-like in its detachment, cold-eyed and free of sentiment, with the reader/listener left to form his/her own judgment. In its clinical detail, the text anticipates a film script, using techniques such as the flashback, setting the scene and the leading actors powerfully, explaining the context later. There are unforgettable scenes of war, sex, desolation and despair.

Achilles kills Hector, the Trojan hero, and desecrates his body for 12 days. The Iliad ends with the aged Priam, King of Troy, visiting Achilles to beg for the return of his son’s body. The last chapter is deeply poignant.

The Odyssey is the model for the ‘quest’ novel, a popular genre. ‘Odyssey’ has become a generic description of a long and wandering journey or quest, including journeys of self-discovery.

Odysseus (translated as Ulysses in Latin), king of Ithaca, was versatile, proverbially cunning (architect of the Trojan horse), a spellbinding orator but a plundering pirate, master of deceit, malicious and a philanderer. He also appears as a character in dramas by *Aeschylus, *Sophocles and *Euripides.

The Odyssey avoids duplication but assumes that readers/listeners will have some knowledge of the events in The Iliad.

In The Iliad, Odysseus is one of many heroes—in The Odyssey he is the only hero, full of contradictions, eager, after 10 years absence at war, to return to his wife, family, home and kingdom, carrying riches looted from Troy. He is also avid for new experiences, challenges and knowledge. As Bernard Knox observed, he begins as an admiral of a small fleet, and ends as a ship-wrecked sailor. Odysseus’ account of his weird adventures, an early form of magic realism, are completely different from the flinty, metallic context of The Iliad.

After 10 more years, Odysseus returns to Ithaca, disguised by the goddess Athena, patron of human ingenuity, as a wandering beggar. He finds Penelope being pursued by hordes of voracious suitors who, assuming his death, consume his estate. He kills the suitors, re-establishes relations with the dog Argos, son Telemachus, and wife Penelope, meets the ghosts of the great Greek heroes, and goes to see his father Laertes. All ends happily, except for the suitors and some disloyal maids.

There have been more English translations of Homer than of the Bible, including by George *Chapman, Alexander *Pope, William *Cowper, Samuel *Butler, T. E. *Lawrence, E. V. Rieu, Richmond Lattimore and Robert Fagles. Homer’s works had a profound impact on *Aeschylus, *Sophocles, *Euripides, *Virgil and *Dante, *Goethe, Victor *Hugo, *Tolstoy and *Kazantzakis and, in the English language, *Chaucer, *Shakespeare, *Tennyson, *Joyce, *Pound, *Hemingway and Robert *Lowell.

A wine cup found in Rhodes, dated about 750 BCE, quotes three lines of The Iliad. This is within 50 or so years of the formulation of the Greek alphabet around 800 BCE, adapted from Phoenician, after earlier syllabic scripts, called Linear A and Linear B, disappeared. There is only one passing reference to writing in The Iliad.

Standardised written Homeric texts seem to date from the Panathenaic Games of 566 BCE, on orders from the tyrant *Peisistratus. Homeric language was already archaic, comparable to our reading of the Authorised Version of the Bible. Dividing both Homeric works into 24 ‘books’ was adopted in the 3rd century BCE. Homer’s epics were venerated in antiquity. *Alexander the Great directed *Aristotle to prepare manuscript copies of the texts and preserve them in a golden box.

Steiner, G., Homer. 1962; Kirk, G. S., Homer and the Epic. 1965; Lane Fox, R., The Classical World. 2005; Powell, B. B., Homer. 2007. West, M. L., The Making of The Iliad. 2011.

Homer, Winslow (1836–1910). American painter, born in Boston. First a lithographer, he became a magazine illustrator, attracting international recognition during the Civil War. From 1876 he devoted himself to painting landscapes, marine and genre scenes in oils and watercolours. He is extensively represented in major US galleries.

Honda Soichiro (1906–1991). Japanese industrialist. A garage apprentice from 1922, he set up his own garage in 1928, manufactured piston rings from 1934, motorcycles from 1948, then (against the advice of MITI, the Ministry for International Trade and Industry) motor cars—originally racing cars—from 1962, winning a high reputation for quality.

Honecker, Erich (1912–1994). German politician. A lifelong Communist, imprisoned (1935–45) under the Third Reich, after the partition of Germany he became an assistant to Walter *Ulbricht, First Secretary of the Socialist Unity party (SED) in the German Democratic Republic, and succeeded him as First Secretary 1971–89 and as President of the German Democratic Republic (DDR) 1976–89. With the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the absorption of the Democratic Republic in a united Germany, he fled to Moscow, returning in 1992 to face charges of manslaughter and embezzlement. When the charges were dropped in 1993 on account of age and cancer he went to exile in Chile.

Honegger, Arthur (1892–1955). Swiss-French composer, born at Le Havre. One of the group of French composers known as ‘Les Six’, Honegger was a prolific composer and an exponent of polytonality. Although many of his works remained classical in form, they include the dramatic psalm Le roi David (1921), ballet Skating Rink (1922), orchestral works Pacific 231 (evoking the sounds of a locomotive, 1924) and Rugby (1928), opera Antigone (Cocteau, after Sophocles, 1927), stage oratorio Jeanne d’Arc au bucher (Claudel, 1938) and Une cantate de Nöel (1953). He wrote the film score for Abel *Gance’s film Napoléon (1927). His five symphonies (No. 1, 1930; No. 2, for strings with trumpet solo, 1941; No. 3, 1946; No. 4, 1946 and No. 5, 1951) are among the finest in the French repertoire.

Hong Xiuquan (Hung Hsiu-ch’uan) (1812–1864). Chinese leader of the Taiping rebellion, born near Guangzhou (Canton). With messianic claims and a social and political program not unlike Communism, he claimed to be ruler of ‘the great peaceful heavenly empire’. Taipings, as his followers came to be called, soon numbered tens of thousands. They marched from Guizhou in the south to the Yangtze, and by 1853 had seized Nanjing, where a massacre took place that showed the underlying savagery of the leader. For 11 years in Nanjing, Hong exercised an increasingly unpredictable despotism over some 20,000,000 people. At last in their helplessness the Chinese Government enlisted the help of a British officer, Charles *Gordon, who trained ‘the ever victorious army’, the main factor in bringing about the defeat of the Taipings and the suicide of their leader.

Spence, J. D., God’s Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuquan. 1995.

Hongwu (‘vastly martial’: personal name Zhu Yuanzhang) (1328–1398). Chinese emperor 1368–98, founder of the *Ming dynasty. Born a peasant, he became a monk, then a soldier, establishing himself as Prince of Wu (1368). He destroyed the *Yuan (Mongol) dynasty and established his capital at Nanjing. The *Yongle emperor was his fourth son.

Hongxi (‘vastly bright’: personal name Zhu Gaozhi) (1378–1425). Chinese emperor 1424–25, fourth of the Ming dynasty. Son and successor of the *Yongle emperor, he started to reverse many of his father’s policies, cancelling *Zheng He’s explorations, reducing the power of the army, restoring Confucian values and returning to Nanjing as the capital.

Hooch, Pieter de (1629–1683). Dutch genre painter, born in Rotterdam. He began work in Delft and his studies of courtyards and domestic interiors show the effects of light and weather, anticipating *Vermeer. He had a mastery of perspective and conveys a strong sense of reality. He lived in Amsterdam from 1660 and his later paintings, recording an overpadded, richer style of living, were far less successful. He went mad and died in an asylum.

Hood, Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount (1724–1816). British sailor. Having reached the rank of Rear Admiral he was appointed (1786) to command a squadron in the West Indies, and under *Rodney’s command played a decisive part in the Battle of the Saints. He became Lord of the Admiralty in 1788. When the French Revolutionary wars opened (1793) he was given the Mediterranean command and conducted the operations that led to the occupation of Toulon, and those islands off the Corsican coast. Nelson, who served under him, praised his skill as a tactician.

His younger brother, Alexander Hood, 1st Viscount Bridport (1737–1814), was also a distinguished naval officer and commanded a squadron at *Howe’s famous ‘First of June’ victory at Ushant (1794). He became a baron in 1796, promoted to viscount in 1800.

Hooke, Robert (1635–1703). English scientist, born in the Isle of Wight. At Wadham College, Oxford, he studied originally for the church but turned to science and became assistant to Robert*Boyle. He was curator of experiments at the Royal Society 1662–1703 and professor of geometry at Gresham College, London 1664–1703. He stated, first as an anagram (1660) and later as a precisely expressed scientific law (1678), what is now known as Hooke’s law, i.e. that the extension produced in an elastic body is proportional to the force applied to it. He worked on magnetism and on atmospheric pressure, invented an improved form of escapement for pendulum clocks, and improved the microscope, which he used to examine a great number of minute bodies and processes. He also worked an an architect, made telescopes and was a forerunner of evolutionary theory. His Micrographia (1665) was the first extensive account, accurately and beautifully illustrated, of the microscopic world of animal and plant structure. Although he anticipated *Newton’s statement of the ‘law of inverse squares and universal gravity’, he was unable to express his ideas in mathematical formulae. After the Great Fire of 1666, Hooke became Surveyor to the City of London and seems to have conducted more than half the surveys of the areas destroyed, producing an important plan-form map of the city. He was a contradictory character, solitary and convivial, irascible and agreeable. Never married, he left a fortune. In politics he was a Royalist. Asteroid 3514 Hooke is named for him.

Chapman, A., England’s Leonardo: Robert Hooke. 1967; Drake, E. T., Restless Genius and His Earthly Thoughts. 1998.

Hooker, Joseph (1814–1879). American soldier. Having fought with distinction in the Mexican War (1846–48), he retired (1853) but offered his services to the Union Government on the outbreak of the Civil War. As a divisional and corps commander he earned the title ‘Fighting Joe’ for the energy with which he sought out and attacked the enemy. At the beginning of 1863 he took over the command of the army of the Potomac but was superseded in June for having allowed himself to be surprised and outflanked near Chancellorsville and forced to retreat. In another exploit, known as the ‘battle above the clouds’, he stormed a summit at the Battle of Chattanooga (November 1863); he also took part with *Sherman in the spectacular march through Georgia (1864).

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton (1817–1911). English botanist. He took a medical degree at Glasgow University, but botany and plant geography became his lifelong studies. He accompanied several expeditions, recorded in Flora Antarctica (1844–47), Himalayan Journals (1854) and Flora of Tasmania (1859). His most important work (written in collaboration with George *Bentham) was Genera Plantarum (1862–83). His ‘Flora’ included The Student’s Flora of the British Isles (1870) and Flora of British India (7 volumes, 1897). He succeeded his father Sir William Jackson Hooker (1785–1865) as director of Kew Gardens 1865–85, was President of the Royal Society 1873–78, and received the Copley Medal (1887) and the OM (1907).

Hoover, Herbert Clark (1874–1964). 31st President of the US 1929–33. Born in West Branch, Iowa, to a Quaker family, he graduated as an engineer from Stanford and worked for 12 years with the British mining firm Bewick, Moreing and Co. in Western Australia 1896–98, China 1899–1902 and Burma, forming his own company in 1908. With his wife Lou Henry he made a notable translation of *Agricola’s De re metallica (1913). During World War I he became famous for his organisation of famine relief in Belgium and elsewhere, eventually becoming US Food Administrator 1917–19. He entered political life as Secretary for Commerce 1921–28 under *Harding and *Coolidge. When Coolidge announced his retirement (1928), Hoover won the Republican nomination for president on the first ballot and defeated Al *Smith in November, winning 58.2 per cent of the vote and 40 states. His term of office coincided with the financial collapse of 1929 and the ensuing depression and unemployment on an unparalleled scale. He believed in ultimate recovery through private enterprise, and the measures he initiated were ineffective. Despondency grew and the situation deteriorated; in 1932 he was defeated by Franklin D. *Roosevelt when his vote fell to 39.7 per cent. He toyed with seeking the Republican nomination in 1936 and, more seriously, in 1940. Harry *Truman appointed him as coordinator of the European food program 1946–47 and he chaired two commissions on organising the Executive Branch of Government 1947–49, 1953–55. He wrote Memoirs (3 vols, 1951–52) and a biography of Woodrow *Wilson (1958). In 20 Presidential rankings by US historians and political scientists, Hoover scored No. 29 in the aggregate.

Smith, G., The Shattered Dream. 1970; Jeansonne, G., Herbert Hoover: A Life. 2016.

Hoover, J(ohn) Edgar (1895–1972). American public official. A law graduate of George Washington University, he became a clerk in the Justice Department and was Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from 1924 until his death. His skilful manipulation of publicity, and emotional appeals to patriotism, made him an increasingly powerful political figure and successive presidents were wary of offending him. Hoover was both a beneficiary and victim of blackmail, apparently subject to Mafia pressure over his concealed homosexuality.

Gentry, C., J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and his Secrets. 1992.

Hope, Anthony (pen name of Sir Anthony Hope Hawkins) (1863–1933). Educated at Oxford, and a barrister, he wrote the very successful romances The Prisoner of Zenda (1894) and the sequel Rupert of Hentzau (1898), both set in the imaginary state of Ruritania.

Hope, Bob (Lester Townes Hope) (1903–2003). American actor and comedian, born in London. His family lived in the US from 1907. After success in vaudeville, he made 59 films between 1938 and 1977, many with his friend Bing *Crosby, and became the first show business billionaire. He was also successful on radio and television, received four special Academy Awards and many decorations including an Hon. KBE (1998).

Hopetoun, 7th Earl of, John Adrian Louis Hope, later 1st Marquess of Linlithgow (1860–1908). Scottish aristocrat, born in West Lothian. Educated at Eton and Sandhurst, he succeeded to his earldom at the age of 12, was a youthful Governor of Victoria 1889–95 and, on returning, Paymaster-General 1895–99 and Lord Chamberlain 1898–1900 under *Salisbury. Appointed first Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia 1901–03, ‘the Hopetoun blunder’ was his abortive nomination of Sir William Lyne, Premier of New South Wales to be the first Prime Minister (1901), instead of Edmund *Barton, leader of the federation campaign. He clashed with Barton’s government over expenditure and left Australia in July 1902, before his term ended. The youngest Governor-General ever appointed, created marquess in 1902, he became the youngest to die. He served briefly as Secretary of State for Scotland 1905. His son, the 2nd Marquess of *Linlithgow, was Viceroy of India 1936–43.

Hopkins, Sir Anthony (1937– ). Welsh actor. Successful on stage, after a struggle with alcoholism he became an outstanding film actor, winning an Academy Award with The Silence of the Lambs (1991). Other films include The Elephant Man (1980), Spotswood (1991), Howards End (1992), The Remains of the Day (1993), Nixon (1995), Surviving Picasso (1995) and Amistad (1997), Beowulf (2007) and Hitchcock (2012).

Hopkins, Sir Frederick Gowland (1861–1947). English biochemist. A cousin of G. M. *Hopkins, he became a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, discovered (1906–07) how essential amino acids must be supplied in the diet for animals to survive, proved by experiment (1912) the existence of ‘accessory food factors’ (now known as vitamins) and established their necessary place in a normal diet. He also helped discover the relationship between lactic acid and muscular contraction, and devised a method for the quantitative estimation of uric acid. Professor of biochemistry at Cambridge 1914–43, he received the Copley Medal in 1926. He shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine (1929) with *Eijkman, for pioneer research in ‘accessory food factors’. President of the Royal Society 1930–35, he was awarded the OM (1935).

Hopkins, Gerard Manley (1844–1889). English poet, born in Essex. A cousin of F. G. *Hopkins, he was educated at Oxford, influenced by *Newman and became a Catholic in 1866. He joined the Jesuits in 1868, was ordained in 1877, taught in Lancashire and became professor of Greek literature, University College, Dublin 1884–89. In publishing his poetry he accepted the guidance of his friend, Robert *Bridges, and only a few poems appeared in anthologies during his lifetime. Bridges published a complete edition in 1918, which gave rise to much controversy and it was only after the second edition (1930) in a different climate of literary appreciation that their quality was widely recognised. Hopkins’ intense awareness of good and evil is, in itself, remarkable but even more so are the sensuous language and the rhythmic innovations with which his wide ranging moods—exultant, contemplative, desolate—are expressed. His best known poems include The Wreck of the Deutschland, The Windhover, Pied Beauty and Carrion Comfort. Hopkins used the technique of ‘sprung rhythm’, using sequences of stressed syllables (‘Brúte béauty and válour and act, óh, air, pride, plume, hére/Búckle!’) rather than the conventional alternation of stressed and unstressed. He had a major influence on *Eliot, *Auden and Dylan *Thomas.

Schneider, E. W., The Dragon in the Gate. 1968; Martin, R. B., Gerard Manley Hopkins: A Very Private Life. 1991.

Hopkins, Harry Lloyd (1890–1946). American administrator, born in Iowa. A social worker, he worked with Franklin D. *Roosevelt when he was Governor of New York, and followed him to Washington as head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) 1933–35 and Director of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1935–38. He was US Secretary of Commerce 1938–40 and Director-General of Lend Lease 1940–41. As Special Assistant to the President 1941–45, he was constantly sent on confidential missions, winning the trust of *Churchill and *Stalin. Roosevelt wanted Hopkins to succeed him as president, but his health was appalling.

Sherwood, R. E., Roosevelt and Hopkins. 1948; O’Sullivan, C., Harry Hopkins: FDR’s Envoy to Churchill and Stalin. 2014.

Hopkins, Johns (1795–1873). American financier, born in Maryland. Originally a grocer, he became a banker and made a fortune from railroads. He left money to establish the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore (1876), the first US institution devoted primarily to research and with the oldest university press, and the Johns Hopkins Hospital (1878).

Hopper, Edward (1882–1967). American painter, born in Nyack, New York. He became the leading figure in the ‘Ashcan’ social realist school, depicting scenes from urban life, while insisting that he had no social message. His bleak paintings were much admired in the 1990s.

Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) (65–8 BCE). Roman poet. Son of a freed-man, he studied at Athens University, served under *Brutus in the Civil War and according to his own story ran away at Philippi. When Octavian (*Augustus) came to power Horace came under the eye of that great patron of literature *Maecenas and under his auspices became the friend of *Virgil who introduced him to the emperor. Horace was given a small estate near Rome and lived in modest comfort until his death. In his Epodes and Odes (Carmina), he adapted to the demands of the Latin language the Greek metres of Archiloechus, *Sappho, and Alcaeus. Witty and urbane, he possessed an almost uncanny genius for the right word and phrase. His subjects include love poems (graceful rather than passionate), appeals to patriotism, drinking songs and occasional and not very virulent attacks on his enemies. In the Satires, written in hexameters, are included episodes of everyday life (e.g. encounters and conversations in an inn) and humorously satirical poems on the vices and follies of mankind. In later life he produced a new literary form, letters (Epistolae) in verse. Those in the first volume are written to a variety of friends, acquaintances and servants, those in the second are more in the nature of essays; one of them, his famous Ars Poetica, containing much sensible advice (mainly on drama) to aspiring writers. More than most authors Horace had the gift of producing the quotable phrase, of which ‘Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori’ is among the most famous.

Noyes, A., Portrait of Horace. 1947.

Horne, Donald Richmond (1921–2005). Australian journalist, editor and academic. His book The Lucky Country (1964) argued that Australia’s mineral abundance and ‘lucky’ elements in its history had retarded some elements in its social, economic and technological development. He edited The Observer and The Bulletin, wrote 20 books, taught at the University of New South Wales and was Chairman of the Australia Council 1985–90.

Horne, Marilyn (1934– ). American mezzo-soprano, born in Pennsylvania. She first achieved success in European opera houses, making her US debut in 1960. She had a wide range (low E to high C), a vivacious personality, and excellent acting, especially admired in *Rossini, *Bellini, *Verdi, *Bizet and *Berg.

Horowitz, Vladimir Samuilovich (1903–1989). Russian-American pianist, born in Kiev. Resident in the United States from 1928, son-in-law of the conductor Arturo *Toscanini, he first gained an international reputation in the 1920s. Nervous breakdowns forced his withdrawal from concert giving 1953–65, 1969–74. Horowitz established his reputation as the pre-eminent virtuoso pianist, a high romantic, especially in his interpretation of *Chopin, *Liszt, *Tchaikovsky and *Rachmaninoff. In his last years he began recording works by *Mozart and *Schubert. He made a triumphant return to Russia in 1986.

Horrocks, Jeremiah (1619–1641). English astronomer, born near Liverpool. An Anglican curate, he corrected the Rudolphine Tables of *Kepler, made the first prediction and observation of a Transit of Venus (1639), anticipated *Newton’s theory of universal gravity and postulated the elliptical orbit of the moon.

Horszowski, Mieczylaw (1892–1993). Polish-American pianist, born in Lvov. A pupil of Theodor *Leschetizky, he made his debut in 1901 and lived in New York from 1940. He was a distinguished chamber music player, still performing and recording after his 100th birthday.

Horthy (de Nagybánya), Miklós (1868–1957). Hungarian admiral and regent. Commander-in-Chief of the Austro-Hungarian navy 1917–19, he led the ‘Whites’ in a campaign which led to the defeat and expulsion of the Communist Government of Bela *Kun. He was regent of Hungary 1920–44, acting, according to the constitutional fiction of the time, as head of state on behalf of the absent king *Karl (Charles), formerly Austrian emperor. Effective power was exercised by Count Istvan Bethlen (1874–1946) as Prime Minister 1929–31 and by General Gyula *Gömbös as Defence Minister 1931–36. During World War II Hungary joined the German alliance (194l) but in October 1944 Horthy proclaimed Hungary’s withdrawal from the war and was imprisoned by the Germans. Released by the Allies, he retired to Portugal.

Horthy, M., Memoirs. 1956.

Hosokawa Morihiro (1938– ). Japanese politician. Grandson of Prince Konoye (Prime Minister 1937–39, 1940–41), he was a journalist, a minister briefly and Governor of Kumamoto 1983–91. He broke with the LDP and formed the Japan New Party in 1991. After defeat of the LDP in the July 1993 elections after 38 years, he became Prime Minister in a seven party coalition, but resigned in April 1994 when his Budget was rejected.

Hotspur, Harry see Percy, Sir Henry

Houdini, Harry (né Erik Weisz) (1874–1926). American-Jewish-Hungarian showman, born in Budapest. Son of a rabbi, his family migrated to Wisconsin in 1878. Famous for his sensational escapes from bondage, his ability to free himself from shackles, locked boxes, strait jackets, handcuffs and all kinds of sealed containers, brought him worldwide fame. He was an implacable foe of spiritualism. In March 1910 he made one of Australia’s earliest powered flights, in a Voisin biplane. He appeared in six silent films and published 11 books. He died of peritonitis in Detroit, following an incident in Montreal when a student repeatedly punched his abdomen to test his claim that his stomach muscles were strong enough to resist force.

Randi, J., and Sugar, B. R., Houdini: His Life and Art. 1977.

Houdon, Jean-Antoine (1741–1828). French sculptor. Probably the greatest sculptor since *Bernini, he made powerful sculptures of contemporaries, including *Voltaire, *Rousseau, *Diderot, *Franklin, *Washington and *Jefferson.

Hounsfield, Sir Godfrey Newbold (1919–2004). English electronics engineer. He gained a diploma at an engineering school, served in the RAAF and worked for EMI (later Thorn EMI) 1951–86. He invented the CAT (computerised axial tomography) scanner, which enabled X-rays to be taken on a cross-section in a flat plane. Elected an FRS (1975), he shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Medicine with the South-African born American radiologist Allan McLeod Cormack (1924–1998).

Houphouët-Boigny, Félix (1905–1993). African politician, born in Yamoussoukro. Son of a chief, he worked as a doctor, became prominent in the Rallye Démocratique Africaine which later became the major political party in several French colonies, was elected to the French National Assembly in 1946 and became the first African appointed as Minister (1957). When the Cote d’Ivoire became independent (1959), he was first Prime Minister and then President 1960–93. He built the world’s largest cathedral (to the embarrassment of *John Paul II) at his birthplace.

Housman, A(lfred) E(dward) (1859–1936). English poet and scholar, born in Fockbury. A first-class in Classical Mods and a failure at ‘Greats’ at Oxford was one of the many paradoxes that puzzled his contemporaries. A high church atheist and homosexual, he edited works by *Ovid, Manilius, *Juvenal and *Lucan and after a spell at the Patent Office became professor of Latin at London 1892–1911 and Cambridge 1911–36. He was also a fellow of Trinity College 1911–36. The supreme paradox was that this aloof, lonely scholar, held in awed reverence, was the author of A Shropshire Lad (1896), a collection of poems which for all their pessimism and nostalgia are among the most enchanting and exquisitely contrived of any in the language. *Vaughan Williams’ song cycle On Wenlock Edge (1909) was based on poems from A Shropshire Lad. George *Butterworth also wrote two cycles (1911) and an orchestral rhapsody of the same name. Housman’s Last Poems (1922) showed an even deeper pessimism. He declined all public honours, including the OM (1929).

His brother, Laurence Housman (1865–1959), was a writer and critic before he achieved fame when his series of plays Victoria Regina (1935) were later welded into a single play and professionally performed. His earlier series Little Plays of St Francis (1922) originated the method of treatment.

Housman, L., My Brother: A. E. Housman. Repr. 1969; Vincent, E., A. E. Housman—Hero of the Hidden Life. 2018.

Houston, Sam(uel) (1793–1863). American soldier, frontiersman and politician, born in Virginia. He lived as a youth among the Cherokee Indians. After a popular political career in Tennessee he resigned governorship on the death of his wife and later moved to Texas, where, when it declared its independence of Mexico, he became Commander-in-Chief of the Texan forces. After the surrender of the Alamo (1836) to the Mexicans, Houston defeated them decisively at San Jacinto, and was elected first president of the new republic of Texas 1836–38 and again 1841–44. On the admission of Texas to the Union (1845) Houston represented it in the US Senate 1845–59 and became Governor 1859–61. On the outbreak of the Civil War, Houston, in defiance of general opinion, tried to prevent Texas from joining the Confederacy. His failure caused his withdrawal into private life.

Howard, Catherine see Catherine Howard

Howard of Effingham, Charles Howard, 2nd Baron (later 1st Earl of Nottingham) (1536–1624). English courtier and sailor. As Lord High Admiral of England 1585–1618 he commanded the English fleet which defeated the Spanish Armada (1588). With *Essex, whose rebellion (1601) he later put down, he led an expedition (1596) to destroy shipping at Cadiz. For this he received his earldom.

Howard, John Winston (1939– ). Australian Liberal politician, born in Sydney. He was a Federal MP 1974–2007, Commonwealth Treasurer 1977–83 and Liberal Leader 1985–89 and again in 1995–2007. Prime Minister 1996–2007, he defeated Paul *Keating decisively, but without a majority in the Senate. A strong opponent of ‘political correctness’, he resisted native title claims on pastoral leases and was hostile to republicanism. His major policy aims were reduction of trade union power, selling Telstra, introducing a goods and services tax (GST) and resisting greenhouse gas limitations. He won a second election in October 1998 with a sharply reduced majority and a third in November 2001 with an increased majority in a campaign dominated by the issue of refugees (‘boat people‘) and security, after the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York. Australia joined George W. *Bush’s ‘coalition of the willing’ which invaded Iraq in March 2003 and Bush called Howard ‘a man of steel’. Howard won a fourth election in October 2004 and in December 2004 became Australia’s second longest serving Prime Minister. Heavily defeated by Kevin *Rudd in November 2007, he lost his own seat. He received the US Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009 and the OM in 2012.

Barnett, D. and Goward, P., John Howard. Prime Minister. 1997; Van Onselen, P. and Errington, W., John Winston Howard: The Biography. 2007; Howard, J. W., Lazarus Rising: A Personal and Political Autobiography. 2010.

Howard, Leslie (né L. H. Steiner) (1893–1943). British actor, film director and writer, born in London. Of Hungarian-Jewish descent, he was a bank clerk and World War I officer before achieving success as a stage actor in London and, especially, Broadway. He appeared in 39 films, notably as Alan Squier in The Petrified Forest (1936), Professor Higgins in Pygmalion (1938) and Ashley Wilkes in Gone with the Wind (1939). He was killed when a Luftwaffe plane shot down a civilian aircraft over the Bay of Biscay.

Efogan, E., Leslie Howard: The Lost Actor. 2010.

Howard, Michael, Baron Howard of Lympne (1941– ). English Conservative politician, born in Wales. The son of Romanian Jewish refugees, he was educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge, became a barrister and MP 1983–2010, Home Secretary 1993–97 and Leader of the Opposition 2003–05.

Howard, Sir Michael Eliot (1922– ). English military historian, born in London. Chichele Professor of the History of War 1977–80 and Regius Professor of Modern History 1980–89 at Oxford, his books include Grand Strategy (1972), Clausewitz (1983) and The First World War (2001). He received a CH in 2002 and the OM in 2005.

Howe, (Richard Edward) Geoffrey, Baron Howe (1926–2015). British politician, born in Wales. A barrister, he was a Conservative MP 1964–66 and 1970–92, a junior minister under Edward *Heath 1970–74 and Margaret *Thatcher’s Chancellor of the Exchequer 1979–83, given the task of implementing her Friedmanite ‘free market’ policies. He was Foreign Secretary 1983–89 and Lord President of the Council and Deputy Prime Minister 1989–90, resigning in protest at Thatcher’s attitude to Europe. His powerful speech in the Commons helped to bring her down. He received a CH in 1996.

Howe, Julia Ward (née Ward) (1819–1910). American author and social reformer. She campaigned for the abolition of slavery, and wrote (1862) The Battle Hymn of the Republic. Later she was one of the leaders of the women’s suffrage movement and first woman member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Howe, Richard Howe, 1st Earl (1726–1799). English admiral. Known as ‘Black Dick’, when only 20 he drove off two French ships coming to reinforce Prince *Charles Edward in the Jacobite rebellion (1745). He gained successes in the Seven Years’ War, and in the American War of Independence he repelled the French fleet off Rhode Island. Meanwhile he had been a Lord of the Admiralty 1763 and Treasurer to the Navy (1765). He was First Lord of the Admiralty 1783–88, commanded the Channel fleet when the French Revolutionary war broke out (1793), and in 1794, off Ushant, gained the greatest victory of his career (known as the Glorious First of June), in which seven enemy ships were destroyed and 10 more unmasted. In 1797 he brought back to duty the mutineers at Spithead. Howe had inherited an Irish peerage (1758), received a UK viscountcy (1782) and an earldom (1788). Lord Howe Island was named for him in 1788.

His younger brother, William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe (Irish peerage) (1729–1814), who succeeded him in the Irish viscounty, was one of the most successful British generals in the War of American Independence. Under Thomas *Gage, whom he succeeded, he captured Bunker’s Hill, and in the following year took New York and Washington, but failed to follow up his successes to decisive victory.

Howel (known as ‘the Good’) (d.950). Welsh king. Through inheritance and marriage his rule gradually extended over south Wales and from 943, when his cousin Idwal died, over north Wales as well. He is remembered as a lawmaker. His code, probably quite a simple and uncomplicated affair, was expanded later until it developed into the full legal system of medieval Wales known as the Law of Howel the Good.

Howells, Herbert Norman (1892–1983). English composer. A pupil of *Stanford, he succeeded *Holst as Director of Music at St Paul’s Girls School, London 1936–62 and was a professor of composition at the Royal College of Music, London 1920–83. His greatest work, Hymnus Paradis (1938), written after his son died suddenly from polio, was not performed until 1950. He wrote many songs and a concerto for strings (1938) and received a CH in 1972.

Hoxha, Enver (1908–1985). Albanian politician. A founder member of the Albanian Communist Party, and Secretary-General 1943–85, he led the resistance movement against the Italians in World War II. He became Prime Minister when Albania was proclaimed a republic (1946) and also filled the posts of Minister of Foreign Affairs and Commander-in-Chief until 1954. On the death of *Stalin, his close ties with the USSR were replaced by adherence to the Beijing line until 1978.

Halliday, J. (ed.), The Artful Albanian: The Memoirs of Enver Hoxha. 1985.

Hoyle, Sir Fred (1915–2001). English mathematician, astronomer and science-fiction writer, born in Yorkshire. Educated at Cambridge, he worked on radar during World War I and lectured in mathematics from 1945. In 1948, with the mathematician Hermann *Bondi and astronomer Thomas Gold, he proposed the ‘steady state’ theory of the universe, arguing that matter is being created at a rate fast enough to keep an expanding universe at a constant mean density, a theory first suggested in the 1920s by Sir James *Jeans. The ‘steady state’ theory was dominant in cosmology until the discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation resulted in general acceptance of the rival ‘big bang’ theory, a term that Hoyle coined dismissively in 1949. After working at the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories near Pasadena, California, Hoyle became Plumian professor of astronomy and experimental philosophy 1958–72 and Director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics 1966–72 at Cambridge University. His novels included The Black Cloud (1957) and Ossian’s Ride (1958).

Hoyle, F., Of Men and Galaxies. 1966.

Hrdlicka, Ales (1869–1943). American anthropologist, born in Bohemia. On appointment to the US National Museum he organised (1903) a department of physical anthropology, which he curated 1910–42. He pursued his anthropological studies throughout the world and is especially known for his study of the route of migration of the American Indian.

Htin Kyaw (1946– ). Burmese politician. Son of a poet and a computer expert, he worked closely with *Aung San Suu Kyi and was elected as President of Myanmar 2016–18, essentially as a proxy for her.

Hu Jintao (1942– ). Chinese Communist politician. Born in Jiangsu province, he served on the CCP Presidium 1983– and was Vice President of the Republic 1998–2003, General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party 2002–12 and President of the Republic 2003–13.

Hu Yaobang (1915–1989). Chinese Communist politician. A veteran of the Long March, close associate of *Deng Xiaoping, he was twice purged in the Cultural Revolution. He became General-Secretary of the CCP 1980–81 and succeeded *Hua Guofeng as party chairman 1981–82. General-Secretary again from 1982, he resigned in 1987 to placate military and conservative party elements opposed to economic change and social liberalisation. His funeral was marked by student demonstrations.

Hua Guofeng (Hua Kuo-Feng) (1921–2008). Chinese Communist politician, born in Shanxi province. He joined the Communist Party of China in 1935 and served as an army officer for 10 years. He acted as party secretary in Xiang-Dan county 1953–58, promoting projects in Shaoshan, *Mao Zedong’s birthplace. He became Vice Governor of Hunan province 1958–67, a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party 1969, secretary of the Party in Hunan province 1970–71, Administrator of the State Council Secretariat 1971–73, and a Politburo member (1973). Mao chose him as Deputy Premier and Minister of Public Security 1975–76, and Deputy Chairman of the Party (April October 1976) and wrote ‘with you in charge I am at ease’. When *Zhou Enlai died, Hua became acting Premier (February–April 1976) and Premier from April 1976. After Mao’s death, Hua was elected Chairman of the Communist Party (October 1976). With the trial of the ‘Gang of Four’ the Party distanced itself from Mao’s legacy and Hua lost power to the pragmatic followers of Zhou, notably *Deng Xiaoping. Hua resigned as Chairman on 30 June 1981 and was succeeded by *Hu Yaobang.

Hubbard, L(afayette) Ron(ald) (1911–1986). American author, entrepreneur and cult founder, born in Tilden, Nebraska. He was a successful writer of science fiction before publishing Dianetics (1950), proposing a new system of encouraging self-help to overcome psychological problems. He founded the Church of Scientology in 1952 and this became an intensely controversial organisation, attracting, long after Hubbard’s death, passionate advocacy from actors and other public figures, and bitter hostility from people who claimed to have been victimised and brain-washed, e.g. Lawrence Wright’s Going Clear: Scientology, Hollywood, and the Prison of Belief (2013).

Hubble, Edwin Powell (1889–1953). American astronomer. He worked from 1919 at the Mount Wilson Observatory and became its director. Using its great 245 cm telescope he discovered (1923) that the great nebula in Andromeda contained Cepheid variable stars. He was thus able to prove that it was about 800,000 light-years from the earth, well outside our own galaxy, the Milky Way, and itself a galaxy of comparable size. He was soon able to show that there are millions of other galaxies, distributed throughout space. He helped to propound the theory of the expanding universe, which Georges *Lemaître first proposed in a Belgian science journal in 1927, and made (1929) the discovery (now known as Hubble’s Law) that the velocities of receding galaxies are directly proportional to their distance from the solar system.

Huberman, Bronislaw (1892–1948). Polish-Jewish violinist, born in Częstochowa. A major virtuoso in the Viennese tradition, he left Europe in the 1930s and founded the Palestine Symphony Orchestra (now the Israel Philharmonic) in 1936. His Stradivarius violin, stolen in 1936, is now played by Joshua Bell.

Huc, Evariste Régis (1813–1860). French missionary and explorer. In 1844 he set out on a mission which took him through nearly every province in China before, after many hardships, he reached Tibet. There he spent some time in a monastery where the lamas taught him the Tibetan language; he reached Lhasa but was quickly expelled.

Huddleston, (Ernest Urban) Trevor (1913–1998). British missionary and Anglican bishop. Ordained in 1937, he joined the Community of the Resurrection (CR), worked in South Africa 1943–56 and became Bishop of Masai (Tanzania) 1960–68, Bishop of Stepney 1968–78 and Archbishop of the Indian Ocean 1978–83. He wrote Naught for your Comfort (1956), on faith and apartheid.

Hudson, Henry (d.1611). English navigator. He tried to discover a route through the Arctic from Europe to Asia the ‘North West Passage’. After sailing round the north coast of Norway and exploring the Svalbard archipelago, he embarked on his voyage to North America in 1609. He discovered the bay, river and strait named after him, but failed to find a passage to the Pacific. He was deserted by his crew on a subsequent expedition and set adrift in Hudson Bay.

Hudson, William Henry (1841–1922). British writer, born in Argentina. Of American parentage, he went to England in 1869. His books reflect his devotion to birds and animals. Rima, the bird-girl of his novel Green Mansions (1904), was the subject of Epstein’s controversial sculpture in the bird sanctuary in Hyde Park, London.

Tomalin, R., W. H. Hudson. 1954.

Hueffer, Ford Madox see Ford, Ford Madox

Huerta, Victoriano de la (1856–1916). Mexican soldier and politician. He served under *Diaz, and was Commander-in-Chief under *Madero, whom in 1913 he induced to resign to facilitate his murder. Huerta’s reactionary reign as President 1913–14 was ended by US intervention. He fled to Europe and subsequently settled in the US, where he was arrested for plotting against Mexico, and died in prison in Texas.

Huggins, Godfrey Martin, 1st Viscount Malvern (1883–1971). Rhodesian politician, born in Bexley, Kent. He practised as a surgeon in Rhodesia from 1911, both before and after his service in the RAMC during World War I, and became a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Southern Rhodesia in 1924. He was Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia 1933–53 and then of the newly formed Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1953–56, all representing the small white minority. The longest serving head of government in British Commonwealth history, he was rewarded with a KCMG (1941), CH (1944) and a viscountcy (1956).

Huggins, Sir William (1824–1910). English astronomer, born in London. Son of a rich draper, he did not attend university. A pioneer of stellar spectroscopy, from a private observatory in Tulse Hill, London, he applied *Kirchhoff’s work on spectroscopy to researches into the spectra of the stars and nebulae, marking the beginnings of astrophysics. With the stellar spectroscope which he and William Miller invented (1856), he proved that some nebulae are composed of glowing gas out of which new star systems are being born. He also explained how novae are formed. Huggins demonstrated that the sun and the stars are similar in composition, and he used the Doppler effect to determine the velocity of some of the stars relative to earth. From 1880 he produced large photographic plates. He worked with his wife Margaret Lindsay Huggins (née Murray) (1849–1915). Copley Medallist in 1898, he was President of the Royal Society 1900–05 and a foundation member of the OM (1902). Asteroid 2635 Huggins was named for him.

Hughes, Charles Evans (1862–1948). American politician and jurist. Educated at Brown and Cornell universities, he gained public attention as a vigorous investigator of corruption of public utilities in New York, defeated William Randolph *Hearst to become Governor of New York State 1907–10 until *Taft appointed him a justice of the US Supreme Court 1910–16. He resigned from the court (1916) to run as Republican candidate for president, losing narrowly to Woodrow *Wilson. He served under *Harding and *Coolidge as Secretary of State 1921–25. He supported US entry to the League of Nations and the World Court, and isolationist opponents called him ‘Wilson with whiskers’. He was Chief Justice of the United States 1930–41.

Hughes, David Edward (1831–1900). English physicist. He went to America as a child, taught music and physics and in 1855 patented a printing telegraph, forerunner of the Telex machine. He returned to London in 1867, and, simultaneously with *Berliner, invented the carbon microphone (1878). He was elected FRS in 1880. The Hughes Medal for physical discoveries (especially in electricity and magnetism) commemorates his name.

Hughes, Howard (Robard) (1905–1976). American businessman, aviator and film producer. In 1923 he took over his father’s company, Hughes Tool Company, in Houston, Texas. He went to Hollywood in 1926 and produced Hell’s Angels (1930) and Scarface (1932). The profits from his Hughes Aircraft Company helped him to establish the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, he flew his own aircraft and broke three speed records. He held a controlling interest in TWA until 1966, when he sold his shares for $US500 million. In 1950 he retreated into increasingly pathological seclusion which provoked international curiosity.

Hughes, Robert Studley Forrest (1938–2012). Australian writer and art critic, born in Sydney. His books The Art of Australia (1970),The Fatal Shore (1987) and Nothing If Not Critical (1990) were strongly polemical. He became art critic for Time Magazine 1970–2003. His art documentary series for television, The Shock of the New (1980), Barcelona (1992) and American Visions (1997), also appeared in book form. Later books include Goya (2004), Things I Didn’t Know (memoir, 2006) and Rome. A Cultural, Visual and Personal History (2011). He died in New York.

Hughes, Ted (Edward James) (1930–1998). English poet. Educated at Cambridge, he married the poet Sylvia *Plath in 1956 and was a prolific author of plays, novels and children’s stories, translator (e.g. of *Ovid), anthologist and he edited poetry collections by Emily *Dickinson and Plath. Poet Laureate 1984–98, he won many awards for his poetry. Publication of Love Letters (1998), 88 poems about his marriage and his wife’s suicide, was intensely controversial. He received the OM in 1998, just before he died.

Bate, J., Ted Hughes: The Unauthorised Life. 2015.

Hughes, Thomas (1822–1896). English author and lawyer. His famous novel Tom Brown’s Schooldays (1857) was prompted by memories of his education at Rugby under Thomas *Arnold. A Christian socialist, Hughes was a Liberal MP 1865, 1868–74, county court judge 1882–96 and the biographer of David *Livingstone.

Hughes, William Morris (‘Billy’) (1862–1952). Australian politician, born in Pimlico. Educated in Wales and London, he emigrated to Queensland (1884), and after a variety of jobs, including cook, drover, shopkeeper and umbrella mender, he became Secretary of the Sydney Wharf Labourer’s Union 1893–1915. (He founded the Waterside Workers Federation in 1902 and became its first president.) He served 58 continuous years as an MP, first in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly 1894–1901, then in the Commonwealth House of Representatives 1901–52. He qualified as a barrister in 1903 and became a KC in 1919. He served in the *Watson Labor Government as Minister for External Affairs 1904 and under *Fisher as Attorney-General 1908–09, 1910–13, 1914–15. A remarkable and quick-witted orator, despite being deaf, and notable for energy and often unscrupulous opportunism, his character strongly resembled David *Lloyd George. He was Prime Minister of Australia 1915–23, Labor until Nov. 1916, when the ALP split on the bitterly divisive issue of conscription for overseas military service. Two referenda (1916, 1917) to authorise compulsory service were defeated. Hughes toured World War I battlefields, insisting on independent control of Australian forces and was dubbed ‘The Little Digger’. He led a minority National Labour Ministry, then formed (February 1917) a Nationalist coalition with *Cook, *Forrest and other conservatives. It was said of Hughes that he was ‘too deaf to listen to reason, too loud to ignore and too small to hit.’ At the Paris Peace Conference (1919) he played a leading role, in J. M. *Keynes’ judgment, entirely damaging in the long term, defeating Japan’s campaign to adopt the principle of racial equality (because it challenged ‘White Australia’) and encouraging *Clemenceau and *Lloyd George in imposing punitive sanctions on Germany. In Paris he secured an Australian mandate for part of New Guinea and other German colonies in the Pacific. He was forced out of office in February 1923 after the Nationalists lost their majority, and Stanley *Bruce formed a coalition with the Country Party (Earle *Page). Hughes continued in politics and helped to defeat Bruce in 1929. Under Joseph *Lyons, he was Minister for Health 1934–35, 1936–37 and Minister for External Affairs 1937–39. The first Australian minister to grasp the significance of *Hitler and resist ‘appeasement’, during World War II he was Attorney-General 1939–41, replaced Robert *Menzies as leader of the United Australia Party 1941–43 and received a CH in 1941.

Fitzhardinge, L. F., William Morris Hughes. 2 vols, 1964, 1979; Horne, D., The Little Digger. 1983.

Hugo, Victor Marie (1802–1885). French poet, novelist and dramatist, born in Besançon. Son of an officer in *Napoléon’s army, his childhood was a series of moves from one military station to another in Italy, Spain and France. He won prizes for poetry from the age of 17, married Adèle Foucher at 20, published his first novel Han d’Islande (1823) and heralded the rise of Romantic drama with his play Cromwell (1827). The long run of the tragedy Hernani (1830), which withstood the boos, hisses and even rioting of the classicists among its audiences, assured the victory of the Romantic movement and Hugo’s own position. Among later plays were Le Roi s’amuse (1832), the basis of *Verdi’s Rigoletto, Lucrèce Borgia (1833) in which a part was played by Juliette Drouet, his mistress for nearly 50 years, although he remained a devoted husband, and Ruy Blas (1838). More than 100 operas were based on his works including *Donizetti’s Lucrezia Borgia (1833), *Verdi’s Ernani (1844) and Rigoletto (based on Le Roi s’amuse: 1851), and *Ponchielli’s La Giaconda (1876). Meanwhile his Les Orientales (1829), mainly on Grecian and Moorish themes, and Les Feuilles d’Automne (1831) confirmed his reputation as a great lyric poet. His great novel Nôtre Dame de Paris (1831), set in medieval times, told the story of the hopeless passion of the hunchbacked bellringer Quasimodo for Esmeralda.

Hugo was elected to the Académie française in 1841. Politics, in which he was a somewhat unpredictable liberal, began to play an increasing part in his life. King *Louis-Philippe made him a peer, but during the dictatorship and empire of *Napoléon III, whom Hugo attacked in verse and prose, he lived in exile in Brussels, Jersey, and from 1855 at Hauteville House, Guernsey, still preserved much as he left it. Much of his writing during exile was philosophic and historical (the first part of La Légende des Siècles was published in 1859), but it includes his greatest novel Les Misérables (1862), the story of the criminal Jean Valjean, and Les Travailleurs de la mer (1866), a wonderful evocation of a Guernsey fisherman’s life. Hugo returned to France after the fall of Napoléon and was present at the siege of Paris. He sat in the Constituent Assembly (1870–71) and became a senator in 1874. Now a national institution, he continued to write novels, e.g. Quatre-vingt-treize (1874), concerned with the Revolutionary year of 1793—and a verse drama, Torquemada (1882). Vast crowds attended his funeral at the Panthéon. Hugo wrote too much for too long and his work is, therefore, uneven. Moreover Romanticism lost its vogue and he shared loss of favour with, for example, * Scott. But few writers have produced so much that is first-rate, in so many different fields, and he does not deserve André *Gide’s taunt that ‘France’s greatest poet was Victor Hugo, alas’. Also a gifted artist, his powerful ink drawings ranged from architectural subjects to nightmares.

Robb, G., Victor Hugo. 1997.

Hugues (Hugh) Capet (938–996). King of France 987–96. Grandson of Robert I (c.865–923), King of France 922–23, and son of Hugues le Grand (d.956), Duke of the Franks and Count of Paris, he was elected king by the nobles when the last Carolingian, *Louis V, died without heirs. His son Robert II (970–1026) soon became co-ruler. One of his first acts was to make his son joint king and so secure the succession of his dynasty, which ruled by direct descent until 1328. Even before his accession, some members of his family had been elected rulers. The surname was not used during his lifetime.

Hulagu Khan (1217–1265). Mongol ruler. Grandson of Genghis Khan, he led a successful campaign against the Persians who were in revolt, captured Baghdad and advanced beyond Damascus until he was checked by the Mamelukes. He then retreated, and, having adopted Islam, founded the Il-Khan dynasty which lasted until 1335.

Hull, Cordell (1871–1955). American politician, born in Tennessee. A congressman 1907–21, 1923–31, and senator 1931–33, he campaigned for an income tax and tariff reform. He was President Franklin *Roosevelt’s Secretary of State 1933–44, a record term. Roosevelt usually bypassed Hull, acting in foreign policy matters through Sumner *Welles. He was associated with creating a new friendly relationship between the US and the South American states, and the promotion of more liberal trade and tariff policies. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (1945).

Hull, C., The Memoirs of Cordell Hull. 1948.

Humbert I and II. Kings of Italy see Umberto I and II

Humboldt, (Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich) Alexander (1769–1859). Prussian explorer, naturalist, geographer, born in Berlin. Son of the chamberlain to the king of Prussia, while still a student at the universities of Göttingen, Frankfurt-on-Oder and Freiburg, and in the years following, he did field work locally on geology, mineralogy and botany, and made laboratory studies of the nervous systems of animals. In 1799 he sailed with his friend, Aimé Bonpland (1773–1858), on a five-year scientific expedition to Mexico, Cuba, Venezuela, Colombia and Peru, with particular emphasis on areas adjacent to the Amazon and Orinoco valleys. The sorting, collating and describing of the vast amount of data and materials gathered on the journeys occupied most of the ensuing 20 years and resulted in the vast Le voyage aux régions equinoxiales du Nouveau Continent, fait en 1799–1804 (23 volumes, 1805–34), containing not only scientific sections on physical geography, geology, astronomical observations etc., but also a historical survey and abundant maps.

He conceived of the earth as ‘one great living organism where everything was connected … All forces of nature are interlaced and intertwined … Everything is interaction and reciprocal.’ He speculated that species were not immutable, anticipated some aspects of evolutionary theory, that the continents must have moved—anticipating tectonic plate research—and as early as 1829 campaigned for the international collection of data about deforestation and its potential impact on climate. He introduced ‘isotherms’, lines linking areas with similar average temperatures and atmospheric pressures.

The most famous scientist of his time, more than 100 animal species and 300 plants are named for Humboldt, in addition to Asteroid 54 Alexandra (observed in 1858, and ‘Alexander’ given a female ending), a moon sea and crater, the Humboldt Current, mountain ranges, rivers, towns, forests, parks and universities.

At the request of Tsar *Nikolai I, he made, with two friends, an expedition (1829) to the Urals and a large part of Asiatic Russia (where he located gold, platinum and diamonds). This was described in Asia Central (3 volumes, 1843). His famous work Kosmos (5 volumes, 1845–62) is a masterly attempt to give a comprehensive description of the physical universe as it was then known. Some of his own most valuable scientific work was in the fields of meteorology, climatology and earth magnetism. Elected FRS in 1815, he received the Copley Medal in 1852.

He was a friend of *Goethe and had a profound influence on ‘Wordsworth, *Coleridge, *Lyell, *Darwin, *Thoreau, *Marsh, *Emerson, *Haeckel and *Muir.

His elder brother, (Karl) Wilhelm, Baron von Humboldt (1767–1835), reformed the secondary and higher education of Prussia (1806) and later carried out many diplomatic missions before he retired (1818) in disgust at his country’s reactionary policy and turned to philology. He made a complete study of the Basque language and identified the Malay-Polynesian group. He was particularly interested in the philosophy of language on the grounds that it expresses the mind and culture of those that use it.

Kellner, K., Alexander von Humboldt. 1963; Botting, D., Humboldt and the Cosmos. 1973; Helferich, G., Humboldt’s Cosmos. 2004; Walls, L. D., The Passage to Cosmos. 2011; Sachs, A., The Humboldt Current. 2006; Wulf, A., The Invention of Nature: The Adventures of Alexander von Humboldt, the Lost Hero of Science. 2015.

Hume, (George) Basil (1923–1999). English cardinal. Educated at Oxford and Fribourg, he became a Benedictine monk, Abbot of Ampleforth, York 1963–76 and Archbishop of Westminster 1976–99. He received the OM in 1999.

Hume, David (1711–1776). Scottish philosopher and historian, born in Edinburgh. Often regarded as the greatest of British empiricists, he attended Edinburgh University and began preparing his greatest work, A Treatise of Human Nature, before he was 20. Because of his notorious atheism his applications for the professorships of philosophy at Edinburgh and Glasgow were unsuccessful, and instead he served the insane Marquess of Annandale as tutor and went on military and diplomatic missions as secretary to General James St Clair. In 1752 he became keeper of the Advocates’ Library in Edinburgh, and was secretary to the British embassy in Paris 1763–65, where he moved in a literary circle and made a friendship with *Rousseau which ended with the almost inevitable quarrel. In his own time he was much better known as a historian than as a philosopher and his History of Great Britain (1754–61) long remained a standard work, but it is by his earlier philosophical works that his name is now chiefly remembered. His Treatise (1739–40) sets out to establish empirically a science of the human faculties. He describes the mind as consisting of impressions and ideas; by ‘impressions’ he means first of all sense-impressions. There are simple ideas, which are reflections of impressions, and complex ideas, which are got by combining simple ideas. All thought is thus based on experience and we have no innate ideas. Reasoning is either the setting-out of necessary relations between ideas, as in the assertion of mathematical truths, or else based on empirical fact. There is no possibility of logically necessary reasoning about claims of fact, e.g. one cannot ‘demonstrate’ the existence of God. Reasoning about facts involves assertions of cause and effect. With respect to causation, Hume argued that we regard something as being the cause or effect of something else because the two always go together, not because there is such a thing as a necessary connexion between them in the world. In ethics he is important for his enunciation of the principle that one cannot deduce a moral judgement from any statement of fact, since the deduction of any deductive inference must be implicit in its premise. Moral judgments, in fact, are expressions of their maker’s approval or disapproval. Hume’s influence was considerable, notably on utilitarians, phenomenalists, and on *Kant, who said he had been awakened by Hume from his dogmatic slumbers. Hume’s other philosophical works include the Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (a simplified version of the Treatise, published 1748), The Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (1751), and Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (1779). His concept of the ‘invisible hand’ in economics (1758) anticipated Adam *Smith.

Basson, A. H., David Hume. 1958; Harris, J. A., Hume. An Intellectual Biography. 2015.

Hume, John (1937– ). Northern Ireland politician. A teacher and Catholic moderate, he was Leader of the Social Democratic Labor Party, a member of the European Parliament 1979–2004 and of the House of Commons 1983–2005. He shared the 1998 Nobel Peace Prize with David *Trimble for their attempts to achieve a political settlement in Northern Ireland, also winning the Gandhi Peace Prize and Martin Luther King Award.

Hummel, Johann Nepomuk (1778–1837). Austrian composer, pianist and teacher, born in Bratislava. A pupil of *Mozart (with whom he boarded), *Haydn and *Salieri, he toured Europe as a pianist from 1788 and in Vienna was promoted as a rival to *Beethoven. He was a court musician for the Esterhazys at Eisenstadt 1804–11, and at Weimar 1820–37 where he became a friend of *Goethe. A prolific but uneven composer, his works included brilliant concertos for piano, trumpet, bassoon and mandolin, a superb Septet (op. 74), a Mass in B Minor (op. 77), violin sonatas and long-forgotten operas and cantatas.

Humperdinck, Engelbert (1854–1921). German composer and teacher. After studying in Cologne and Munich, he worked as *Wagner’s assistant at Bayreuth 1880–83 and taught briefly in Barcelona. His opera Hansel und Gretel was premiered in Weimar by Richard *Strauss (1893). He was a prolific composer of songs and choral works, but only his opera is now performed. The English pop singer who used the same name was not related.

Humphrey (or Humfrey) (Plantagenet), 1st Duke of Gloucester (1391–1447). English prince. Youngest son of *Henry IV, of the House of Lancaster, he was Protector of the Realm during *Henry VI’s minority, while his brother John, Duke of Bedford, whom he kept ill-supplied, acted as regent in France. Greedy and factious, he was constantly embroiled with his uncle, Cardinal Henry *Beaufort, by whose adherents he was arrested (1447); he died in captivity. A patron of learning, he collected more than 200 illuminated manuscripts. Most were destroyed in the reign of *Henry VIII, but many of his books survive in ‘Duke Humphrey’s Library’ at the Bodleian, in Oxford. The affability of ‘good Duke Humphrey’ long (but wrongly) lingered in popular memory.

Humphrey, Hubert Horatio (1911–1978). American politician, born in South Dakota. An academic and administrator, he was elected as mayor of Minneapolis 1945–48. As senator for Minnesota 1944–64 and 1971–78 he was one of the most outspoken liberals in the Democratic Party. After losing the 1960 presidential nomination to *Kennedy he was *Johnson’s Vice President 1965–69. After Eugene *McCarthy and Robert *Kennedy contested primaries, in March 1968 Johnson announced that he would not run for President. In June, Kennedy was murdered and at the Chicago convention and in August Humphrey won the nomination, with the support of party bosses, essentially as Johnson’s proxy, despite not having won delegates in primaries. He lost narrowly to Richard *Nixon, with George *Wallace winning five states in the South.

Solberg, C., Hubert Humphrey, A Biography. 1985.

Humphries, (John) Barry (1934– ). Australian writer and actor, born in Melbourne. In his stage appearances in Australia and Britain he created a series of powerful, savagely satirical stereotypes, reflecting aspects of Australian society: Sandy Stone, (Dame) Edna Everage, (Sir) Les Patterson, Lance Boyle, and performed on television and in films, especially as narrator/voice over. He wrote My Life As Me: A Memoir (2002).

Lahr, J., Dame Edna Everage and the Rise of Western Civilisation: Backstage with Barry Humphries. 1991.

Hundertwasser, Friedensreich (Friedrich Stowasser) (1928–2000). Austrian painter and graphic artist. Influenced by the works of *Klimt, he became a popular, exaggeratedly romantic artist, much reproduced, a critic of rationalism in architecture and built apartment blocks in Vienna He adopted the name ‘Friedensreich’ (‘kingdom of peace’) to demonstrate his conviction that art can be an instrument for promoting international harmony. He proposed new flags for New Zealand (where he sometimes lived) and Australia.

Hung Hsiu-ch’uan see Hong Xiuquan

Hun Sen (originally Hun Bunal) (1952– ). Cambodian politician. He served with *Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge, then with Vietnamese support became Foreign Minister 1979–86; 1987–90, and Prime Minister 1985– . Following a period of civil war and UN intervention, the Cambodian Monarchy was restored and Hun Sen shared the prime ministership with Prince Norodom Ranariddh 1993–98, then forced him out. His Cambodian Peoples’ Party (CPP) polled well in the July 1998 election, winning again in 2003, 2008, 2013 and 2018. He endorsed Donald *Trump in 2016. The Cambodian election of 2018 in which the CPP won every seat was almost universally condemned as a fraud.

Hunt, Jeremy Richard Streynham (1966– ). English Conservative politician. Educated at Oxford, he became a controversial entrepreneur, MP 2005– , Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport 2010–12, for Health 2012–18 and for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs 2018–19. He contested the Tory leadership in 2019, losing to Boris *Johnson.

Hunt, (James Henry) Leigh (1784–1859). English poet, critic and essayist. He edited the Examiner, a liberal journal (1808–21): here and in several other journals he came to edit he ‘discovered’, by publication or praise, *Shelley, *Keats, *Tennyson, *Browning,*Dickens (who caricatured him in Bleak House as Harold Skimpole) and others. In 1812 he was sentenced to two years’ jail and a fine for libelling the Prince Regent. He joined the Shelleys and *Byron in Italy (1822) to edit a magazine The Liberal but the death of both poets wrecked the enterprise and he returned. Although some of his poems, e.g. The Story of Rimini (about Paolo and Francesca) and Abou Ben Adhem, are still read, his importance was as a focus of literary life. His essays and his Autobiography (1850) provide valuable sketches of his friends, his opinions, and of events in his life.

Blainey, A., Immortal Boy: A Portrait of Leigh Hunt. 1985.

Hunt, (Henry Cecil) John, Baron Hunt (1910–1998). British soldier and mountaineer. Much of his service was in India and he had considerable Himalayan experience before he led the Everest expedition (1953), two members of which, Edmund *Hillary and the sherpa *Tenzing Norgay, were the first to reach the summit. He wrote The Ascent of Everest (1954). For his part in the achievement Hunt was knighted, created a life peer in 1966 and given a KG in 1979.

Hunt, W(illiam) Holman (1827–1910). English painter. One of the founders of the pre-Raphaelite movement, he described its aims as: expressing serious ideas, direct study from nature, reconstruction of events according to realistic probability and not according to principles of design. His best known pictures are religious—The Scapegoat and The Light of the World. The harshness and the sometimes crude colouring of his work are equalled by his extreme sentimentality. He declined election as RA but received the OM (1905).

Hunt, W. H., Pre-Raphaelitism and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. 1905; Maas, J, Holman Hunt and the Light of the World. 1984; Amor, A. C., William Holman Hunt. The True Pre-Raphaelite. 1989.

Hunter, John (1728–1793). Scottish anatomist, physiologist and surgeon. After working as a cabinetmaker in Glasgow he came to London to assist dissecting at the school of anatomy directed by his elder brother William *Hunter. He also studied surgery and became surgeon-pupil (1754) and surgeon (1768) at St George’s Hospital. Later (1776) he became surgeon-extraordinary to *George III. He made numerous discoveries about human anatomy and has been recognised as the founder of scientific surgery. He was the first to apply methods of pressure (e.g. the ligature) to the main trunk blood arteries, and to succeed in grafting animal tissues. Meanwhile he was busy in biological and physiological research, for which he made extensive collections of specimens illustrating the living processes of plant and animal life. His museum, his finest memorial, was bought by the government (1799) and subsequently administered by the Royal College of Surgeons; it contained 13,600 preparations at the time of his death. His biological studies included work in hibernation, the habits of bees, silkworms etc., on the electric organs of fish, and egg incubation. His treatise on human teeth (1771–78) gave dentistry a scientific foundation.

Hunter, John (1737–1821). Scottish admiral and administrator, born in Leith. Well educated in classics, music and science, he joined the Royal Navy and, under Arthur *Phillip, commanded H.M.S. Sirius in the First Fleet (1787–88) to New South Wales. The ship’s loss at Norfolk Island (February 1790) was a disaster for the colony; Hunter was honourably acquitted after a court martial. (One of the unluckiest figures in colonial history, four of his ships were lost by accident, none in combat.) Appointed as Phillip’s successor, there was a long hiatus before he took office. During that time the New South Wales Corps and John *Macarthur were in control. His term as Governor 1795–1800 was marked by corruption and deception, which he seemed unable to suppress, and inadequate support from London. He published a vigorous defence of his years in New Holland and was promoted vice-admiral in 1810.

Hunter, William (1718–1783). Scottish physician, elder brother of John *Hunter. Educated at Glasgow University, he studied medicine under William Cullen and the first Alexander Monro before moving to London where he soon acquired a high reputation as surgeon and lecturer on anatomy, later specialising in obstetrics.

Hunyadi János (c.1387–1456). Hungarian soldier. Famed as a champion of Christendom against the Turks, in a series of brilliant campaigns he succeeded in clearing the Turks from most of the Balkans, but suffered a severe defeat at Varna (1444) when the Hungarian King was killed. As regent for the king’s successor, Ladislas, Hunyadi continued to keep the Turks at bay, and was with the army when he died of the plague. His younger son was Matthias *Corvinus.

Hurd, Douglas Richard, Baron Hurd of Westwell (1930– ). British Conservative politician. Educated at Eton and Oxford, he became a diplomat, was Edward *Heath’s political secretary 1968–74, MP 1974–97, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland 1985–89 and Foreign Secretary 1989–95. He also wrote detective stories and received a CH in 1996.

Hurley, David John (1953– ). Australian soldier and administrator, born in Wollongong. He joined the army in 1972, advancing to Chief of the Defence Force 2011–14, then became Governor of New South Wales 2014–19 and Governor-General 2019– .

Hus, Jan (c.1369–1415). Bohemian religious reformer, born in Husinec. He became a lecturer in philosophy at Prague University 1398–1401, dean of philosophy 1401–02 and rector 1402–03 and 1409–12. He entered the Catholic priesthood in 1400. Deeply influenced by the writings of John *Wycliffe, he denounced the corruption of the papacy. His preaching was banned but he continued to preach, even after his excommunication in 1410. Despite his popularity in Prague, Hus had to leave the city and in virtual retirement he wrote On the Church (1413). In 1415 Hus was summoned to the Council of Constance under a promise of safe conduct from the Emperor Sigismund. He was arrested at the Council and charged with heresy because the emperor insisted that heretics could not be given the benefit of an ‘agreement of honour’. He refused to recant all his views and was burnt at the stake.

Huskisson, William (1770–1830). English Tory politician. He observed the French Revolution as secretary to the British ambassador in Paris, became a Tory MP 1796–1830, held office under *Pitt, *Portland, *Perceval, *Liverpool, *Canning and *Goderich and was President of the Board of Trade 1823–27 and Colonial Secretary 1827–28. His friend Canning thought him the ablest businessman of his time. A convinced free trader, he had a major influence on *Peel who later abolished the Corn Laws (1846). At the opening of *Stephenson’s Liverpool and Manchester Railway, he became the world’s first railway fatality.

Hussein (Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi) (1854–1931). King of the Hejaz 1916–24. Born in Istanbul, a member of the Hashemite family, 37th in direct descent from *Muhammad, he was sharif and emir of Mecca 1908–24. He supported the Arab rising against the Turks during World War I, undertaken with British support (T. E. *Lawrence) and was rewarded by being made first king of the Hejaz. He proclaimed himself as Caliph in 1924, but was expelled by the rival Arabian leader *Ibn Sa’ud and took refuge in Cyprus, then in Annam, where he died. Three of his sons became kings, Ali in Hejaz, *Abdullah in Transjordan (later renamed Jordan) and *Faisal, first in Syria, then Iraq.

Hussein (1935–1999). King of Jordan 1952–99. Great-grandson of *Hussein, King of the Hejaz, he succeeded his father Talil (1911–1972), removed from the throne due to insanity. Educated in England, married four times, he showed great dexterity in attempting to resolve Middle East tensions. He was friendly to the US (although opposed to the 1991 Gulf War), conciliatory to Israel, and subject to intense pressure from dispossessed Palestinians. He died of cancer and was succeeded by his son *Abdullah.

Snow, P., Hussein: A Biography. 1972.

Hussein, Saddam see Saddam Hussein

Husserl, Edmund Gustav Albrecht (1859–1938). German philosopher, and mathematician, born in Moravia. He converted from Judaism in 1887, studied at Leipzig and Berlin, and at Vienna came under the influence of Franz *Brentano and made philosophy his career. He lectured at Halle 1887–1901 and became professor at Göttingen 1901–16 and Freiburg 1916–28, being succeeded by his student Martin *Heidegger. He pioneered ‘phenomenology’, which he named. Rejecting the philosophical a priori assumptions of logicians and natural scientists, he maintained that the approach should be made by analysing the experience of phenomena by self. This process, which Husserl called a ‘phenomenological reduction’, leads to the revelation of a ‘transcendental self’, the experiences of which it is the task of the researcher in this field to explore. In his last years he adopted a more all-embracing concept of consciousness, which satisfied nobody. Husserl broke with Heidegger over his support for *Hitler.

Huston, John (1906–1987). American film director. Son of the character actor Walter Huston (1884–1950) he worked as a scriptwriter and actor, winning an Academy Award for direction and screenplay in The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1943) in which his father also won an Oscar. His films include The Maltese Falcon (1941), Key Largo (1949), The Red Badge of Courage (1951), The African Queen (1951), Moulin Rouge (1952), Beat the Devil (1956), Moby Dick (1957), Under the Volcano (1984) and Prizzi’s Honor (1985). He also played character roles in many films. His daughter Anjelica Huston (1952– ) won an Oscar with Prizzi’s Honor.

Hutcheson, Francis (1694–1747). Scottish philosopher, born in Ulster. He held a chair of philosophy at Glasgow from 1727, was outstanding as a moral philosopher and wrote on ideas of beauty and virtue or the nature and conduct of the passions. His most important work, A System of Moral Philosophy, was published posthumously (1755). Hutcheson denied that beneficence is motivated by selfishness and argued that ethical distinctions result from a ‘moral sense’, the criterion is the tendency to promote the good of the greatest number, an anticipation of utilitarianism.

Hutten, Ulrich von (1488–1523). German poet and reformer. A man of puny stature but impetuous pride, he gave up monastic life, studied in Germany and Italy and then found employment at the court of the Archbishop of Mainz. The anonymous and satirical Letters of Obscure Men, of which he was part-author, poured ridicule in dog-Latin on the doctrines, morals, follies, speech etc. of the monks and ecclesiastics of the time, and provided much of the intellectual tinder that *Luther and others were to set aflame. Meanwhile he had been made (1517) Poet Laureate by the emperor *Maximilian. He supported Luther at first from national sentiment against papal claims, but later became one of the most formidable religious propagandists. Forced to leave the archbishop’s service he led a dangerous existence until with the help of *Zwingli he found an island refuge in Lake Zürich.

Hutton, James (1726–1797). Scottish geologist. After studying medicine at Edinburgh, Paris and Leyden he returned to Scotland to devote himself to agriculture, chemistry, and (from 1768 when he moved to Edinburgh) to geology. In his Theory of the Earth (1795) Hutton expounded his view that the continuing geological processes of erosion by rivers and seas result in the sedimentary deposit accumulating under great pressure on the sea bed and subsequently splitting into cracks and fissures, into which the flowing of molten mineral matter would produce granite and other igneous rocks in the earth’s crust. Rain, he explained, was caused by condensation due the mingling of two air strata of different temperatures.

Huxley, Aldous (Leonard) (1894–1963). English novelist and essayist, born in Godalming. Grandson of T. H. *Huxley, he suffered from karatitis punctata from childhood and near blindness prevented him from studying biology. Educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, he contributed essays and criticisms to several London journals before attracting attention with a series of satirical novels, Crome Yellow (1921), Antic Hay (1923), Those Barren Leaves (1925) and Point Counter Point (1928). Huxley became the mouthpiece of the disillusioned generation that followed World War I. In Brave New World (1932) he mockingly described a ‘Utopia’ in which human beings allowed themselves to be directed by an elite of planners who are able to satisfy emotional cravings by drugs. He returned to the theme in Brave New World Revisited (1958), and less pessimistically in Island (1962). His own favourite was Time Must Have a Stop (1944), set in London and Florence in the 1920s. Apart from Grey Eminence (1941), a brilliant biography of Richelieu’s alter ego, François Leclerc du Tremplay, and Ape and Essence (1949), a satirical appraisal of the results of atomic war, most of his later work was philosophic or mystical. He lived in Italy (1923–30), France (1930–38) and California (from 1938).

Bedford, S., Aldous Huxley. 1973.

Huxley, Sir Andrew Fielding (1917–2012). British physiologist. A half-brother of Aldous and Julian Huxley, he studied at Cambridge and was professor of physiology at London 1960–83. He shared the 1963 Nobel Prize for Medicine with J. C. *Eccles and A. L. *Hodgkin for their work on the transmission mechanism of nerve impulses. Awarded the Copley Medal in 1973, he was President of the Royal Society 1980–85, and received the OM in 1983. He became Master of Trinity College, Cambridge 1984–90.

Huxley, Sir Julian Sorell (1887–1975). English biologist. Grandson of T. H. *Huxley, he was professor of zoology at King’s College, London 1925–27, professor of physiology at the Royal Institution 1927–30, secretary of the Royal Zoological Society 1935–42, and first Director-General of UNESCO 1946–48. His very numerous and important books on biological and sociological topics include Scientific Research and Social Needs (1934), Essays of a Humanist (1963) and Evolution, the Modern Synthesis (1942). He was an effective advocate for the conservation of wild life and the creation of nature reserves.

Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–1895). English biologist, born in Ealing. Having studied medicine, he sailed (1846) as assistant surgeon with HMS Rattlesnake which had been commissioned to chart areas off the Australian Great Barrier Reef. He took the opportunity to collect, examine and compare some of the myriad marine organisms in those seas, from which he derived and published evidence that later lent support to *Darwin’s evolutionary theory. Huxley’s work was immediately appreciated and he was elected FRS in 1850, the year of his return. In 1854 he became lecturer in natural history at the Royal School of Mines. Meanwhile he continued his studies of the invertebrates and when Darwin published On the Origin of Species (1859) Huxley was one of his warmest supporters. Faced with the criticism that the human brain had no counterpart in the animal kingdom he used the recent discovery of Neanderthal Man and his own anthropological studies to make a reply which forms the substance of his book of essays Man’s Place in Nature (1863). Huxley is said to have introduced the word ‘agnostic’ to define his own philosophical viewpoint, which is set out in his Science and Morals (1886). He retained his position at the School of Mines until his health gave way (1885). Meanwhile he had held other academic or honorary appointments, e.g. Fullerian professor at the Royal Institution 1863–67, Secretary 1871–80, and President 1880–85 of the Royal Society. He was awarded the Copley Medal in 1888 and made a privy counsellor (PC) in 1892. His great interest in education was recognised by his seat on the first London School Board 1870–72. The first biological laboratory in Britain was opened through his inspiration and his Science and Education (1899) contains many of his papers on this theme. Many of his public lectures, among the most popular of the period, appeared in Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews (1870). In moulding opinion in the great controversies of his own and succeeding generations on the relationship of religion and science and the place of science in a general education, Huxley’s role was of outstanding importance.

Bibby, C., Scientist Extraordinary: T. H. Huxley. 1972; Desmond, A., Huxley—the Devil’s Disciple. 1994.

Huygens (or Huyghens), Christiaan (1629–1695). Dutch mathematician, astronomer and physicist, born in The Hague. Son of a diplomat, he was educated at Leiden and Breda and attracted the interest of *Descartes. He developed the art of grinding lenses, and designed an eyepiece that greatly reduced spherical aberration. With a powerful telescope of his own making he investigated and explained the ‘rings’ of Saturn. He built (1656) the first clock to be regulated by a compound pendulum, and also applied the balance wheel to the same purpose. He lived in Paris 1661–83 and visited London in 1689, proposing an alternative to *Newton’s theory of gravity. He published Horologium Oscillatorium (1673), his great work on pendulum clocks, and in 1690 his Traité de la Lumière (1690), a partially satisfactory wave theory of light. He also translated John *Donne’s poems.

Huysmans, Joris Karl (1848–1907). French writer, of Dutch descent. His first novels, e.g. Marthe (1876), were in the naturalistic and often sordid pattern set by Émile *Zola. His best known novel A Rebours (1884), however, in revolt from this style, tells of a sensualist’s search for new experience through perverse and deliberate derangement of the senses. The writing of Là-bas (1891), a life of the Satanist Gilles de *Rais, had the paradoxical effect of converting him to Catholicism; En Route (1895) describing the journey that took him to this goal.

Hyde, Douglas Ross (Dubhghlas de Híde) (1860–1949). Irish writer and philologist. Mainly concerned with the survival of the Gaelic language and its use in literature, he founded (1893) the Gaelic League and was professor of modern Irish at the National University of Ireland 1909–32. Nonpolitical and a Protestant, he became the first president of the Republic of Ireland (Eire) 1938–45 under the 1937 constitution.

Daly, D., The Young Douglas Hyde. 1974.

Hyde, Edward and Anne see Clarendon, 1st Earl of

Hyder, Ali see Haidar Ali


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