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Dictionary of World Biography

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Jabotinsky, Ze’ev (Vladimir Evgenyevich) (1880–1940). Russian Zionist, born in Odessa. A journalist, translator and orator, he advocated an organised Jewish defence against pogroms in Russia. During World War I, he served in the British army as an officer in a Jewish battalion, formed the Haganah in 1920 as a Jewish self-defence force against the Arabs and was briefly imprisoned. He advocated the establishment of a Jewish state on both banks of the River Jordan, founded the Zionist Revisionist organisation in 1925 and was working for the establishment of a Jewish army when he died in New York State. His followers organised the Irgun Zvai Leumi.

Schechtman, J. B., Vladimir Jabotinsky. 1956–61; Katz, S., Lone Wolf: A Biography of Vladimir (Ze’ev) Jabotinsky. 1986.

Jack the Ripper. Pseudonym of murderer in London who stabbed and mutilated five, possibly seven, prostitutes in the Aldgate and Whitechapel areas of East London in 1888. He was never caught, public alarm at his escape brought pressure to bear on the police and produced reforms in detection methods. There have been numerous ingenious attempts to identify him, most recently Patricia Cornwall’s expensive but unconvincing identification of the painter W. R. *Sickert.

Jackson, Andrew (1767–1845). 7th President of the US 1829–37. Born in South Carolina, he fought as a boy in the American War of Independence. Later, as a lawyer in Tennessee, he entered local politics and became a general in the militia. His defence of New Orleans in the war of 1812 against the British, and subsequent exploits against the Indians in Florida (of which he became military governor in 1821) made him a national hero. He had already served briefly in the US House of Representatives 1796–97 and US Senate 1797–98, 1823–25 and his political allies decided to exploit his popularity by putting him up for the presidency. In 1824, four candidates, Jackson, John Quincy *Adams, Henry *Clay, and William Crawford from Georgia (all from the Democratic-Republican Party), ran for president. Jackson led on the primary vote but without a majority in the Electoral College. The election was then referred back to the House of Representatives, which elected Adams. However, in 1828 Jackson beat Adams decisively, campaigning as a ‘Democrat’, the friend of the people, standing for what later came to be known as ‘the common man’. In encouraging the ‘spoils system’, by which political service was rewarded by official positions, he saddled the Democratic party and indirectly the whole of American public life with this lasting incubus. His attitude to the issues that confronted him was distinctively personal. He supported a strong federal government against states’ rights, and struck a blow at the power of money by vetoing the rechartering bill for the Bank of the United States, which he later crippled by removing federal deposits. He overcame what might have developed into a disruptive refusal to accept a new tariff bill by accepting compromise under which the tariff was imposed on condition that it was steadily reduced. In his second term he tried to purchase Texas from Mexico and would have annexed it when it revolted had he not been prevented by the opponents of slavery (it finally joined the Union in 1845). He was succeeded by his nominee Martin *Van Buren and continued to dominate Democratic politics. Though there was much of the simple frontiersman indicated by the nickname ‘Old Hickory’ in Andrew Jackson, he had an imaginative perception of the popular will and an astute and logical mind to interpret it, together with a deep sense of loyalty to the people. Jackson remains an intensely controversial figure, and in 20 Presidential ranking lists by US historians and political scientists there is great divergence of opinion; in the aggregate he scores No. 11.

Schlesinger, A. M., Jr, The Age of Jackson. 1946.

Jackson, Glenda (1936– ). English actor and politician. She trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA), made her New York and Paris debuts in 1965, performed in *Shakespeare, *O’Neill and *Brecht and won Academy Awards for Women in Love (1971) and A Touch of Class (1974). She was a Labour MP 1992–2015, and Undersecretary for the Environment and Transport 1997–99. After a long absence she returned to the London stage as a magnificent King Lear (2016).

Jackson, Jesse Louis (1941– ). American clergyman and Democratic politician, born in North Carolina. He became a Baptist minister in Chicago, an active leader in the black community, and came second to Mike *Dukakis in the Democratic presidential primaries for 1988.

Jackson, John Hughlings (1835–1911). British neurophysiologist. After 1863 he practised at the London Hospital and at the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic and was preoccupied with the neurological explanation of physical and mental disorders. Best remembered for his work on the localisation of brain function, there was still great debate in mid-century as to whether bodily movements were controlled by the brain as a whole, or by different sectors of the brain for each function. Partly on the basis of studies of patients with injured, diseased, or deficient brains, he proposed a localisation model. His insights were confirmed by the electrical experiments of Fritsch and Hitzig, and David Ferrier.

Jackson, Michael Joseph (1958–2009). American singer born in Gary, Indiana. His album Thriller (1982) held the world record for sales, 38 million in a single year. He appeared in films and television, toured extensively, became a universally recognised and sexually ambiguous symbol. In 1988 he earned $US20 million for a television commercial for Pepsicola. In 1993 he was accused of sexual molestation of juveniles. In 1994 he married Lisa Marie, the daughter of Elvis *Presley. His death, following a drug overdose, led to a manslaughter conviction for his physician.

Jackson, Sir Peter Robert (1961– ). New Zealand film director and producer, born in Wellington. He left school at 16 and was essentially self-trained, making his first film, Bad Taste, in 1987. He scripted, directed and produced The Lord of the Rings trilogy (2001–03) and The Hobbit trilogy (2012–14). He won three Academy Awards. Other films include King Kong (2005).

Jackson, Robert H(oughwout) (1892–1954). American jurist, born in Pennsylvania. After a brief period at law school (he lacked a degree), he worked closely with Franklin D. *Roosevelt and became US Solicitor General 1938–40, US Attorney-General 1940–41 and a Justice of the US Supreme Court 1941–54. He took leave of absence from the court to act as chief US prosecutor at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg 1945–46.

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan (known as ‘Stonewall Jackson’) (1812–1863). American soldier. He served in the Mexican War (1846–48) and taught at the Virginia Military Institute (1851–61). His stand at the Battle of Bull Run (1861) in command of the Confederate forces in the Civil War earned him his nickname. In 1862, as commander in the Shenandoah Valley, by successively defeating his opponents and constantly threatening Washington he relieved the Confederate capital, Richmond, of much of the pressure upon it. Later in the year he joined Lee at Richmond and played an important part in the invasion of Maryland. At Chancellorsville (May 1863), when returning from a reconnaissance, he was mistaken for the enemy and shot by one of his own men. His firmness of character, sustained by rigid Calvinism, made him a strict disciplinarian but his masterly tactics, based on those of *Napoléon, and his personal idiosyncrasies gave him popularity with his troops.

Freeman, D. S., Lee’s Lieutenants: A Study in Command. 1942–46.

Jacob (Ya’aqob: later called Israel) (fl. c.1900 BCE). Hebrew patriarch. Second son of *Isaac and Rebecca, according to Genesis xxvii, he tricked his elder brother Esau out of his birthright. By his two wives Leah and Rachel (for each of whom he had to serve their father Laban seven years) he had 12 sons, from whom were descended the 12 tribes of Israel: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Zebulon, Issachar, Dan, Gad, Asher, Naphtali, Joseph and Benjamin.

Jacobs, Jane (née Butzner) (1916–2006). Canadian social scientist, born in Pennsylvania. Originally a reporter, she married an architect and began writing original critiques of urban life. Her books included The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) and Cities and the Wealth of Nations (1984).

Jacobs, René (1946– ). Belgian conductor and singer, born in Ghent. Originally a counter-tenor and *Bach specialist, he became an outstanding conductor, winning awards for recordings of Bach’s cantatas, *Haydn’s The Creation and *Mozart’s operas.

Jacobsen, Arne Emil (1902–1971). Danish architect. He was among the most prominent of those who in the 1930s introduced ‘functionalism’ into Danish architecture. He designed (sometimes in collaboration) many civic and industrial buildings in Denmark, e.g. Aalborg Town Hall (1938–42), the Glostrup Town Hall (1953), office and residential buildings and his influence soon spread. He was chosen to design the new building for St Catherine’s College, Oxford (completed 1965). He also turned his attention to applied art and designed furniture, lighting appliances, textiles etc.

Jacquard, Joseph-Marie (1752–1834). French inventor. After many years of experimenting with textile machinery he devised a successful loom for the mechanical weaving of complicated patterns (1801). This was bought by the French Government (1806), but Jacquard received a royalty on all machines sold. The Jacquard loom has played a major role in the development of patterned textiles for 150 years. His use of punched cards on which details of patterns were recorded was adopted by *Babbage in his calculating machine. Jacquard’s cards remained indispensable until the electronic era.

Jadwiga, St (c.1373–1399). Polish Queen. Daughter of Lajos (Louis) the Great of Hungary and Poland, she married Władysław II *Jagiełło and was canonised in 1997.

Jagger, Mick (Sir Michael Philip) (1943– ). English singer, actor and songwriter, born in Kent. He was a co-founder of The Rolling Stones in 1962 and its lead singer for decades.

Jagiellon. Lithuanian dynasty which ruled medieval Poland, Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia, named for Jagiełło (or Jogaila) (c.1362–1434), Grand Duke of Lithuania (the last pagan state in Europe) 1381–1434. In 1386 he married *Jadwiga, heiress to the Polish throne, and, having converted to Christianity, was King of Poland as Władysław (Ladislas) II 1386–1434. He renamed the expanded University of Kraków as Jagiellonian. Six kings of his dynasty reigned in Poland until 1572. Another Władysław, son of *Casimir IV, was elected King of Bohemia (1471) and became (1490) King of Hungary also, but the defeat and death of his son Lajos (Louis) II at the Battle of Mohacz (1526) ended the Jagiellon dynasty in both those countries.

Reddaway, W. F., et al. (eds), The Cambridge History of Poland. 1941–50.

Jahangir (Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim) (1569–1627). Emperor of India 1605–27. Fourth of the Mughals, he succeeded his father *Akbar the Great. He was cruel, idle, and self-indulgent, but artistic. He left the administration to his wife, the strong-minded Nur-Jahan (‘light of the world’), who is said to have varied her governmental duties ‘by polo playing and shooting tigers’. Jahangir’s reign saw the arrival of the first Englishmen ever to visit the Mughal court. One of them, William Hawkins, who brought a letter from James l, was favourably received and given leave to start a trading port at Surat. Jahangir laid out the Shalimar gardens in Kashmir and erected several magnificent buildings in Lahore and elsewhere.

Jahn, Friedrich Ludwig (1788–1852). German philologist. Known as ‘Father’ Jahn (but not a priest), he was a gifted publicist who promoted the idea of Germany as an ‘organic state’, based on the Volk (folk) principle: this was timeless, involving all Germans, living, dead or unborn, in contrast to the English or French ideal of individualist, liberal society. His ideas were largely adopted by the Nazi movement.

James (the Great), St (Ya’aqob in Aramaic) (d.c.44 CE). Christian apostle. Son of Zebedee and brother of *St John (the Divine), he was prominent among the apostles and after the Resurrection became a leader of the Church in Jerusalem. Beheaded on the order of *Herod Agrippa, he was the first apostle to be martyred. According to legend his body was taken to Spain, where in 835 the bones were found at Santiago (St James) da Compostella, which became and remains a great centre of pilgrimage. James became Spain’s patron saint. Another apostle, identified as James the son of Alphaeus or ‘James the Less’ plays no distinctive part in the New Testament story.

James (the Just), St (d.c.62 CE). Christian apostle. Leader of the Church in Jerusalem after the Resurrection, Paul called him (Galatians i:19) ‘James the Lord’s brother’ but Catholics translate the Greek adelphos as ‘kinsman’. He presided at the first apostolic council, held in Jerusalem c.49–50 CE, to decide whether Gentile converts had to undergo circumcision, and proposed a compromise position (Acts xv:13–21). The Epistle of James, one of the earliest books in the New Testament, was probably written about 58 CE. He was ascetic, a vegetarian and never married. Generally conservative, he appears to have interpreted Jesus’ teachings in an essentially Jewish context, in contrast to the appeal to the Gentiles by *Peter and *Paul. *Josephus reports that James was hurled from the pinnacle of the Temple and stoned to death: *Eusebius adds that he was beaten to death by a fuller’s club. His followers retreated to Pella. Supporters of the Roman Petrine tradition played down James’s leadership of the Jerusalem Church.

Eisenman, R., James the Brother of Jesus. 1997.

James (the Less), St (fl. 1st century CE). Christian apostle. Not to be confused with James ‘son of Zebedee’ or *James ‘the Lord’s brother’, he was son of Alphaeus and may have been the brother (or father?) of St *Jude. His fate is unknown.

James (Jaime) I (1208–1276). King of Aragon and Catalonia 1213–76. Although known as ‘the Conqueror’ for his victories over the Moors, Majorca was conquered by Catalans (1229–32) and the Moorish Kingdom of Valencia by the Aragonese in 1245. By relinquishing fiefdoms on the French side of the Pyrenees by the Treaty of Corbell (1258) he made Catalonia a purely Spanish kingdom. He initiated many legal reforms and the first maritime code.

James Edward Stuart see Stuart, James Edward

James I (1394–1437). King of Scotland 1406–37. Son of *Robert III, while at sea on the way to be educated in France, he was captured and detained in England for 21 years, honourably treated at court and made a Knight of the Garter. Ransomed in 1424, he returned to Scotland where his energetic attempt to introduce a parliament on the English model failed, his personal foibles lost him general support and the antagonism of the nobles led to his assassination. James is credited with having written The King is Quair, a fanciful poem about his love for Joan Beaufort, whom he married in 1424. His son James II (1430–1460) and his grandson James III (1452–1480), succeeded in turn. The reigns of both began with long minorities, both had to contend with a discontented and factious nobility, and both met violent deaths, the former killed at the siege of Roxburgh, the latter found murdered near the battlefield of Sauchieburn.

James I (1566–1625). King of England and Ireland 1603–25, from 1604 of Great Britain, and (as James VI) King of Scotland 1567–1625. Born at Edinburgh Castle, he was the only child of *Mary Queen of Scots and Henry, Lord *Darnley. As a baby he succeeded his mother after her enforced abdication, in a Scotland torn by rival political and religious factions, for whom possession of his person and the powers of regency that went with it were valuable prizes to be won. There were two sides to James: (i) boring and often cranky moralist; and (ii) extravagant bisexual hedonist. He grew up nervous, awkward and pedantic, with a great fund of knowledge and little common sense and was dubbed ‘the wisest fool in Christendom’. However, when he came to rule he managed with some astuteness to keep Roman Catholic and Presbyterian factions at bay by favouring each in turn and seeking a middle-way. He was helped to do this by the Treaty of Berwick (1586) under which, in return for subsidies, he pledged himself to be England’s ally. Meanwhile his mother, whom he could not remember and whose folly had brought such misfortune, was a prisoner in *Elizabeth’s hands. He interceded on her behalf but was careful not to jeopardise his own hopes of accession, based on descent from Margaret, daughter of *Henry VII and wife of Scotland’s *James IV. These hopes, with the collaboration of Elizabeth’s chief minister, Robert *Cecil, were attained in 1603. One of his earliest acts was the summoning of the Hampton Court Conference to discuss the grievances of the Puritans in the Church of England. This broke down but at least one of its projects was implemented, the ‘Authorised Version’ of the Bible which was completed in 1611 and sponsored by James. Despite their shared escape when Roman Catholic malcontents planned the Gunpowder Plot (*Fawkes) to blow up the king in parliament, the relations between James, a firm believer in the ‘divine right’ of kings, and his legislature were sometimes strained. From 1611 to 1621 he ruled without summoning parliament (apart from the ‘Addled Parliament’ in 1614 which lasted six weeks), raising troops for Ireland by creating baronetcies a title introduced by him and carrying this obligation and money by selling monopolies, benevolences etc.

The Roman Catholic conspiracy did not prevent James from reversing Elizabethan policy towards Spain, but by assenting to *Raleigh’s execution and by his attempt that ended in fiasco to arrange a Spanish marriage for Prince Charles, he only added to his own unpopularity. In 1589 James had married Anne of Denmark. Henry, the elder son, predeceased his father, the younger succeeded as *Charles l, and from his daughter *Elizabeth, the ‘Winter Queen’ of Bohemia, was descended the house of Hanover. For much of his reign James was under the sway of two unworthy favourites, Robert Carr, whom he created Earl of Somerset, and George Villiers, Duke of *Buckingham. In addition to several books on politics he wrote A Counterblast to Tobacco (1604), and issued The Book of Sports (1617) defining the amusements (e.g. archery, dancing, but not bowls) permissible on Sundays. Historians have tended to stress James’s deficiencies, but they can be exaggerated. The Elizabethan literary flowering (*Shakespeare, *Donne, *Jonson) continued in the Jacobean era.

Wilson, D. H., King James VI and I. 1956; Russell, C., Parliaments and English Politics: 1621–1629. 1979.

James II (1633–1701). King of England and Ireland and (as James VII) King of Scotland 1685–88. Second son of *Charles I, born in London, before returning to England after the restoration of his brother, *Charles II, he had fought with courage in the armies of France and Spain. As Lord High Admiral 1669–73 he did much to restore the efficiency of the navy and was a successful general against the Dutch (1664–67). His conversion to Roman Catholicism (1670) meant that after the passing of the Test Act (1673) he had to resign his command. The ‘Popish Plot’ (Titus *Oates), it was alleged, was designed to place him prematurely on the throne, but after the failure of two Exclusion Bills, he succeeded Charles II with parliamentary and general consent. A rising in the West Country under Charles’ illegitimate son *Monmouth was quickly and cruelly suppressed, but James’ precipitate attempts to advance the Roman Catholic cause quickly aroused antagonism. He used dispensing power’ (i.e. from the provisions of the Test Act) to promote Catholics to office, raising a standing army, stationed on Hounslow Heath with obvious intent to overawe the capital. In 1687 he issued a Declaration of Indulgence giving toleration to dissenters, Catholic and Protestant alike. A second Declaration in 1688 was ordered to be read in all churches. The acquittal of ‘the Seven Bishops’ for seditious libel in petitioning not to have to do so was greeted with popular enthusiasm. Leading Anglican politicians invited James’ cousin and son-in-law, *William of Orange, to intervene in England. William’s landing in England (1688) found James with an army uncertain in its loyalty and with no strong body of support. James fled, leaving the way clear for William to take the throne jointly with his wife *Mary. These events are commonly labelled the Glorious Revolution. James attempted to regain his kingdom from Ireland, but his cause was finally lost when he was defeated in the Battle of the Boyne (July 1690). He went into exile in France, lived at St Germain-en-Laye, died there in his chapel during Mass and is buried there. By his first wife Anne Hyde (1638–1671), daughter of the Earl of *Clarendon, he had two daughters: Mary II, wife of William III, and *Anne, afterwards queen. By his second wife *Mary of Modena, he was the father of James Edward *Stuart, the ‘Old Pretender’.

Turner, F. C., James II. 1948; Miller, J., James II. 1978.

James IV (1473–1513). King of Scotland 1488–1513. Son of James III, he took part in the nobles’ rebellion which led to his father’s death but soon asserted his mastery over them. By strengthening the administration of justice he restored confidence in law and order. His court became renowned for pageantry, tournaments and sport. He renewed the traditional alliance with France but at the same time came to terms with England, and in 1503 made the marriage with *Henry VII’s daughter *Margaret which eventually united the Scottish and English crowns. When *Henry VIII, in response to the pope’s appeal, attacked France, James, torn by conflicting loyalties, took (1513) the fateful decision of invading England, but when the armies met at Flodden Field, James was killed and the Scots routed with great slaughter.

James V (1512–1542). King of Scotland 1513–42. He was only 17 months old when he succeeded his father, *James IV. During his minority, the English faction, headed by his mother and her second husband Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, competed for power with the French faction led by the Duke of Albany. Albany ruled until 1524 when, by declaring the 12-year-old king capable of rule, his mother and Angus began to exercise authority in his name. In 1528 James asserted his independence, quelled his turbulent subjects and with political and matrimonial alliances to offer was immediately courted by the rulers of Europe. France gained the day and he married (1538) *Mary of Guise. The consequences were persecution of the Protestants and a war with England. The humiliation of the defeat at Solway Moss (1542) coupled with the strain of maintaining an efficient administration in a country so difficult to rule was too much for a highly strung temperament. He died three weeks later, only a few days after his daughter *Mary, the future Queen of Scots was born.

James VI and James VII (Kings of Scotland) see James I and James II (Kings of England, Ireland and Scotland)

James (‘the Old Pretender’) see Stuart, James

James, Henry (1843–1916). American novelist, born in New York. Named for his father, a Swedenborgian theologian and amateur philosopher, he was a brother of William *James. His sporadic education, much of it in Europe but finishing at Harvard, made him cosmopolitan, and he was already a mature intellectual when (1865) he began writing essays and reviews for the Atlantic Monthly. But it was only in the more sophisticated circles in Europe that he was happy. He left America (1869) and lived in England from 1876. He never married. His work is usually divided into three periods, sometimes categorised as ‘James the First, James the Second and the Old Pretender’. The predominant theme of the first is the impact of European culture on American life, e.g. in Roderick Hudson (1875), Daisy Miller (1879), one of his rare popular successes, The Portrait of a Lady (1881) and in the same year Washington Square (dramatised and filmed in 1949 as The Heiress), The Aspern Papers (1888), also later dramatised. The second period, distinguished as the English one, shows the shrewdness with which this cosmopolitan American could assess national character, e.g. in The Tragic Muse (1890), and The Awkward Age (1899). He was a master of the long short story or novella. The Turn of the Screw (1898), a ghost story, equally successful as a play, became an opera by Benjamin *Britten. The last period, in which he returns to the contrast between Americans and Europeans, contains three of his greatest novels: The Wings of the Dove (1902), The Ambassadors (1903) and The Golden Bowl (1904). Among his many miscellaneous writings is a biography of Nathaniel *Hawthorne. His Notebooks remained unpublished until 1948. He was mildly anti-Stratfordian in the *Shakespeare authorship controversy, and somewhat dismissive of Jane *Austen and *Tolstoy. James’ style has been interminably discussed, some find it tortuous and over-elaborate, addicted to the double negative, but his many admirers delight in the precision of his observation, meticulous care (like *Flaubert) in selecting a phrase, always using appropriate vocabulary for each character, the patience with which he follows the labyrinths of the human mind. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1911, 1912 and 1916. As a gesture of sympathy for the Allied cause in World War I, James assumed British citizenship in 1915 and was awarded the OM in January 1916, just before he died.

Edel, L., Henry James. 1985 (revised edition); Novick, S. M., Henry James: The Young Master. 1996; Novick, S. M., The Mature Master. 2007.

James, M(ontague) R(hodes) (1862–1936). English scholar and author. During an academic career culminating in his appointment as provost of King’s College, Cambridge 1905–18, and of Eton College 1918–36, he found relaxation in writing ghost stories with an antiquarian flavour. These were collected as Ghost Stories of an Antiquary (1905), More Ghost Stories (1911) etc. His scholarly books include The Apocryphal New Testament (1924). He received the OM in 1930.

James, P(hyllis) D(orothy), Baroness James (1920–2014). English author. A civil servant until 1979, her crime novels featuring Inspector Adam Dalgliesh were critically acclaimed and include Death of an Expert Witness (1977), Innocent Blood (1980) and A Taste for Death (1986).

James, William (1842–1910). American philosopher and psychologist. A brother of Henry *James the novelist, he studied art, chemistry and medicine at Harvard before turning to his real interests, psychology and philosophy. Meanwhile he had been incapacitated by melancholia for several years. After teaching physiology at Harvard he held professorships there in philosophy and psychology 1885–97. His Varieties of Religious Experience (1902) reveals the direction of much of his psychological work. He is also known for the disputed James-Lange theory which equates emotion with the perception of bodily change. In Pragmatism (1907) the word was originally used in this sense by Charles *Peirce. He expounds the doctrine that the validity of human ideas and principles can only be tested by an examination of their practical results. James’s influence was extensive (John *Dewey).

Dooley, P. K., William James. 1974; Richardson, R. D., William James. In the Maelstrom of American Modernism. 2006.

Jameson, Sir Leander Starr, 1st Baronet (1853–1917). South African politician, born in Edinburgh. A physician, he established a medical practice in the diamond town of Kimberley and became the friend and agent of Cecil *Rhodes. He administered Mashonaland (1891) after *Lobengula had granted concessions to Rhodes’s company and became the virtual founder of Rhodesia. With Rhodes’s support (and the collusion of Joseph *Chamberlain, the Colonial Secretary), he led the notorious Jameson Raid (Dec.1895–Jan.1896), a three-day incursion into the Boer South African Republic (Transvaal), intended to coincide with a rising of the Uitlanders (British and other settlers) who had been denied civil rights. The raid was a fiasco. No uprising occurred and the incident strengthened *Kruger’s international standing. Handed over to the British who sentenced him to 15 months’ jail, he was released after 3 months because of illness. He became Prime Minister of Cape Colony 1904–08 and first Leader of the Opposition in the Union Parliament 1910. He died in London but was buried next to Rhodes in the Matopos National Park, now in Zimbabwe.

Janáček, Leoš (1854–1928). Czech composer, born in Hukvaldy. Son of a village schoolmaster, he was choir master at Brno in Moravia before studying in Prague and Leipzig. He produced a large volume of compositions of strongly national character including many operas: Jenufa (composed 1896–1903), Katya Kabanova (1919–21), The Cunning Little Vixen (1921–23), and The Makropulos Case (1923–25). In 1917 he fell in love with a young married woman, Kamila Stösslová (1892–1935) and wrote her 722 letters of extraordinary poignancy and intensity until his death. This relationship stimulated a fresh burst of creativity that included the orchestral works Taras Bulba (1918) and Sinfonietta (1926), the song cycle The Diary of One Who Disappeared (1919) and two string quartets. The Glagolitic Mass was premiered in 1926. His powerful and original works were rarely heard outside his native country until after 1945, but he came to be recognised as one of the few outstanding 20th-century operatic composers. The Australian conductor (Sir) Charles Mackerras (1925–2010) played a central role in their revival, recording and promotion.

Vogel, J., Leoš Janáček. 1981.

Jane, Frederick Thomas (1870–1916). English naval writer and artist. He founded and edited Jane’s Fighting Ships in 1898 and All the World’s Aircraft in 1909. The series is still regarded internationally as the most authoritative independent catalogues.

Jane (Lady Jane Grey) see Grey, Lady Jane

Jane (Seymour) (1509–1537). English queen consort 1536–37. Sister of the Duke of *Somerset, she married *Henry VIII as his third wife. She gave birth to his only son, afterwards *Edward VI, and died 12 days later.

Jansen, Cornelius (1585–1638). Dutch Roman Catholic theologian. After teaching in school and college he became a professor at Louvain (1630) and Bishop of Ypres (1636). In his book Augustinus (published 1642) he claimed that the Jesuit teaching on the freedom of the will (i.e. that man’s power to choose between good and evil is a matter for his own free choice and not necessarily dependent on divine grace) was identical with the heretical doctrine of the Pelagians condemned by St Augustine. The book attracted many Roman Catholics, especially in France, but aroused much controversy. Jansenism, whose best known proponent was *Pascal, found a stronghold among scholars and theologians of Port-Royal-les-Champs in Paris, but it was condemned as heretical by the papacy and harshly repressed by Louis XIV.

Escholier, M., Port-Royal. 1968.

Jansky, Karl Guthe (1905–1950). American radio engineer. He worked for the Bell Telephone Laboratories and concluded (1932) that one source of communications static was waves from beyond the solar system. This was the beginning of radio-astronomy, but Jansky took no further part in its development, which was taken up by Grote Reber (1911–2002) who invented the parabolic receiving dish, later working in Tasmania (*Penzias).

Jaques-Dalcroze, Émile (1865–1950). Swiss music teacher. He originated the system, now known as eurhythmics, by which musical appreciation is taught through physical movement. Graded exercises, musically accompanied, enable different rhythms to be expressed by movements of head, arms and legs.

Jarry, Alfred (1873–1907). French dramatist. His farce Ubu roi (1896), a parody of Macbeth, was a subversive work that anticipated surrealist theatre and set design in the late 20th century. The play was revived in Europe and the US in the 1950s.

Jaruzelski, Wojciech (1923–2014). Polish soldier and politician. Minister for National Defence 1968–83, he became First Secretary of the Polish United Workers’ (Communist) party 1981–89 and Prime Minister 1981–85, after Soviet forces entered Poland and martial law was imposed to suppress *Walesa’s Solidarity movement. He was President of Poland 1985–89.

Jaspers, Karl Theodore (1883–1969). German philosopher. Trained in medicine, he held chairs of psychology 1916–21 and philosophy 1921–37 at Heidelberg. His The Psychology of World Views (1919) was an early statement of existentialism, later adapted and popularised by *Sartre. He took the pessimistic view that ultimately all reasoned analysis fails, and a leap of faith is required to reach transcendence. He was deeply critical of *Descartes, *Darwin, *Marx and *Freud. He became a Swiss citizen in 1948.

Schilpp, P. A., The Philosophy of Karl Jaspers. 1957.

Jaurès, (Auguste Marie Joseph) Jean (Léon) (1859–1914). French Socialist politician and historian, born in Castres. He lectured in philosophy at Toulouse University 1883–85, 1887–93 and was a member of the Chamber of Deputies 1885–87, 1893–98, 1902–14. The *Dreyfus case converted him from liberalism to socialism. His Socialist History of the French Revolution (1901–07) was written ‘under the triple inspiration of *Marx, *Plutarch and *Michelet’ but he was not a Marxist in an organisational sense. He was a co-founder of the journal L’Humanité (1904) and after the creation of a united socialist party (Section Francaise de l’International Ouvrier—SFIO) in 1905, his pacifist, individualist, gradualist ideas were generally adopted. Fat, short and untidy, Jaurès was a great orator, held back to a degree by his personal unhappiness. He called for a general strike of French and German workers as a means of averting World War II but was shot by a young monarchist, Raoul Villain, later acquitted of murder who died in the Spanish Civil War (1936).

Jay, John (1745–1829). American lawyer and politician. He belonged to the revolutionary party in New York and later helped to draw up the state’s constitution and became its first Chief Justice. Meanwhile he had been a delegate to the first and second Continental Congresses, and later took part with *Hamilton and *Madison in the defence of the new US constitution in the Federalist. In 1782–83 he was one of the commissioners who went to Paris and negotiated with Britain the Treaty of Versailles, by which American independence was recognised; he returned to be US Secretary of Foreign Affairs 1784–89. In 1790 he became the first US Chief Justice and in 1794 went to England to negotiate outstanding questions. Concessions granted by him in the so-called Jay’s Treaty provoked severe controversy. He resigned from the supreme court and was elected Governor of New York State 1795–1801.

Morris, R. B. (ed.) John Jay: The Making of a Revolutionary. 3 vols, 1975ff.

Jayawardene, Junius Richard (1906–1996). Sri Lankan politician. A lawyer, he became an MP in 1947, Minister for Finance 1947–53, 1960, Minister for External Affairs 1965–70 and Leader of the United National Party 1973–89. He was Prime Minister 1977–78 and President 1978–89.

Jean (Jehan) II, known as Jean le Bon (John the Good) (1319–1364). King of France 1350–64. Son of Philippe VI of the Valois dynasty, he was created Duke of Normandy at the age of 13, when most Norman nobles had divided loyalties. His reign was marked by the Black Death, war with England and his defeat and capture at Poitiers (1356) by *Edward the Black Prince. Taken as a prisoner, Jean was then ransomed, leaving his son Louis as a hostage. Back in France he created the franc (1360) to stabilise the French currency. After Louis escaped in 1363, Jean regarded himself as honour bound to return to England, and died there. His son *Charles V (‘the Wise’) succeeded.

Jean Paul (pen name of Johann Paul Friedrich Richter) (1763–1826). German novelist, born in Wunsiedel, Bavaria. He grew up in a remote mountainous region of Bavaria, the Fichtelgebirge, where he found the simple characters about whom he wrote with most success. His early books were little noticed but with the publication of Hesperus (1795) and Siebenkäs (1796) recognition came. He married in 1801 and lived for the rest of his life at Bayreuth. Among the best known of his later works were Titmu (1803) and Dr Katzenberger’s Badereise (i.e. visit to the spa) (1809). His books have no regular plots and he combines humour with sentiment somewhat in the manner of *Sterne, one of his favourite authors.

Jeans, Sir James Hopwood (1877–1946). English mathematical physicist and astronomer, born at Ormskirk in Lancashire. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, he lectured there and became professor of applied mathematics at Princeton 1905–09. He had a rich wife and was able to devote himself to writing and research, without any teaching duties. He became Secretary of the Royal Society 1919–29 and Vice President 1938–40. He was a proponent of the ‘steady-state’ theory, arguing that matter is continuously created throughout the universe. From consideration of the physics of rotating masses, he suggested how the stars and spiral nebulae are formed, and attributed the origin of the planets of the solar system to the forces between two stars passing close to each other. Jeans was a prolific author of popular works, e.g. The Mysterious Universe (1930) and Science and Music (1937), which gave simple explanations of complex scientific discoveries. He was a competent organist and authority on *Bach. In 1939 he received the OM.

Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhouse (1831–1905). Scottish classical scholar, born in Dundee. His distinguished academic career culminated in his appointment (1889) as Regius professor of Greek at Cambridge University. He wrote many books on classical subjects but his great edition of the plays of *Sophocles (1883–86), with textual and critical commentary and prose translation, was his chief work. He helped to found the British School of Archaeology at Athens, was MP for Cambridge University 1891–1905 and received the OM (1905).

Jefferies, (John) Richard (1848–1887). English naturalist and author, born in Wiltshire. He grew up on a farm and began his career as a journalist specialising in rural subjects. In addition to, e.g. The Amateur Poacher (1879), The Story of a Boy (1882), he wrote the strange introspective autobiography Story of My Heart (1883) and the imaginative After London, or Wild England (1885).

Looker, S., and Porteus, C., Richard Jefferies. 1965.

Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826). 3rd President of the US 1801–09. Born at Shadwell. Virginia, his father was a well known surveyor. He began to practise law in 1767 and was learned in many subjects, European as well as classical languages, literature, history and above all mathematics and the natural sciences. Turning to politics, he was a member or the Virginia House of Burgesses 1769–74 and immediately became a prominent supporter of colonial claims. He attended both continental congresses (1775, 1776) and played a principal part in drafting the Declaration of Independence. Once more a member of the Virginian Legislature 1776–79, he was successful in obtaining the repeal of the Law of Entail, the passage of bills for religious freedom and prohibiting the import of more slaves (he would have enacted emancipation, had he been able) and a revision of the whole legal code. He was Governor of Virginia 1779–81. As a member of Congress 1783–84 he was responsible for the granting of free institutions to the new territories beyond the Ohio and for a report favouring decimal coinage. As Minister to France 1784–89, he saw the beginnings of the Revolution there and gave its first leaders the benefit of American experience. (His letters indicate a strong attraction to absolutist aspects of the Revolution.) He returned from France to be US Secretary of State 1790–94, under *Washington, and pursued a policy of no ‘entangling alliances’. With his political followers he formed, in opposition to Hamilton’s centralising policy, a new grouping called the Republican party (despite its name, ancestor of the modern Democratic Party). Jefferson ran second to *Adams in the presidential election of 1796 and, according to the constitutional provision of the time, became Vice President (but virtually Leader of the Opposition). In 1800 he defeated Adams, but tied with Aaron *Burr in the Electoral College and was elected as President by the House of Representatives, Burr becoming a grossly disloyal Vice President. In 1804 he won re-election easily, defeating C.C. *Pinckney. Jefferson was the first president to be inaugurated in Washington (which he had helped to plan).

The most important event of his presidency was the ‘Louisiana Purchase’ (1803) of the French territories in the Mississippi basin, made possible by *Napoléon’s difficulties in maintaining adequate communication and control. In internal affairs he followed a conciliatory policy and did not press his earlier campaign for states’ rights. The slave trade was abolished (1808). In 1809 he retired to Monticello, the home of his own design, here he returned to the studies of his earlier years and in particular became absorbed in the work for the establishment of the University of Virginia, inaugurated (1825) at Charlottesville. Jefferson envisaged the United States as a mainly agricultural community, since industrialisation, in his opinion, would put power in the hands of financial interests. His political doctrines were based on those of *Locke and *Rousseau; his practice proved him to be one of the great liberal statesmen of history. He married (1772) a widow, Martha Skelton (née Wayles) who died in 1782; only two daughters survived infancy. Jefferson’s relationship with the mixed-race slave Sally Hemings (c.1773–1835), who travelled to France with his family, is controversial but it is probable that he fathered six children, four of whom survived. All were freed on his death.

He died on the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, on the same day as John *Adams. In 20 Presidential ranking lists by historians and political scientists, Jefferson scored No. 5 in the aggregate.

Ellis, J. J., American Sphinx. 1997; Meacham, J., Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power. 2012; Boles, J. B., Jefferson. Architect of American Liberty. 2017.

Jeffery, (Philip) Michael (1937– ). Australian soldier. He served in Vietnam, was involved in counter-terrorism, rose to the rank of major-general, and became Assistant Chief of Staff for Materiel 1991–93. He was Governor of Western Australia 1993–2000 and Governor-General of Australia 2003–08.

Jeffrey, Francis, Lord Jeffrey (1773–1850). Scottish critic and judge. An advocate, in 1802 with Sydney *Smith and Henry *Brougham, he founded the Edinburgh Review and was editor 1803–29. Critical of *Scott, *Wordsworth and the Lakeland poets, he befriended *Macaulay and *Dickens. He became a Whig MP 1831–34 and a judge of the Court of Session 1834–50.

Jeffreys, George Jeffreys, 1st Baron (1648–1689). English lawyer. He rose rapidly in his profession, partly through royal favour, showing subservience and a talent for intrigue. He was knighted (1677), made a baronet (1681) and Chief Justice of the King’s Bench (1683). His first trial resulted in the condemnation and execution of Algernon *Sidney, and he presided over the trial of Titus *Oates. Soon after the accession of James II, he was given a peerage and earned the reputation for infamy that still clings to his name by his conduct of the ‘Bloody Assize’ which followed the defeat at Sedgemoor (1685) of the rebellious supporters of the Duke of *Monmouth. During his progress through Dorset and Somerset he condemned some 320 men to be hanged, more than 800 to be transported and even large numbers to be imprisoned and flogged. Jeffreys was appointed Lord Chancellor in October 1685 and served *James II well. When in the autumn of 1688, faced with the invasion of *William of Orange and the desertion of many of his friends, James contemplated flight, Jeffreys delivered up to him the Great Seal, which James dropped into the Thames. Jeffreys tried to escape, disguised as a sailor, but was taken at Wapping and lodged in the Tower of London, where he died. Jeffreys had many of the qualities of a good lawyer, but his reputation was marred by his brutality, irascibility (he suffered from the stone) and his patent support for royal claims.

Jekyll, Gertrude (1843–1932). English artist, gardener and craftswoman. Trained in music and painting, she travelled in the Mediterranean, and from 1891 devoted herself to garden design. She wrote extensively and later collaborated with the architect (Sir) Edwin *Lutyens.

Festing, S., Gertrude Jekyll. 1991.

Jellicoe, John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl (1859–1935). English admiral, born in Southampton. He commanded the Allied expedition to relieve Peking during the Boxer Rising (1900). A strong supporter of Admiral *Fisher, he was on the committee that produced designs for the revolutionary first Dreadnought and, having been Second Sea Lord 1912–14, became Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Fleet 1914–16. His tactics at the Battle of Jutland (31 May 1916) were criticised at the time and it seemed, at best, a draw. Only later it became clear from German documents that Jellicoe had won. The German fleet never put to sea again. He received the OM in 1916 and was First Sea Lord 1916–17, until *Lloyd George replaced him with the more dashing *Beatty. He became a viscount in 1918, an admiral of the fleet in 1919, Governor General of New Zealand 1920–24 and an earl in 1925.

Jencks, Charles Alexander (1939– ). American architect and critic. He studied at Harvard and London, and became a prolific, penetrating and witty commentator on architecture. His books include Modern Movements in Architecture (1973), The Language of Post-Modern Architecture (1977), Post Modernism (1987) and The Architecture of the Jumping Universe (1995).

Jenghiz Khan see Genghis Khan

Jeng Ho see Zheng He

Jenkins, Florence Foster (1868–1944). American amateur singer. Celebrated for her eccentric concert performances in New York, her singing is still available on CD.

Jenkins, Roy Harris, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead (1920–2003). British politician, born in Wales. Son of a miner who later became a union official and Labour MP, he was educated at Oxford, became an army captain in World War II, Member of Parliament 1948–77, and a member of the executive committee of the Fabian Society 1949–61. Regarded as a liberal (or right-wing) socialist, he was Minister of Aviation in Harold *Wilson’s Cabinet 1964–65, Home Secretary 1965–67 and 1974–76 and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1967–70. His connection with European politics began in 1955 when he served as a delegate to the Council of Europe. He resigned from parliament in 1977 to accept appointment as President of the European Commission 1977–81. In 1979 he had advocated the formation of a ‘Middle Party’ in British politics and in 1981 he established the Social Democratic Party (SDP) with the support of Shirley *Williams, David *Owen and Bill Rodgers (‘The Gang of Four’). He won re-election to the House of Commons in a by-election (1982) and was first leader of the SDP until 1983. He wrote biographies of *Attlee, *Dilke, *Asquith, *Truman, *Gladstone and *Churchill, and was Chancellor of Oxford University 1987–2003. He received the OM in 1993.

Campbell, J., Roy Jenkins. 2014.

Jenner, Edward (1749–1823). English physician, born at Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Renowned as the originator of vaccination, he became a resident pupil of John *Hunter in London and while there arranged the specimens brought back by Captain *Cook from his first voyage. In 1773 he returned to his birth place to practise medicine. During the next 20 years his observation of smallpox cases seemed to confirm the local belief that dairymaids who contracted cowpox (the milder bovine form of the disease) were immune. This led him to inoculate a boy of eight with lymph taken from cowpox sores (1796). Jenner’s account of this and subsequent successful vaccinations was published in his Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae (1798). A number of leading physicians soon declared their acceptance of the idea and the opposition of the majority of other doctors was overcome when the number of deaths from smallpox fell by about two thirds in less than a decade. Parliament awarded him £30,000 for his discovery which was rapidly taken up throughout the world.

Fisk, D. M., Jenner of Berkeley. 1959; Rains, A. J. H., Edward Jenner and Vaccination. 1974.

Jensen, Johannes Vilhelm (1873–1950). Danish novelist and lyric poet. His native Jutland provides a background for his Himmerland Tales (1898–1910). His six-volume epic The Long Journey (1908–22) traces the evolution of humanity from pre-glacial times to the age of *Columbus. A convinced Darwinian, he was a prolific mythmaker. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature (1944).

Nedergaard, L., Johannes V. Jensen. 1968.

Jeremiah (?650–c.570 BCE). Hebrew prophet. Active from c.626 BCE during the reign of the Judaean kings Josiah (d.609 BCE) and Jehoiakim (d.598 BCE), he spoke against the contemporary worship of gods other than Jehovah. This view, he foretold, would bring divine retribution in the form of attack from the north. When these prophecies were fulfilled in the assault by the Babylonians, he urged submission to what he saw as a just punishment of the Jews by Jehovah. This view aroused great hostility and he was kidnapped and exiled to Egypt c.586.

Blank, S. H., Jeremiah, Man and Prophet. 1961.

Jerome, Jerome K(lapka) (1859–1927). English humorous writer and playwright. His best known works are Three Men in a Boat (1889), Three Men on the Bummel (1900), and the morality play The Passing of the Third Floor Back (1908).

Jerome, St (Sophronius Eusebius Hieronymus) (c.340–420). Latin Doctor of the Church, born in Dalmatia. Educated in Rome, after a period of travel and study he fell ill at Antioch and for a time lived as an ascetic in the desert. He was ordained priest in 379. In 382 he went to Rome, became the secretary of Pope *Damasus and was commissioned to revise Latin translations of the Gospels and Psalms. On the death of the pope he again went to Antioch where he was joined by Paula, a wealthy Roman matron. and a party of female devotees with whom he visited sacred sites in Egypt and the Holy Land before settling at Bethlehem, where he founded a convent with Paula in charge of the women, he of the men. Here (from c.385) he spent the rest of his life and made his famous Latin translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, which, together with his New Testament revisions, forms the ‘Vulgate’ translation still used by Roman Catholics. In addition, he wrote biographies of well-known Christians, theological works, commentaries and letters. He is commemorated on 30 September.

Jespersen, Jens Otto Harry (1860–1943). Danish philologist. Professor of English at Copenhagen University 1893–1920, and an outstanding phonetician, he wrote several studies of English grammar, and originated (1928) the international language ‘Novial’.

Jesus Christ (Greek name: Iesous Christos. Aramaic: Yeshu’a Mashiah. Also known as Jesus of Nazareth, to his contemporaries Yeshu’a ben Yosef) (c.8/4 BCE–30 CE). Jewish teacher and prophet; to his followers, Son of God and the central figure of Christianity. The main sources for the life of Jesus are the Letters of St *Paul, the Acts of the Apostles, the four Gospels, which barely cover 40 days, two brief references to the crucifixion in *Suetonius and *Tacitus and a disputed passage in *Josephus. The synoptic Gospels (attributed to *Mark, *Matthew and *Luke) were written after the Pauline epistles, partly aimed at a Gentile audience and playing down Jesus’ Judaism. *John’s Gospel, written about 100, is more theological and mystical, deeply Hellenistic and anti-Jewish, and less biographical. Archaeological research in Palestine and the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls suggest interesting parallels between the Essenes and Jesus’ teachings, but no specific evidence has been found.

The Gospel story, set in Judaea (Palestine) under Roman occupation with client Jewish rulers, is told with significant variations by the evangelists. Matthew and Luke state that Jesus was born, after the miraculous conception (‘The Annunciation’) by his mother, Mary, at Bethlehem in Judaea, where *Joseph, a Nazarene carpenter (or builder?) descended from *David, had brought his wife (or betrothed) for a census or to pay a Roman tax. (There are some historical and logical difficulties with these accounts: Jesus’ background and his probable birthplace was Galilean, the Bethlehem claim by Matthew and Luke is presumably to reinforce Davidic links and Old Testament prophecies. Matthew asserts that Jesus was born in the reign of *Herod (d.4 BCE) while Luke specifies the year of a Roman census (6–7 CE). According to Matthew, soon after the birth of Jesus, his parents took him to Egypt to escape Herod’s Massacre of the Innocents. The family returned to Nazareth (a village near Sepphoris) where Jesus was brought up. Matthew xiii: 55–56 refers to the brothers *James, Joses, Simon and Judas and to sisters but Catholic teaching insists that Jesus had no siblings. A visit to Jerusalem at the age of 12 is the only recorded incident of his youth and early manhood but presumably he worked as a carpenter in Nazareth. Nothing is known of his education except that his literacy surprised his contemporaries. Baptised in the River Jordan by his kinsman *John the Baptist, after 40 days of ‘temptation in the wilderness’ he began his public ministry, a timing possibly determined by John’s arrest by Herod Antipas. He also chose 12 disciples, beginning with Simon (*Peter) and *Andrew. His career as preacher, which lasted two (perhaps three) years, was largely confined to Galilee with its mixed population of Arabs, Greeks, Syrians and Phoenicians, although he travelled in Samaria and as far north as Sidon, visited Jerusalem several times, and lived in Capernaum. The chronology of his life is uncertain. The Gospels are silent on Jesus’ marital status and celibacy was rare among Jewish males. References to his age are ambiguous: Luke iii: 39 says he was ‘about 30’ when he began his mission while John viii:57 refers to him as ‘not yet 50’. The crucifixion could have been as late as 36 CE. The Gospels record 34 miracles by Jesus: three raised from the dead, seven cured of blindness, five of paralysis, and the feeding of two great crowds, one of 4000 another of 5000. In his preaching he used many parables of which the Gospels recount 40, illustrating the Fatherhood of God, the closeness of the Kingdom of Heaven, the brotherhood of man and the need for repentance. The disciples frequently failed to grasp the significance of his mission and it was many months before Peter recognised him as the Christ, ‘the Son of the living God’ at Caesarea Philippi (Matthew xvi:16). Included in the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew v, vi, vii) are the Beatitudes, the Lord’s Prayer, and his limitation of the Mosaic Law. Later, Jesus sent out 70 (or 72) followers to preach throughout Palestine (Luke x:16). His popularity clearly dismayed the Jewish leaders, whose hypocrisy and rigidity he attacked. As Passover drew near Jesus and his disciples set out for Jerusalem. His approach caused great excitement in the city crowded with Jews gathered to celebrate the feast of Jewish independence. Jesus added to this by driving the money-lenders from the Temple. *Judas Iscariot, one of the 12 apostles, betrayed Jesus to the authorities, according to the Gospels, but his motivation is obscure: he may have been a disappointed zealot concerned that Jesus’ kingdom was ‘not of this world’. Then came the Last Supper, from which Judas Iscariot stole out to complete his betrayal, the night of prayer in the garden of Gethsemane, the arrest, a rushed hearing on a charge of blasphemy before a Jewish tribunal (which had no power to inflict a death penalty), and an appearance before the Roman procurator, Pontius *Pilate, at the Citadel (formerly Herod’s palace). Pilate first attempted to refer the case to *Herod Antipas, tetrach of Galilee who returned the case. Pilate eventually condemned Jesus to death on a charge of sedition, based on a misunderstood claim to Jewish kingship. The crucifixion took place immediately, on a Friday, at Golgotha (Calvary), outside Jerusalem. Permission was given for the body to be interred to the sepulchre of *Joseph of Arimathea which was found to be empty on the morning of the third day (Easter Sunday). He appeared first to *Mary Magdalen, then to the disciples and others on several occasions in different places until the time, 40 days later when (in the words of the Apostles’ Creed), ‘he ascended into Heaven’. The Gospels and Paul’s Letters seem to have been written in the expectation of an imminent Second Coming.

In the Christian calendar devised in the 6th century by *Dionysius Exiguus, the starting point was the Annunciation of Jesus. Year I Anno Domini (‘Year of Our Lord’) was year 754 of the Roman calendar. This estimate was probably four to eight years too late.

Schillebeeckx, E., Jesus. 1979; Wilson, I., Jesus: The Evidence. 1984; Pelikan, J., Jesus through the Centuries. 1985; Wilson, A. N., Jesus. 1992; Vermes, G., The Changing Faces of Jesus. 2000; The Authentic Gospel of Jesus. 2003.

Jezebel (c.875–852 BCE). Phoenician princess. The wife of Ahab, king of Israel, she introduced the worship of Baal and her name became a byword for wickedness or a painted wayward woman. She was eventually trampled to death by the horses of the successful rebel, Jehu, and reputedly eaten by dogs (II Kings ix:32).

Jhabvala, Ruth Prawer (1927–2013). Jewish-British-American writer, born in Cologne. She lived in India 1951–75 and the US 1975–2013 and became famous for her 24 film scripts, including Shakespeare Wallah (1965), Quartet (1981), Room with a View (1986) The Remains of the Day (1993) and won Academy Awards for Room with a View (1986) and Howard’s End (1992). She won the Booker Prize with her novel Heat and Dust (1975).

Jiang Jieshi see Chiang Kai-shek

Jiang Qing see Mao Zedong

Jiang Tsolin and Jiang Xuehliang see Zhang Tsolin and Zhang Xuehliang

Jiang Zemin (1926– ). Chinese Communist official. Educated in Shanghai, he was a bureaucrat until appointment as Minister for the Electronics Industry 1983–85, Mayor of Shanghai 1985–87, and First Secretary of the Communist Party in Shanghai 1987–89. A son-in-law of *Li Xiannian and protégé of *Deng Xiaoping, he became General-Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party 1989–2002 and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces 1989–2004. He was President of the People’s Republic of China 1993–2003. His position was strengthened at the 1997 Party Congress and he made a successful visit to the US.

Jimenes see Ximenes de Cisneros, Francisco

Jiménez, Juan Ramón (1881–1958). Spanish poet. Although many of his poems are written in an evocative and melancholy mood he is a modernist in the sense that he constantly introduces new words, new sound-pictures and rhythms, e.g. those of jazz, from the modern world. He had much influence in Spain during the republican era but on the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War (1936) went to America and later lived in Florida and Puerto Rico. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature (1956), the citation praising the ‘high spiritual quality and artistic purity’ of his lyrics.

Young, H. T., Juan Ramón Jiménez. 1968.

Jinnah, Muhammad Ali (originally Mahomedali Jinnahbhai) (1876–1948). Pakistani politician, born in Karachi. He studied law in London, was called to the bar and became deeply impressed by W. E. *Gladstone. He practised in Bombay, entered politics in 1906 and became President of the All-India Muslim League 1913–47, although continuing to practice as a barrister in London for some years. He tried at first to work in concert with the Indian National Congress, was present at the Round Table Conference 1930–31 and promised to try to make the 1935 constitution effective. Gradually, however, he became convinced that Hindus and Muslims could not work in harmony and from 1940 he strenuously advocated the partition of India by the creation of a Muslim state to be known as Pakistan. All subsequent British attempts at compromise broke down, when the two dominions of India and Pakistan were established by a British Act of Parliament (August 1947). Jinnah became the first Governor-General 1947–48 of Pakistan. Known as ‘Quaid-i-Azam’ (Great Leader), he died of tuberculosis.

Hodson, H. V., The Great Divide. 1969; McDonagh, S., Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Maker of Modern Pakistan. 1971; Wolpert, S., Jinnah of Pakistan. 1984.

Joachim, Joseph (1831–1907). Hungarian-Jewish violinist, composer and teacher. A child prodigy, at the age of 12 he became the protégé of *Mendelssohn who conducted his London début (1844) in *Beethoven’s violin concerto. He made many return visits to England. He became (1868) director of the Berlin Conservatoire (Hochschule) and founded (1869) the celebrated Joachim Quartet. He wrote much performed cadenzas for violin concertos by *Mozart, *Beethoven and *Brahms, revived J. S. *Bach’s sonatas and partitas for solo violin, and the late Beethoven quartets, and collaborated with *Schumann, Brahms and *Dvořák. His gramophone recordings (1903) are the earliest by a major violinist. His compositions are now neglected.

Joan of Arc, St (Jeanne d’Arc) (c.1412–1431). French heroine, known as the ‘Maid of Orléans’, born in Domrémy. The daughter of prosperous and devout peasants living on the borders of Lorraine, at 13 she began to hear mysterious voices, which she claimed to be those of St Michael, St Margaret and St Catherine, and became convinced that she had been chosen by God to deliver France from the English. Receiving a specific call to rescue beleaguered Orléans she went, early in 1429, to Robert de Baudricourt, in command of the neighbouring castle of Vaucouleurs, and persuaded him to supply an escort to take her to the Dauphin (the future *Charles VII) at Chinon. Having convinced him and the ecclesiastics who examined her of the genuineness of her call, she was allowed to join the army gathered for the relief of Orléans. Wearing armour, and with the shining confidence stemming from complete faith in her divine summons, she so inspired the troops that on 8 May 1429, within 10 days of her coming, the siege of Orléans was raised. Joan’s next move was to persuade Charles to be crowned. Accompanied by Joan and with an army of 12,000 men, he marched deep into enemy-held territory to Rheims, where in the cathedral, the traditional place for the crowning of French kings, the coronation was held. The event raised French morale to its highest point and Joan pressed for an immediate advance on Paris, but Charles dallied and before anything was achieved Joan had been captured (May 1430) while she was leading a sortie from Compiègne, threatened by Burgundian attack. The Burgundians sold Joan to their English allies. She was tried by an ecclesiastical court, presided over by Pierre Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais, which found her guilty of witchcraft and heresy. She had defended herself with great skill and superb courage, but now for the first time she weakened and made a recantation. almost immediately withdrawn: she was burned at the stake (30 May 1431) in the market place at Rouen. The judgment was reversed in 1456 and Joan was canonised in 1920 by Pope Benedict XV. She was the subject of Voltaire’s La Pucelle and dramas by *Schiller, *Shaw and *Anouilh.

Sackville-West, V., Joan of Arc. 1936; Rankin, D. S., and Quintal, C., The First Biography of Joan of Arc with the Chronicle Record of a Contemporary Account. 1964; Warner, M., Joan of Arc. 1999; Castor, H., Joan of Arc. 2015.

João (John) I (1357–1433). King of Portugal and the Algarves 1385–1433. The ex-nuptial son of King Pedro the Just/the Cruel, he was pushed into the throne since the legitimate heir, Beatriz, was married to the King of Castile. His wife was Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of *John of Gaunt. João II (1455–1495, succeeded 1481) gave encouragement and help to *Bartolomeo Diaz who rounded the Cape of Good Hope (1488). João III (1502–1557, succeeded 1521) was responsible for the introduction (1533) of the Inquisition into Portugal. João IV (1603–1656, succeeded 1640) was the first king of the house of Bragança (Braganza), his reign marking the end of 60 years’ union with Spain. His daughter Catherine married *Charles II of England. João V (1689–1750), succeeded 1707) was a great patron of learning. Fifty thousand men were employed for 13 years on the palace and monastery of Mafra which he started. João VI (1769–1826, succeeded 1816) took refuge in Brazil during the Napoléonic Wars and remained there until 1821. In 1822 Brazil became independent with his son *Pedro as first emperor.

Livermore, H. V., A New History of Portugal. 1969.

Job. Old Testament hero. The character of Job, according to the narrative in the Book of Job, was tested and his spiritual pride cured by the loss of his property and family and by much illness and suffering, all of which he endured with exemplary patience; wealth and a long life were his eventual reward. The authority of both story and text is a matter of controversy.

Jobs, Steve (Steven Paul) (1955–2011). American designer and entrepreneur, born in San Francisco. After a modest education in Oregon, he worked for Hewlett-Packard and Atari, and in 1976 was the designer, with Steve *Wozniak, of the Apple I computer, followed by the more successful Apple II and the Macintosh. He was chairman of Apple Computer Inc. 1975–85, resigning after personality clashes with his board. He founded NeXT Inc., in 1984 and Tim *Berners-Lee used a NeXT computer to develop the World Wide Web (WWW). Jobs returned to Apple as Chief Executive in 1996. Essentially a designer and a marketer of genius, he developed the iPhone, iPad, iTunes, iPod, Pixar and the laser printer. He lived at Palo Alto and died of pancreatic cancer, after a long illness. His death was marked by an extraordinary outpouring of grief, internationally. However, colleagues found him erratic, domineering and difficult to work with.

Isaacson, W., Steve Jobs. 2011.

Jodl, Alfred Josef Ferdinand (1890–1946). German general. Chief of Operations Staff of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces (OKW) 1939–45, he served directly under *Keitel. Sometimes described as the ‘arch planner of the war’, the great victories by which Europe and much of Russia were overrun were made possible by his strategic concepts and brilliant grasp of intricate detail. He signed the instrument of unconditional surrender at Rheims (May 1945). He was tried and hanged at Nuremberg for having authorised the execution of commandos and prisoners of war. In 1953, a German court posthumously cleared him.

Joffre, Joseph Jacques Césaire (1852–1931). French marshal, born in the Pyrénées-Orientales. Son of a vigneron, his early career as an engineer officer was spent mainly in the colonies, Tongking, French Sudan, Madagascar, and during a successful rescue operation (1894) he captured Timbuktu. An agnostic and freemason (unusual in the French Army’s higher ranks), he became a divisional commander (1905) and Chief of the General Staff (1911), a post that made him automatically Commander-in-Chief of the French armies when World War I broke out. The original defence plans broke down, but the great victory of the Marne (September 1914), which halted and repelled the German advance on Paris, was largely due to his courage and decision. The prolonged stalemate which followed the stabilisation of the line, coupled with the heavy losses incurred on the Somme and at Verdun, caused his replacement (December 1916) by General *Nivelle. He was made a marshal in 1916 (the first created since 1870), elected to the Académie française in 1918 and received the British OM in 1919.

Johanson, Don(ald Charles). (1943– ). American palaeoanthropologist. Educated at the Illinois and Chicago universities, he held a chair at the Case Western Reserve University and, from 1997, in Arizona. In November 1974, with Mauruce Taieb and Yves Coppens, in Hadar, Ethiopia, he discovered the first skeleton of a new anthropoid species Australopithecus afarensis, named ‘Lucy’ after a *Beatles’ song. His successful books included Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind (1981), Lucy's Child: The Discovery of a Human Ancestor (1989) and From Lucy to Language (1996).

John the Baptist, St (Yohan’an) (c.9/5 BCE–28/29 CE). Jewish prophet. According to the account in St Luke’s Gospel, an angel appeared to a priest called Zacharias to tell him that his prayers had been answered and that his wife Elizabeth, hitherto believed barren, would bear him a son. This son, John, appeared (c.27 CE) in the desert beyond the River Jordan giving warning of the judgement to come and ‘preaching the baptism of repentance and the remission of sins’. Some asked him if he was the promised Messiah but this he denied saying that he was only the forerunner of a mightier one, ‘the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose’. John showed his fearlessness in denouncing sin when he rebuked Herod Antipas for marrying his brother Philip’s wife, Herodias. Cast into prison, he was executed at the request (prompted by her mother Herodias) of Salome—unnamed in the Bible—who had pleased Herod by her dancing. He may have been a member of the ascetic Essene community.

John (the Divine), St (Aramaic: Yohan’an) (also known as ‘the Apostle’ and ‘the Evangelist) (c.3 CE–100 CE?). Christian apostle, one of the four evangelists. He was a son of Zebedee and brother of *James and like him a Galilee fisherman. Jesus called them the ‘Boanerges’, sons of thunder, because they asked permission to call down fire from Heaven upon a Samaritan village. The identification of John with ‘the disciple whom Jesus loved’ of the fourth Gospel is traditional but disputed, but he was certainly in the inner ring of the apostles. He was present at the Transfiguration and the raising of Jairus’s daughter and took part in preparing the Last Supper. He appears in the Acts as one of the leaders of the early Church. According to tradition, he was exiled to Patmos, and then lived in Ephesus where he took charge of *Mary and died in extreme old age. Around 540, *Justinian built a great basilica on the supposed site of his grave. (It is now being restored.)

St John is the reputed author of the fourth Gospel, three Epistles and the Book of Revelation (the Apocalypse). The last has been the subject of endless debate, and the author was probably Greek. Of the Epistles, only the first can, with any degree of certainty, be ascribed on grounds of style to the author of the Gospel. From the 19th century, scriptural scholars assumed that John was the last written of the four canonical Gospels, composed in Greek and showing Hellenistic influence. John denies that Christianity provides just another field for abstract speculation: ‘The Word [Logos] became flesh.’ Throughout there is a much more developed theology than in the three synoptic Gospels.

John (known as John Lackland) (1167–1216). King of England 1199–1216. Born at Oxford, youngest son of *Henry II and *Eleanor of Aquitaine, he succeeded his brother *Richard I, having already attempted to usurp the throne during Richard’s absence on crusade. This and the murder (1204) of his nephew Arthur, a possible dynastic rival, show unscrupulous ambition, but he was not quite the ogre that early historians portrayed; his misfortunes at least matched his crimes. The barons reproached him for losing Normandy, Anjou, Maine and Touraine, but they had done little to help him resist *Philip II, one of the ablest of all French kings. Moreover, in resisting the pope’s claim to enforce his choice of Stephen *Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury, John was only making the same stand as the Emperor and his fellow monarchs were making all over Europe. Again, John’s failure to command the barons’ loyalty left him powerless against a pope as strong and determined as *Innocent III. After England had been placed under an interdict and John himself excommunicated he made abject surrender, even accepting (1213) the pope as overlord. This won him papal support, but Langton, the new archbishop, now headed the barons’ resistance to the king, who was compelled (June 1215) to accept Magna Carta at Runnymede beside the Thames. This famous document, though it aimed at preserving baronial privilege, proved ultimately to be a symbol of the achievement of popular liberties. John’s very virtues as an administrator, with his extension of the power of the royal courts and his reform of the machinery of government, had roused the fears of the barons. By curbing the powers of the king they confirmed their own. John, still struggling against the barons, died at Newark in the following year.

Holt. J. C., Magna Carta. 1965; Warren, W. L., King John. 1991; Church, S., King John: England, Magna Carta and the Making of a Tyrant. 2015; Morris, M., King John: Treachery and Tyranny in Medieval England. 2015.

John (of Austria), Don see Juan de Austria, Don

John (‘the Fearless’: Jean sans Peur/Jan zonder Vrees) (1371–1419). Duke of Burgundy 1404–19. He earned the name ‘Fearless’ by his courage at the siege of Nicopolis (1396) while on crusade. A struggle with Louis, Duke of Orléans, for control of the insane king of France, *Charles VI, ended when John had his rival murdered (1407). The heightened quarrel between the two factions, the Burgundians and the Orléanists (henceforward called Armagnacs, after Count Bernard of Armagnac, by whom they were reorganised), enabled *Henry V of England to enter France and win the battle of Agincourt (1415), from which Burgundy was pointedly absent. After the fall of Rouen (1419) Burgundy and the Dauphin (as head of the royalist or Armagnac faction) became ostensibly reconciled, but at a meeting on Montereau Bridge, Burgundy was murdered by the Dauphin’s followers in revenge for his assassination of the Duke of Orléans 12 years before.

John XXIII, St (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli) (1881–1963). Pope 1958–63. Born near Bergamo, in northern Italy, the son of a peasant, he was ordained in 1904. As apostolic visitor to Bulgaria 1925–35, apostolic delegate to Greece and Turkey 1935–44, papal nuncio to France 1944–53, and the Holy See’s observer at UNESCO in Paris 1946–53, he was remote from the Roman Curia, acquiring knowledge of other faiths and a breadth of vision that proved essential later. He wrote an important biography of St Carlo *Borromeo (5 volumes, 1936–52). In 1953 he became a cardinal and Patriarch (Archbishop) of Venice. After the death of *Pius XII, Roncalli was elected as Pope on the twelfth ballot and—at 77—apparently as a stop-gap. As Pope, his greatest achievement was the calling of the Second Vatican Council which first met in October 1962. (This was the first ecumenical council since Vatican I under *Pius IX in 1870.) The main aim of Vatican II was the promotion of Christian unity and the relationship of the Church with the modern world, including reforming the liturgy. Though by the simplicity and generosity of his character, Pope John became one of the best loved figures of his generation, he was a firm and shrewd administrator, deeply critical of the bureaucracy that surrounded him.

In 2000, he was beatified by *John Paul II. In 2001, his remains were brought from the Vatican grotto and displayed near the papal altar at St Peter’s. Pope *Francis declared him a saint in July 2013.

John XXIII, Journal of a Soul. 1965; Hebblethwaite, P., John XXIII. 1984.

John XXIII. Title used by the anti-Pope Baldassarre *Cossa.

John, Augustus Edwin (1878–1961). British painter, born at Tenby, Wales. Gypsy life appealed to him and inspired such large and colourful pictures as The Mumpers, but he was best known as a portrait painter. His vigour, vitality and personality are reflected in, e.g. his Bernard Shaw (1914), the cellist Madame Suggia (1927), and Dylan Thomas (1937). John’s paintings display few contemporary trends and owe almost everything to his own intuitive talent. He was elected ARA in 1921, RA in 1928, and awarded the OM in 1942. His sister, Gwen John (1876–1939), the model for and mistress of *Rodin, was distinguished for delicate, sensitive paintings, many of cats. His sailor son, Sir Caspar John (1903–1984), was First Sea Lord at the Admiralty 1960–63.

Holroyd, M., Augustus John. 1975.

John Chrysostom, St (347–407). Syrian prelate, born at Antioch. Ordained priest (386), he soon gained a great reputation as a preacher (Chrysostom = ‘golden mouthed’). In 398 the emperor Arcadius secured his appointment as Patriarch of Constantinople. His outspoken preaching, however, which included attacks on the empress Eudoxia, earned the hostility of the court. He was temporarily exiled (403) and in 404 banished to Armenia. He died of exhaustion while walking to another place of exile in Pontus. Among his many works are On the Priesthood, an early treatise, and his Homilies, which give some idea of the eloquence for which he was famous. The liturgy of St Chrysostom has no authentic claim to the ascription. One of the four ‘great Doctors of the Greek Church’, he was a ferocious anti-Semite but had his admirers, including Cardinal *Newman.

John, Sir Elton Hercules (Reginald Kenneth Dwight) (1947– ). English singer and composer. He attempted to mix pop and rock styles, toured widely and made films and records. A version of his greatest hit, Candle in the Wind, was performed at the funeral of *Diana, Princess of Wales.

John of Gaunt (1340–1399). English prince, born in Ghent. Named for his birthplace, he was the fourth son of *Edward III and having acquired the vast Lancastrian estates through his first wife, Blanche, was created Duke of Lancaster in 1362. After his second marriage, to Constance of Castile, he assumed the title King of Castile (1372), but having failed to establish himself he abandoned his claim when his daughter married (1388) the Castilian heir. When Edward III’s powers began to fail, John of Gaunt virtually ruled the kingdom and continued in power during part of *Richard II’s minority. In 1390 he was created Duke of Aquitaine and again was unsuccessful in establishing control of an overseas territory. In 1396 he married his mistress Catherine *Swynford, and obtained from Richard legitimisation for her three sons, who took the name of Beaufort. A descendant, Margaret Beaufort, was the mother of *Henry VII. John of Gaunt gave, for a time, powerful support to John *Wyclif with the political aim of combating Church privilege. He was a patron of *Chaucer (his brother-in- law) (*Henry IV).

Armitage-Smith, S., John of Gaunt. 1964.

John of Leyden (Jan Beuckelzoon) (1509–1536). Dutch anabaptist. An innkeeper of Leyden, he became a wandering preacher and established (1533) in Munster a ‘Kingdom of Zion’ in which he instituted polygamy and community of goods. Within a year the city was captured by the Bishop of Munster, and John and his chief supporters were tortured and killed.

John of Salisbury (c.1115–1180). English ecclesiastic, born in Salisbury. Educated in France and a pupil of *Abelard, he was secretary to Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury and went on missions to the Roman Curia. He wrote on Aristotle and was exiled to France by *Henry II in 1163. He wrote a life of *Becket, whose murder he witnessed, and pressed for his canonisation. John became Bishop of Chartres in 1176 and died there.

John of the Cross, St (San Juan de la Cruz) (1542–1591). Spanish mystic and monk. He joined St *Teresa in trying to restore a stricter discipline for the Carmelite monks and nuns. This involved him in much persecution and eventually led to a split between the reformed houses of ‘discalced’ (i.e. shoeless or barefoot) and ‘calced’ Carmelites. Throughout the many vagaries of fortune resulting from the quarrel John was writing, in language combining great beauty of expression with spiritual ecstasy, the three great poems, with commentaries on them, upon which his fame rests: Dark Night of the Soul, The Spiritual Canticle and The Living Flame of Love. Together they describe the full range and depth of the mystical experiences of a contemplative life. He was canonised in 1726.

John Paul I (Albino Luciani) (1912–1978). Pope 1978. The son of poor parents, he was ordained a priest in 1935, became Bishop of Vittorio Veneto 1958–69, Patriarch of Venice 1969–78 and a cardinal in 1973. On the death of *Paul VI, he was elected Pope on the fourth ballot. Regarded as a theological conservative, but with wide pastoral experience and great personal simplicity, he ended some of the Vatican’s traditional pomp. He died unexpectedly after a reign of 33 days.

John Paul II, St (Karol Wojtyla) (1920–2005). Pope 1978–2005. Born near Krakow, the son of an army lieutenant, he received a secular high school education, worked in a quarry and chemical factory, was active in Poland’s anti-Nazi resistance and studied theology in an underground seminary. Ordained in 1946, he became a student chaplain and university teacher, writing many books and articles. Archbishop of Krakow 1963–78, created cardinal in 1967, he was elected Pope on the eighth ballot (24 Oct. 1978) after the sudden death of *John Paul I, becoming the first non-Italian pope since *Adrian VI (elected 1523) and the youngest since *Pius IX. He made 104 papal journeys to 129 countries, and was the first pope to visit a mosque or synagogue. He reaffirmed traditional Catholic principles to large and enthusiastic congregations. His strong support for Lech *Walesa and Solidarity was a major factor in the collapse of Communism in Poland and, ultimately, the USSR. In 1993 he visited Russia and issued the encyclical Veritatis Splendor, a condemnation of liberalism, contraception and the exercise of private moral judgment. In March 2000 he asked for forgiveness for past ‘errors and sins’ committed by the Church against women, indigenous peoples, non-Christians and Jews and visited Jordan and Israel, where he referred to the Holocaust. His pontificate was the second longest in Church history, after Pius IX, and he proclaimed a record 483 saints. In July 2013 his canonisation was announced by Pope *Francis.

Bernstein, C. and Politi, M., His Holiness. 1996.

John. Portuguese kings see João

Johns, Jasper (1930– ). American painter, sculptor and printmaker, born in Georgia. He grew up in South Carolina, and after army service moved to New York where he was influenced by Robert *Rauschenberg, his partner 1954–61, and held his first one-man exhibition in 1958. Johns used familiar, even banal, objects as the subjects of his paintings: numbers, alphabets, flags, maps, dart boards, cross-hatched patterns with subtle tonal and textural variations between each work in the series. He often painted in encaustic, wax paints which were then baked, and made sculptures of familiar objects such as bottles and brushes in a coffee can. His painting False Start (1959) sold for $US80 million in 2006. His Map (1961) is at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2011.

Johnston, J., Jasper Johns: Privileged Information. 1996.

Johnson, Amy (1903–1941). English pioneer aviator, born in Hull. She became (1930) the first woman to fly alone from London to Australia (in 19 days). She made record flights e.g. from London to Cape Town and back (1932 and 1936) and, with her husband, James Allan Mollison (1905–1959), from London to the US (1933). During World War II she flew aircraft from factories to airfields and is believed to have drowned after parachuting into the Thames.

Johnson, Andrew (1808–1875). 17th President of the US 1865–69. Born in North Carolina, his parents were illiterate and he never went to school. Trained as a tailor, he set up his own business in Greenville, Tennessee. He soon became active in local politics as the champion of the ‘little man’, in local government, the state legislature and as a Member of the US Congress 1843–53. Governor of Tennessee 1853–57 and US Senator 1857–62, when the South seceded on the outbreak of the Civil War he declared for the Union and as Military Governor of Tennessee 1862–65 brought his state back to its federal allegiance. In 1864 he was chosen to run with Abraham *Lincoln as Vice President on a ‘National Unity’ ticket but served for only six weeks in that office (March–April 1865). On Lincoln’s assassination, he assumed the Presidency. When the Civil War ended, faced with the difficult task of ‘Reconstruction’, he was convinced that the former slave states should themselves work out their relationship with the victorious North. He asserted that only those who had taken an active part against the Union should be penalised, a policy that incensed Republican radicals; both houses passed a Civil Rights Bill (1866) giving the vote to African-American males, which Johnson vetoed. He unsuccessfully opposed adoption of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution which granted citizenship to former slaves. Johnson’s exaggerated self-importance and attacks on the Republican leadership in Congress unleashed unprecedented antagonism. His dismissal (1867) of *Stanton, Secretary for War, gave his enemies the final excuse they needed for the president’s impeachment. He was acquitted in the Senate, a single vote short of the two thirds needed to convict (35–19). In 1868 he sought the Democratic Party nomination for President but was heavily defeated. Very narrowly re-elected as a US Senator in 1875, he died six months later. In 20 Presidential ranking lists by US historians and political scientists, Johnson scored No. 37 in the aggregate.

McKitrick, E., Andrew Johnson, a Profile. 1969; Trefousse, H. L., Andrew Johnson. A Biography. 1989; Stewart, D. O. Impeached. 2002.

Johnson, (Alexander) Boris (de Pfeffel) (1964– ). English journalist, historian and Conservative politician, born in New York City. Describing himself as ‘a human melting pot’, his ancestry was diverse, including English, Russian-Jewish, Circassian-Turkish and King *George II. Educated in Brussels and Eton, he read classics at Oxford, taught in Australia 1982–83, and became a controversial journalist and editor of The Spectator 1999–2005. He wrote the autobiographical novel Seventy-Two Virgins (2004), The Churchill Factor (2014), an adulatory work that emphasises his hero’s eccentricities, and books on cars, Rome and London. MP 2001–08, 2015– , he was Mayor of London 2008–16. He led the successful ‘Brexit’ campaign in the June 2016 referendum, hoped to secure the prime ministership after David *Cameron resigned, but was scuttled by his former associates. Theresa *May appointed him as Foreign Secretary 2016–18, but bitter differences over her ‘Brexit’ strategy forced his resignation. When May was unable to carry her legislation for Britain to leave the EU, she resigned as party leader. Johnson won a ballot of party members in July and became Prime Minister 2019– . He won a general election (December 2019) with a comfortable majority and 43.6 per cent of the primary vote. Britain left the EU on 31 January 2020.

Purnell, S., Just Boris: The Irresistible Rise of the Political Celebrity. 2011.

Johnson, Hewlett (1874–1966). English clergyman. Called ‘The Red Dean’, he was ordained in 1905 after work in engineering and social welfare, and became Dean of Manchester 1924–31 and Dean of Canterbury 1931–66. He first visited Russia in 1938 and became famous for his uncritical praise of the Soviet system and of Marxist philosophy in The Socialist Sixth of the World (1939). After World War II he was active in the Peace movement.

Johnson, H., Searching for Light. 1968.

Johnson, Hiram Warren (1866–1945). American Republican politician. A reforming Governor of California 1911–17, he ran as Progressive candidate for Vice President in 1912 with Theodore *Roosevelt and was a US senator 1917–45. Johnson was a radical and an isolationist who opposed US entry to the League of Nations (1919) and United Nations (1945) but supported Franklin *Roosevelt’s New Deal.

Johnson, Jack (John Arthur) (1878–1946). American boxer. By beating Tommy Burns (1908) in Sydney he became the first black world professional heavyweight champion. He lost the title to Jess Willard (1915).

Johnson, Lyndon Baines (‘LBJ’) (1908–1973). 36th President of the US 1963–69. Born in Stonewall, Texas, son of a state legislator, he was educated at the South West State Teachers College, taught briefly, then became a congressman’s secretary. In 1934 he married Claudia Alta (‘Lady Bird’) Taylor (1912–2007), later a successful investor in communications. As a strong supporter of the ‘New Deal’, and protégé of Sam *Rayburn, he directed the National Youth Administration in Texas 1935–37. He was a US Congressman 1937–49 and served briefly in the navy (1941–42), visiting Australia, New Zealand and New Guinea. US Senator 1949–61, and Democratic Leader 1953–60, during *Eisenhower’s presidency, he was a master tactician who built coalitions of support across party lines to defeat or promote legislation. After being defeated for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1960 by John F. *Kennedy, he agreed to take the vice presidential nomination, and served (unhappily) 1961–63. On Kennedy’s assassination in Dallas, in Johnson’s presence, he was immediately sworn in as President and pledged commitment to the ‘Great Society’.

The Civil Rights Act (July 1964) outlawed major forms of discrimination on the basis on race, enthnicity and gender. He also promoted the Economic Opportunity Act (‘war on poverty’, 1964). Despite the deep unpopularity of desegregation measures in the South, Johnson won the 1964 election overwhelmingly, with 61.5 per cent of the popular vote and was the last Democrat candidate for President to win a plurality of white voters. (Barry *Goldwater won his own state of Arizona and five old Confederate states.) The Voting Rights Act (August 1965) implemented, at last, the provisions of the 15th Amendment to the US Constitution (1870), guanteeing equal voting rights for all citizens, but ignored in practice for nearly a century. Johnson also secured a measure of gun control (1968). Johnson’s courage on civil rights, which ran counter to his record as a Texas legislator, destroyed the Democratic Party’s iron grip on the South.

In his most difficult and continuing foreign problem, the war in Vietnam, he greatly increased the scale of American military participation. His credibility eroded over the Vietnam War and he became a symbol of national frustration and division. In March 1968 he withdrew from the presidential contest and secured the Democratic nomination for his Vice President, Hubert *Humphrey. Humphrey was defeated by Richard *Nixon, with George *Wallace winning five southern states. Johnson retired to his ranch at Stonewall, wrote memoirs, The Vantage Point (1971) and died of heart disease. In 18 Presidential rankings by US historians and political scientists, LBJ scored No. 13 in the aggregate.

Caro, R. A., The Years of Lyndon Johnson. 1982, 1990, 2002, 2012, incomplete; Dallek, R., Flawed Giant. 1998.

Johnson, Philip Cortelyou (1906–2005). American architect, born in Ohio. Educated at Harvard, he directed the architecture department of New York’s Museum of Modern Art 1930–36 and 1946–54, and became an influential critic, patron and propagandist of the ‘International Style’ of *Gropius and *Mies. In the 1930s he expressed a homoerotic enthusiasm for *Hitler and the Nazis, a position he later resiled from. As an architect he won recognition with a ‘glass house’ built for himself at New Canaan, Conn. (1949). Further buildings were added in his grounds (to 1965). Johnson’s designs, vehemently attacked as ‘frivolous’ or ‘neo-Fascist’, emphasised elegance and style. He saw architecture as primarily an art form and rejected functionalism, with its strong social concern. Among his major public buildings were the IDS Center at Minneapolis (1973), extensions to the Boston Public Library (1973), the twin towers at Pennzoil Place, Houston (1976) and the Avery Fisher Hall interior, New York (1976), all with John Burgee. He was awarded the first Pritzker Prize for Architecture in 1979.

Schulze, F., Philip Johnson. 1994; Lamster, M., The Man in the Glass House: Philip Johnson, Architect of the New Century. 2019.

Johnson, Samuel (1709–1784). English man of letters, born at Lichfield. Son of a bookseller, as a boy he suffered from scrofula, the ‘King’s evil’, for which he was taken to London to be ‘touched’ by Queen *Anne. He left Pembroke College, Oxford in 1729, without a degree, after a breakdown, compounded by poverty and his sense of isolation, but Oxford awarded him an Honorary MA in 1755 and a DCL in 1775. (He received an Honorary LL.D from Trinity College, Dublin in 1765.) He taught and wrote until his marriage in 1735 to Elizabeth (‘Tetty’) Porter, née Jervis (1689–1752), a widow, provided him with over £600, with which he set up a small school near Lichfield. When this failed he set out (1737) with one of his pupils, David *Garrick, to seek his fortune in London. His first important poem London (1738) appeared anonymously and it was only after several years as a hack writer for the Gentleman’s Magazine, to which he contributed poems, essays and parliamentary reports, that he achieved some degree of fame with his life of his friend, Richard *Savage (1744). The plan of A Dictionary of the English Language appeared in 1749, addressed to Lord *Chesterfield, who received it coolly and was later suitably snubbed. This great work was eventually published in 1755 and an abridgement in 1756. Meanwhile an old play of Johnson’s, Irene, was staged in 1749 at Drury Lane, through Garrick’s kindness, but only ran for nine nights. In the same year came The Vanity of Human Wishes, a satire modelled on one by *Juvenal. Shortly afterwards he began to edit The Rambler 1750–52, which was followed by The Idler 1758–60. The contents of both periodicals were written almost entirely by himself and consisted mainly of essays on literary and social themes. To pay for his mother’s funeral he also wrote, ‘in the evenings of a single week’ a most successful potboiler, Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia, a novel of which the prince’s vain journey in quest of happiness provides the theme. In 1763 Johnson escaped for the first time ‘from the tyranny of writing for bread’ by the grant of a crown pension of £300 a year, and was at last able to enjoy what to him was the greatest pleasure in life, the company and conversation of congenial friends. At this time that most brilliant and sympathetic of recorders, James *Boswell, entered his circle of friends—one of the happiest coincidences of literary history. Other members of the ‘Club’ included *Reynolds, *Burke, *Goldsmith, *Garrick, *Gibbon, Adam *Smith and Boswell’s rival biographer, Sir John Hawkins. Johnson’s wife had died in 1752. In the last 20 years of his life he found great pleasure in the friendship of the lively Mrs Thrale, in whose home he was welcomed as an almost perpetual guest.

During these later years Johnson’s literary works included a comprehensive edition of *Shakespeare’s plays (1765), a notable critical achievement, A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland (1775), a parallel account to one made by Boswell, his companion on the tour, and finally the work which showed his full maturity as a critic, Lives of the Poets (1779–81). A chronic melancholic, markedly eccentric in his mannerisms and probably suffering from Tourette’s Syndrome, he was always fearful of madness. Few writers have so dominated the literary scene as did Johnson in later life and his burial at Westminster Abbey was tribute not only to his work but to a character which, however rugged, was generous-hearted, virtuous, just and (mostly) marked by commonsense.

Boswell, J., The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. 1791; Wain, J., Samuel Johnson. 1974; Meyers, J., Samuel Johnson. The Struggle. 2008; Nokes, D., Samuel Johnson. A Life. 2009.

Johnson, William Eugene (known as ‘Pussyfoot’) (1862–1945). American temperance reformer. His nickname referred to his methods of suppressing illicit traffic in liquor in Indian territory where he served as a special officer (1908–11). He was the dominating figure of the Anti-Saloon League (1912–20). The passage of the 18th constitutional amendment (1920) made prohibition mandatory throughout the US until it was repealed (1933).

Johnston, Sir Harry Hamilton (1858–1927). British colonial administrator. A self-trained botanist, zoologist, linguist and journalist, he led the Royal Society’s expedition (1884) to Mount Kilimanjaro and became a protégé of Lord *Salisbury, pushing hard for imperial expansion in Africa. As Consul-General in Mozambique 1889–91, he worked with Cecil *Rhodes and played a central role in the British acquisition of Malawi (formerly Nyasaland) and large parts of Zambia. He also served in Tunisia, Uganda and the Cameroons and wrote 30 books.

Jokowi (contraction of Joko Widodo) see Widodo, Joko

Joliot-Curie, (Jean) Frédéric (1900–1957). French physicist. He worked at the Radium Institute in Paris and in 1926 married his co-worker Irène *Curie (daughter of Pierre and Marie *Curie), adding her name to his. In 1933 he and his wife, by bombarding boron with accelerated alphaparticles, discovered that radioactivity could be artificially induced in non-radioactive substances. They later also discovered that there is a net emission of neutrons during nuclear fission. They were awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1935). Irène died (1956) of burns caused by radiation from radium. He built the first French atomic reactor (1948) and received the Stalin Peace Prize (1951).

Biquard, P. (trans. Strachan. G.), Frédéric Joliot-Curie: The Man and his Theories. 1965.

Jolley, (Monica) Elizabeth (née Knight) (1923–2007). Australian novelist, born in Birmngham. She migrated to Perth in 1959, working as a nurse, cleaner and teacher. Her novels include Mr Scobie’s Riddle (1983), The Well (1986), The Sugar Mother (1989) and The Orchard Thieves (1995).

Jolson, Al (originally Asa Yoelson) (1886–1950). American singer and entertainer, born in Russia. He emigrated to the US c.1895, began his career in the New York variety theatre in 1899 and became successful by bringing a powerful voice and melodramatic style to sentimental songs, including Mammy. His film The Jazz Singer (1927) was the first to use sound so that the plot could progress through dialogue.

Freedland, M., Jolson. 1972.

Jonah (fl. c.760 BCE). Jewish prophet and missionary. The Book of Jonah relates, metaphorically, how he was summoned by God to go to Nineveh, the capital of Assyria, to preach repentance. To evade this mission he sailed for Tarshish, but a storm convinced the crew that a bearer of ill luck was among them. They established, by casting lots, that this was Jonah and threw him overboard. He was swallowed by a great fish which spewed him up three days later, alive, and he went to Nineveh, whose citizens he induced to repent.

Jones, David (1895–1974). English poet and artist. His major work In Parenthesis (1937) records, in a melange of blank verse and prose, his experiences and feelings during World War I.

Jones, Ernest (1879–1958). British neurologist and psychiatrist, born in Wales. He was *Freud’s pupil, supporter and biographer.

Jones, Inigo (1573–1652). English architect, born in London. He was a carpenter and painter in London, then travelled extensively in Italy and became deeply impressed by the buildings of *Palladio, whose style, with its classical features, he introduced to England. Of his works his finest is held to be the Banqueting House at Whitehall (1619–22), the only part of the palace to survive. The elaborate plans he made (c.1638) for rebuilding the rest of the palace were never executed. Another masterpiece is the Queen’s House, Greenwich, which reveals his liking for centrally planned cubic buildings, a characteristic of his work elsewhere; the famous double cube room at Wilton is his design. In addition to his architectural work he planned the layout of Lincoln’s Inn Fields and Covent Garden. He was Surveyor-General of works 1615–43, but both *James I and *Charles I employed him to design elaborate sets for court masques as much as for building. As a theatrical designer he is said to have introduced the proscenium arch and movable scenery. Inigo Jones was the first in England to make a full-time profession of architecture.

Orgel, S., and Strong, R., Inigo Jones. 1973.

Jones, James (1921–1977). American novelist, born in Illinois. His From Here to Eternity (1951), about army life in Hawaii just before Pearl Harbor, became a successful film (1953) with Burt Lancaster, Montgomery Clift, Deborah Kerr and Frank *Sinatra and won eight Oscars.

Jones, Mary Harris (‘Mother Jones’) (1830–1930). American labour organiser, born in Ireland. After the deaths of her family, she began her 50–year career as a trade union organiser in 1867 and was a founder of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in 1905.

Jones, Owen (1809–1874). English architect, writer and designer, born in London. Superintendent of works for the Great (London) Exhibition of 1851, he wrote The Grammar of Ornament (1856) which promoted design quality in mass produced articles, and created interest in Moorish architecture and decoration.

Jones, (John) Paul (1747–1792). American sailor, born in Scotland. His name was John Paul until he changed it, probably in 1773. Paul Jones, who had served in a slaver for five years, had already visited America several times before offering his services to the American colonists who, to aid their bid for independence, were in 1775 fitting out a small fleet. In 1778 in a brig of 18 guns he made several raids on the Scottish coast. He fired a ship and spiked 36 guns at Whitehaven in Cumberland and captured a sloop in Belfast Lough. In the following year, in command of a small French squadron in American service, he captured two British men-of-war in a fierce encounter off Flamborough Head, Yorkshire. For this he was awarded a congressional medal. In 1788 he served for a year in the Black Sea as a Rear Admiral in *Catherine the Great’s navy, then at war with the Turks. He died in Paris, but in 1905 his remains were taken to the US, where he is regarded as a national hero.

Morrison, S. E., John Paul Jones. 1960.

Jones, Robert (Bobby) Tyre (1902–1971). American amateur golfer. He competed in the US amateur championship at the age of 14 and later won the US open championship four times and the British open championship three times. He was the outstanding golfer of the 1920–30 decade.

Jones, Sir William (1746–1794). English judge and comparative philologist, born in London. Son of a mathematician who promoted use of the symbol pi (π), educated at Harrow and Oxford, he mastered Latin, Greek, Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit and Bengali and became a judge in the Bengal Supreme Court 1783–94. With the encouragement of Warren *Hastings, he founded the Asiatic Society (later the Asiatic Society of Bengal) in 1784 to encourage oriental research, including Sanskrit. He proposed the hypothesis, now generally accepted, of a common origin for a group of languages, which Thomas *Young later called Indo-European (1813). He died in Kolkota (Calcutta).

Franklin, M., Orientalist Jones: Sir William Jones, Poet, Lawyer and Linguist, 1746–94. 2013.

Jonson, Ben (1573–1637). English dramatist and poet. He had a good education at Westminster School, but was bricklayer, soldier and actor before taking to writing. Eighteen of about 30 of his plays survive. Every Man in his Humour (1598) was his first success (the word ‘humour’, as always in that period having a physical as well as a psychological connotation). In the same year he was imprisoned and his goods confiscated for killing an actor in a duel. The Poetaster (1601), though set in ancient Rome, was an attack on *Dekker and *Marston which caused offence. His first tragedy Sejanus was acted by *Shakespeare’s company in 1603, but neither this nor a later tragedy from Roman history, Catiline (1611), achieved much success. In collaboration with *Chapman and Marston he wrote Eastward Ho! (1605), for which he was briefly imprisoned for disparaging the Scots. His masterpieces are Volpone or The Fox (1606), a savage attack on human greed, The Alchemist (1610), a lively study of gullibility, and one of his greatest successes, Bartholomew Fair (1614), notable for its vivid picture of low life in London. From 1603 he was also busily employed in writing masques for the court of *James I, some staged by Inigo *Jones. They include The Masque of Beauty (1608), and The Masque of Queens (1609). In 1616 he was given a pension and his literary pre-eminence was fully acclaimed. His many beautiful lyrics include Drink to me only with thine eyes. Jonson was forthright and quick-tempered, but his generosity and sincerity endeared him to a wide circle of friends, including *Donne, *Bacon and Shakespeare and to his patrons, the *Sidneys.

Chute, M., Ben Jonson of Westminster. 1953; Herford, C. H., and Simpson. P. and E. (eds). Works. 2 vols, 1925, 1951; Donaldson, I., Ben Jonson. 2013.

Joplin, Scott (1868–1917). American composer, born in Texarkana. He worked in St Louis, Chicago and New York, wrote The Maple Leaf Rag (1899) and a ragtime opera A Guest of Honour (1900). His second opera Treemonisha (1909) was never performed in his lifetime and his music was forgotten until the film The Sting (1973) revived interest in ragtime. His music was awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 1975.

Jordaens, Jakob (1593–1678). Flemish painter. He lived and worked in Antwerp at the same time as *Rubens, whom he admired and assisted, and *van Dyck. He did not equal these masters due to a certain harshness or crudity in his colour and technique. He peopled even religious and mythological paintings with the earthy, vigorous bourgeois or peasant types he encountered in everyday life.

Joseph (Yosef) (fl. c.1850 BCE). Hebrew patriarch. The elder son of *Jacob and Rachel, he was his father’s favourite and his jealous brothers sold him into slavery in Egypt. There he gained a position of trust in the household of his master Potiphar. Resisting the blandishments of Potiphar’s wife he won the pharaoh’s favour and rose to be chief administrator, established a great granary and when his brothers came to Egypt to buy grain in the years of famine forgave them and secured a home for the family in the land of Goshen. His sons Ephraim and Manasseh became the ancestors of two of the tribes of Israel.

Joseph, St (d. before 30 CE). Jewish carpenter. Born of the *Davidic line, he was a carpenter (or builder?) in Nazareth and a widower when he married *Mary, the mother of *Jesus. He died before the crucifixion and is the patron saint of working men.

Joseph I (1678–1711). Holy Roman Emperor 1705–11. Son of *Leopold I, he was King of Hungary from 1687, and Archduke of Austria, King of Bohemia and Croatia 1705–11. Despite the victories of his general Prince *Eugène of Savoy, he lost the War of the Spanish Succession to France.

Joseph (Josef) II (1741–1790). Holy Roman Emperor 1765–90, Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia 1780–90. Born in Vienna, he was the fourth child but first son of *Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria and the Emperor *Franz I. In 1765 he succeeded as Emperor and ruled the Habsburg domains with his mother, but until she died his authority was limited to military and foreign affairs. After her death (1780) he showed himself as an ‘enlightened despot’ by attacking the power of the Church, reducing the clergy from 63,000 to 27,000 and issuing an edict (1781) granting complete religious toleration. He also abolished serfdom, greatly extended the facilities for general and scientific education, hospital treatment, care of orphans and the insane, and reformed taxation and the criminal law (abolishing the death penalty). He tried to establish German as a common language throughout his dominions. He was essentially a secular, utilitarian social engineer, anticipating *Bentham, and his abolition of coffin burial (for entirely practical reasons) provoked a sense of outrage. To achieve these measures he centralised government in Vienna and extended in every direction the powers of the state, for which, however, he made it clear that he alone was entitled to speak. By this mixture of radicalism and despotism he antagonised many of his subjects, not only clergy, nobles and local administrators but all the inhabitants of the non-German lands. In 1787–88 there was an outright rebellion against Joseph’s laws in the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) and the beginning of the French Revolution weakened his position generally after 1789. Joseph saw little of his chancellor, Prince *Kaunitz, and the Empire fared badly in war and foreign relations during his 10–year reign. He died deeply disillusioned.

Jones, B. O., Joseph II: Enlightenment in Politics. 1966; Beales, D., Joseph II. 2 vols, 1987, 2009.

Joseph, Keith Sinjohn, Baron Joseph (1918–1994). English politician. A Fellow of All Souls, Oxford, he was a Conservative MP 1956–87, Minister for Health and Social Services 1970–74, Secretary of State for Industry 1979–81, and for Education and Science 1981–86. A strong ‘free marketeer’ he drew inspiration from Adam *Smith and Milton *Friedman and promoted Margaret *Thatcher.

Joseph, Père (François Leclerc du Tremblay, known as ‘Eminence Grise’, ‘Grey Eminence’) (1577–1638). French Capuchin friar. Adviser and confidant of Cardinal *Richelieu, this position led to his nickname (from the colour of his habit), now applied to any unofficial power behind the throne. Richelieu used him from 1612 in all the most difficult negotiations of a critical period that included the Thirty Years’ War. Aldous *Huxley’s Grey Eminence gives a fascinating account of this somewhat mysterious personage.

Joseph of Arimathea (fl. 1st century CE). Samaritan merchant. He owned the tomb in which *Jesus was buried. According to legend he was founder of Glastonbury as a Christian shrine (where he is reputedly buried). The Glastonbury thorn which flowered at Christmas was believed to be his staff plunged into the ground.

Joséphine (Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie, later Bonaparte) (1763–1814). Empress-consort of the French 1804–09. Daughter of a planter in Martinique, she married (1779) Alexandre, Vicomte de *Beauharnais, who was guillotined in 1794. After his death Josephine became one of the liveliest members of the gay society that came to the surface after the ending of the Terror. A member of the Directory, *Barras, whose mistress she had been, introduced her to *Napoléon Bonaparte. She married him in 1796 and during the Consulate and Empire she was the centre of his court. As she bore him no children, frustrating his dynastic ambitions, he divorced her (1809) to marry the Austrian archduchess *Marie Louise. Josephine retired to Malmaison. Children of her first marriage included Eugène *Beauharnais and Hortense (1783–1837) who married Louis *Bonaparte and was mother of *Napoléon III.

Knapton, E. J., Empress Josephine. 1963; Aronson, T., Napoleon and Josephine: A Love Story. 1990; Bruce, E., Napoleon and Josephine: An Improbable Marriage. 1995; Delorme, E. P., Josephine: Napoleon’s Incomparable Empress. 2002; Castlelot, A., Josephine. 2009.

Josephson, Brian David (1940– ). British physicist. He shared the 1973 Nobel Prize for Physics for his work on superconductivity in metals leading to the ‘Josephson effect’—a flow of current between two pieces of super-conducting material separated by a thin layer of insulation. He was a professor of physics at Cambridge 1974–2007.

Josephus, Flavius (Yosef ben Mittatyahu) (c.37–c.100). Jewish priest, soldier and historian, born in Jerusalem. Descended from a royal and priestly line of the Maccabees, and a Pharisee, at first he took an active part in the Jewish revolt against the Romans (66) and was made Governor of Galilee. He fought valiantly but, after being captured, he sought and won the favour of *Vespasian (whose family name he adopted), and was with *Titus at the siege of Jerusalem. When the revolt was crushed he was rewarded by a grant of confiscated land, but spent the rest of his life in Rome. There he wrote in halting Greek his History of the Jewish War, the main authority for the events of Jewish history in the first century CE and of the Jewish war (66–70), and The Antiquities of the Jews (written in 93), a history of the Jews from the Creation up to the period covered by his earlier work. His Autobiography is mainly concerned to refute criticism of his own activities before and during the revolt. His knowledge of the country, its religion, politics and people, give the books a particular value except where self defence demands a biased account.

Williamson, G. A., The World of Josephus. 1964.

Joshua (fl. c.1300 BCE). Hebrew leader. Son of Nun of the tribe of Ephraim, he was an assistant to *Moses, one of 12 sent out by him to spy the promised land of Canaan. He succeeded Moses as leader of the tribes of Israel. The Book of Joshua, first in the Old Testament after the Pentateuch, describes the various episodes of the conquest of Canaan.

Jospin, Lionel Robert (1937– ). French Socialist politician. A bureaucrat and academic, he was a deputy 1981–88, Minister for Education 1988–91 and candidate for president in 1995. He became Premier 1997–2002, following a Socialist victory in the National Assembly elections. He was eliminated in the first round of the 2002 presidential election.

Josquin des Prez (c.1450–1521). French (or Burgundian) composer, born probably in Hainaut. A pupil of Johannes *Ockeghem, a master of contrapuntal technique, he was a chorister in Milan, worked for the Sforzas, and sang in the Sistine Chapel in Rome 1486–95. Choirmaster at Cambrai Cathedral 1495–99, he served *Louis XII of France 1499–1516, and became canon of the collegiate church of St Quentin, Condé. He published 17 Masses, at least 100 motets (including Ave Maria, plena gratia …) and many secular songs. The first composer to benefit from the invention of printing, he was a celebrity in his lifetime, regarded as a genius in counterpoint and expressive melody. He was forgotten during the 17th century and partly rediscovered through Charles Burney’s History of Music (1776–89).

Joubert, Petrus Jacobus (1834–1900). South African soldier. As Commandant General of the forces of the Transvaal, he defeated the British in the war of 1880–81 and *Jameson in the Raid of 1896. After directing the siege of Ladysmith in the Boer War he fell ill and died.

Jouhaux, Léon (1879–1954). French trade union leader. As General Secretary 1909–47 of the French General Confederation of Labour (CGT), he played the leading role in promoting the trade union movement in France. He was imprisoned by the Germans in World War II and won the Nobel Peace Prize (1951).

Joule, James Prescott (1818–1889). English physicist. Son of a Salford brewer, he had little formal training but was tutored by *Dalton and showed exceptional aptitude for experimental work. He investigated the transformation of heat into other forms of energy and was one of the first to establish the principle of the conservation of energy. He established (1840) the law concerning the relationship between the heat developed in an electrical circuit and the strength of the current and resistance. He discovered (1843) a method for measuring the mechanical equivalent of heat, and published (1851) the first calculation of the average velocity of a gas molecule. His theories were initially rejected by the Royal Society but in 1850 he was elected a Fellow and awarded its Royal (1852) and Copley (1856) Medals. He is commemorated by the unit of energy, the joule.

Jowett, Benjamin (1817–1893). English classical scholar. A Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford from 1838, and Master 1870–93, he managed to attract and influence a succession of brilliant undergraduates who, for a generation and more, came to exercise an intellectual domination in the academic and political worlds. His own reputation as a possessor of universal knowledge depended as much upon his personality as upon his excellent, but at times inexact, translations of *Plato, *Thucydides and *Aristotle.

Faber, G., Jowett: A Portrait with a Background. 2nd ed. 1958.

Jowitt, William Allen Jowitt, 1st Earl (1885–1957). English lawyer and Labour politician. Educated at Oxford, he became a brilliant advocate and cross-examiner. He had broken terms as MP, 1922–24; 1929; 1929–31; 1939–45, first as a Liberal, then National Labour and Labour after 1939. He served as Attorney-General 1929–32, Solicitor-General 1940–42, first minister of National Insurance 1943–45 and finally Lord Chancellor under *Attlee 1945–51 and Labour’s leader in the House of Lords 1951–55.

Joyce, James (Augustine Aloysius) (1882–1941). Irish novelist and poet, born in Dublin. He was one of 10 surviving children, from 15 births, in the family of a gregarious, hard drinking and profligate civil servant. His mother died in 1903. Educated in Jesuit schools and at University College, Dublin, Joyce became an expert linguist, mastering French, Italian, Latin, modern Greek, German, Norwegian, and some Hebrew, Sanskrit and Arabic. After graduating from UCD in 1903 he attempted to study medicine in Paris for a few months before returning to Dublin. On 16 June 1904 he met Nora Barnacle (1884–1951) and lived with her for the rest of his life. They married in London in 1931.

Joyce both loved and hated the life of Dublin which featured prominently in all his prose works. He lived abroad in self-imposed exile (apart from two brief return visits 1909–10; 1912–13) and distanced himself from the ‘Celtic Twilight’ of modern Irish letters. He lived in Trieste 1905–15, Zürich 1915–20; 1940–41 and Paris 1920–40. For much of his life he had to struggle with poverty, acute eye disease (cataracts and episcleritis) and the schizophrenia of his daughter Lucia.

A short collection of poems Chamber Music (1907), was followed by the short stories, Dubliners (1914: banned in Australia 1929–33), the semi-autobiographical novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916), in which the central character is Stephen Dedalus (named for the Greek craftsman Daedalus), and a play Exiles (1918). He had an early enthusiasm for *Ibsen.

An English patron of literature and political activist, Harriet Shaw Weaver (1876–1961), generously financed Joyce from 1917 until his death. He was strongly encouraged by Ezra *Pound. His other supporters included H. G. *Wells, W. B. *Yeats, Sean *O’Casey and T. S. *Eliot; Bernard *Shaw, E. M.* Forster and D. H. *Lawrence were sceptics. He had one inconsequential meeting with *Proust.

Ulysses (1922) was his first masterpiece. Its 18 ‘episodes’, all named for chapters in *Homer’s Odyssey, describe in minute detail and unprecedented realism a day in the life of Dubliners from 8.00 am to past midnight on Thursday, 16 June 1904 (now celebrated as ‘Bloomsday’). The central characters are Leopold Bloom (parallel to Ulysses/Odysseus), a Hungarian Jew and unsuccessful advertisement canvasser in Dublin, his wife Molly Tweedy Bloom (Penelope), and, in a second coming, their scholarly friend Stephen Dedalus (Telemachus), representing Joyce himself. Joyce makes masterly use of the technique of ‘stream of consciousness’, words and sentences following one another by an automatic process of mental association. Some of the associations, such as similarity of sound (e.g. rhymes and puns) are fairly obvious; some derive from telescoping one or more words or ideas; others, springing from the width and depth of the author’s knowledge, are beyond the grasp of most readers. Ulysses abounds in symbolism. Much of Joyce’s writing has several simultaneous levels of meaning (e.g. ‘Sheashell ebb music wayriver she flows’). He expanded the scope of the modern novel by projecting his characters against the history of western civilisation, revealing his encyclopaedic knowledge of history, mythology, theology, literature, psychology and music.

Ulysses, serialised in parts in The Little Review 1918–20, was published as a single volume in Paris in 1922 by Sylvia Beach’s firm Shakespeare & Co. It was banned as obscene in the United States and the United Kingdom until 1934. Australia lifted its ban in 1937, reimposing it in 1941 and (in theory) it became freely available only in 1953. Joseph Strick’s film Ulysses (1967), with Milo O’Shea as Leopold Bloom, gives a faithful account of the novel but had very limited release and was restricted in Ireland until 2000. (It is available on DVD.)

Pomes Penyeach (1922) was Joyce’s only completed work between 1922 and 1939. Samuel *Beckett was Joyce’s literary assistant and translator 1928–30.

Finnegans Wake, his second masterpiece, took 17 years to complete. This work records the dreams experienced during a single night by Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker (HCE), a Dublin hotel-keeper. His wife is Anna Livia Plurabelle (ALP) and their children are Shem the Penman, Shaun and Issy (Iseult/ Isolde). Fragments appeared in 1924 and 1926, and in 1929 whole chapters were published in the literary review transition under the title Work in Progress. ‘Anna Livia Plurabelle’ (1930) and ‘Haveth Childers Everywhere’ (1931) were published in book form by Faber and Faber. Joyce’s 1929 recording of an excerpt from ‘Anna Livia Plurabelle’ can be downloaded on YouTube. The complete novel was published by Faber and Faber in May 1939. Even some of Joyce’s supporters thought he had gone too far.

Joyce created a multi-dimensional, pun-strewn, language of his own in an attempt to express the complexity and timelessness of the dream-world e.g. ‘Rats! bullowed the Mookse most telesphorously, the concionator, and the sissymusses and the zozzymusses in their robenhauses quailed to hear his tardeynois at all for you cannot wake a silken nouse out of a hoarse oar’ (FW, p. 154). He quotes from 65 languages. A single question in a radio quiz show (FW, pp.126–139) runs to 4646 words, the answer ‘Finn MacCool’ two. Nevertheless, the text can make readers laugh, cry or recoil even when it is not fully understood. 

Finnegans Wake was influenced by the novels of *Swift and *Sterne and *Vico’s cyclical theory of history in LaScienza Nuova. Its recurrent theme is the Fall of man. The novel ends with an incomplete sentence (‘A way a lone a last a loved a long the …’) which then runs into its first words (‘riverrun, past Eve and Adam’s, from swerve of shore to bend of bay, brings us by a commodius vicus of recirculation back to Howth Castle and Environs.’), suggesting that life is part of an endless cycle.

Finnegans Wake has been translated into French, Italian, German, Dutch, Spanish, Hungarian, Polish, Chinese, Japanese and Korean.

Joyce had created his own language, almost a pre-language, more in common with music than conventional linear narrative. T. S. Eliot called Joyce ‘the greatest master of the English language since *Milton’.

Joyce died in Zürich after surgery for a perforated ulcer and is buried there. Unlike Yeats, his remains were not repatriated; however, Dublin commemorates many places associated with Joyce and his characters. He remained a British subject.

Joyce was one of a long list of great writers who failed to win the Nobel Prize for Literature: Ibsen, *Tolstoy, Mark *Twain, *Zola, *Hardy, *James, *Strindberg, *Chekhov, *Conrad, *Wells, *Orwell, *Levi, *Gorki, *Proust, *Musil, *Woolf, *Kafka, Pound, *Borges, *Nabokov, *Malraux, *Greene, *Auden, Arthur *Miller and Tennessee *Williams.

Joyce, S., My Brother’s Keeper. 1958; Ellmann, R., James Joyce. 1959, revised 1982; Bowker, G., James Joyce: A Biography. 2011.

Joyce, William (known as ‘Lord Haw-Haw’) (1906–1946). Irish-American propagandist, born in Brooklyn. After being a speaker and ‘storm trooper’ in Fascist organisations in the East End of London, he went to Germany (August 1939) and became the principal Nazi broadcaster in English during World War II, owing his nickname to his unpleasant sneering voice. After the war he was captured, being held subject to British jurisdiction on the tenuous grounds that he had secured a British passport, was tried, and hanged for treason.

Juan de Austria, Don (né Jeromin, known in English as Don John of Austria) (1547–1578). Spanish soldier and prince, born in Regensburg. The illegitimate son of the emperor *Charles V and Barbara Blomberg, he was brought up in Spain and given princely rank by his half-brother *Felipe II. His most notable exploit, when in command of the combined fleet, was to defeat the Turks at Lepanto (1571). In 1573 he captured Tunis. Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands 1576–78, he died suddenly of fever near Namur and is buried in the Escorial. The first opera written in Australia was Don John of Austria (1847) by Isaac Nathan.

Juan Carlos I (1938– ). King of Spain 1975–2014. Grandson of *Alfonso XIII, he was born in Rome. General *Franco nominated him as his successor in 1969, and he helped in the transition to democracy (*Suárez). In February 1981, he opposed a military coup, which proposed to restore authoritarian rule and called for preservation of democracy. He abdicated in favour of his son *Philip (Felipe) VI.

Juarez, Benito Pablo (1806–1872). Mexican president. A Zapotec Indian, he came as a servant to Oaxaca where, having married his employer’s daughter and graduated in law, he eventually rose to be State Governor 1847–52. As minister of justice in a radical government he attempted to curb the power of the Church and the army. In 1857 the liberals declared him president but the conservatives rose against him and forced him to retire to Vera Cruz. He reentered Mexico City in 1860 and was confirmed as President by the election of 1861. Suspension of interest payments led to a French invasion and the establishment of *Maximilian of Austria as Emperor. After Maximilian’s execution (1867) Juarez was again elected President and resumed his program of reform, but when he was reelected (1871) he failed to quell a revolt by an unsuccessful candidate, Porfirio *Diaz, and shortly afterwards died.

Roeder, R., Juarez and his Mexico. 1947.

Judah (fl. c.1850 BCE). Hebrew patriarch. Fourth son of *Jacob and Leah, he became the ancestor of the tribe that bears his name, to which the Royal House of *David belonged. The area in the south of Palestine occupied by the tribe and that of *Benjamin became, after the death of *Solomon, the separate Kingdom of Judah.

Judas Iscariot (d.c.30 CE). Christian apostle, betrayer of *Jesus Christ. The name Iscariot is of uncertain origin. Perhaps he came from Kerioth or was a member of the Sicarii, a radical Jewish group. He was the treasurer of the apostles, and though no motive for his treachery is given in the Gospels it has been surmised that it was due to disappointment that Jesus had no plans to establish an earthly kingdom. After betraying Jesus for 30 pieces of silver he committed suicide.

Judas Maccabeus see Maccabaeus

Jude, St (also known as Thaddaeus, Lebbaeus or ‘Judas not Iscariot) (fl. 1st century CE). Christian apostle. He may have been a Zealot and, according to tradition, was martyred in Persia. Since the 18th century, Jude has been the patron saint of desperate causes.

Judge, Igor, Baron Judge (1941– ). British jurist, born in Malta. Educated at Cambridge, he was a judge from 1988 and, after the reorganisation of the courts, served as Lord Chief Justice 2008–13.

Jugurtha (c.160–104 BCE). King of Numidia 118–105 BCE. Having won control of Numidia (roughly modern Algeria) by murdering two co-rulers, he provoked the intervention of Rome by a massacre of Roman merchants. By going himself to Rome, he gained a respite, but war was soon resumed. Despite early success Jugurtha was forced to adopt guerrilla tactics by the systematic occupation of his bases by Metellus and *Marius. Finally he was betrayed by his ally, Bocchus of Mauritania, and died in prison at Rome.

Hawthorn, J. R., Rome and Jugurtha. 1969.

Juin, Alphonse Pierre (1888–1967). French soldier. Having fought in World War I and in Morocco, he was taken prisoner during the battle for France (1940) of World War II. Released by the Germans, he was appointed by *Pétain’s Vichy Government to command the French forces in North Africa. He continued in command under *Giraud and *de Gaulle, and subsequently commanded French troops in Italy. He was then successively Chief of the French General Staff 1944–47 and Resident General in Morocco 1947–51. From 1951 he filled important posts in NATO and commanded Allied forces in central Europe 1952–56. In 1952 he became the only (living) French marshal. He remained loyal to de Gaulle but opposed his granting independence to Algeria.

Julia (39 BCE–14 CE). Roman matron. Only child of the Roman emperor *Augustus, she married Marcellus (25 BCE), *Agrippa (21 BCE), and the future emperor *Tiberius (12 BCE). Her daughter by Agrippa was *Agrippina, mother of the emperor *Caligula. Julia’s last marriage gave her no happiness, she gave way to profligacy and in 2 BCE was banished for adultery and scandalous behaviour. Eventually she starved herself to death.

Julian (Flavius Claudius Julianus, known as ‘the Apostate’) (c.331–363). Roman Emperor 361–63. Born in Constantinople, the nephew of *Constantine I, he and his half-brother Gallus were the only males of the Flavian line spared in the general massacre that took place (337) on Constantine’s death. His education in philosophy in Nicomedia, Constantinople and Athens turned him away from Christianity and he secretly adopted paganism (351). In 335 he was given command on the Rhine by his cousin the emperor *Constantius and in the next five years succeeded in restoring the frontiers and purging the provincial government of dishonesty and corruption. He became highly popular with the army, and when the Emperor sought to transfer his troops to the East to restore the situation there, they mutinied and proclaimed him Emperor (360). In the same year he openly announced his paganism. He then moved eastwards, but Constantius’s death (361) forestalled a conflict. Julian spent a year in Constantinople, introducing a number of reforms. Though he worshipped the pagan gods and deprived the Christian Church of its privileges, he exercised a wide tolerance. In 363 he began a war against Persia and was mortally wounded in a skirmish. Julian was one of the most accomplished of the emperors, and his writings—some philosophical and self-justificatory, some satires on the lives of his predecessors—are distinguished by the purity of their Greek.

Vidal, G., Julian. 1972.

Juliana (Juliana Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina) (1909–2004). Queen of the Netherlands 1948–80. In 1937 she married Prince *Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld by whom she had four daughters: *Beatrix, Irene, Margriet and Christina. She succeeded on the abdication of her mother, *Wilhelmina, and proved a conscientious and popular constitutional monarch. In the 1970s, Juliana’s husband was accused of involvement in illicit financial dealings with American companies. She abdicated in 1980 in favour of Beatrix on the onset of dementia.

Julius Caesar see Caesar, Julius

Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere) (1443–1513). Pope 1503–13. Born near Genoa, his family was influential but not rich. However, the election of his uncle Francesco della Rovere as Pope *Sixtus IV, guaranteed his rapid promotion and in 1471 he was created cardinal and at one stage held eight bishoprics, including Archbishop of Avignon 1474–1503 and Bishop of Bologna 1583–1502. Papal legate to France 1480–82, in 1484 he organised the election of the weak Pope Innocent VIII. When his arch-enemy *Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia) became pope in 1492, della Rovere went to France, induced *Charles VIII to invade Naples in 1494–95 and, when this failed, went into hiding. After Alexander died (1503), Pius III was elected to succeed him but died 26 days later. Della Rovere became Pope on the first ballot in October 1503, in the shortest conclave in history, having won support of the Spanish and French cardinals, partly through bribes and promises given to Cesare *Borgia. He took the name of Julius II. His main aims were to end foreign rule in Italy and unite all papal territories under his control. In 1503 he granted *Henry VIII a dispensation to divorce *Catherine of Aragon. He turned on Cesare Borgia, forced him to give up his conquests and exiled him to Spain in 1504. In 1506 he created the Swiss Guards and the Vatican Museum (originally his collection of sculptures). Both institutions still flourish.

Julius was the last pope to lead his troops in battle and in 1506 he restored Perugia and Bologna to papal rule. Through the League of Cambrai, allied with France and the Empire, the papacy regained much of Romagna from Venice (1509). In 1510–11 his army regained Modena and Mirandola. By 1512 he had succeeded in expelling the French (now under *Louis XII) from Italy by the ‘Holy League’ alliance, of which Henry VIII of England was a not very active member.

He commissioned *Bramante to demolish the old St Peter’s Basilica and design a new one, laying the foundation stone himself in 1506. To help meet the cost of building St Peter’s he authorised the practice of granting ‘Indulgences’, absolving from guilt in return for a cash payment, which became a central factor in *Luther’s revolt in Germany and the Protestant Reformation generally. He employed *Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and *Raphael to undertake major murals in the *Vatican. His empty tomb in the church of San Pietro in Vincoli, designed by Michelangelo, dominated by the great sculpture Moses (1515), was not completed until 1545. (Julius had been buried at St Peter’s.) Raphael painted (1511) an outstanding portrait of Julius, now in the National Gallery, London, showing him with a beard, rare for a pope of his time, and his beard was a sign of mourning for the temporary loss of Bologna. Often called ‘Il papa terribile …’, Julius had a commanding, aggressive manner but, once in the papacy, he was not venal and is regarded as perhaps the greatest Renaissance pontiff. He fathered three daughters but only one, Felice della Rovere, survived, and married well. His enemies traduced him as bisexual.

Shaw, C., Julius II: The Warrior Pope. 1993.

Jung, Carl Gustav (1875–1961). Swiss psychiatrist, born in Kesswil. He graduated in medicine at Basle and worked at the Burghölzli psychiatric clinic at Zürich until 1909. He became influenced by the Volkisch (*Jahn) tradition, *Nietzsche, social Darwinism and the occult. He coined the word ‘complex’ to describe memories or emotions which, though repressed by the conscious mind, still influence behaviour and may cause neuroses. He met *Freud in 1907 and worked closely with him in Vienna for several years. They quarrelled (1912–13) largely because of disagreement over the extent of the contribution of sexuality to the life force. Freud and Jung were fundamentally opposed in their approach. Jung rejected Freud’s critical and sceptical analysis of religious experience and he may have seen himself as the founder of a redemptive transforming cult. He was probably anti-Semitic and had mixed feelings about *Hitler. Jung’s system, called ‘analytical psychology’, was an attempt to effect classification by psychological analysis: he divided people into two main types, ‘introverts’ and ‘extroverts’. Another concept of his work is the ‘collective unconscious’ which is assumed to spring from collective atavistic experiences rather than of individuals, and he promoted the concept of ‘archetypes’. Other coinages were ‘anima’, ‘animus’ and ‘persona’. Jung held chairs at Zürich 1933–41 and Basle 1941–48. His books include The Psychology of the Unconscious (1921), Modern Man in Search of a Soul (1933) and Answer to Job (1954).

Kerr, J., A Most Dangerous Method: The Story of Jung, Freud and Sabina Spielrein. 1993; McLynn, F., Carl Gustav Jung. 1996; Noll, R., The Aryan Christ. 1997; Bair, D., Jung. A Biography. 2003.

Jünger, Ernst (1895–1998). German novelist. Wounded in World War I, his book Storms of Steel (1920) glorified battle and he became an ardent nationalist on the far right. Repelled by *Hitler, he retreated to study entymology, but served in World War II, wrote more vivid memoirs and became a cult figure in extreme old age.

Juppé, Alain Marie (1945– ). French politician. He worked with Jacques *Chirac in the administration of Paris 1978–95 and became Premier 1995–97.

Justin, St (known as ‘the Martyr’) (c.100–c.165). Greek theologian, born in Samaria. He studied philosophy and was converted (c.134) to Christianity. He spent a wandering life preaching the Gospel.   founded a school of Christian philosophy at Rome, where with some of his proselytes he was martyred. In his Apologies (c.155) he tried to reconcile Greek philosophy, especially that of *Plato, with the teaching of Christ. The Dialogue with the Jew Trypho is the only other work indisputably his.

Justinian I (Flavius Anicius Justinianus) (c.482–565). Byzantine (or east Roman) Emperor 527–65. Born in Illyria, the son of a Macedonian peasant, his uncle, an imperial guardsman made himself the Emperor Justin I, had him educated in Constantinople, and eventually made him co-Emperor and heir. Justinian’s wife, *Theodora, a former actor and courtesan, a talented and courageous woman, was a constant source of strength. As Emperor, Justinian’s military aim was to restore the Roman Empire to its ancient limits. With the help of his generals *Belisarius and *Narses he nearly succeeded in the west by the re-conquest of North Africa, most of Italy and part of Spain, but at a crippling financial and material cost. He held off the Persians in two wars. On other frontiers, especially in the north where raids from Slavs and Huns were a constant menace, he strengthened and renewed the old lines of fortifications. In Constantinople the perpetual feud between the supporters of the ‘Blues’ and ‘Greens’, rival teams in the chariot races in the Hippodrome, had spread into the streets. Gang warfare became political faction and after the extraordinarily destructive Nika Revolt (January 532), Belisarius massacred a crowd of 30,000. Justinian’s political reforms were directed at removing corruption and at centralising the regime by breaking up the large self-governing departments and making more ministers directly responsible to himself. He was a strictly orthodox Christian and worked hard to bring unity both of doctrine and discipline into Church affairs. He employed Anthemios of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus to build Hagia Sophia (Aya Sofya, 532–37). He ordered construction of many important churches and the great cisterns in Constantinople. Justinian is best remembered for the codification of Roman law. This work, in which his minister Tribonius was his principal assistant, resulted in a revision, known as the Codex Justinianus (529, revised 535) of the Theodosian code of 438; the Pandeotae or Digesta (533) gave a selection from the writings of earlier jurists. The Institutiones provided elementary instruction mainly for use in schools. New laws made from time to time were known as Novella, and these, with the Institutiones, Digesta and Codex, make up the Corpus Juris Civilis, the Roman civil law that provided the pattern for many later codes. There are outstanding mosaics of Justinian and Theodora, and their courtiers in the Basilica St Vitale, Ravenna, a city he conquered but never visited.

Browning, R., Justinian and Theodora. 1971; Moorhead, J., Justinian. 1994.

Juvenal (Decimus Junius Juvenalis) (c.60–c.130). Roman satirical poet. Little is known of his life except that he lived most of it in poverty, the client of mean though wealthy men. He wrote 16 surviving satires in which he denounced the vicious Roman society of the time of *Trajan and *Hadrian and aired his venomous view of Jews and women. He is regarded as one of the greatest masters of the ‘satire of indignation’, *Dryden and *Johnson (in London and The Vanity of Human Wishes) wrote versions of some of his works.

Highet, G., Juvenal the Satirist. 1962.


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