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Dictionary of World Biography


Iacocca, Lee (Lido Anthony) (1924–2019). American automobile executive, born in Pennsylvania. The son of Italian migrants, he was educated at Lehigh and Princeton universities. He joined the Ford Motor Company in 1946 and rose to its presidency 1970–78 until sacked by Henry *Ford II. As Chairman of the Chrysler Corporation 1979–92, he secured $2 billion in federal government support, shed labour and returned Chrysler to profit. Iacocca: An Autobiography (1984) sold 2.6 million copies, becoming the biggest selling life in US publishing history.

Ibáñez, Vicente Blasco see Blasco Ibáñez, Vicente

Ibn Battutah (1304–1369?). Arab explorer, born in Tangier. Trained as a judge, from 1325 he travelled extensively in North Africa, Syria, Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia, going to India (after 1332) by crossing the Black Sea and journeying through Central Asia. In Delhi he was employed by the Sultan Muhammad Ibn Tuqhluq, who sent him as an envoy to China in 1342. He reached the Chinese imperial court only after many adventures in Southeast Asia. After his return to Morocco in 1349 he visited Granada and western Sudan. In 1353–54 he dictated an account of his travels and his experience of different rulers and societies.

Ibn Battuta, Travels in Asia and Africa 1325–1354. Repr. 1983.

Ibn Khaldun (Abdurahman bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Al-Hasan bin Jabir bin Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Abdurahman bin Ibn Khaldun) (1332–1406). Arab historian, philosopher, economist and demographer, born in Tunis. His family had been expelled from Andalusia and he served as an administrator, teacher, judge and occasional diplomat in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt and Spain. His Muqaddima (or Prolegmena, i.e. Introduction: 1377) is an ambitious attempt at a universal history, written in a strictly Islamic context, but which anticipates parallel developments in Western thought, including sociology, economics, leadership theory and ‘clannism’. Controversial in his time, with many enemies, several times a prisoner, elitist and sometimes politically treacherous, he was hostile to *Averroës, committed to the supernatural and fascinated by the occult. He may have been a Sufi. He negotiated with *Timur in Damascus in 1400 and died in Cairo.

Irwin, R., Ibn Khaldun. An Intellectual Biography. 2018.

Ibn Sa’ud, Abdulaziz (Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Saud) (1875–1953). King of Nejd and Hejaz 1926–32, and Saudi Arabia 1932–53. Born in Riyadh, son of the Emir of Nejd, his family was overthrown and exiled in 1890. In 1902, he organised a force that seized Riyadh and made it the base for a revival of the Wahabis, a puritanical Muslim sect dating from the 18th century. By 1906, he had forced the Ottomans out of the Nejd and expanded his emirate to the east coast of Arabia by 1912. During World War I, he declined to join the Arab revolt organised by T. E. *Lawrence but used the opportunity to throw off Turkish suzerainty and greatly expanded his territories. Recognised from 1921 as the sultan of Nejd, he came into conflict with *Hussein, King of Hejaz, whom he dethroned and whose kingdom he annexed (1926), thus acquiring Mecca, with the prestige and wealth attached to its possession; in 1932 he assumed the title King of Saudi Arabia. The discovery of oil (1933) and the lucrative concession to the Americans provided him with great wealth, which he used personally or by distributing to the tribal sheiks, mainly his relatives. Ibn Sa’ud was a great Arab warrior of the traditional type, who proved his potency by the number of his wives and children as much as by his physical prowess in war, but, shrewd and often harsh as he was, and although he avoided any close international alignment, he was loyal to principles and obligations.

Howarth, D. A., The Desert King. 1964.

Ibn Sina see Avicenna

Ibrahim Pasha (1789–1848). Egyptian soldier, born in Cairo. Son of *Muhammad Ali, the Turkish Viceroy of Egypt, as a general Ibrahim achieved military success against the Wahabis (*Ibn Sa’ud) in Arabia (1818) and the Greek insurgents (1824) during the Greek War of Independence. After his father broke away from the Ottoman sultan he was made Governor of Syria, where he became involved in hostilities against the Turks. He succeeded in conquering much of Asia Minor but British and Austrian intervention forced him to withdraw (1841). In the last year of his life, when his father became insane, he was regent in Egypt.

Ibsen, Henrik (Johan) (1828–1906). Norwegian dramatist, born in Skien. His father, ruined by speculation, apprenticed him to an apothecary. His first play was rejected but he became a stage manager at Bergen and later was artistic director of the Norwegian Theatre in Christiania (Oslo). During this time he was writing plays, at first in the conventional Romantic mould and later inspired by the old sagas. The historical drama The Pretenders (1864) already showed much psychological insight. Angered that Sweden and his own Norway should leave the Danes to fight alone against Prussia (1864), he lived mainly in Italy and Germany for many years. The first fruits of his disillusion, the lyrical dramas Brand (1867) and Peer Gynt (1867), were both intended to display the timidity and irresolution of which he accused his countrymen. He returned to a historical subject with The Emperor and the Galilean (1873) about the struggle of Christianity with paganism under Julian the Apostate, and then at last, when he was already middle-aged, came the series of prose dramas that revolutionised the European theatre. By relating the character of individuals to their social environment, by relying for drama on psychological development rather than external events, by substituting realism for romanticism, and by revealing the passions, the deprivations and the rebellions of women, he made the theatre a reflection of the contemporary world outside. Without Ibsen, *Shaw, *Hauptmann, *Brieux and many others could hardly have written as they did. The plays that brought about this remarkable change were Pillars of the Community (The Pillars of Society, 1874), A Doll’s House (1879), Ghosts (1881), which dealt frankly with hereditary disease, A Public Enemy (An Enemy of the People, 1882), The Wild Duck (1884), Rosmersholm (1886), The Lady from the Sea (1888), Hedda Gabler (1890), The Master Builder (1892), perhaps marking the highest point of his technique, Little Eyolf (1894), John Gabriel Borkman (1896) and When We Dead Awaken (1900). He was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1902, 1903 and 1904, without success.

McFarlane, J. (ed.), Henrik Ibsen: Penguin Critical Anthology. 1970; Meyer, M., Ibsen. 1971; de Figueiredo, I., Henrik Ibsen. The Man & the Mask. 2019.

Ichikawa Kon (1915–2008). Japanese film maker. Trained as an animator, his films include The Burmese Harp (1956), The Key (1959), a story of sexual obsession which opened a door in Japanese film, Fires on the Plain (1959), Tokyo Olympiad 1964 (1965) and Genji Monogatari (for television, 1967).

Ickes, Harold LeClaire (1874–1952). American administrator. A Chicago reporter, one of Theodore *Roosevelt’s ‘Bullmoosers’, then a lawyer, he served as Franklin D. *Roosevelt’s Secretary of the Interior, and briefly under Harry *Truman, for a record term 1933–46, began implementing conservationist measures and attracted the enmity of big business. Known as ‘the Old Curmudgeon’ for his blunt speaking and stormy temperament, he disliked most of the New Dealers.

Idris (Muhammad Idris bin Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi) (1889–1983). King of Libya 1951–69. As chief of the Senussi tribesmen he led resistance to the Italians, who after defeating Turkey (1911–12) occupied Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. Italy’s defeat in World War II provided an opportunity for Idris, exiled in Egypt, to return. Emir of Cyrenaica from 1945, in 1951, when the United Nations established the new kingdom of Libya, Idris was chosen as first king. He was deposed by a military coup d’état in September 1969.

Ieyasu, Tokugawa (1542–1616). Japanese soldier and statesman. He assisted Nobunaga (d.1582) and *Hideyoshi in overcoming the feudal nobility, and after the latter’s death (1598) succeeded in establishing in his own Tokugawa family a hereditary Shogunate (nominally subject to the emperor), which lasted until 1867. At first he tolerated the Christians, but, hearing how in other lands the entry of Jesuit missionaries had led to Spanish and Portuguese conquest, he expelled them. He adopted and applied Confucian syncretism to absorb the apparent contradictions of Buddhism and Shinto. For foreign trade he relied on the English and Dutch, and kept William *Adams at his court as adviser on shipbuilding and navigation.

Ignatieff, Michael Grant (1947– ). Canadian political scientist and politician, born in Toronto. Educated in Toronto, Oxford and Harvard, he wrote prolifically, including a biography of Isaiah *Berlin, histories and novels, made television programs and held a chair in Harvard. Despite his long absence from Canada, he became MP 2006–11 and Leader of the Liberal Party 2009–11. Despite his brilliant record as a public intellectual, he made serious errors of judgment and the Liberals suffered devastating losses in 2011. He then returned to Harvard and wrote Fire and Ashes: Success and Failure in Politics (2013).

Ignatius Loyola, St see Loyola, St Ignatius

Ignatius of Antioch, St (also known as Theophorus or Norono) (c.35–107). Syrian Father of the Christian Church. Probably the third bishop of Antioch, according to *Eusebius he was executed in Rome under *Trajan, being thrown to lions in the Colosseum. His seven ‘epistles’, which seem to have been written on the journey from Antioch to Rome for his execution, contain valuable information about the early Church. There is a legend that he was the child taken up in his arms by Christ (Mark ix. 36).

Chadwick, H., The Early Church. 1967.

Ii Naosuke (1815–1860). Japanese nobleman and statesman, born in Edo. The 14th son of a daimyo, he lived in a temple until 1850. He favoured developing relations with the West, ending Japan’s long isolation, an issue raised when the US sent a fleet in in 1853 under Commodore *Perry. The government of the *Tokugawa shogunate, which Ii supported, was not in a position to repel the fleet, and began on his advice to negotiate new relations and trade. This exacerbated disagreements between factions in Japan, already divided over the succession to the Shogunate (military dictatorship). Ii Naosuke took direct control as Chief Councillor in 1858, settled the question of succession and forced acceptance of a Japanese–American treaty. He was murdered by political enemies.

Ikeda Hayato (1899–1965). Japanese politician. After serving many years in the Ministry of Finance, he was elected to the Diet (1949) as a Liberal Democrat and held several offices in connexion with finance and trade before becoming Prime Minister 1960–64, retiring through ill health, having earned much credit for Japan’s spectacular economic advance.

Illich, Ivan Denisovich (1926–2002). Austrian-American social theorist. Educated in Rome and Salzburg, he became a priest, moved to the US in 1951 and later worked in Puerto Rico and Mexico. His ‘subversive’ books applied lateral thinking to question fundamental assumptions about social structures and demystify professionalism, e.g. Deschooling Society (1971), Energy and Equity (1973), Medical Nemesis (1974) and The Right to Useful Unemployment (1979).

Ilyushin, Sergei Vladimirovich (1894–1977). Russian aircraft designer. A lieutenant general in the Red Army, he designed the Soviet military and civilian aircraft that bore his name.

Imhotep (fl. 2650 BCE). Egyptian sage. Traditionally versed in alchemy and astrology as well as medicine, some accounts say that he designed the step pyramid of Sakkara for King *Zoser, whose chief minister he was. In Ptolemaic times he was identified with Asclepios (Aesculapius), the Greek god of healing.

Indy, (Paul Marie Theodore) Vincent d’ (1851–1931). French composer. A pupil of César *Franck, and an ardent Wagnerian, he was a prolific composer of operas and religious, instrumental and orchestral music, a notable teacher and a vigorous opponent of the modern movement, now remembered only for his Symphony on a French Mountain Air (1886) and Istar (1896). He was a reactionary and anti-Semite.

Ingenhousz, Jan (1730–1799). Dutch physician. He practised medicine in Holland, Austria and England, at the same time carrying out scientific studies of considerable interest. In 1779 he published his Experiments Upon Vegetables in which he described the respiration of plants and drew attention to the importance of the process in relation to animal life.

Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique (1780–1867). French classical painter, born at Montauban. Son of a sculptor, he went to Paris (1797) to study under *David, whose influence is marked in the brilliant portraits (1805, now in the Louvre) of the Riviere family. He won the first Prix de Rome (1802) with the Ambassadors of Agamemnon and lived in Rome 1806–20, 1835–41 (and in Florence 1820–24). Greatly impressed by 15th-century Italian painting, he became increasingly convinced that the highest effects in painting were to be achieved by line and form, emphasised by the cold jewel-like brilliance of his colour. He now came under the spell of *Raphael who remained a major influence on his style and it was perhaps some consequent softening of his line that won his Vow of Louis XIII such instant acclaim at the Salon (1824). *Delacroix and *Picasso were among his admirers.

Rosenblum, R., Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. 1967.

Innocent III (Lotario de’Conti de Segni) (1161–1216). Pope 1198–1216. Son of a noble family in the Papal States, he was a nephew of Pope *Celestine III, wrote the widely read tract On the Misery of the Human Condition, and was elected Pope in a very brief conclave, at the age of 37 and in full vigour. Though his interventions were sometimes ill-advised, he was one of the most successful medieval popes in exercising the papal right of intervening in temporal affairs. He deposed the emperor *Otto IV, excommunicated King *John of England but attacked Magna Carta, promoted the 4th Crusade (diverted to the conquest of Constantinople), and the bloody crusade that crushed the Albigensians in France. He presided at the Fourth Lateran Council (1215).

Innocent X (Giovanni Battista Pamphilj) (1574–1655). Pope 1644–55. Born in Rome, to a rich and powerful family, he became a curial lawyer, apostolic nuncio to Spain 1626–29 and a cardinal in 1626. Elected to the papacy as a compromise candidate, he was anti-French and pro-Habsburg, opposed concessions to Protestantism in the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and was influenced by a rapacious sister-in-law Olimpia Maidalchini. *Velázquez’ portrait of Innocent (1650) is a masterpiece: the subject commented ‘troppo vero’.

Innocent XI (Benedetto Odescalchi) (1611–1689). Pope 1676–89. Born in Como, deeply pious, he was Bishop of Novara 1650–56, then an official in the Roman Curia. He became involved in a bitter struggle with *Louis XIV of France over the rights of the Gallican Church, and especially Louis’ claim to administer and collect the revenue of vacant bishoprics. Louis vetoed his election to the papacy in 1669 but relented in 1676. He brought about and sustained the alliance between the emperor *Leopold I and Jan *Sobieski, King of Poland, which relieved Vienna from the Turkish threat (1683).

Inönü, Ismet (originally Mustafa Ismet Bey) (1884–1973). Turkish soldier and politician, born in Smyrna (Izmir). He was the comrade-in-arms of Mustafa Kemal (*Atatürk) and fought in the Balkan Wars and World War I. He was Atatürk’s Chief of Staff in the campaigns (1919–23) that expelled the Greeks from Anatolia (Asia Minor). He signed the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) on behalf of Turkey, and was the first Prime Minister of the new republic, serving 1923–24; 1925–37. On Atatürk’s death, he succeeded him as President 1938–50. Defeated in 1950 by Celal Bayer and Adnan *Menderes, he led the Republican People’s Party in opposition. Following a military coup (1960) he was again Prime Minister 1961–65, resigning after the defeat of his government in the Assembly.

Frey, F. W., The Turkish Political Elite. 1965.

Ionesco, Eugène (1912–1994). French playwright, born in Romania. He spent his childhood in Paris and adolescence in Bucharest, settling permanently in France in 1942. His first play The Bald Prima Donna (1950) established him as the most important writer in the ‘theatre of the absurd’. He went on to write numerous plays, mostly translated into English and successfully performed in England and the US. They include The Lesson (1951), Rhinoceros (1960), Exit the King (1962) and Hunger and Thirst (1965). His ballet, The Triumph of Death, was first performed in Copenhagen (1972). He was made a member of the Académie française (1970) and Légion d’Honneur (1970).

Iqbal, Sir Muhammad (1876–1938). Indian poet and philosopher. He taught philosophy in Lahore, before visiting Europe at the age of 30. His poetry, written in Persian and Urdu under the name of ‘Iqbal’, at first dealt mainly with general themes of grief and love and their philosophic implications but became increasingly a means of awakening the social consciousness of the Muslims of India, whose poverty and passivity he considered unworthy of their ancestors. He was originally a believer in Hindu–Muslim unity, but, although never a narrow nationalist, he gradually came to advocate a separate Muslim state and was President of the Muslim League (1930).

Schimmel, M., Gabriel’s Wing. 1963.

Ireland, John (Nicholson) (1879–1962). English composer, born in Cheshire. His music was often inspired by ancient traditions and sites, e.g. his orchestral prelude The Forgotten Rite (composed 1913) by the Channel Islands and the rhapsody Mai-Dun (1920–21) by Maiden Castle, Dorset. Influenced by the French impressionists, he wrote much church music, piano works and many songs, setting poems by e.g. *Hardy, *Housman and *Masefield (Sea Fever). His music has been neglected.

Longmire, J., John Ireland. 1969.

Ireland, William Henry (1777–1835). English forger. Son of an engraver, he became a forger of ‘Shakespearian’ manuscripts, including the plays Vortigern and Rowena and Henry II, which he was able to impose even on acknowledged experts. *Sheridan produced Vortigern at Drury Lane. Ireland eventually confessed he was a fraud.

Ireton, Henry (1611–1651). English soldier and politician, born in Nottinghamshire. Educated at Trinity College Cambridge, he joined the Parliamentary army, was taken prisoner at Naseby (1645) but was soon rescued by Oliver *Cromwell’s cavalry charge. MP 1645–49, he married Cromwell’s daughter Bridget in 1646. Prominent in army politics between 1647 and 1649, and generally moderate in his views, at the robust discussions with members of the New Model Army (including many Levellers) (‘The Putney Debates’, October 1647), he opposed the radical proposals of Thomas *Rainborough for universal suffrage, insisting that only those with ‘a permanent fixed interest’ (i.e. property owners) could make the laws. But he became more radical, was an instigator of Pride’s Purge (December 1648), took part in the trial of *Charles I, and signed his death warrant. He was second-in-command to Cromwell in Ireland, became Lord-Deputy (1650) and died of the plague after the fall of Limerick. He had a clear mind, a ready tongue and had considerable influence with Cromwell.

Ramsey, R. W., Henry Ireton. 1949.

Irigoyen, Hipóleto see Yrigoyen, Hipóleto

Ironside, (William) Edmund, 1st Baron Ironside of Archangel (1880–1959). British soldier, born in Edinburgh. He joined the army in 1897, served in South Africa and was the model for John *Buchan’s soldier-hero Richard Hannay. He commanded the unsuccessful British army of intervention against the USSR at Archangel 1918–19 and also served in Persia and India and as Governor of Gibraltar 1938–39. He was Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS) September 1939–May 1940, until *Churchill kicked him upstairs as a field marshal and baron.

Ironside, W. E., Archangel, 1918–19. 1953.

Irving, Sir Henry (né John Henry Brodribb) (1838–1905). English actor and manager, born in Somerset. He made his debut in Sunderland (1856) and first appeared in London in 1859. His first appearance as Matthias in The Bells (1871), a play that was to prove such a standby in the years to come, marked a stage on his road to popularity, and his Hamlet which ran for 200 nights (1874–75) established him as a tragic actor of the highest rank. In 1878 began his tenure, as lessee manager, of the Lyceum Theatre, London, where in memorable association with Ellen *Terry he directed and acted in a series of Shakespearian and other plays that made theatrical history. The first actor to be knighted (1895), he was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Irving, L., Henry Irving, the Actor and his World. 1951.

Irving, Washington (1783–1859). American author and diplomat, born in New York. Son of an English immigrant merchant, he spent many years in Europe, where he made many literary friendships, e.g. with *Scott at Abbotsford. He held occasional diplomatic appointments, and is remembered for his success, while a member of the American embassy in Madrid, in rescuing the Alhambra from falling into ruins. He made his reputation as a writer with his good-humoured satire History of New York … by Diedrich Knickerbocker (1809), but his lasting popularity depends upon the short pieces in his Sketch Book (1819–20), containing Rip Van Winkle, Bracebridge Hall (1822) and Tales of a Traveller (1825).

Hedges, W. L., Washington Irving. 1974.

Irwin, 1st Baron see Halifax, Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of

Isaac (or Yiṣḥāq). (fl. c.2000 BCE). Hebrew prophet, born in Canaan. Born to *Abraham (aged 100) and Sarah, according to Genesis xxi–xxviii, Abraham was preparing to obey a divine command to sacrifice his son Isaac when, at the last moment, God substituted a ram for the boy. By his wife Rebecca, Isaac was the father of *Jacob and Esau, and died aged 180 years.

Isaacs, Sir Isaac Alfred (1855–1948). Australian lawyer, judge and Governor-General, born in Melbourne. He grew up in Beechworth, graduated at Melbourne University, was a Victorian MP 1892–1901 and Attorney-General 1894–99; 1900–01. Elected to the first Commonwealth Parliament 1901–06, he was *Deakin’s Attorney-General 1905–06, then became a long-serving Justice of the High Court 1906–30, much disliked by his brother judges. *Scullin appointed him as Chief Justice of the High Court 1930–31, then, despite the hostility of King *George V, insisted on Isaacs as Governor-General of Australia 1931–36. He became the first Australian-born to hold the office. He received a GCMG in 1932 and GCB in 1937. A practising Jew, he was strongly anti-Zionist, widely read and a formidable linguist.

Cowen, Z. Isaac Isaacs. rev. 1993.

Isaacs, Rufus Daniel see Reading, 1st Marquess of

Isabel II (María Isabel Luisa de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias) (1830–1904). Queen of Spain 1833–68. Born in Madrid, daughter of *Ferdinand (Fernando) VII and his fourth wife (and niece) Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, her father decreed (1830) the repeal of the Salic Law, which excluded female succession to the throne. Isabel’s uncle Don *Carlos, the former heir, instigated what became known as the First Carlist War (1833–39) against Isabel and her mother, the Regent. The Carlists were defeated by a combination of the army, moderates and progressives, and in 1843 Isabel was declared to be of age. In 1846 she married her double cousin Francisco de Asis de Borbón, Duke of Cádiz (1822–1902), who was King-consort 1846–68. Isabel had 12 children, of whom five survived infancy; their paternity is doubtful because Francisco had other interests and the couple separated amiably in 1874. An unreliable and wilful intriguer, her rule was inefficient and corrupt. Following another period of civil war, her forces were defeated and she was deposed in 1868, abdicating formally in 1870. After the so-called ‘Glorious Revolution’, the Cortes elected *Amadeo, an Italian prince, as King of Spain in 1870 but he abdicated in 1873 and a republic was established. After another army rising, the republic was overthrown and Isabel’s son, the well-intentioned *Alfonso XII, became king. Isabel went into exile in France and died in Paris. She was enormously fat.

Isabella I of Castile (known as ‘the Catholic’) (1451–1504). Queen regnant of Castile and León 1474–1504, Queen consort of Aragon 1479–1504. Daughter of Juan II of Castile, from the House of Trastamára, she married (1469) the prince who, already King of Sicily, became *Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1479. She had succeeded her half-brother Enrique IV on the throne of Castile in 1474, so she and her husband were joint rulers of the whole of Spain, which became a united country under their successors. For the main events of the reign see Ferdinand II.

Mariéjol, H., trans. Keen, B., The Spain of Ferdinand and Isabella. 1961; Tremlett, G., Isabella of Castile. 2017.

Isabella of France (c.1292–1358). Queen consort of England 1308–27. Daughter of *Philippe IV of France, she married *Edward II of England in 1308, became the lover of Roger de *Mortimer and was central to the deposition (1327) of her husband, and his murder. She became Regent for her son *Edward III 1327–30, who then took power in his own hands, had Mortimer executed, and his mother imprisoned. Known as ‘the She-Wolf of France’, she was characterised as a femme fatale in plays by *Marlowe and *Brecht. In her last years she acquired great wealth, had a wide range of interests and became a nun.

Isaiah (c.770–700 BCE). Hebrew prophet. He received his call in the temple in the year of King Uzziah’s death (c.727) and seems to have acted as adviser, both in spiritual and temporal affairs, to Kings Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah. The interpretation of the biblical Book of lsaiah has always been difficult as so many of his prophecies may equally well refer to contemporary as to future events. He foresees the survival of a national remnant (referring either to those who returned from Babylonian exile or to those who maintained their religious identity after the great dispersal) and looked forward to the coming of a Messiah. Almost all scholars are now agreed that chapters xi–xvi are by a later hand, since the background events belong to the 6th rather than the 8th century BCE.

Kissane, E. J., The Book of Isaiah. Rev. ed. 1960.

Isherwood, Christopher William Bradshaw (1904–1986). British author, American by naturalisation. The period he spent in Berlin (1928–33) before the Nazis came to power provided the material for his best known novels, Mr Norris Changes Trains (1935), Goodbye to Berlin (1939), and for his play (and film) I am a Camera, on which was based the musical Cabaret. He later wrote plays, e.g. The Ascent of F. 6 (1936), in collaboration with his friend W. H. *Auden. He settled in America in 1939, and wrote for films. His interest in Indian religion led him to translate, inter alia, The Bhagavad Gita (1944).

Isherwood, C., Christopher and his Kind. 1977.

Ishiguro, Sir Kazuo (1954– ). Japanese-British novelist, born in Nagasaki. Living in England from 1960, educated at the universities of Kent and East Anglia, he won the Booker Prize with The Remains of the Day (1989, filmed in 1993). Other novels include A Pale View of Hills (1982) and An Artist of the Floating World (1986). He was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize for Literature for writing ‘novels of great emotional force, [which] uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world’.

Ishmael (Yishma’el) (fl. c.2000 BCE). Hebrew outcast. First son of *Abraham, by Hagar (the Egyptian handmaid of Abraham’s wife Sarah), according to Genesis xvi, xvii and xxi, he and his mother were driven into the desert as a result of Sarah’s jealousy. Muslims consider Ishmael to be the ancestor of Arab tribes and of *Muhammad. He died (it was said) at the age of 137 and was buried in Mecca.

Isidore of Seville, St (c.560–636). Spanish prelate, scholar and Doctor of the Church, born in Cartagena. Bishop of Toledo 601–36 (succeeding his brother), he was prominent at the councils of Seville (619) and Toledo (633), but is best known as a writer on religion, science (astronomy etc.) and history (e.g. of the Goths, Vandals and Sueves). His most important work is his Etymologies, a kind of encyclopaedia which, as an early medieval reference book, transmitted much classical knowledge. It was one of the earliest books printed and was much consulted until the 17th century. Canonised in 1598, two brothers (Leander and Fulgentius) and a sister (Florentina) were also recognised as saints. Isidore is the patron saint of the Internet and computer users.

Isma’il ibn-Jafar (c.720–755/60). Arab religious leader, born in Medina. He was the son of Jafar al-Sadiq, sixth Imam of the line stemming from *Ali, *Muhammad’s son-in-law. This line, according to the Shi’ite sect, is the true succession to the Prophet. When Jafar died, the majority of the Shi’ites passed over Isma’il and chose his younger brother Musa as imam. A minority recognised Isma’il and formed a separate sect. The Ismailites eventually spread to India where the *Aga Khan became its spiritual leader.

Ismail Pasha (1830–1895). Khedive of Egypt 1867–79. Grandson of *Mehemet Ali, he was appointed as the Ottoman viceroy in 1863 and created khedive in 1867. He obtained large credits owing to the rise in the value of the cotton crop when American shipments dwindled in the Civil War. He embarked on an extravagant development program: much of Alexandria and Cairo was rebuilt and the construction of the Suez Canal put in hand. But his plans were too grandiose for his means and some of the money was squandered. Egypt’s national debt rose from £7 million in 1863 to £100 million in 1879. Crippled by interest payment, he sold his Suez Canal shares to Britain, but despite temporary relief he was forced to accept Anglo-French financial control (1876) and to abdicate (1879) in favour of his son Tewfik.

Ismay, Hastings Lionel Ismay, 1st Baron (1887–1965). British general. As Military Secretary to the War Cabinet (1940–45) he was one of Winston *Churchill’s closest companions and advisers during World War II. He became *Mountbatten’s Chief of Staff in India 1947–48, Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations 1951–52 and the first Secretary-General of NATO 1952–57. Knighted in 1940, he received a CH in 1945, a peerage in 1947 and a KG in 1957.

Israel see Jacob

Isocrates (436–338 BCE). Greek philosopher, born in Athens. His family was rich, he studied under *Socrates, founded a school of oratory and wrote speeches for clients. He went into political exile after Athens came under Macedonian rule and died at the age of 98 after starving himself. He is identified as a promoter of ‘rhetoric’ (or ‘pedagogy’), arguing that knowledge should emphasise practical outcomes, in sharp contrast to *Plato who argued that philosophy should seek the truth, wherever it led.

Issigonis, Sir Alec (1906–1988). British automobile engineer and designer, born in Izmir. He worked for the British Motor Corporation, designed the Morris Minor (1948) and the fuel-efficient Mini (1959) and had a profound influence on Japan’s car industry.

Itamu Juzo (1933–1997). Japanese film director and actor. His black comedies include The Funeral (1985), Tampopo (1986), A Taxing Woman (1987) and A Taxing Woman’s Return (1988).

Ito Hirobumi, Prince (1841–1909). Japanese statesman. After the fall (1867) of the shogunate (*Ieyasu) and the restoration to active rule of the emperor *Mutsuhito (under the title of Meiji), Ito led the group of able politicians who set about bringing Japan out of isolation and turning it into a powerful modern state. He was four times Prime Minister 1885–88, 1892–96, 1898, 1900–01 and a principal architect of the Anglo-Japanese alliance (1902), which enabled Japan to wage victorious war against Russia (1904–05) without fear of outside intervention. Ito was special adviser to the emperor during the war and in 1906 was appointed Resident-General in Korea (by then a virtual protectorate of Japan). Korea was annexed after his assassination by a Korean.

Akita, G., Foundations of Constitutional Government in Modern Japan, 1868–1900. 1967.

Itúrbide, Augustin de (1783–1824). Emperor of Mexico 1822–23. Having fought in the Spanish royalist army (1810), he led the revolution (1821) promising to establish representative government under a monarchy. Most of the country supported him and the new Spanish Viceroy handed over Mexico City to him. When the constituent assembly proved far from submissive, Itúrbide’s followers proclaimed him Emperor and for a few months he ruled as an imitation *Napoléon, bestowing titles lavishly upon his family and friends. Early in 1823 the army revolted, Itúrbide abdicated and fled, but was arrested and later shot on his return.

Ivan III (known as ‘the Great’) (1440–1505). Grand prince of Moscow (Muscovy). He drove out the Tartar rulers, conquered and annexed a great part of Novgorod and brought the scattered provinces and principalities of his realm under central rule. His marriage to Sophia Palaeologus, a niece of the last Byzantine emperor, gave him imperial ideas, he styled himself Tsar of all Russia. He was a patron of the arts and brought in foreigners to beautify Moscow with churches, palaces and works of art.

Fennell, J. L. I., Ivan the Great of Moscow. 1961.

Ivan IV (known as ‘the Terrible’) (1530–1584). Tsar of Russia (Muscovy) 1547–84. Son of Vasily III and grandson of *Ivan III, he was crowned at the age of 17. His minority spent at the mercy of boyars (nobles) competing for power had implanted in him a bitter hatred of the whole class. In the early part of his reign he carried out many legal and social reforms, but from about 1564 his behaviour, always harsh, rapidly deteriorated and his fear and suspicion developed. He instituted a secret police (oprichnina), and torture, execution and imprisonment became the everyday instruments of a neurotic sadism. In a fit of rage he killed his son Ivan (1580); he spent the rest of his life in penance. Despite, or because of these methods, his personal power was greater than that of any previous Russian ruler and he established firmly the autocratic tsarist tradition. He conquered the Tartars’ Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan and extended his territory to the Caspian. He formed links also with the west and offered to Queen *Elizabeth of England a trade treaty and even his hand in marriage. He was the subject of a remarkable film by Sergei *Eisenstein.

Payne, R., and Romanoff, N., Ivan the Terrible. 1975.

Iveagh, Edward Cecil Guinness, 1st Earl of see Guinness, Sir Benjamin Lee

Ives, Charles Edward (1874–1954). American composer, born in Danbury, Connecticut. The son of a bandmaster with an enthusiasm for *Bach and musical experimentation, educated at Yale, he had some composition lessons from the conservative Horatio Parker but was essentially self-taught. He became an actuary and ran a New York agency for Mutual Insurance, Ives & Myrick. Until he retired in 1930 Ives composed only at weekends, when he also played the organ in church. A bold experimenter with 12–tone music, dissonance, and complex rhythms, little of his music was performed in his lifetime. *Schonberg recognised him as a genius and his cause was taken up by *Copland, *Stokowski and *Bernstein. His works included The Unanswered Question (1906) and Three places in New England (1908–14), for orchestra, four symphonies, much chamber and piano music and over 100 songs. He is now generally regarded as the greatest American composer.

Iwakura Tomomi, Prince (1825–1883). Japanese nobleman and politician, born in Kyoto. Anti-foreign at the time of American penetration of Japan, he was a key figure in organising the restoration of imperial rule in 1868 (*Mutsuhito). In 1871–73 he led a mission of 50 officials to investigate modern administration in the US and Europe, and favoured the adoption of a Prussian model. He was Chief Minister 1873–83.

Iyasu, Lij (Iyasu V, originally Kifle Yacob) (1895?–1935). Emperor of Ethiopia 1913–16. Grandson of *Menelik II, he was markedly eccentric, showed some sympathy for the Central Powers in World War I and for his Muslim neighbours, and was deposed by the nobles, led by his cousin *Haile Selassie, on the grounds of his alleged apostasy. He was imprisoned; the circumstances of his death are unknown.

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