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Dictionary of World Biography

K

Kabila, Laurent-Desiré (1939–2001). Congolese politician. A guerilla and bandit for 30 years, his forces overthrew *Mobutu in July 1997 and he became President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire). Assassinated in January 2001 by his bodyguard, 135 people were tried, mostly convicted but apparently not executed. His son Joseph Kabila Kabange (1971– ) was President of the DRC 2001–19. In 2018, a corrupt and violent election was won by an opposition candidate Félix Tshisekedi; a bizarre result that appeared to be a democratic transition but was engineered to guarantee Kabila’s continuing influence and preservation of his family’s wealth.

Kaczyński, Jarosław (1949– ) and Lech Aleksander Kaczyński (1949–2010). Polish conservative politicians, identical twins, born in Warsaw. Jaroslaw broke away from Solidarity in 1990 and became Leader of the Law and Justice Party. He organised the election of Lech as President 2005–10, becoming Prime Minister himself 2006–07. Jarosław’s sexuality became a controversial issue, using homophobic language while believed to be homosexual himself. Lech Kaczyński was killed in an air crash at Smolensk while visiting Russia for a commemoration of the Katyn massacre (1940). In the presidential election (July 2010), Jaroslaw Kaczyński failed to win.

Kadar, Janos (1912–1989). Hungarian politician. He joined the Communist Party, then illegal, in 1932. In 1948 when the party took control he became Minister for Home Affairs. After three years’ imprisonment, accused of Titoism, he became Prime Minister and First Secretary of the Hungarian CP 1956–88. In the October 1956 rising, at first he joined the anti-Stalinist revolutionaries, then in November he set up an opposing, pro-Soviet government and with Soviet military help crushed the revolt. He later followed pro-Moscow policies while allowing some liberal measures until his deposition in 1988.

Zinner, P. F., Revolution in Hungary. 1962.

Kael, Pauline (1919–2001). American film critic. As film reviewer for The New Yorker 1967–78, 1979–91, she influenced directors deeply. Her volumes of collected criticism included I Lost it at the Movies (1965), Deeper Into Movies (1973), State of the Art (1985) and For Keeps (1996).

Kafka, Franz (1883–1924). Czech-Jewish novelist, writing in German, born in Prague. Son of an overbearing retailer and a withdrawn mother, he gained a doctorate in law and worked as a senior (and well-paid) public servant in the Workers’ Accident Insurance Institute in Prague 1908–22. Between 1912 and 1917, he had a relationship with Felice Bauer (1887–1960). They were twice engaged but never married. (He wrote her 500 letters but they only met 17 times.) Kafka had the smallest output of any major writer, three short novels (all unfinished), one novella, 23 short stories, diaries and five collections of letters, almost all published posthumously. He lived briefly with two unhappily married women.

The novella Metamorphosis (Die Verwandlung), published in 1915, is famous for the image of the central character Gregor Samsa waking to find himself transformed into ‘a monstrous vermin’, which is usually rendered in English as an insect or beetle. Kafka does not explain why the transformation occurred.

He suffered from tuberculosis of the larynx, died —essentially of starvation—in a sanatorium at Klosterneuburg, near Vienna, and was buried in Prague. He left instructions that his literary works be burnt, unread, but his friend and executor Max Brod (1882–1968) ignored the direction and published his novels Der Prozess (The Trial,1925), Der Schloss (The Castle, 1926) and Amerika (The Man Who Disappeared, 1927), as well as collections of short stories and letters. The first English translation, of The Castle, by Willa and Edwin *Muir, appeared in 1930.

Another fiancée, Julie Wohryzek, and his three sisters died in the Holocaust, Only after 1945 did Kafka gain full recognition for his extraordinary prophecy of totalitarianism and alienation. (The word Kafkaesque describes an individual oppressed by institutions or forces he is not able to understand). His introspective and symbolic novels are marked by a discomforting sense of spiritual oppression and frustration, their strange events seeming the more uncanny because of the clarity of the author’s style. Some interpreters suggest that a hidden theme is humanity’s vain struggle to establish a relationship with God. There is an enormous critical literature about Kafka. The Castle and The Trial were both filmed twice, the best known version being Orson *Welles’ The Trial (1962).

Hayman, R., K: A Biography of Kafka. 1981; Calasso, R., K. 2005; Major, M., Kafka … for our time. 2011; Stach, R., Kafka: The Years of Insight. 2013; Stach, R., Kafka: The Decisive Years. 2005; Kafka: The Years of Insight. 2008.

Kaganovich, Lazar Moiseivich (1893–1991). Russian Communist politician. Of Jewish origin, he became a shoemaker and joined the Bolsheviks in 1911. He worked for *Stalin in the CP apparatus, was a Politburo member 1930–57, ran the Moscow party machine 1930–35 and created the Moscow Metro (underground). His sister Rosa became Stalin’s third wife. He became Commissar for Transport 1935–37, Heavy Industry 1937–42 and Oil 1940–42, ran all Soviet transport during World War II and was Deputy Premier 1938–46, 1947–53. He joined the ‘anti-party group’ against his former protégé *Khrushchev and was sacked. The last of the Old Bolsheviks, he remained an undeviating Stalinist to the end.

Kahlo, Frida (1907–1954). Mexican painter. Permanently damaged by a road accident in 1925, she twice married Diego *Rivera (1929, 1940), and was a lover of *Trotsky. She developed her own surrealistic treatment of Mexican folk and colonial art, marked by intense colour and strong figures and painted many powerful self-portraits. Her house in Coyoacan became an important museum of pre-Columbian art.

Kahn, Louis I(sadore) (1901–1974). American architect, born in Estonia. Educated at the University of Pennsylvania, but particularly influenced by buildings in Rome, Greece and Karnak, he was a relatively late developer whose first major project, the Yale Art Gallery, dates from 1947. Professor of architecture at Yale 1947–57 and Pennsylvania 1957–74, he broke away from the sleek, bland ‘International Style’ with his monumental buildings, including the Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, the Salk Institute at La Jolla, the capitol in Dacca, Bangladesh and government offices in Ahmadabad, India.

Kahn, Richard Ferdinand, Baron Kahn (1905–1989). English economist, born in London. A disciple of J. M. *Keynes, he worked with him at King’s College, Cambridge. He is famous for developing the principle of the multiplier: the relation between increases and outputs in aggregate expenditure.

Kahneman, Daniel (1934– ). Israeli-American psychologist, born in Tel Aviv. His parents came from Lithuania; they moved to Palestine, then France. He survived the war with his mother. Educated in Israel and at Berkeley, he taught in Jerusalem, Vancouver, Berkeley and was professor of psychology at Princeton 1993–2007. With Amos Tversky (1937–1996) he developed ‘prospect theory’, which analyses rational and irrational factors in decision making. For this Kahneman received the Nobel Prize in Economic Science in 2002. In prospect theory, individuals use ‘heuristics’ (familiar short cuts) to make intuitive judgments, and are not always rational actors. He became the outstanding authority on behavioural economics and social psychology. His Thinking Fast and Slow (2011), a bestseller, described ‘cognitive ease’ in which people accepted ideas they were comfortable with and rejected facts that made their brains work harder. *Obama awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2013.

Lewis, M., The Undoing Project. 2016.

Kaiser, Georg (1878–1945). German dramatist, born at Magdeburg. He was known as the playwright of Expressionism, because his style in some of his best known plays, e.g. The Burghers of Calais (1914), From Morning to Midnight (1916), and Gas (1918) was analogous to that of the Expressionists in art, but his range of subjects was wide enough to include social comedies, problem plays, and to take up many other themes, to each of which he adapted his style.

Kenworthy, B., George Kaiser. 1957.

Kalecki, Michał (1889–1970). Polish economist, born in Łódź. Trained as an engineer, he worked as a journalist and economic analyst, and in 1933 published (in Polish) Essays in Business Cycle Theory which largely anticipated J. M. *Keynes’ theories on demand management and employment. (His priority was not recognised until after Keynes’ death.) He worked in England 1936–45, then with the UN 1946–55, returning to Poland in 1955 in an attempt to provide a theoretical framework for growth in a socialist economy.

Kalinin, Mikhail Ivanovich (1875–1946). Russian Communist politician. A sheet metal worker, he joined the RSDLP in 1898, adhered to the Bolsheviks after 1905 and was a candidate member 1919–25, then a full member of the Politburo of the CPSU 1926–46. He succeeded Yacob *Sverdlov as head of state, retaining office until just before his death, with two different titles: President of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets 1919–38, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 1938–46. His wife was imprisoned by *Stalin as a Trotskyist 1938–46.

Kamehameha. Five kings of Hawaii. Kamehameha I (1758–1819) was King of Hawaii 1795–1819. As a young chief he negotiated with James *Cook in 1779 and united the warring islands under his sole rule 1782–1810. He was friendly towards traders and encouraged western influences. Kamehameha II (1797–1824), King 1819–24, continued his father’s policies. His brother Kamehameha III (1814–1854), King 1824–54, developed the islands into a modern monarchy of a constitutional kind, and obtained recognition of their independence by France, Britain and the US. Kamehameha V (1831–1872) succeeded his brother in 1863, abrogated the constitution and tried to restore tribalism and monarchical rule. However, he died without heir and the Kamehameha dynasty ended.

Daws, A. G., Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands. 1968.

Kamenev (né Rosenfeld), Lev Borisovich (1883–1936). Russian politician. Active in the Bolshevik wing of the Social Democratic Party, he married Leon *Trotsky’s sister Olga Bronstein (1883–1941). Imprisoned in Siberia (1915–17), he was released after the 1917 Revolution and served briefly as the Russian head of state. A Communist Party Politburo member 1919–26, he was Deputy Premier 1923–26. When *Lenin died in 1924, with *Stalin and *Zinoviev he formed the ‘troika’ opposed to Trotsky. Outmanoeuvred by Stalin (1925) he rallied to Trotsky and was expelled from the Communist Party (1927). In 1936 he was tried in the first big ‘purge trial’ and executed for treason. His two sons and first wife were executed later. In 1988, during ‘perestroika’, he was posthumously ‘rehabilitated’.

Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike (1853–1926). Dutch physicist. Professor of physics at the University of Leyden 1882–1926, and a pioneer of low-temperature research, he was the first to achieve temperatures within 1° of absolute zero and to liquefy hydrogen (1906) and helium (1908). During his studies of the properties of materials at low temperatures, he discovered the phenomenon of super conductivity, the disappearance of electrical resistance of some metals (e.g. lead) at temperatures near absolute zero. He won the Nobel Prize for Physics (1913).

Kames, Lord. Henry Home (1696–1782). Scottish judge and historian. Judge of the Court of Session 1752–82, he was an important figure in the Scottish Enlightenment, a rival of Lord *Monboddo, with a wide range of interests. He pioneered the study of civilisation and literary criticism, and befriended Adam *Smith, David *Hume and James *Boswell.

Kamprad, Ingvar Feodor (1926–2018). Swedish industrialist. He was a trader in matches, fish, pens and Christmas decorations as a teenager and in 1943 founded the furniture and fittings retailer IKEA. The name is an acronym of his initials and two places associated with his childhood (Einmaryd and Agunnaryd). He had a youthful enthusiasm for Fascism and later was a reformed alcoholic. The philosophy of IKEA is based on frugality, high quality, relatively low cost, and encouraging its customers. IKEA stores spread throughout the world. Kamprad created the INGKA Foundation which owns IKEA and, with capital of about $US40 billion, is one of the world’s largest charities.

Kandel, Eric Richard (1929– ). American biologist, born in Vienna. In the US from 1939, he held a chair at Colombia University. He worked on the neural system of Aplysia, a sea slug with very large nerve cells, and shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2000 for his work on the physiology of memory.

Kandinsky, Wassily Wassilyevich (1866–1944). Russian artist, born in Moscow. He was already 30 years old and had been a lawyer and economist before taking up art. He studied in Munich where he and Franz Marc formed (1911) a group that came to be called (after one of Kandinsky’s pictures) the Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider), pioneers of abstract painting and theory. Kandinsky had painted his first abstract picture in 1910 and had begun to write Concerning the Spiritual in Art (1912). From 1914 to 1921 he was in Russia, where he played a part in re-establishing the arts after the revolution. He left to join the Bauhaus, a school of design and architecture at Weimar in Germany and from 1933 he lived in Paris. Features of his painting which have attracted particular attention have been the calligraphic brush strokes of his earlier period and afterwards his use of geometric symbols. His later pictures reveal a softening of mood and with it a less severe use of geometric forms.

Overy, P., Kandinsky: The Language of the Eye. 1969.

Kangxi (K’ang-Hsi: personal name Xuan Yeh) (1654–1722). Chinese Emperor 1662–1722, of the *Qing dynasty. He took control from the eunuchs of the Thirteen Offices at the age of 15, defeated three feudal kingdoms (1681), annexed Outer Mongolia and Tibet, settled the border with Russia, opened four ports to foreign trade, encouraged introduction of Western arts and science and (until 1717) allowed the Jesuits to preach Christianity. He dredged the Grand Canal, travelled extensively, read voraciously and commissioned a great dictionary and an atlas. He was a good poet and wrote a fascinating autobiography. His grandson *Qianlong abdicated so that their reigns would be of equal length.

Spence, J. D., Emperor of China: Self Portrait of K’ang-Hsi. 1974.

Kang Yuwei (1858–1927). Chinese scholar and political philosopher. He was a leader of the ‘Hundred Days’ Reform movement of 1898, aimed at creating a constitutional monarchy. This was crushed by the dowager empress *Cixi and he fled to Japan with his disciple *Liang Qichao. He returned in 1914 and opposed *Sun Yatsen. Kang, a voluminous writer and a great calligrapher, remained a Confucian and constitutional monarchist.

Kanishka I (d.151 CE). Kushan ruler in India 127–51. He ruled originally from Turpan in Xinjiang but his tribes were probably Indo-European and he used an Iran dialect (Bactrian) and absorbed cultural contact as appropriate. (His coins sometimes used Greek lettering.) His empire extended to Afghanistan, parts of Iran and northern India-Pakistan, and his capital Purushpura is the modern Peshawar, where he built an enormous stupa. He sent Buddhist missionaries to China.

Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804). German philosopher, born in Königsberg. Son of a saddler, he was educated and eventually became professor of philosophy in his birthplace. He travelled hardly at all and did not marry. Barely 1.5 metres high, his health was good and his brilliant conversation enlivened prolonged luncheons with friends and the social gatherings of his younger days. Interested in politics, approving both the French and American revolutions, he lived a quiet life devoted to philosophy, the course of which he greatly influenced. He also was a student of physics and mathematics, and is known for the Kant-*Laplace theory of the origin of the solar system. In his philosophy, Kant argues that human knowledge is the result of our own ordering of sense experience, which by itself would be unintelligible. In the Critique of Pure Reason (1781), he sets out the a priori categories that we impose upon experience, e.g. the categories of space, time and relation. They are, it is sometimes said, the spectacles through which we are always looking. Without them, he claims, there could be no understanding of our experience. Since knowledge derives from and depends upon both experience and categories, there can be no knowledge of that which is beyond our experience. Kant thus denies the possibility of metaphysics, when conceived as the study of any reality beyond our actual experience. He thus also denies the possibility of proof of the existence of God, which remains a matter of faith. Supplementary to this great work were his Critique of Practical Reason (1788) and Critique of Judgement (1790), the latter containing his widely influential views on taste. In his writings on ethics, he enunciates the supreme moral principle that he called the Categorical Imperative. It has several formulations, of which the final one is that the will is completely autonomous in laying down laws that are to be applied universally and in accordance with which it is its duty to act.

Korner, S., Kant. 1955; Broad, C. D., Kant. 1978; Cassirer, E., Kant’s Life and Thought. 1981; Guyer, P. (ed.), The Cambridge Guide to Kant. 1992; Scruton, R., Kant. A Very Short Introduction. 2001.

Kapell, William (1922–1953). American pianist, born in New York City. His father was of Russian-Spanish-Jewish ancestry, his mother Polish. He developed a phenomenal technique and died in a plane crash on returning from a concert tour in Australia, giving his last concert in Geelong.

Kapitza, Pyotr Leonidovich (1894–1984). Russian physicist. Educated at Leningrad and at Cambridge (under *Rutherford), he was assistant director of research in magnetism at the Cavendish Laboratory 1924–32 and Messel research professor at the Royal Society’s Mond Laboratory 1932–35. He did important work on the magnetic and electrical properties of substances at low temperatures, and also designed an improved plant for the liquefaction of hydrogen and helium. Kapitza was detained in the USSR in 1935, and later became Director of the Institute for Physical Problems at the Academy of Sciences, Moscow. He was awarded the Stalin Prize for Physics (1941, 1943), held the Order of Lenin, many foreign honours and shared the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics.

Collected Papers, 3 vols, 1964–67.

Kapoor, Sir Anish (1954– ). British-Indian sculptor, born in Mumbai. With a Hindu father and Jewish mother, he lived in Israel, then in Britain from 1973. He worked in a diversity of forms, stone, wax, stainless steel, with effective use of mirrors, both smooth and multi-faceted, creating disturbing distortions, and with vibrant colour. Large installations of his work are found in Britain, France, Spain, Israel, Italy, Japan and the United States.

Kapteyn, Jacobus Cornelius (1851–1922). Dutch astronomer. While professor of astronomy at the University of Groningen 1878–1921, he established that there are two streams of stars moving in opposite directions in the plane of the Milky Way, and made considerable contributions to the knowledge of star distribution and the structure of the universe. He also pioneered the use of photographic methods for determining stellar parallax. His last student was J. H. *Oort.

Karadžíc, Radovan (1945– ). Bosnian-Serb politician. A psychiatrist, educated at Columbia University after the break-up of Yugoslavia, he led a government in Bosnia-Herzegovina 1990–96 that imposed ‘ethnic cleansing’ on Muslims, including the murder of 7,000 at Srebrenica in July 1995. In 1995 the UN indicted him and his military commander Ratko Mladic for the killing of civilians but he remained at large until his capture in July 2008. An international criminal trial began in the Netherlands in October 2009; Karadžíc’s defence began in October 2012. In March 2016 he was convicted and sentenced to 40 years jail.

Karageorgević (Serbian: Karađorđević). Serbian dynasty, founded by Đorđe (George) Petrović (1768–1817), nicknamed by the Turks Kara (‘black’) George. A cattle-keeper in his youth, he worked at a monastery in Smyrna, then fought with Habsburg forces against the Ottoman rulers of Serbia. He led the 1804 revolt against the Turks. For 10 years he waged guerilla warfare, striking terror in the Turks and gaining adherents amongst the Serbs by his gigantic size, ruthless discipline and immense courage. In 1808 the Serbs swore allegiance to him as their hereditary leader. Defeated at last, he took refuge in Austria but returned (1817) only to be assassinated by a member of the rival Obrenović dynasty. He was highly praised by Napoléon as a guerrilla leader. Kara George’s son Alexander (1806–1885) succeeded (1842) Michael Obrenović and reigned as Prince of Serbia until deposed (1858). After the murder (1903) of *Alexander (Obrenović), the dynasty returned to power under Alexander’s son, *Peter I, who was succeeded by his son, *Alexander I (of Yugoslavia), and his grandson, *Peter II.

Karajan, Herbert von (1908–1989). Austrian conductor, born in Salzburg. Of Greek-Slovak descent, he studied piano and conducting in Vienna and became an opera conductor at Ulm 1927–33, Aachen 1933–40 and Berlin 1938–42. He joined the Nazi Party in 1933, received *Goebbels’ patronage and was promoted as a rival to *Furtwängler (supported by *Goering). After World War II he was plucked from obscurity by the English recording producer Walter Legge (*Schwarzkopf) and made his international reputation through the gramophone. He conducted in London with the Philharmonia Orchestra 1947–55, at the La Scala Opera, Milan 1948–52 and directed the Vienna State Opera 1956–64 and 1976–89, the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra 1958–89, and the Salzburg Festival 1964–89. He made almost 900 records, and several films, leaving an estate of 500 million DM.

Karamanlis, Konstantinos (1907–1998). Greek politician. He entered the legislature in 1936, served as a minister 1946–55, succeeding *Papagos as Premier 1955–63, and went into exile in Paris (1963) when the military took power. He returned after Greece’s military failure in Cyprus and was Premier again 1974–80, becoming President 1980–85, 1990–95.

Karl (Charles) I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Marie von Habsburg-Lothringen) (1887–1922). Last Emperor (Kaiser) of Austria and (as Károly IV) King of Hungary 1916–18. In 1911 he married Princess Zita of Bourbon Parma (1892–1989). He succeeded on the death of his great-uncle *Franz Joseph I, and supported Pope *Benedict XV’s attempts to negotiate an end to World War I (1917). Deposed in November 1918, he went into exile in Switzerland in 1919. After two unsuccessful bids in 1921 to regain the Hungarian throne, he retired to Madeira and died there of tuberculosis. He was beatified in 2004 by *John Paul II. Miracles have been attributed to support his cause for canonisation. His son was Otto von Habsburg-Lothringen.

Karl (Charles) IX (Karl Vasa) (1550–1611). King (and Regent 1599–1604) of Sweden 1604–11. Son of *Gustav I Vasa, he was a brother of Johan III and succeeded his nephew Sigismund, who had been elected King of Poland. Karl’s accession, following a successful revolt against Sigismund, ended the union of the two crowns and so achieved Karl’s aim of preventing Sweden from remaining under Roman Catholic rule, and prepared the way for the decisive part Sweden played under Karl’s son *Gustaf II in the Thirty Years’ War. Internally, having eliminated his enemies among the nobles at the ‘Linkoping blood bath’, he efficiently developed the administration and economy of his country, and founded Göteborg (Gothenburg).

Karl (Charles) X (Karl von Pfalz-Zweibrücken) (1622–1660). King of Sweden 1654–60. Nephew of *Gustaf II and cousin of *Christina, he ascended the throne on her abdication. A daring soldier, he revived the plan of trying to form a great Swedish empire on both sides of the Baltic to include east Prussia and the northern part of Poland. By 1656 he was nearly successful, but the defeated Poles rose against him, supported by both the Russians and the Dutch. Denmark, which also joined his opponents, became Karl’s immediate target. After he had led his troops across the ice to attack Copenhagen, the Danes were forced to accept a harsh separate peace (1658). Later, as the Danes showed signs of wavering in the fulfilment of its terms, Karl attacked again but his sudden death brought a general peace.

Karl (Charles) XI (Karl von Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Vasa) (1655–1697). King of Sweden 1660–97. Son of *Karl X, in 1672 when after a long minority he assumed power, Sweden was closely associated with *Louis XIV of France and in 1675, as part of the general European conflict, found itself at war with Brandenburg and Denmark. Karl quickly reversed Denmark’s early successes and by his victory of Lund (1676) reasserted Swedish power. His administrative reforms reduced the power of the aristocracy by depriving them of their official and feudal rights and powers exercised through the Riksdag (or council), and by raising lesser nobility into an official class dependent on royal favour, he created something closer to absolute monarchy.

Karl (Charles) XII (Karl von Pfalz-Zweibrücken) (1682–1718). King of Sweden 1697–1718. Son of *Karl XI, he was precocious, and at once assumed full control. Immediately after his accession the old struggle for Baltic supremacy reopened and Karl found himself confronted with a coalition of Russia, Poland and Denmark. The Great Northern War broke out in 1699, and lasted intermittently until 1721. Karl invaded Denmark and forced its withdrawal from the coalition in 1700, then led his armies into Russia and defeated the forces of *Peter the Great at Narva (1700). Poland was then conquered, Karl forced the abdication of the king, *Augustus II of Saxony, and secured the election of Stanisław *Leszczynski. In 1708 he again invaded Russia, gained initial successes but, forced to abandon his plan to seize Moscow, turned south to the Ukraine to link up with the rebel Cossack leader, *Mazeppa. The winter of 1708–09 was, however, the most severe for a century and the Swedes, weakened and ill-supplied, were decisively defeated by Peter at Poltava (1709) and Karl fled to Turkey. He persuaded the sultan to make war on Russia, which was soon concluded. The sultan then expelled Karl, and when he returned to Sweden he found the impoverished country on the verge of civil war. By drastic taxation and harsh measures he raised new armies and, after fruitless intrigues to divide his enemies, attacked Norway in the hope of compensating himself for losses elsewhere, but in 1718 he was killed by a sniper’s bullet during the siege of Frederiksten. Karl had great military skill and amazing fortitude in adversity but his overwhelming ambition led to disaster and the decline of Sweden as a major power.

Hatton, R. M., Charles XII of Sweden. 1968.

Karl XIV Johan, King of Sweden see Bernadotte, Jean Baptiste Jules

Karlfeldt, Erik Axel (1864–1931). Swedish lyric poet. He worked as a schoolteacher and librarian. His themes are drawn from the countryside, its moods and seasons, and the loves, lives and deaths of country people. Secretary of the Swedish Academy, he declined a Nobel Prize for Literature, but it was awarded to him posthumously (1931).

Karloff, Boris (William Pratt) (1887–1969). English film actor, born in Dulwich. He began as a character actor and, working in Hollywood, became famous playing grotesque roles in early horror films, notably Frankenstein (1931).

Karsavina, Tamara Platonovna (1885–1978). Anglo-Russian ballet dancer. After being prima ballerina of the Mariinsky Theatre, St Petersburg, from 1902, she starred (1909–22) in *Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. She scored a particular triumph with *Nijinsky in the Spectre de la Rose. She married a British diplomat, lived in England from 1918 and influenced Frederick *Ashton and Margot *Fonteyn.

Karsh, Yousuf (1908–2002). Canadian photographer, born in Armenian Turkey. He lived in Canada from 1925, studied in Boston and achieved international recognition with a famous portrait (1941) of Winston *Churchill. He published several volumes of portraits, held many international exhibitions and was awarded the CC (1968).

Karzai, Hamid (1957– ). Afghani politician, born near Kandahar. An ethnic Pashtun, and a Sunni, he was educated in India and worked with the CIA in supporting the mujahideen against the Taliban. He was provisional President 2001–04, then won popular elections in 2004 and 2009, despite strong accusations of electoral fraud. In 2003 the UK awarded him a Hon. GCMG.

Kasa-Vubu, Joseph (c.1915–1969). Congolese politician, born in the then Belgian Congo. A member of the Bakongo tribe, he was a teacher and a civil servant under the Belgian administration. In the struggle for power that followed independence (1960) Kasavubu obtained UN recognition and, in the civil war that followed, his supporters gained ascendancy over his main rival, Patrice *Lumumba. First President of the Republic of Congo 1960–65, he was supported at first by General *Mobutu who forced Lumumba from office and had him killed. After years of instability, Mobutu then deposed Kasa-Vubu and exiled him.

Kassem, Abdul Karim (Abd al-Karim al-Qasim) (1914–1963). Iraqi soldier and politician. Having led the revolt during which King *Faisal was murdered (1958), he made himself President and Commander-in-Chief of the new republic. The failure of his attempt to establish an Iraqi claim (1961) to Kuwait lowered his prestige and he was assassinated during a coup d’état.

Kästner, Erich (1899–1974). German novelist and journalist. He wrote many humorous and satirical books, including the children’s book, Emil and the Detectives (1929), translated into many languages.

Katherine (Catalina) of Aragon (1485–1536). English queen consort 1509–33. Daughter of *Ferdinand and *Isabella of Spain, she was the first wife of *Henry VIII. For this marriage (1509) a papal dispensation had to be obtained as she was the widow of Henry’s elder brother, Arthur. Despite this dispensation and the fact that she had borne him six children (of whom only the future *Mary I survived), Henry used this alleged irregularity as an excuse for getting the marriage annulled (though he had to break with Rome to do so) in order to marry *Anne Boleyn. Katherine lived in seclusion until her death, devoting herself to religion and literature. Although referred to in many historical works as ‘Catherine’, she generally signed with a ‘K’ and her tomb in Peterborough Cathedral bears the bold inscription ‘Katharine queen of England’.

Mattingly, G., Catherine of Aragon. 1950.

Katherine Howard see Catherine Howard

Katkov, Mikhail Nikiforovich (1818–1887). Russian journalist and editor, born near Moscow. As editor of The Russian Messenger 1856–87, he published novels by *Turgenev, *Dostoevsky and *Tolstoy in serial form.

Katz, Sir Bernard (1911–2003). Russian-Jewish-Australian-English biophysicist, born in Leipzig. He worked with J. C. *Eccles in Sydney, served in the RAAF, then returned to England, investigating the physico-chemical mechanism of neuromuscular transmission. He won the Copley Medal in 1967 and shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1970.

Kauffmann, (Maria Anna) Angelika (1741–1807). Swiss painter. Having gained a reputation as a child artist in Rome she spent the years 1766–81 in England, where she was befriended by *Reynolds and achieved success with portraits and mythological scenes; she was an original member of the Royal Academy (1768). She undertook decorative paintings for several houses designed by the *Adam brothers, e.g. Syon House, Harewood House.

Mayer, D. M., Angelica Kauffmann. 1972; Rosenthal, A., Angelica Kauffman: Art and Sensibility. 2006.

Kaufmann, Janos (1969– ) German tenor, born in Munich. He combined exceptional technique, excellent diction, a ringing tone and a memorable dramatic gift with a large repertoire, including *Schubert, *Wagner, *Verdi, *Puccini and *Strauss.

Kaunda, (David) Kenneth (1924– ). Zambian politician. A schoolteacher, he entered politics in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) in 1948. He founded (1958) the Zambia African National Congress, which was re-formed (1961) after being banned, Kaunda meanwhile having spent a short time in prison. When his party came to power (1964)—after the first election to be held under a system of universal adult suffrage—he became Prime Minister, and, when independence was achieved, first president of the new republic of Zambia 1964–91. He lost power in a free election. He was Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity 1970–71, 1987–88. In December 1997 he was arrested and charged with organising a coup but by 1999 his political standing had been restored.

Mulford, D. C., Zambia: the Politics of Independence, 1957–64. 1967; Hall, R. S., The High Price of Principles: Kaunda and the White South. 1969.

Kaunitz, Wenzel Anton, Reichfürst (Prince) von Kaunitz-Rietberg (1711–1794). Austrian diplomat, born in Vienna. He gained a reputation for statesmanship as a negotiator of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), which brought the War of the Austrian Succession to an end. Afterwards he convinced his sovereign, *Maria Theresa, that as Prussia had become the real enemy the traditional hostility to France had become an anachronism. He was thus able, as Ambassador to Paris 1751–53 and then as State Chancellor 1753–92, to bring about the famous ‘diplomatic revolution’, as a result of which France entered (1756) the Seven Years’ War as Austria’s ally against *Friedrich II (‘the Great’). Kaunitz controlled Austria’s foreign policy for 40 years and survived *Joseph II.

Kautsky, Karl (1854–1938). German socialist. A supporter of *Marx, he worked closely with *Engels in London (1881–83). He was best known for his violent controversies with *Lenin over the interpretation of Marxist doctrines. Eventually the opinions of Lenin held the field and after the Russian revolution Kautsky refused to join the German Communist Party. Shortly after the end of World War I he settled in Vienna, where he rejoined the Social Democrats. After *Hitler’s annexation of Austria he fled to Amsterdam.

Kawabata Yasunari (1899–1972). Japanese novelist, born in Osaka. Influenced by traditional Japanese and modern French styles, he wrote lyrical, impressionistic novels dominated by the beauty of nature and the struggle to accept death. His works include Snow Country (1956) and Thousand Cranes (1959). He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1968 and committed suicide four years later.

Nakamura, M., Contemporary Japanese Fiction. 1969.

Kay, John (1704–1778?). English inventor, born near Bury, Lancashire. His trade as a clockmaker brought him into contact with the cotton-weaving industry. The most important of his inventions, the flying shuttle (patented 1733), greatly increased speed of manufacture and possible widths of finished fabrics. His invention was hated as a threat to unemployment, he was attacked and his model destroyed. For 10 years from 1747 he lived in France, where he introduced his invention. On his return to England, lawsuits to protect his patents seem to have brought about his ruin, and it is thought that he went back to France (1774) and there in 1778 received a pension. The date of his death is uncertain.

Kaye, Danny (Daniel Kaminsky) (1913–1987). American film comedian, born in New York. He began work on the variety stage but achieved his main popularity in films, of which the most successful was The Secret Life of Walter Mitty (1946). His early success arose from a talent for clowning, a direct contrast to the sophisticated situation comedy prevalent in Hollywood at the time. Later films include Five Pennies (1959) and The Madwoman of Chaillot (1968). He was Ambassador-at-Large for UNICEF.

Kay-Shuttleworth, Sir James Phillips, 1st Baronet (1804–1877). English educationist. As a medical practitioner in Manchester and as an assistant poor-law commissioner in East Anglia, he became acutely aware of the educational needs of the poor. He introduced teachers into workhouses, where he developed what was to become the pupil-teacher system of teacher training. He became (1839) secretary of the government committee for education and introduced the system of school inspection with the aim, not of control, but of seeing that knowledge of improved methods was spread as widely as possible. Having failed to obtain a state grant for a teachers’ training college, he founded one on his own initiative (later called St John’s College, Battersea). On his retirement (1850) he received a baronetcy. He was a member of various social and scientific commissions and wrote extensively on educational issues.

Kazantzakis, Nikos (1885–1957). Greek novelist and poet, born in Crete. He studied philosophy with *Bergson in Paris, and served briefly as a minister of state in 1945. Among his best known works are The Odyssey (a poetic continuation, 33,333 lines long, of *Homer’s epic, published in 1951), Freedom and Death (1947), Zorba the Greek (1952, also a film) and The Greek Passion (1953, filmed as He Who Must Die). Christ Recrucified, his last novel, was published posthumously in 1960.

Kean, Edmund (1789–1833). English actor. He learnt his craft as a strolling player before making his debut (1814) as Shylock at Drury Lane. His success was immediate and his fame steadily increased. He was one of the greatest tragic and emotional actors in the history of the English stage. *Coleridge remarked that to see Kean ‘was like reading *Shakespeare by flashes of lightning’. Macbeth and Richard III were among his greatest parts. He collapsed while playing Othello and died a few weeks later. He was a heavy drinker, extravagant and overgenerous. His son, Charles Kean (1811–1868), also a leading actor, was playing Iago on this occasion. Edmund Kean’s private life was as tempestuous as his stage appearances. Jealous, passionate and violently intemperate, he shocked London by his excesses and was almost forced to retire when his involvement with an alderman’s wife led to a cause celebre. Edmund’s wife, Ellen Kean (1805–1830), also excelled in Shakespearian roles, notably Viola and Gertrude.

Playfair, G. W., Kean. 1950.

Keating, Paul John (1944– ). Australian Labor politician, born in Sydney. He left school early, worked in a union office and won preselection for the House of Representatives at the age of 24. He was a Federal MP 1969–96, served briefly in the Whitlam Government (1975) and, as Treasurer 1983–91 under Bob *Hawke, sought to make the Australian economy less protected, by breaking down tariffs and encouraging deregulation. After defeating Hawke in a Caucus ballot he became Prime Minister, December 1991 and promoted new national objectives, including the republican cause, and Aboriginal native title. Keating won the March 1993 election comfortably but was defeated heavily by John *Howard in March 1996.

Edwards, J., Keating: The Inside Story. 1996; Watson, D., Recollections of a Bleeding Heart. 2002; O’Brien, K., Keating. 2015; Bramston, T., Paul Keating: The big-picture leader. 2017.

Keaton, Buster (Joseph Francis Keaton). (1895–1966). American film actor and director, born in Piqua, Kansas. He worked mainly in silent comedy playing the small, frail protagonist against overwhelming odds, which he defeated singlehanded without the smallest change of expression. Considered one of the greatest comedians of American silent film, they include The Navigator (1924), The General (1926) and Steamboat Bill Jnr (1927).

Beesh, R., Keaton. 1966.

Keats, John (1795–1821). English poet, born in London. Son of a well-to-do livery-stable keeper, he went to Clarke’s School, Enfield, then well known, where, though athletic and pugnacious, he was already remarked upon for his sensitivity and tenderness. When his father died, John, then aged 16, became the ward of a merchant named Richard Abbey, by whom he was apprenticed to an apothecary at Edmonton. Being near Enfield he was able to keep in touch with his former headmaster who lent him books (*Spenser’s Faerie Queene particularly inspired him) and eventually introduced him to the circle of Leigh *Hunt. Thus he came to know *Haydon,* Shelley, and others as well as Charles Brown, a retired merchant, who enjoyed helping young men of promise; with him he shared a double house in Hampstead, now a Keats museum. Meanwhile he had passed his examination at the Apothecaries Hall and had ‘walked’ the hospitals, but by 1817 he had recoiled from (pre anaesthesia) surgery and abandoned the profession.

His first book of poems (1817), which included the famous sonnet On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer, created little stir, but already he was working on Endymion (1819), with its familiar opening line ‘A thing of beauty is a joy for ever’. A great but uneven poem in four books, it provoked savage criticism and some discerning praise. In 1818 he had lost both his dearly loved brothers: George emigrated to America, Tom died of tuberculosis. To the period that immediately followed belong some of his finest poems, which appeared in Lamia and Other Poems (1820). This included Lamia, the odes To a Nightingale, To Psyche, To Autumn, On Melancholy and On a Grecian Urn, The Eve of St Agnes, La Belle Dame Sans Merci, and the unfinished Hyperion. To the same period belongs his love for Fanny Brawne, lively, kind and loyal, who tended him when ill but with little understanding of the poet’s emotional needs. Early in 1820 with the coughing up of blood came signs of serious illness; he steadily got worse and became dependent on the charity of friends. In September he went to Italy with the artist Joseph Severn, who left a faithful record of the last days. In the following February he died in Rome. ‘Here lies one whose name was writ in water’ was inscribed (at his own request) on the nameless gravestone under the words ‘Young English Poet’. Shelley’s Adonais was written in lament for his friend.

Motion, A., Keats. 1997.

Keble, John (1792–1866). English clergyman and poet. Elected to a fellowship at Oriel College, Oxford (1811), he became tutor (1817), but from 1823 spent some years in parish work. His very popular book of poems The Christian Year appeared in 1827, and he was professor of poetry at Oxford (1831–41). His sermon on National Apostasy (1833) was afterwards held to have initiated the Tractarian (or Oxford) Movement in the Church of England which advocated the restoration of some of the forms of worship and practices, e.g. use of incense, vestments, intoning, which had fallen into disuse since the Reformation. He wrote seven of the Tracts for the Times but, unlike John Henry *Newman, remained loyal to the Anglican Church. He left Oxford (1836) after his marriage and later translated parts of the early Christian Fathers and wrote or edited several religious works. Keble College, Oxford, was built in his memory (1870).

Battiscombe, G., John Keble. 1964.

Keeling, (Charles) David (1928–2005). American chemist, oceanographer and meteorologist, born in Pennsylvania. Working at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography 1956–99, he developed an instrument for accurate measurement of carbon dioxide samples. At Mauna Loa, Hawaii, from 1958 he measured seasonal variations in CO², with a sharp increase overall, known as the ‘Keeling curve’, a compelling demonstration of the impact of anthropogenic climate change. He received many international awards.

Kefauver, (Carey) Estes (1903–1963). American Democratic politician. A member of the House of Representatives from Tennessee 1939–49 and US Senator 1949–63, he became a television celebrity as chairman of a committee on crime. He sought the presidential nomination in 1952 and 1956 and was Adlai *Stevenson’s running mate in 1956.

Keitel, Wilhelm Bodewin Johann (1882–1946). German soldier. An artillery officer during World War I, he became a devoted Nazi. In February 1938, *Hitler dismissed the high command of the Reichswehr, made himself supreme and appointed Keitel as Chief of Staff. During World War II, promoted to Field Marshal in 1941, he was virtually Hitler’s second in command and executive officer. A courtier as much as a soldier, he showed skill in converting Hitler’s occasionally brilliant strategic conceptions into practicable operations, but lacked the strength to combat his master’s military follies. He was condemned for war crimes at Nuremberg and executed.

Keith, Sir Arthur (1866–1955). Scottish anthropologist, born near Aberdeen. He qualified in medicine and, known for his anatomical research, was also a recognised authority on morphology and evolution. He became Hunterian professor at the Royal College of Surgeons (1908), and President of the British Association (1927). In his presidential address he propounded some revisions of Darwinian theories, since generally accepted. Enemies speculated that Keith had originated the ‘Piltdown man’ hoax (1912) but his reputation was damaged when fraud was discovered. The culprit was almost certainly the alleged finder, Charles Dawson. Keith’s books include Antiquity of Man (1915) and New Theory of Human Evolution (1948).

Keith, Sir A., Autobiography. 1950.

Keith, James Francis Edward (1696–1758). Scottish soldier of fortune. Known, because of an office hereditary in his family, as Marshal Keith, after taking part in the Jacobite rising (1715) he became a colonel in the Spanish army. In 1728 he was made a general when serving for Russia and made a name for himself in the Turkish and Swedish wars. In 1747 he left the Russian service and was immediately employed as field marshal by *Friedrich II (‘the Great’) of Prussia. He fought for him in the Seven Years’ War during which he was killed.

Kekkonen, Urho Kaleva (1900–1986). Finnish politician. A lawyer and popular athlete, he fought with the Whites during the civil war (1919) and joined the Agrarian Party. He was legal counsellor of the Agrarian Party and an administrative secretary of the Agriculture Department 1932–36 when he entered parliament in 1936. He served as Minister of Justice 1936–37, 1944–46, Minister of the Interior 1937–39, 1950–51, Chairman of the Finnish Olympic Games Committee 1938–46, Chief of the Bureau of Displaced Persons 1940–43 and Speaker of the Parliament 1948–50. In 1944 he assisted J. K. *Paasikivi in negotiating peace with the USSR and devoted his career to maintaining the ‘Paasikivi line’ (neutrality, no anti-Soviet policies, but no Russian domestic intervention). Prime Minister 1950–53, 1954–56, he was defeated for the presidency by Paasikivi in 1950 but elected in 1956, holding office for a record term, retiring in 1981.

Jakobsen, M., Finnish Neutrality. 1968; Kekkonen, U., Neutrality the Finnish Position. 1970.

Kekulé von Stradonitz, Friedrich August (1829–1896). German chemist. Professor of chemistry at Ghent 1858–67 and Bonn 1867–96, he laid the foundations of structural organic chemistry with his discovery (1858) of the quadrivalence of carbon and of the ability of carbon atoms to link with one another in chains. He was thus able to systematise the chemistry of the aliphatic compounds. He did the same for aromatic compounds when he devised (1865) the now familiar ring formula for benzene: the resolution of this problem came in a dream as he was dozing on a bus and he saw the elements dancing. He convened the First International Chemical Congress at Karlsruhe in 1860, and received the Copley Medal in 1885.

Keller, Gottfried (1819–1890). Swiss author. He went to Munich to study art but soon turned to literature, remaining in Germany, latterly in Berlin, until 1855, when he returned to Switzerland. His long, vivid and partly autobiographical novel, Der Grüne Heinrich (1854), achieved little popularity until it was revised and given a happy ending. He achieved most success with his humorous short stories of Swiss life: *Delius’s opera A Village Romeo and Juliet was based on one of them.

Lindsay, J. M., Gottfried Keller: Life and Works. 1969.

Keller, Helen Adams (1880–1968). American author and lecturer. She became blind and deaf at 19 months of age, after scarlet fever, but later learned to read Braille, to write and speak. Her teacher and constant companion from 1887 was Anne Sullivan (1866–1936). She became a symbol of human determination to overcome physical handicaps and an inspiration for all similarly disabled. In 1904 she graduated from Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Mass. She toured the world lecturing and wrote several books, e.g. The Story of My Life (1902), The World I Live In (1908) and Let Us Have Faith (1940).

Tribble, J. W. and A., Helen Keller. 1973.

Kellogg, Frank Billings (1856–1937). American Republican politician. A successful corporation lawyer, he served as US Senator from Minnesota 1917–23, and was US Ambassador in Great Britain 1924–25 and Secretary of State 1925–29. He worked for the Pact of Paris (Briand-Kellogg Pact, 1928) by which 15 nations renounced war as an instrument of policy. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (1929) and became an associate judge of the Permanent Court of International Justice 1930–36.

Ellis, L. E., Frank B. Kellogg and American Foreign Relations, 1925–1929. 1961.

Kellogg, Will Keith (1860–1951). American manufacturer. In 1894 he developed the first breakfast cereal (wheat flakes) as a health food for an Adventist sanatorium at Battle Creek, Michigan, run by his brother John Harvey Kellogg (1852–1943). Corn flakes soon followed. Kellogg’s principal rival, General Foods, was founded by C(harles) W(illiam) Post (1854–1914) who also produced Postum (a coffee substitute), Grape-Nuts and Post Toasties at Battle Creek.

Kelly, Ellsworth (1923–2015). American painter and sculptor. Trained in Boston and Paris, his powerful hard-edged abstract paintings made striking use of primary colours and he was represented in major galleries.

Kelly, Grace (Princess Grace of Monaco) (1929–1982). American actor. The daughter of a Philadelphia industrialist, she made 11 films in her brief career (1951–56) and her good looks, sexual elegance and cool style brought her international acclaim. She won an Oscar for The Country Girl (1954) and starred in three *Hitchcock films, Dial M for Murder (1954), Rear Window (1954) and To Catch a Thief (1955). She married *Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, in 1956 and had three children. She became involved in a religious cult and died after a car accident.

Lacey, R.,Grace. 1994.

Kelly, Ned (Edward) (1854?–1880). Australian bushranger. Son of a transported Irish convict, he took to the hills with his brother Dan and two other mates after several clashes with the law. He killed three policemen in a shootout (October 1878) and was captured at Glenrowan after 18 months of flamboyant outlawry. He was tried and hanged in Melbourne. A film, The Story of the Kelly Gang, was made in 1906. Kelly has become a central figure in Australian mythology, the subject of many books, at least nine films, and 27 paintings by Sidney *Nolan.

Jones, I., Ned Kelly: A Short Life. 1995; FitzSimons, P., Ned Kelly. 2015.

Kelly, Petra Karin (1947–1992). German politician and writer. Educated in the US, she worked for the SPD and the EEC, then became co-founder (1979) of the Green Party (Die Grünen), serving in the Bundestag 1983–90, campaigning on environmental issues, world peace, universal disarmament and women’s rights. She and her lover Gerd Bastian, a former general, died by shooting, apparently murder and suicide.

Kelvin of Largs, 1st Baron, William Thomson (1824–1907). Scottish mathematician and physicist, born in Belfast. Son of a professor of mathematics, after showing brilliance in mathematics at Cambridge he became, when only 22, professor of natural philosophy at the University of Glasgow, a position he held 1846–99. In 1848 he proposed the adoption of an absolute temperature scale (later named for him) in which absolute zero (–273°C) is 0°K (or Kelvin), and the boiling point of water (100°C) is 373°K. One of the founders of thermodynamics, he expanded *Joule’s findings and enunciated the Second Law of Thermodynamics in 1851, just after *Clausius. Kelvin invented many instruments, mainly electrical, e.g. the mirror galvanometer, a magnetically shielded ship’s compass, the dynamometer, tide gauges, and the quadrant electrometer. He was consultant to the company that laid the first transatlantic cable (1858). Knighted in 1866, he received the Copley Medal in 1883, served as President of the Royal Society 1890–94, became Lord Kelvin in 1892 and one of the original members of the OM in 1902. After 1880 he became increasingly rigid in his attitudes and rejected new discoveries in physics, e.g. radioactivity, atomic structure and X-rays.

MacDonald, D. K. C., Faraday, Maxwell and Kelvin. 1965.

Kemal Atatürk see Atatürk, (Mustafa) Kemal

Kemble, John Philip (1757–1823). English actor. Leading member of a famous English stage family, after some years in the provinces he was given the chance to come to London through the success of his sister Sarah *Siddons. Hamlet (1783) was the first of many tragic roles that he played with great distinction at Drury Lane. In keeping with his character, his approach was intellectual. In contrast with his successor Edmund *Kean, he was at his best in parts requiring dignity and nobility, Brutus and Coriolanus providing outstanding examples. He was appointed manager of Drury Lane by *Sheridan (1788), but in 1802 he bought a share in Covent Garden Theatre, which he managed and where he performed. The theatre was burnt down (1808), and the price of seats in the rebuilt theatre (1809) caused riots. He retired (1817) to live in Lausanne.

His brother Charles Kemble (1775–1854), whose grace and charm fitted him more especially for comedy, was the father of Fanny Kemble (1809–1893) who unwillingly followed the family tradition and in 1829 made a triumphant debut as Juliet at Covent Garden.

Kemp, Jack French (1935–2009). American Republican politician. A professional footballer, he became a public relations officer in a bank, and a US Congressman 1971–89. He sought the Republican nomination for president in 1988 and served under *Bush as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 1989–93. He ran as a candidate for Vice President with Bob *Dole (1996).

Kemp, Roger (1908–1987). Australian painter. A symbolic expressionist, his large canvasses express deep philosophical convictions about man’s role in time, space and the universe. It took decades of persistence before his work was recognised.

Kempe, Margery (née Brunham) (c.1373–c.1440). English mystic and traveller, born in Lynn (now King’s Lynn), Norfolk. She married John Kempe c.1393 and bore 14 children. She experienced religious ecstasies, marked by prolonged shrieking and sobbing, and narrowly escaped charges of Lollardry. From 1413 she went on three pilgrimages, to Jerusalem (via Constance, Venice, Assisi and Rome), to Santiago de Compostela (Spain), and to Wilsnack (now in Poland), via Norway and Danzig, returning through Aachen. Illiterate, she dictated The Booke of Margery Kempe, the first English autobiography, to two clerks (c.1432–36). Extracts were printed by Wynkyn de *Worde (1501) but the complete work was not published until 1940.

Kempff, Wilhelm Walther Friedrich (1895–1991). German pianist. Also a teacher, editor, writer and composer, he recorded all the piano music of *Beethoven, *Schubert and *Schumann, gaining a late (but profound) international reputation. He made his London debut in 1951, New York in 1964.

Kempis, Thomas a see Thomas a Kempis

Ken, Thomas (1637–1711). English prelate and hymn writer. He was appointed Bishop of Bath and Wells (1684 despite his refusal to accommodate Nell *Gwyn during *Charles II’s visit to Winchester 1683). Under *James II, he was one of seven bishops who refused to sign the Declaration of Indulgence. He lost his bishopric (1691) for refusing to take an oath of allegiance to *William and *Mary. Later he was given a pension by Queen *Anne and lived at Longleat until his death. His hymns include Praise God from whom all blessings flow and Awake, my soul.

Kendrew, Sir John Cowdery (1917–1997). English biochemist, born in Oxford. A Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge 1947–75, he shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Max *Perutz for their studies of the structure of globular proteins, including myoglobin. He had diverse cultural interests and worked on public policy and philanthropy.

Keneally, Thomas Michael (1935– ). Australian novelist and historian, born in Sydney. His books include Three Cheers for the Paraclete (1968), The Chant of Jimmy Blacksmith (1972, also filmed), Season in Purgatory (1976) and Schindler’s Ark (1982, winner of the Man Booker Prize, filmed as Schindler’s List, 1993). He wrote impressive histories: The Great Shame (1982), Australians. Origins to Eureka (2009) and Australians. Eureka to the Diggers (2011). He was a leading figure in the Australian Republican Movement.

Kennan, George Frost (1904–2005). American historian, diplomat and foreign policy theorist. He served as a diplomat in Moscow (1933–38, 1945–46, 1952–53) and devised the policy of ‘containment’ of the USSR adopted by *Truman after World War II. He was the BBC’s Reith Lecturer (1957), a professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton 1956–74, Ambassador to Yugoslavia 1961–63, and won the Pulitzer Prize (1968) for his Memoirs.

Kennedy family. Irish-American political family in Massachusetts. Joseph Patrick Kennedy (1888–1969), son of a politician, educated at Harvard, married Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy (1890–1995), daughter of the Mayor of Boston, in 1914. He became a bank president, businessman, stock-market speculator, investor in films, shopping centres and imported liquor. He contributed heavily to Democratic party funds and supported Franklin D. *Roosevelt until 1940. Ambassador to Great Britain 1937–40, he believed that Nazi domination in Europe was inevitable and urged an isolationist policy. His nine children included Joseph Patrick (1915–1944), intended for a political career but shot down in the USAF, *John Fitzgerald, *Robert Francis and *Edward Moore.

Kennedy, Edward Moore (‘Ted’) (1932–2009). American Democratic politician, born in Boston. Educated at Harvard (where he was suspended) and the Virginia Law School, he succeeded to John F. *Kennedy’s seat as US Senator from Massachusetts 1962–2009, winning a special election at the minimum age, after a temporary appointee obligingly stepped down. His presidential prospects were damaged by an incident at Chappaquiddick Island, Mass. (July 1969) when he failed to report the death of a woman passenger after he drove off a bridge. In 1980 he challenged Jimmy *Carter for the Democratic nomination. His supporters pointed to his courageous advocacy of unpopular, liberal causes, his detractors to his playboy lifestyle and heavy drinking. He was a vehement opponent of the Iraq war and campaigner for universal health care. In 2008 he strongly endorsed Barack *Obama for the Democratic nomination for president. Awarded an honorary KBE (2009), he died a year after being diagnosed with a brain tumour.

Hersh, B., The Shadow President. 1997.

Kennedy, John Fitzgerald (‘JFK’) (1917–1963). 35th President of the US 1961–63. Born in Brookline, Mass., son of Joseph *Kennedy, he was educated at the Choate School, (briefly) the London School of Economics, Harvard and the Stanford Business School. He interrupted his Harvard course to accompany his father on his London Embassy position and graduated in 1940 with a thesis later published as Why England Slept. In World War II he served in the US Navy and was decorated for heroic rescues of crew members after PT-109 was rammed off the Solomon Islands. This aggravated an acute spinal injury which caused him great pain and led to near-fatal operations (1954–55) and to Addison’s disease. He served in the US Congress 1947–53 and as a senator from Massachusetts 1953–60. In 1953 he married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier (1929–1994) a beautiful journalist and photographer who later married Aristotle *Onassis and became a successful book editor. In 1957 he won the Pulitzer Prize for history with his (ghost-written) Profiles in Courage, accounts of courageous senators. Oddly, his own senate record was equivocal and he failed to speak out against Joseph *McCarthy. After failing to secure the Democratic vice-presidential nomination in 1956, he began his campaign for the presidency in 1957. In 1960 he defeated Richard M. *Nixon in the closest race since 1916; Lyndon B. *Johnson became Vice President. He was the youngest president ever elected and the first Roman Catholic (although far from devout). As President, he pursued the liberal policies to which he had pledged himself, civil rights for blacks, aid for underdeveloped countries, and setting up the Peace Corps. However, much of his domestic ‘New Frontier’ legislation was blocked by Congress. The abortive ‘Bay of Pigs’ invasion of Cuba (April 1961) showed a major error of judgment, redeemed by his coolness in the October 1962 confrontation with *Khrushchev over proposed establishment of Soviet missile bases in Cuba. The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963) indicated a thaw in the Cold War. Kennedy’s role in Vietnam was ambiguous at best: he increased US troops to 17,000 but expressed doubts privately about South Vietnam’s defensibility. On 22 November 1963, on a political tour of Texas, he was shot in Dallas by Lee Harvey *Oswald and died in hospital barely 30 minutes later. The assassination caused widespread grief and shock internationally and in the US. The *Warren Commission concluded that Oswald was a lone assassin but the incident has generated continuing controversy with books and films proposing a variety of conspiracy theories. Kennedy’s reputation has been subject to some revisionism, mostly relating to his private life, e.g. his alleged relationship with Marilyn *Monroe. In 18 Presidential ranking lists by historians and political scientists, Kennedy scored No. 10 in the aggregate.

Manchester, W., One Brief Shining Moment. 1983; Hamilton, N., JFK: Reckless Youth. 1992.

Kennedy, Robert Francis (1925–1968). American politician. Younger brother of President John Fitzgerald *Kennedy, educated at Harvard and the University of Virginia Law School, he became counsel to a senate subcommittee in 1953, working briefly for Joseph *McCarthy, and gaining national recognition by exposing Jimmy Hoffa’s corruption in the Teamsters’ Union 1957–59. He became US Attorney-General in his brother’s Cabinet 1961–64, with a special interest in promoting civil rights for blacks. He resigned in 1964 and was elected Senator for New York, becoming a popular critic of President *Johnson’s Vietnam policy. In 1968 he announced his candidacy for the presidency, but died on 6 June after being shot in Los Angeles by Sirhan Sirhan.

Kenneth I (MacAlpin) (d.858). King of the Picts and Scots 843–58. Regarded as the first Scots King, he united the kingdoms of Dalriada and the Picts.

Kenny, Elizabeth (1886–1952). Australian nurse. She developed the ‘Kenny method’ of treating poliomyelitis by stimulating the muscles. Although it was denounced by many physicians, some clinics using the treatment were established in Australia and the US.

Kent and Strathearn, Edward Augustus, Duke of (1767–1820). British prince. Born in London, fourth son of *George III, he pursued a military career, serving in Canada (1791–93, 1796 and 1799–1802). He was the first prince to visit the United States after independence (1794) and the first to use the generic term ‘Canadian’. Governor of Gibraltar 1802–05, he became a field marshal in 1805 and was the first army commander to dispense with flogging. To help secure the royal succession, he left his mistress of 20 years and in 1818 married Victoria of Saxe-Coburg (1786–1861). Their only child became Queen *Victoria. His great-great-grandson, George Edward Alexander Edmund, Duke of Kent (1902–1942), was the fourth son of *George V. He married (1934) Princess Marina of Greece, was appointed Governor-General of Australia in 1938, to take office in November 1939, but due to the outbreak of war remained in Britain. He was killed in an RAF air crash in Scotland.

Kent, William (1685–1748). English architect, interior decorator and landscapist, born in Yorkshire. Apprenticed to a coach-builder, he was helped by rich well-wishers to go to Rome to study painting, at which, however, he never excelled. In Rome he met (1719) Lord *Burlington, whose enthusiasm for Palladian architecture he shared. Back in England he decorated a suite for Kensington Palace (1723), turned to architecture after 1730 and designed the Horse Guards (1750–58), the Treasury (1734) and several London houses. In the country, where Holkham Hall and Stowe were among his creations, he was a pioneer in the art of treating buildings and their surroundings as a single artistic conception; temples and pavilions in the grounds for example taking their appropriate place in a composition that included the house and gardens. This art of landscaping was carried further by his pupil, ‘Capability’ *Brown.

Kentridge, William (1955– ). South African-Jewish painter, sculptor, animator, film and opera director, born in Johannesburg. He worked in an extraordinary diversity of forms including animated drawings, paintings, prints, sculpture, also directing operas by *Monteverdi, *Mozart, *Berg and *Shostakovich. His films examine time, colonialism, revolutions and scientific advance. Triumphs and Laments (2016) is a huge mural in Rome.

Kenyatta, Jomo (originally Kamau) (c.1893–1978). Kenyan politician. A Kikuyu, he became a government clerk and journalist, and was away from Kenya 1929–46, living mostly in England where he studied anthropology at the London School of Economics, and twice visited the USSR. Returning home, he became President of the Kenya African Union in 1947. He was imprisoned 1953–61 for his part in the Mau Mau rebellion. Within two months of his release (1961) he was re-elected President of the Kenya African National Union (KANU). He became the first Prime Minister 1963–64 and, after proclaiming a republic, first president of Kenya 1964–78. He wrote several books, notably Facing Mount Kenya (1938). His son, Uhuru Kenyatta (1961– ), was Deputy Prime Minister 2009–12 and President of Kenya 2013– , despite being accused of crimes against humanity in the International Court of Justice.

Murray-Brown, J., Kenyatta. 1972; Delf, G., Jomo Kenyatta. 1961.

Kenyon, Dame Kathleen Mary (1906–1978). British archaeologist. She lectured at the Institute of Archaeology, London University 1948–62, specialising in Palestinian archaeology. She directed the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem 1951–63, working herself at Jericho and Jerusalem. She was principal of St Hugh’s College, Oxford 1962–73. Her numerous works include Archaeology in the Holy Land, 3rd ed. (1970), and Digging up Jerusalem (1974).

Kepler, Johannes (1571–1630). German astronomer, born in Weil der Stadt (now part of Stuttgart). At the University of Tübingen he first studied for the Lutheran ministry but became absorbed in scientific studies and in 1594 was appointed professor of mathematics at Graz. In 1600 he went to Prague and became assistant to Tycho *Brahe. After Brahe’s death Kepler succeeded him as astronomer and mathematician (1601–30) to the emperor Rudolf II, and inherited his valuable papers and records. As he received no salary he suffered great poverty. In 1612 he obtained a mathematical appointment at Linz and in 1627 became astrologer to *Wallenstein, the imperial general in the Thirty Years’ War. Kepler was an adherent of the Copernican system and is regarded as one of the founders of modern astronomy. He enunciated the three fundamental laws of planetary motion now known as Kepler’s Laws (1609): (1) each planet moves along an elliptical orbit of which the sun is the focus, (2) an imaginary line joining a planet to the sun will sweep out equal areas in equal times, (3) the square of the planet’s orbit around the sun is proportional to the cube of its mean distance. Sixty years later these laws helped *Newton to formulate his universal law of gravitation. Kepler also suggested that tides are caused by the moon’s gravitational pull on large bodies of water. His Rudolphine Tables (1627) giving the positions of sun, moon and planets, remained standard for about a century. He corresponded with *Galileo but they never met. In 1611 he proposed an improved refracting telescope using two convex lenses and suggested the principle of the reflecting telescope later developed by Newton.

Koestler, A., The Sleepwalkers. 1959.

Kerensky, Aleksandr Feodorovich (1881–1970). Russian lawyer and politician. He made his name as a brave and eloquent opponent of the tsarist government in the Duma of 1912, and during World War I, after the revolution (March 1917), Kerensky, as a leader of the Social Revolutionary party, became Minister of Justice, then Minister of War, and in July head of the provisional government. His decision to pursue the war against Germany undermined his popularity and in November he was overthrown by the Bolsheviks. He spent a life of exile and propaganda in Paris, then in the US 1920–45, 1946–70; and Australia 1945–46. His son, Oleg Aleksandrovich Kerensky (1905–1984), civil engineer and bridge designer in England, worked on the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

Browder, R., and Kerensky, F. (eds), The Russian Provisional Government, 1917. 1961; Kerensky, A., Russia and History’s Turning Point. 1965.

Kermode, Sir (John) Frank (1919–2010). British literary critic, born in Douglas, Isle of Man. Co-editor of Encounter 1966–67, he held chairs in English literature at Manchester, Bristol, London, Cambridge and Harvard, wrote the highly praised memoir Not Entitled (1996) and was a discriminating anthologist. He wrote Shakespeare's Language (2000).

Kern, Jerome David (1885–1945). American composer. He studied piano, harmony and music theory in New York and Heidelberg, and wrote about 1000 songs, including Smoke Gets in Your Eyes and The last time I saw Paris, many interpolated into other productions. He composed 41 musicals. The most successful was Showboat (1927), based on Edna *Ferber’s novel, to lyrics by Oscar *Hammerstein, including the song Ol’ man river. Other collaborators included P. G. *Wodehouse and Guy Bolton. He was a discriminating collector of antique manuscripts and documents.

Kerouac, Jack (1922–1969). American author. Exemplar of the lifestyle and discontents of the ‘beat’ generation, his best known novel, On the Road (1957), is written in a spontaneous, discursive idiom and embodies the attitudes and alienation of the ’50’s ‘beatnik’ youth. Later novels include The Subterraneans (1958) and Big Sur (1962).

Charters, A., Kerouac. 1974

Kéroualle, Louise de see Portsmouth, Duchess of

Kerr, Sir John Robert (1914–1991). Australian lawyer, born in Sydney. He became an industrial court judge, Chief Justice of New South Wales 1972–74 and Governor-General of Australia 1974–77 on the nomination of Gough *Whitlam. In November 1975 he dismissed the Whitlam Labor Government in an unprecedented use of the Governor-General’s reserve powers, after the Opposition-dominated Senate deferred passage of Supply, and appointed Malcolm *Fraser as Prime Minister. Kerr became the centre of bitter controversy and resigned from his post in 1977 before the expiry of his five-year term. He left Australia and later wrote his memoirs Matters for Judgment (1978).

Kerry, John Forbes (1943– ). American Democratic politician, born in Denver. He served in the US Navy during the Vietnam War, became a lawyer and US Senator from Massachusetts 1985–2013. Democratic candidate for president in 2004, he lost narrowly to George W. *Bush. He became US Secretary of State 2013–17 in *Obama’s second term.

Kesselring, Albert (1885–1960). German soldier and airman. Having transferred (1935) from the artillery to the Luftwaffe (air force) he commanded air fleets in the early offensives of World War II, including the Battle of Britain. He became Supreme Commander of the Axis forces in Italy (1943) and conducted a series of delaying actions with remarkable skill. In April 1945, when all was already lost, he superseded von *Rundstedt as Commander-in-Chief on the western front. He received a death sentence (commuted to life imprisonment) for war crimes in 1947 but was released in 1952.

Kettering, Charles Franklin (1876–1968). American engineer and inventor. His inventions included the electric cash register (1908), the electric self-starter for cars (1912), quick drying lacquer and anti-knock petrol. He was Vice President and Director of Research at General Motors 1920–47. The Sloan-Kettering Institute for cancer research in New York was named for him and Alfred P. *Sloan, chairman of GM.

Key, Francis Scott (1779–1843). American lawyer and poet. He wrote the words of The Star-Spangled Banner, which became the American national anthem by an act of Congress (1931).

Key, Sir John Phillip (1961– ). New Zealand National politician, born in Auckland. His father was English, his mother an Austrian Jew. Educated in Christchurch, he became a merchant banker and worked as a foreign exchange dealer in Singapore and London. MP 2002–17, he became National Party leader 2006–16 and Prime Minister 2008–16.

Keynes, (John) Maynard, 1st Baron Keynes of Tilton (1883–1946). British economist, born in Cambridge. Son of a professor of political economy, he was educated at Eton, studied under A.C. Pigou and Alfred *Marshall at Cambridge and was influenced by the philosopher G. E. *Moore. He joined the civil service in 1906 and was active in the ‘Bloomsbury set’. Fellow and lecturer at King’s College, Cambridge, from 1909, he worked during World War I at the Treasury, of which he was the principal representative at the negotiations preparatory to the Treaty of Versailles. Having shown, by his resignation, disapproval of the financial proposals, especially those relating to reparations, he predicted trenchantly, in The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919), the results of imposing obligations that a defeated Germany would be unable to meet. The book made Keynes the centre of immediate controversy and ensured his fame when his worst fears were realised. He was equally critical of Britain’s return to the gold standard (1925) and predicted the rapid increase in unemployment that would arise from its deflationary effects. The direction in which his mind was working was shown by the proposals he made for dealing with unemployment in the 1929 election manifesto of the Liberal Party (to which he belonged), a large program of public works being among the chief recommendations. Keynes’s broad approach was adopted in *Roosevelt’s ‘New Deal’ after 1934. His matured ideas for regulating the economy as well as his new conclusions on monetary theory were elaborated with great skill and persuasive power in The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1936). The general acceptance of its main tenets in many countries after World War II constituted what is known as the Keynesian revolution. It marked the end of the classical economists’ belief in the self-regulating economy: aggregate demand was to be adjusted to available supply, consciously using such financial techniques as enlarging or reducing the credit base or varying the rates of interest. Government expenditure, too, should be adjusted as necessary so as either to stimulate or to discourage public demand. Keynes himself modified some of his prescriptions in later years. It is clear from the ‘stop-go’ tactics enforced upon governments in Britain and elsewhere that the full answers have not been found, but the great overall postwar rise in prosperity in the developed countries and the absence of catastrophic unemployment is largely due to Keynes.

He was one of the few theoretical economists who had the opportunity or skill to bring his ideas into practice. In World War II he was adviser to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, having become a member of the Bank of England Board (1941) and a peer (1942). The years from 1943 on were mainly spent on financial missions to America. He was the chief British delegate at the Bretton Woods Conference (1944), and it was his plan, welded with similar American proposals, that became the basis of discussion and agreement there on the foundation of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Keynes was a lover and patron of several arts, built and endowed the Cambridge Arts Theatre, chaired the Council for Encouragement of Music and the Arts (CEMA) 1942–45 and was the first Chairman of the Arts Council of Great Britain 1945–46. Despite his homosexuality, he married (1925) the Russian ballerina, Lydia Lopokova (1892–1981). He died just before the announcement that he had been awarded the OM.

Dillard, D. D., The Economics of John Maynard Keynes. 1948; Skidelsky, R., John Maynard Keynes. Vol 1, 1983, Vol 2, 1992, Vol 3, 2000; Davenport-Hines, R., Universal Man: The Seven Lives of John Maynard Keynes. 2015.

Khachachurian, Aram Ilyich (1903–1978). Russian composer, born in Tiflis, Georgia. Of poor parentage, he studied at the Moscow Conservatoire (1923–34). His compositions were influenced by the Armenian, Georgian and other folk tunes that he collected. He wrote three virtuoso concertos (for piano, cello and violin) in addition to three symphonies, the popular ballet suites Gayaneh and Masquerade, a number of songs (some of them for the Red Army), and incidental music for films and plays. He was awarded the Order of Lenin (1939) and composed the national anthem for Soviet Armenia (1945).

Khama, Sir Seretse (1921–1980). African politician. A hereditary tribal chief of Bechuanaland, he was educated at Balliol College, Oxford. His marriage (1950) to an Englishwoman, Ruth Williams, led to a period of exile but he returned to Bechuanaland in 1956. He was the first prime pinister of Bechuanaland 1965–66 and first president of Botswana 1966–80.

Khamenei, Ali Hosseini (1939– ). Iranian ayatollah, born in Mashhad. A Shia cleric, he was President of the Islamic Republic 1981–89 and on the death of Ayotollah Ruhollah *Khomenei succeeded him as Supreme Leader 1989– and head of the Council of Guardians. An effective political networker, he gave broad support to Mahmoud*Ahmadinejad.

Khan (Niazi), Imran Ahmad (1952– ). Pakistani politician and cricketer, born in Lahore. Educated at Oxford, he played cricket for Pakistan 1976–92 and was the team’s captain, on and off, 1982–92. He founded the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (Movement for Justice) in 1996, was MP 2002–07; 2013– , and Prime Minister 2018– , with support of the army and Muslim clerics.

Khatami, Muhammad (1943– ). Iranian cleric, theologian and politician. Formerly Minister for Culture 1982–92, regarded as a moderate, he was elected as President in 1997 and 2001 (serving 1997–2005) after a high turnout of women voters.

Khomeini, Ruhollah (1900–1989). Iranian ayatollah and political leader. A Shi’ite, he taught theology at Qom, opposed attempts to westernise and secularise Iran by Shah *Mohammed Reza Pahlevi and was exiled in Turkey, Iraq and France 1964–79. In February 1979 he returned to Iran, the Shah’s government collapsed and Khomeini nominated a new ministry. He became virtual head of state with the support of his Islamic Revolution Party. Under the new constitution, accepted by plebiscite, Iran returned to the shariat, strict observance of Islamic principles, traditions and punishments including stoning and amputation. Iran instigated international terrorist acts, held US embassy staff hostage for 444 days (1979–80), effectively destroying *Carter’s presidency, and declared war on Iraq. Khomeini sentenced the novelist Salman *Rushdie to death (fatwah) for his novel Satanic Verses which satirised the ayatollah. His funeral was marked by extraordinary outbursts of grief and violence.

Khorana, Har Gobind (1922– ). Indian-American organic chemist. Educated at the Punjab and Liverpool Universities, he worked in Britain, Switzerland, Canada and the US and held chairs at Wisconsin, Cornell and MIT. He shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.

Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeyevich (1894–1971). Russian politician, born in Kalinkova, Kursk Province. The son of a miner and shepherd, he first worked on a farm, then became a plumber and a locksmith. He joined the Communist Party in 1918 and after training began his career as party organiser at the age of 35. He was a member of the Central Committee of the party (1934), Secretary of the Moscow District Party Committee 1934–38, General Secretary of the Ukraine 1938–46, 1947–53, and held the rank of Lieutenant General when the Ukraine was occupied by Germany. As Premier of the Ukraine 1944–47 he purged the anti-Stalinists there after the war. Elected to the Politburo in 1939, he was also secretary of the Moscow Province Communist Party 1949–53. On *Stalin’s death he acted as a liaison between the ‘collective leadership’ (*Malenkov, *Molotov, *Beria) and the party machine. As First Secretary of the Communist Party March 1953–October 1964 he steadily eliminated the top echelon of leadership. At the 20th Congress of the CPSU (February 1956), he denounced Stalin for his ‘capricious and despotic’ rule and for promoting the ‘cult of personality’. With the support of *Zhukov in June 1957 he defeated an attempted coup by the ‘anti-party group’ (*Malenkov, *Kaganovich, *Molotov). He replaced his nominee N. A. *Bulganin as Premier of the USSR 1958–64, visiting the US in 1959, India and China in 1960. Forced out of office in October 1964, he passed into obscure retirement. A volume of his autobiography, Khrushchev Remembers, was published in the West in 1970. He denied its authorship, but the materials used were authentic.

Khufu (or Cheops, the Greek form) (d.c.2700 BCE). Egyptian king. The second ruler of the IVth dynasty, he succeeded his father Snefru and built the Great Pyramid of Cheops (or Khufu), at Giza, near Cairo. He was succeeded by his sons Djedefre and Khafre.

Khwārizmī, Muammad ibn Mūsā al- (c.780–c.850) Persian mathematician, and astronomer. Known as Algorithmi in the West, he translated *Ptolemy’s Geography, produced a world map, and calculated longitude and latitude for many cities, adapted the use of Indian numerals, proposed the decimal system, and developed algebra as an independent discipline. He worked for the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad.

Kidd, William (1645–1701). Scottish privateer. After successful operations against the French, he was provided (1696) by London merchants with a ship of 30 guns to destroy pirates in the Indian Ocean. In 1698 rumours began to trickle through that Kidd had turned pirate himself. Two years later he returned to American waters but when he landed at Boston, which had been his home for some years, he was arrested, despite a half-promise of a safe conduct. He was sent to London, tried, condemned and hanged. Hoards of treasure said to have been his were found in Long Island and elsewhere, but the exploits that have made him notorious as a pirate chief are mostly legendary and he may even have been innocent, as he claimed to the end.

Kido Koin (1834–1877). Japanese samurai. From Choshu, he was a prime mover in the Meiji Restoration (*Mutsohito) and drew up the Charter Oath of April 1868. He travelled abroad 1871–73, opposed an aggressive foreign policy and was the first minister of Education 1873–75.

Kiefel, Susan Mary (1954– ). Australian jurist, born in Cairns. She left school at 15, became a secretary, receptionist, then a legal clerk, studying at night and was admitted to the bar in 1975. She was a justice of the Supreme Court of Queensland 1993–94, of the Federal Court 1994–2007, of the High Court 2007–17 and became the first woman Chief Justice of Australia 2017– .

Kiefer, Anselm (1945– ). German painter and sculptor. Originally a photographer, influenced by Joseph *Beuys, and the historic impact of the Holocaust, living in Paris, he produced dark, powerful works, often using shattered glass, lead sheets, broken concrete and metal frames. He was widely exhibited and critically praised. He also painted works inspired by *Wagner’s Ring of the Nibelungs.

Kierkegaard, Søren Aabye (1813–1855). Danish philosopher and theologian. Though influenced strongly by the philosophy of *Hegel, he then reacted against the Hegelian notion that through the ultimate reality, the Absolute, nature exists rationally and systematically. In his revolt against reason he stressed that the great problems of men, which he identified chiefly as dread (Angst) and anxiety, could only be resolved by an individual search for God, whom he saw as infinitely different in quality from man. He rejected, therefore, all conventional, communal and ethical religion and indeed the Christian dogma of a historical incarnation. His major works include Either/Or (1843), Concluding Unscientific Postscript (1846) and his Journals. His theme that ‘truth is subjectivity’ and his anti-Hegelian ‘existential dialectic’, at first scarcely known outside Denmark, profoundly influenced 20th-century thought and led directly to existentialism.

Rohde, P., Soren Kierkegaard: An Introduction to his Life and Philosophy. 1963; Carlisle, C., Philosopher of the Heart. The Restless Life of Søren Kierkegaard. 2019.

Kiesinger, Kurt Georg (1904–1988). German politician. A lawyer, he dropped out of the Nazi Party after brief membership, was interned in 1945 but never charged. A follower of *Adenauer, he became a Bundestag member 1949–58, 1966–80, Premier of Baden-Wurttemberg 1958–66 and Chancellor in the CDU-SPD ‘grand coalition’ 1966–69.

Kilby, Jack St Clair (1923–2005). American electrical engineer. In 1958 he built the first microchip (integrated circuit: IC) for Texas Instruments, soon followed by Robert N(orton) Noyce (1927–1990) at Intel and also invented the hand-held calculator. In 2000 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer.

Kildare, Earls of. Irish earldom, held (from 1316) by the head of the FitzGerald family, Gerald FitzGerald (Gearóid Óg in Irish), 8th Earl (known as ‘The Great’) (d.1513), took advantage of English preoccupation with the Wars of the Roses to build, by marriage alliances and conquest, an all but independent domain. Though he supported the pretender Lambert *Simnel he managed to effect a reconciliation with *Henry VII. His son Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl (1487–1534), for some time maintained much of his power in face of *Henry VIII’s centralising policy, until forced to obey a summons to London where he was imprisoned.

Kilvert, Francis (1840–1879). English cleric and diarist. His Diary was discovered in 1937 and edited by William Plomer in three volumes, 1938–40. It describes his life and environment in graphic and sometimes humorous detail and is an important document of social history.

Kim Dae-jung (1925–2009). Korean politician. A presidential candidate in 1971, 1987, 1992 and 1997, he was imprisoned 1976–78, 1980–82, sentenced to death in 1980 and survived several assassination attempts. President of the Republic of Korea 1998–2003, he opened up dialogue with *Kim Jong Il in North Korea and won the 2000 Nobel Peace Prize.

Kim Il Sung (1912–1994). Korean Communist politician and soldier. Son of a school teacher, he probably studied in China. He founded the Fatherland Restoration Association (1936), led guerrilla forces against Japan in Manchuria and may have served as a colonel at Stalingrad. After Korea’s partitioning in 1945. Russian troops occupied the North, and Kim, Secretary-General of the Korean Workers’ Party, became chairman of the provisional government. On the Russian withdrawal, the Democratic Peoples’ Republic of Korea was founded and Kim was Premier 1948–72 and President 1972–94. During the Korean war (1950–53) he commanded the armed forces of the North and became a marshal. The DPRK attempted an ambitious industrialisation program after the war and Kim’s philosophy of ‘Juche’ had the force of law. His son Kim Jong il (1942–2011) was Supreme Commander of the Korean Peoples’ Army 1991–2011 but did not take his father’s title as President, although confirmed as Secretary-General of the Korean Workers’ Party in 1998. He was succeeded by Kim Jong-un (1983– ), probably educated in Switzerland 1996–2001, the third generation in the family to take supreme power, hailed as a master tactician, military leader and golfer. He held the titles of Supreme Leader 2011– , Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces 2011– and First Secretary of the Korean Workers’ Party 2012– .

Fifield, A., The Great Successor. The Secret Rise and Rule by Kim Jong Un. 2019.

Kim Young-sam (1927–2015). Korean politician. Leader of the New Democratic Party 1974–97, he was kept under house arrest for years, polled strongly in the 1987 presidential election and became President of the Republic of Korea 1993–98, the first civilian for 30 years, after a free election in 1992. The Korean economy contracted as his term ended.

King, Cecil see Harmsworth

King, Ernest Joseph (1878–1956). American fleet admiral. After serving in the Spanish American War and World War I, he became Vice Admiral commanding the aircraft battle force 1938–39. This experience was of great value for the air sea battles of World War II, when he was Commander-in-Chief of the Atlantic Fleet 1941, Commander-in-Chief of the US Navy and Chief of Naval Operations 1942–45. His mastery of strategy and supply was a major factor in Japan’s defeat. His daughter wrote of him that he ‘was very even-tempered: he was always in a rage’.

King, Martin Luther, Jr (1929–1968). American clergyman and reformer, born in Atlanta, Georgia. A Baptist clergyman, he became the most successful and powerful of American black leaders in campaigning for civil rights. He adopted *Gandhi’s tactics of ‘passive resistance’, organised a boycott of segregated buses in Montgomery, Alabama in 1956 and won national recognition. Imprisoned briefly 12 times and constantly harassed by the FBI, he led black moderates and opposed violence and the ‘Black Muslim’ movement. He organised vast civil rights rallies and his famous ‘I have a dream’ speech in Washington (August 1963) is of enduring significance. He won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize and was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee on 4 April 1968 by James Earl Ray. His work was continued by his widow, Coretta Scott King (née Scott) (1927–2006), a singer, lecturer and writer.

King, Philip Gidley (1758–1808). English officer and administrator, born in Launceston, Cornwall. He joined the Royal Navy as a servant in 1771. Responsible for settling Norfolk Island as a convict settlement, he was lieutenant-governor there 1788–90; 1791–96. Supported by *Phillip and *Banks, he was appointed Governor of New South Wales 1800–06. Hot tempered but an able administrator, he clashed with the New South Wales Corps, worked diligently to create an economic base for the colony, promoting flax, wool, whaling, sealing and coal mining and encouraged the exploration of Port Phillip. He retreated into self-pity (not without reason), became ill and died, barely 50.

King, Sir (Frederick) Truby (1858–1938). New Zealand physician. He founded many ‘mothercraft’ and infant welfare clinics and helped to make New Zealand’s infant mortality rate the lowest in the world.

King, W(illiam) L(yon) Mackenzie (1874–1950). Canadian Liberal politician. Grandson of William Lyon *Mackenzie, he gained a PhD in industrial sociology at Harvard, was Deputy Minister of Labour 1900–08 and a member of the Canadian House of Commons 1908–11 and 1919–48. On Sir Wilfred *Laurier’s death in 1919, King (then out of parliament) was elected Liberal Party leader. Prime Minister of Canada for a record period, over three terms 1921–26, 1926–30 and 1935–48 and also Foreign Minister 1926–30 and 1935–46, he secured a degree of national unity by persuading French Canadians that the Liberal party would protect their interests. However, his free trade policies led to the increasing dominance of the Canadian economy by US commercial interests, creating many social and political problems. His view that the relationship between each dominion and Britain should be completely equal was embodied in the Statute of Westminster (1931), based on the 1926 Westminster Conference where he had played a leading role. Externally he insisted on Canada’s complete freedom of action and shunned all alliances, nevertheless he brought Canada into World War II on the side of Britain. On his retirement (1948), Louis *St Laurent became Prime Minister and Liberal Leader, and King received the OM. He was unmarried and an introverted mystic.

Pickersgill, J. W., and Forster, D. F., The Mackenzie King Record. 1960–70.

Kinglake, Alexander William (1808–1891). English historian. He wrote an account of his travels in the east in Eothen (1844). In 1854 he followed the British army to the Crimea and wrote History of the War in the Crimea (8 volumes, 1863–87), a brilliant and detailed narrative based upon the papers of the Commander-in-Chief, Lord *Raglan. He was a Liberal MP 1857–68.

Kingsford-Smith, Sir Charles Edward (1897–1935). Australian aviator, born in Brisbane. Originally an engineering apprentice, he was a pilot in World War I, winning an MC in 1917. In the three-engined Fokker monoplane Southern Cross he flew (with Charles *Ulm) from Los Angeles to Brisbane in June (1928), from Sydney to London (1929) and from Ireland to New York (1930). By 1931 he was the first airman to have flown around the world. He was lost off the coast of Burma, trying to break the England–Australia record.

FitzSimons, P., Charles Kingsford-Smith and Those Magnificent Men. 2009; Blainey, A., King of the Air. The Turbulent Life of Charles Kingsford Smith. 2019.

Kingsley, Charles (1819–1875). English clergyman and author. One of the founders of the Christian Socialist movement, he became rector (1844) of Eversley, Hampshire, a living he held for the rest of his life. His social doctrines are most clearly expressed in his novels Yeast (1850), Alton Locke (1851) and Two Years Ago (1857). His historical romances include Westward Ho! (1855), Hypatia (1853) and Hereward the Wake (1866) and he also wrote the children’s books The Heroes (1856, stories from Greek mythology) and The Water Babies (1863). He was professor of modern history at Cambridge 1860–69. His brother, Henry Kingsley (1830–1876), also a novelist, is best remembered for Ravenshoe (1861). His niece Mary Kingsley (1862–1900), wrote with unusual insight about native problems in West Africa, where she travelled extensively.

Kinnock, Neil Gordon, Baron Kinnock (1942– ). British Labour politician. The son of a labourer and a nurse, he was educated in Wales, lectured in Cardiff, worked for the Workers’ Educational Association and became MP 1970–94. He served as Shadow Minister for Education 1979–83 and succeeded Michael *Foot as Leader of the Opposition 1983–92. He was appointed as a commissioner of the European Union 1994–2004 and Vice President 1999–2004.

Kinsey, Alfred C(harles) (1894–1956). American zoologist and social scientist. The publication of his Sexual Behaviour of the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behaviour of the Human Female (1953) roused considerable controversy, caused partly by the nature of the theme but more particularly because his conclusions were reached mainly from answers (not necessarily truthful) to standard questionnaires.

Jones, J. H., Alfred C. Kinsey: A public/private life. 1997.

Kinski, Klaus (Nikolaus Gunther Naksznski) (1926–1991). Polish-German film actor, born in Gdansk. He began to act as a prisoner of war, appeared in 200 German films, then attracted international attention with his intense, often fanatical, performances in Aguirre, Wrath of God (1973), Woyzeck (1979), Nosferatu (1979), Fitzcarraldo (1982) and The Little Drummer Girl (1984). His daughter was the actor Nastassja Kinski (Werner *Herzog).

Kipling, (Joseph) Rudyard (1865–1936). English novelist, short-story writer and poet, born in Bombay (now Mumbai). Son of (John) Lockwood Kipling (1837–1911), an author-artist who wrote Beast and Man in India (1892), and Alice Caroline MacDonald (1837–1910), at the age of five he was sent back to England to board, unhappily, with relatives, then attended Westwood Ho!, a United Services College in Devon, an experience he drew on in Stalky & Co (1899). He returned to India to become (1882) assistant editor of the Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore. He first achieved fame with Departmental Ditties (1886) and two books of short stories (1888), Soldiers Three and Plain Tales from the Hills. He returned to England (1889) and published a novel, The Light that Failed (1890). He visited South Africa, New Zealand and Australia in 1891. Collaboration with the American Wolcot Balestier on The Naulahka (1892) led to his marriage to Balestier’s sister, Caroline; they lived in the US 1892–96, and also made regular visits to South Africa. After living in America for a time the Kiplings returned to England in 1899. He published more than 500 poems: the best known include the chilling ‘Danny Deever’, ‘The Road to Mandalay’ and ‘Gunga Din’ (all in Barrack-Room Ballads, 1892), ‘Recessional’ (non-triumphalist, although written in Queen Victoria’s Jubilee year, 1897), ‘The White Man’s Burden’ (1899) and ‘If– ’ (1910, once voted the most popular poem in English). In the two Jungle Books (1894–95) his skill as a writer for children was revealed, to be shown again in Just So Stories (1902), Puck of Pook’s Hill (1906) and Rewards and Fairies (1910). Captains Courageous (1897) and Kim (1901) were both enormously successful novels, each filmed several times. Kim is the story of a vagabond boy who settles to adventurous manhood in India, and is a powerful account of magnificence and squalor. Kipling lived in Sussex after the Boer War and concentrated on poems and short stories, some of the best of which appeared in e.g. Actions and Reactions (1909). He was the first English winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature (1907).

Kipling’s writing is exceptionally vivid, with a striking economy and sharp immediacy. Henry *James admired him. George *Orwell loathed his ‘jingoism … and strain of sadism’. T. S. *Eliot called his poems ‘great verse … although not great poetry’ and Somerset *Maugham described him as ‘the greatest short-story writer in English’.

Eliot wrote that Kipling had ‘a queer gift of second sight, of transmitting messages from elsewhere, a gift so disconcerting [that it makes him] a writer impossible wholly to understand and quite impossible to belittle’.

Hostile to Home Rule for Ireland and votes for women, he was vaguely anti-Semitic (but perhaps no more than English generally at that time) and fervently Imperialist. He had no religious convictions, calling himself ‘a God-fearing atheist’. He was deeply pro-French, anti-German, anti-Communist and an active Freemason. From 1911 until 1933, his books bore a left-facing swastika as a good luck symbol, a practice he abandoned when *Hitler took power in Germany.

He son John was killed in action in 1915, reinforcing a deep vein of pessimism. He became involved in selecting commemorative words in memorials such as London’s Cenotaph (‘Lest we forget’) and war graves (‘Known unto God’). He wrote *George V’s first Royal Christmas Message in 1932.

A first cousin of Stanley *Baldwin, Kipling refused all the official honours offered to him, including a knighthood, the Poet Laureateship and the OM (1921 and 1924). His ashes are interred in Poets’ Corner, Westminster Abbey.

Dobree, B., Rudyard Kipling: Realist and Fabullist. 1967; Wilson, A., The Strange Ride of Rudyard Kipling. 1977; Seymour-Smith, M., Rudyard Kipling 1989; Ricketts, H., The Unforgiving Minute. A Life of Rudyard Kipling. 1999.

Kirby, Michael Donald (1939– ). Australian jurist, born in Sydney. A judge from 1975, promoted to the High Court of Australia 1996–2009, he was a consultant to UN bodies and wrote extensively on criminology, information theory, AIDS, human rights and transborder data flows. He won the Gruber Prize for Justice in 2010. The UN Security Council commissioned him to report on human rights abuses in North Korea (2013–14).

Brown, A. J., Michael Kirby. Paradoxes & Principles. 2011.

Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert (1824–1887). German physicist, born and educated at Königsberg. He became professor of physics at Breslau (1850), Heidelberg (1854) and Berlin (1857). Working with *Bunsen, he developed the spectroscope and the technique of spectrum analysis by which they discovered caesium (1860) and rubidium (1861). Kirchhoff enunciated two basic laws (Kirchhoff’s Laws of Electricity) that are used to calculate current and voltage in complex electrical circuits, and a law of radiation (Kirchhoff’s Law) that relates emissive and absorptive power. He was the first to explain the Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum (1859). Elected FRS, he won the Rumford Medal (1862).

Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig (1880–1938). German Expressionist painter. He was a leading member of Die Brücke (The Bridge) group, based in Dresden, then in Berlin. His works were intense, violent and reflect a deep interest in primitive art.

Kirchner Ostoić, Néstor Carlos (1950–2010). Argentinian politician, born in Rio Gallegos, Patagonia. A lawyer, he became active in the Justicialist (formerly Peronista) Party, and was Governor of Santa Cruz 1991–2003 and President of Argentina 2003–07. His wife, Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner (1953– ), born in La Plata, was a senator 2005–07 and President of Argentina 2007–15.

Kirk, Norman Eric (1923–1974). New Zealand Labour politician. An engine driver, he entered parliament in 1957. He led the Labour Party from 1964 and was Prime Minister and Foreign Minister 1972–74, dying in office.

Kirov, Sergey Mironovich (1888–1934). Russian Communist politician. He was a close associate of *Stalin and, from 1926, Secretary of the Communist Party in the Leningrad area and a Politburo member 1930–34. His assassination was followed by a witch hunt and the judicial execution of over 100 suspected opponents of Stalin’s regime.

Kishi Nobusuke (1896–1987). Japanese politician. An elder brother of *Sato Eisaku and nephew of Matsuoko Yosuka, he was adopted by an uncle’s family, became a civil servant and directed Japanese economic investment in Manchuria (Manchukuo) 1936–39. He served under General *Tojo as a Vice Minister and Minister of State 1943–44, was held as a war criminal 1945–48 but never tried. A Member of the Diet 1942–45, 1953–79, he was Foreign Minister 1956–57 and Prime Minister 1957–60, seeking close economic ties with the US and the right to re-arm. He remained a powerful conservative force in the Liberal Democratic Party. *Abe Shinzō was his grandson.

Kissinger, Henry Alfred (1923– ). American academic and official, born in Fuerth, Germany. He emigrated to the US in 1938, studied at Harvard and served in the US Army. He established a reputation as an expert on international relations and defence. In 1969 he was appointed President *Nixon’s assistant responsible for national security. US Secretary of State 1973–77, he negotiated the ceasefire between the US and North Vietnam in 1973 and was also instrumental in achieving a ceasefire between Egypt and Israel. Under the Constitution, he received Nixon's resignation as President (August 1974), continuing in office under Gerald *Ford. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1973 with *Le Duc Tho from Vietnam (who declined it). He negotiated a settlement between hostile factions in Rhodesia which was accepted by the Rhodesian Government but not by the Patriotic Front guerrilla movement. In 1977 he returned to academic life as professor of diplomacy at Georgetown University. A prolific writer, he published his memoirs in 1979.

Isaacson, W., Kissinger: A Biography. 1992.

Kitaj, R(onald) B(rooks) (1932–2007). American painter and graphic artist. He was a merchant seaman and soldier who studied in London and lived in England, evolving a striking figurative art, working in parallel to the pop artists of the US. Elected to the Royal Academy in 1991, he returned to the US in 1997 and committed suicide.

Kitasato Shibasaburo (1852–1931). Japanese bacteriologist. A pupil of *Koch, he was noted for his independent discoveries of the bacilli of anthrax (1889), diphtheria (1890) and bubonic plague (1894).

Kitchener of Khartoum, 1st Earl, (Horatio) Herbert Kitchener (1850–1916). Anglo-Irish field marshal, born in County Kerry. He endured a traumatic childhood and while still a cadet at the Royal Military Academy, he served with the French army in the Franco-Prussian War. As an engineer officer, with a knowledge of Arabic and Hebrew, he proved his ability in Palestine survey work, in Cyprus, and (from 1882) in Egypt. He was deeply involved in the events leading up to and following the death of Charles *Gordon and as a result of the skill and thoroughness with which he performed all the tasks assigned him, he was made Sirdar (i.e. Commander-in-Chief) of the Egyptian Army 1892–99, working towards restoring British rule in Sudan. He won the decisive Battle of Omdurman (1898), was created a baron and, as Governor-General of the Sudan 1899, planned the modern city of Khartoum. In the Boer War he was appointed (1899) Chief of Staff to Lord *Roberts, succeeding him as Commander-in-Chief 1900–02. Following the Spanish model in Cuba, he established concentration camps for civilians in which 20,000 people died, burned farms and applied collective punishments. However, he brought the war to an end, received a viscouncy, £50,000 and became a foundation member of the Order of Merit (1902). His tenure of the post of Commander-in-Chief in India 1902–09 was famous for his quarrel with the viceroy, Lord *Curzon, concerning spheres of authority, but he achieved significant improvements in hygiene and sanitation. Promoted to field marshal in 1909, he visited Australia and Zealand to advise on defence, aspired to the Viceroyalty of India but was appointed instead as Commander-in-Chief in 1910–11, then returned to Egypt as British Consul-General and Minister Plenipotentiary 1911–14. Created earl in June 1914, on the outbreak of World War I *Asquith appointed him as Secretary of State for War 1914–16.

Alone of the generals, he predicted a long war of attrition and played a leading role in creating an army that could combat the Germans. A famous recruiting poster, ‘BRITONS [image of Kitchener] wants YOU’, helped to attract 1,700,000 volunteers by May 1915 and, ultimately, 70 infantry divisions were formed in ‘Kitchener’s Army’. He dismissed Gallipoli as a ‘tragic irrelevance’ but failed to stop it. His critics asserted that his reputation was based on colonial warfare, not conflict between highly mechanised combatants. He had a tense relationship with his generals who resented his tactical interventions and the politicians loathed him: *Lloyd George describing him as both ‘secretive and indecisive’. Despite his vivid insights about World War I, he failed to ensure adequate provision of ammunition and equipment.

In June 1916 Kitchener embarked on an urgent mission to Russia, but HMS Hampshire was sunk by a mine off Orkney and he drowned. His colleagues were relieved. Conspiracy theories were advanced.

Large (188 cm in height), moustachioed and imposing, Kitchener’s sexuality is controversial. He never married, loved porcelain, orchids and poodles, knitted, but had a brutal, ruthless side as well.

Magnus, P., Kitchener. 1958; Royle, T., The Kitchener Enigma, 1985; Warner, P., Kitchener: The Man Behind the Legend. 2006.

Kléber, Jean Baptiste (1753–1800). French marshal, born in Alsace. Having fought with distinction in the French Revolutionary campaigns, he went (1798) to Egypt as a divisional commander under *Napoléon. He was left in command in 1799 when Napoléon returned to Paris. On the refusal by the higher British authorities to ratify an agreement with the local commander, Sidney Smith, for the evacuation of his troops, he reopened hostilities, defeated the Turks at Heliopolis but was assassinated by a fanatic in Cairo shortly afterwards.

Klee, Paul (1879–1940). German-Swiss painter, born in Berne. Undecided at first whether to pursue art or music, he eventually went to Munich to study and joined the Blaue Reiter group (*Kandinsky). His eyes were opened to the use of colour during a visit to Tunis (1914), and henceforth his colour harmonies and contrasts were as much a feature of his work as his brilliant draughtsmanship. In 1920 he joined the Bauhaus in Weimar, but soon after *Hitler came to power he was dismissed (1933) from an appointment at the Düsseldorf Academy, on the grounds that his art was decadent, and settled in Switzerland. As Klee has been one of the most important influences on modern art, his methods of composition are significant. Instead of consciously deciding upon a subject for a picture, his starting point would be splashes of colour intuitively conceived, which by the processes of association and suggestion, modified by his acquired knowledge of composition, set up a train of ‘pictorial thinking’ which he would follow until a picture was achieved. The naming of the picture was the final act, and his works often had evocative titles: The Twittering Machine, Dance, Monster to my Soft Song, Death and Fire. He wrote extensively on aesthetics, e.g. Pedagogical Sketchbook (1925, translated 1953) and The Nature of Nature (1973). His diaries were published in 1957. There were 9100 works in his catalogue—an output second only to *Picasso.

Grohmann, W., Paul Klee. 1956 ; Boulez, P., Le Pays Fertile: Paul Klee. 1989.

Kleiber, Erich (1890–1956). Austrian conductor, born in Vienna. He worked in Germany until 1934, performing the work of *Bartók, *Berg, *Mahler and *Schoenberg and directed the Teatro Colón opera in Buenos Aires 1939–43. He made superb recordings of *Mozart and *Beethoven. His son Carlos Kleiber (1930–2004) was also a notable operatic and symphonic conductor, concentrating on a very small repertoire.

Kleist, (Bernd) Heinrich (Wilhelm) von (1777–1811). German writer. He followed family tradition by serving in the Prussian army (1792–99), then became absorbed in mathematics, philosophy, travel and writing. Much of his writing was inspired by a misinterpretation of *Kant, whom he believed to say that human beings are marionettes helplessly and hopelessly in the toils of inscrutable powers. He wrote the verse tragedy Penthesilea (1808). His masterpiece, the drama Prinz Friedrich von Homburg (1811) is, however, in lighter vein. As well as novels and plays he also wrote poems and short stories, e.g. Michael Kohlhaas (1808), of originality and and power. He shot an incurably ill woman, Henriette Vogel, and himself on the banks of the Wannsee. *Goethe disliked Kleist but he was a major influence on *Rilke.

Maass, J., Kleist: A Biography. 1983.

Klemperer, Otto (1885–1973). German conductor. A protégé of Gustav *Mahler, he was an early champion of modern composers. He held various posts, mainly as operatic conductor, in Germany and then directed the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra 1933–39. After years of illness, he conducted the Budapest Opera 1947–50 and from 1954 conducted regularly in England, where he was known chiefly as an interpreter of the German classics. In 1955 he was appointed Principal Conductor of the Philharmonia Orchestra, and after its disbanding in 1964 became President of the New Philharmonia Orchestra and Chorus.

Heyworth, P., Otto Klemperer, 2 vols, 1996.

Klimt, Gustav (1862–1918). Austrian painter. A co-founder of the Vienna Sezessionist school (1897), he was a leader in the Art Nouveau (Jugendstil) movement. His sumptuous and erotic style concealed a deep pessimism. He died in the influenza epidemic. His Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer (1907) sold for $US135 million in 2006, setting the world’s highest auction price for any art work.

Kline, Franz (1910–1962). American painter. A leading abstract expressionist in New York, associated with Jackson *Pollock and Willem *de Kooning, his works are characterised by huge dynamic calligraphy in black paint on a white background, although he later experimented with colour.

Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb (1724–1803). German poet. While still at school he read a translation of Milton’s Paradise Lost and determined to create a German epic on an even more magnificent theme. The Messiah, resulting from this decision, took over 20 years to write (1746–73). It is an epic on the grand scale, written in hexameters, in 20 books, and its admirers and detractors have waged literary war over the years. For most, Klopstock is more accessible through his shorter poems. By using the lyric as a means of self-revelation and by his adaptation of the classical metres based on ‘quantity’ to a language like German based on stress, he influenced many later writers, even *Goethe himself.

Stahl, E. L., and Yuill, W. E., German Literature of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. 1970.

Kluck, Alexander Heinrich Rudolph von (1846–1934). German soldier. As Commander of the German 1st Army at the outbreak of World War I he directed the drive through Belgium and France. In September 1914, *Joffre counter-attacked at the Marne and gained a crucial victory.

Klug, Sir Aaron (1926–2018). British mathematical physicist and crystallographer, born in Lithuania. Brought up in South Africa, a Cambridge PhD, he worked in London on viruses with Rosalind *Franklin, then at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, from 1962 and became its director 1986–96. He won the 1982 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for modelling the polio virus. Awarded the Copley Medal 1985 and the OM 1995, he became President of the Royal Society 1995–2000.

Kluge, (Hans) Günther von (1882–1944). German field marshal. Son of a general, he served in both World Wars and led the 4th Army in the invasion of Poland (1939), France (1940) and Russia (1941). In July 1944, he succeeded von *Rundstedt as commander-in-chief in the west but was dismissed in August. Although uneasy about Hitler, he accepted two generous bribes, knew about the July 1944 bomb plot against Hitler, but was a vacillator, and committed suicide in Metz.

Knausgård, Karl Ove (1968– ). Norwegian novelist, born in Oslo. An editor, publisher and art critic, his My Struggle (Min Kamp: 2009–11), six autobiographical novels, 3500 pages long, was intensely controversial but won many awards. He also wrote studies on Edvard *Munch and Anselm *Kiefer.

Kneller, Sir Godfrey, 1st Baronet (1646–1723). English painter, born in Germany. Already well known as a portraitist on the Continent before he settled in England, he was appointed (1678) principal painter by *Charles II, and reached the height of his fame as a court painter under *William and *Mary and Queen *Anne. He received a knighthood in 1692 and in 1715 a baronetcy from *George I. His portraits, which provide a magnificent series of illustrations for the book or fame, are of greater social than artistic interest, but his best pictures achieve their effect not only by assured technique and dignity of treatment but also by colour subtlety and psychological insight. His most famous pictures include the great equestrian portrait of William III and striking likenesses of *Louis XIV and *Peter the Great. Other well known portraits are the Beauties at Hampton Court, the Kit Cat club series in the National Portrait Gallery and the Admirals at Greenwich. His brother, John Zacharias Kneller (1644–1702), was also a painter. He, too, settled in England and painted portraits and architectural scenes.

Killanin, Lord, Sir Godfrey Kneller and His Times, 1646–1723. 1948.

Kngwarreye, Emily Kame (1910?–1996). Australian painter, born in Alhalkere, Northern Territory. An Anmatyerre elder, she began to work with batik in 1978, but was nearly 80 before she began to paint, producing almost 3000 works over eight years, acrylics on canvas. Supported by Janet and Robert Holmes à Court, her works soon gained national recognition. Her Big Yam Dreaming (1995), 8m x 3m, is in the National Gallery of Victoria. She was still painting weeks before she died.

Knox, John (1513?–1572). Scottish religious reformer, born in East Lothian. Though from 1530 he had been a Roman Catholic priest, he became a close friend of the reformer George Wishart who was burned at the stake for heresy (1546). Knox then joined the reforming party, but was captured (1548) by French troops (serving the cause of Mary of Guise, Scotland’s queen dowager) in St Andrew’s Castle, the refuge of many reformers fearing reprisals of the murder of Cardinal *Beaton. Knox was taken to France and toiled as a galley-slave, until released at the request of England’s *Edward VI, who made him a royal chaplain. On *Mary I’s accession he fled to Geneva where he worked for three years with *Calvin. He briefly returned to Scotland (1555–56), a visit during which the oppression suffered by his co-religionists at the hands of Mary of Guise, acting as regent for her daughter *Mary Queen of Scots, inspired his famous First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstruous Regiment (i.e. ‘regimen’ or rule) of Women (1558), which offended Queen *Elizabeth, at whom it was not aimed. Knox returned to Scotland again (1559) after the lords of the congregation (the leading lay reformers) had established an organised ‘kirk’ with churches in Dundee and elsewhere and ministers assisted by elders. Despite the regent’s retaliatory ban, Knox rallied the reformers by his preaching, and secured acceptance of the doctrine that ‘the regent’s commands must be disobeyed if contrary to God’s’. With civil war imminent, the English government intervened by sending troops to occupy Edinburgh. This marked the triumph of the Protestant cause. The Scottish Parliament abolished papal authority, voted for reform, and later approved the Confessions of Faith prepared by Knox and five others. The General Assembly of the Church first met in 1560 and adopted the Book of Common Order (sometimes called Knox’ Liturgy), thus ensuring that the Church of Scotland, based on *Calvin’s teaching, should develop as a Presbyterian community. When Mary Queen of Scots returned (1561) from France with the idea of restoring Catholicism, she tried in vain to dazzle and charm Knox, and the murder of *Darnley, her flight with *Bothwell, and finally her imprisonment in England (from 1567) soon removed her from the scene. Knox, who had become minister of St Giles, Edinburgh’s largest church, remained in the forefront of events except in the year 1566–67 when he withdrew into seclusion to complete his History of the Reformation in Scotland. That the Church of Scotland took the form it did was due almost entirely to the work of Knox. From his two marriages Knox had two sons and three daughters, but his many public activities left little time for family life.

Ridley, J. G., John Knox. 1968.

Knox, Ronald Arbuthnot (1888–1957). English scholar and priest. Son of an Anglican bishop, he became a chaplain at Oxford University, where he worked all his life. In 1917 he became a Roman Catholic and entered the priesthood. From 1939 he devoted himself to the great task of retranslating the Vulgate (which finally appeared complete in 1954). He also engaged in theological controversy and wrote essays and novels. He was one of the wittiest men of his generation

His brother, Edmund Valpy Knox (1881–1971), known by his nom de plume ‘Evoe’, was a regular contributor to Punch, and editor 1933–49.

Waugh, E., The Life of Ronald Knox. 1959.

Knud (or Canute) see Cnut

Knussen, Oliver (1952–2018). English composer and conductor. His works included three symphonies, an opera, songs, settings of *Whitman and *Rilke, and piano pieces.

Koch, Robert (1843–1910). German bacteriologist, born near Hanover. Having qualified at Göttingen and served as a surgeon in the Franco-Prussian War, he became a medical officer at Wollstein, where he devoted himself to the microscopic study of bacteria. He isolated (1876) the anthrax bacillus and perfected the method of inoculation against it; two years later his studies of wound infection appeared. In 1880 he moved to Berlin where he was successively a member of the Imperial Health Office, a professor of hygiene at the university and Director of the Institute for Infectious Diseases. He discovered (1882) the bacillus causing tuberculosis; the discovery of the one causing cholera followed his appointment (1883) to preside over a commission to study this disease in Egypt and India. During the decade 1897–1906 visits to New Guinea, South Africa, India and Uganda enabled him to do valuable work on malaria, rinderpest, bubonic plague and trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). He received the Nobel Prize for Medicine (1905).

Moellers, B., Robert Koch: Persönlichkeit und Lebenswerk, 1843–1910. 1950.

Köchel, Ludwig (Alois Ferdinand) (1800–1877). Austrian bibliographer. An amateur botanist and mineralogist, in 1862 he published a chronological-thematic catalogue of *Mozart’s compositions. His name is immortalised by the K. (Köchel) number.

Kodály, Zoltán (1882–1967). Hungarian composer and teacher, born in Kecskemét. He studied under Hans Koessler at the Budapest Conservatoire, where he later became professor. With *Bartók he started to collect and study Hungarian folk music. His best known works are the Cello Sonata (1915), the choral works Psalmus Hungaricus (1923) and Te Deum (1936), the comic opera Háry János (1926), Dances of Marosszek (1930), Dances of Galanta (1933) and Concerto for Orchestra (1940). He was an outstanding teacher and textbook writer: ‘Kodály method’ encouraged basic musical literacy in Hungary and was adopted abroad. He was also an ethnomusicologist, linguist and philosopher.

Eosze, L., Kodály, his Life and Work. 1962.

Koenig, Pierre Joseph (1898–1970). French soldier. He worked closely with *de Gaulle, held off *Rommel’s Afrika Korps at Bir Hakeim (1942), led French forces at the Normandy invasion (1944), was military Governor in Germany 1945–49 and Minister for Defence 1954–55. He was posthumously created marshal in 1984.

Koestler, Arthur (1905–1983). British Hungarian author, born in Budapest. After dropping out of science, he went to Palestine in 1926 as a Zionist activist, working on a collective farm in Palestine, then became a reporter for a German newspaper and travelled in the Soviet Union. Later while reporting the Spanish Civil War for an English newspaper he was sentenced to death as a spy by *Franco’s forces, but was released and went to France, here he was arrested and imprisoned after the fall of France but escaped to England. In 1938 he left the Communist Party—his disillusionment is described in The God that Failed (1950). Koestler first wrote in Hungarian but for his later writing mastered German, French and English. His first novel in England was Arrival and Departure (1943). Darkness at Noon (1941), regarded as his masterpiece, is a great political novel. He wrote works, e.g. The Yogi and the Commissar (1945) and the autobiographical Arrow in the Blue (1952). The Sleepwalkers (1959), The Act of Creation (1964) and The Roots of Coincidence (1972), on scientific themes, were controversial. A passionate opponent of capital punishment, he wrote Reflections on Hanging (1956) and Hanged by the Neck (with C. H. Rolph, 1961). Koestler, an advocate of euthanasia, committed suicide with his wife Cynthia Jefferies after long suffering from Parkinson’s disease.

Frazier, T, and Merrill, R., Arthur Koestler An International Bibliography. 1979; Cesarini, D., Arthur Koestler: The Homeless Mind. 1999; Scammell, M., Koestler: The Literary and Political Odyssey of a Twentieth-Century Sceptic. 2009.

Kohl, Helmut Michael (1930–2017). German politician. Educated at Frankfurt and Heidelberg universities, he was a member of the Rhineland Palatinate legislature 1959–76 and Minister-President 1969–76. He became Chairman of the National Christian Democratic Union in 1976 and defeated Helmut *Schmidt to become Chancellor 1982–98. He played a central role in the reunification of Germany when the Federal and Democratic Republics combined in 1990. In November 1996 he became the longest serving German Chancellor since *Bismarck. Defeated in September 1998, in December 1999 his party was investigated for taking illegal donations. Kohl suffered from a long period of ill health after 2008.

Kohlrausch, Friedrich Wilhelm Georg (1840–1910). German physicist. He was best known for the accurate measuring methods he introduced into many branches of physics and for his pioneer investigations into the conductivity of electrolytes. His improved techniques and his statement of the principle now known as Kohlrausch’s Law put the measurement of conductivity on a sound quantitative basis for the first time.

Koivisto, Mauno Henrik (1923–2017). Finnish politician. A carpenter at a dockyard who gained a doctorate in economics, he led the Social Democrats and was Prime Minister 1968–70 and 1979–82, succeeding U. K. *Kekkonen as President of Finland 1982–94.

Kokoschka, Oskar (1886–1980). Austrian painter. He developed a very personal and imaginative Expressionist style: vivid colouring is combined with a sense of movement in the town scenes, landscapes and portraits for which, apart from his stage settings, he was best known. He was the lover of Alma *Mahler 1912–15. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he maintained traditional links with the old masters and preserved with penetrating insight the individual characteristics of the scenery and personalities he portrayed. In 1919 he became a professor at Dresden, then lived in Vienna (1931–34), Prague (1934–38), London (1938–53) and Switzerland. He became a British subject in 1947. He also wrote several plays.

Goldscheider, L., Kokoschka. 3rd ed. 1967.

Kołakowski, Leszek (1927–2009). Polish political philosopher. Professor of Philosophy at Warsaw University 1959–68, he was expelled for his incisive criticisms of Marxism. He became a senior Fellow at All Souls, Oxford, 1970–2009 and also taught in the US and Canada. His books include Main Currents of Marxism (1976–78), Metaphysical Horror (1988), My Correct Views on Everything (2005) and Why is Something Better than Nothing? (2007). He argued that ‘We learn history not in order to know how to behave or how to succeed, but to know who we are.’

Kolchak, Aleksandr Vasilyevich (1874?–1920). Russian sailor. He reorganised the navy after the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05), in which he had taken part. In World War I he commanded the Black Sea fleet from 1916, and after the Bolsheviks seized power (1917) headed a counter-revolutionary government in Siberia. Despite early successes on his westward march he was checked by the Bolsheviks and forced to retreat. Eventually, he was captured and shot.

Kollontay, Aleksandra Mikhailovna (1872–1952). Russian revolutionary, feminist and politician. The daughter of a tsarist general, she joined the Bolsheviks in 1905, and after a Menshevik deviation, devoted herself to pacifism. She was *Lenin’s Commissar for Public Welfare 1917–18, advocated free love and was dismissed for neglect of duties. She became Ambassador to Norway 1923–25 and 1927–30, Mexico 1925–27 and Sweden 1930–45.

Porter, C., Alexandra Kollontai. 1981.

Kollwitz, Käthe (1867–1945). German graphic artist, born in East Prussia. She lived from 1891 in Berlin where both her life and art were a constant protest against poverty and oppression. Her artistic protest was made through representations of historic scenes, e.g. The Peasants’ Revolt, realistic studies of working-class life, and illustrations to books, e.g. *Zola’s Germinal, that expressed compassion for and indignation at the miseries of the poor. Her versatility allowed her to be expert at all the graphic arts, and even as a sculptor she managed by a rough-hewn technique to convey the same message as in her other works.

Kollwitz, K. S., Prints and Drawings (ed. Zigrosser, C.). 2nd ed. 1969.

Kondratiev, Nikolai Dimitrievich (1892–1938). Russian economist. After examining statistics of prices, wages, interest and consumption in Europe and North America since the 1780s, Kondratiev identified ‘long waves of cyclical character’ which Joseph *Schumpeter named for him. If his cycles are extended to the future (which he did not attempt) 1970–95 would be an era of downswing. He was imprisoned under *Stalin, shot and never rehabilitated.

Konev, Ivan Stepanovich (1897–1973). Russian soldier. After serving as a private in World War I he rose rapidly under the Soviet regime. He distinguished himself in World War II as an army commander in the 1941 counter-offensive to the northwest of Moscow, and later in command of an army group during the Ukrainian campaigns, and the subsequent great offensive that ended with his advance to Berlin in March 1945. In May he liberated Prague. He was made a marshal and commanded the Warsaw Pact armies 1955–60.

Königsmark, Philipp Christoph, Count of (1665–1694). Swedish adventurer. While in the service of Ernst August of Hanover he became aware of the unhappy plight of Sophia Dorothea, wife of Elector Georg Ludwig (later *George I of Great Britain). Whether he was her lover or whether his motives were those of pure chivalry, he tried and failed to aid her to escape. He was arrested, disappeared and was almost certainly put to death, the unfortunate Sophia Dorothea being secluded at Ahlden Castle for the rest of her life.

Kooning, Willem de see de Kooning, Willem

Koons, Jeff (1955– ). American artist, born in Pennsylvania. His sculptures emphasised and reproduced the banal, and were completely out of scale, such as the huge Puppy, executed in flowers, which is now at the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. His Balloon Dog (Orange) sold for $US58.4 million in 2013.

Korda, Sir Alexander (Sandor) (1893–1956). British film producer and director, born in Hungary. Originally a journalist, he worked with his brothers Zoltan and Vincent, producing films in Budapest, Vienna, Berlin, Hollywood and Paris. He founded London Films in 1932. Many of his films were international successes, including The Private Life of Henry VIII (1933), The Scarlet Pimpernel (1934), Rembrandt (1936), Things to Come (1936) and The Thief of Baghdad (1940). He married the Bombay-born actor Merle Oberon (1911–1979).

Korda, M., Charmed Lives. 1979.

Korngold, Erich Wolfgang (1897–1957). Austrian-Jewish-American composer, born in Brno. A prodigy, his opera Die Tote Stadt (The Dead City) (1920), set in Bruges, was an instant success. In the US from 1934 (naturalised 1943) he wrote scores for 21 films, winning two Oscars and he composed a violin concerto (1945) for Jascha *Heifetz.

Kornilov, Lavr Georgyevich (1870–1918). Russian soldier. He served in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05), and in World War I as a divisional commander in Galicia, when, captured by the Austrians, he made a sensational escape. After the revolution (March 1917) he was appointed Commander-in-Chief but *Kerensky’s refusal to satisfy his demands for the restoration of army discipline provoked him to a vain attempt to establish a military dictatorship. Kerensky had him arrested, but when he fell Kornilov escaped to join *Denikin’s anti-Bolshevik army on the Don, where he was killed in action.

Kościuszko, (Andrzej) Tadeusz (Bonawentura) (1746–1817). Polish patriot. He received military training in France. Being devoted to the cause of national freedom, he offered his services to the revolutionary forces in America (1777), and served with distinction in the War of Independence. In 1786 he returned to Poland, which had made a remarkable recovery from the effects of the first partition between Russia, Prussia and Austria, but his attempts to introduce democratic government as a means of reviving the national spirit frightened the nobles. After a second partition (1793) Kościuszko inspired a national uprising against the tsar. At first he achieved striking success and freed Warsaw, but with the Prussians threatening in the rear he was defeated and captured. Released two years later by the tsar he went to Paris. Though he continued to work for the national cause, he refused overtures made (1806) by *Napoléon, whom he distrusted, to cooperate with him in the achievement of Polish freedom. He attended the Congress of Vienna (1814) and vainly pleaded his country’s cause with the tsar *Aleksandr. He died after a riding accident in Switzerland. He was buried in Kraków and is revered as one of the greatest Polish patriots.

Kosky, Barrie (1967– ). Australian theatre and opera director, born in Melbourne. Describing himself as a ‘gay Jewish kangaroo’, after achieving early success directing opera and plays in Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide, he gained international recognition in Vienna, Berlin, Bayreuth, Munich, London and Glyndebourne, producing works by *Euripides, *Ovid, *Monteverdi, *Händel, *Mozart and *Wagner.

Kossuth, (Ferencz) Lajos (Akos) (1802–1894). Hungarian revolutionary leader. An advocate, he was a member of the Hungarian Diet 1825–27 and won fame and popularity with his newspaper campaigns to free Hungary from Austrian control. For these attacks upon the Habsburg regime he suffered two terms of imprisonment, but he weakened his cause by insisting on Magyar supremacy and so alienating the Slav peoples, Slovenes and Croats, who had come under Hungarian rule. He sat again in the Diet 1832–36, 1847–49. In 1848, the ‘year of revolutions’ throughout Europe, he was mainly instrumental in passing the ‘March laws’ which abolished the privileges of the nobles, freed the peasants, and created a ministry responsible to the legislature. He became Minister of Finance. In 1849 the final step was taken: the Hungarian parliament declared Hungary independent, and Kossuth became President of the Hungarian Republic. The Russians intervened to support the Austrian Government, the combined Austrian and Russian forces were too strong for the Hungarian army and the short-lived republic was overcome. Kossuth fled to Turkey and lived as an exile in London (1852–59) and Turin (1859–94). He wrote Memories of My Exile (1880).

Koster (or Coster), Laurens Janszoon (c.1370–1440). Dutch craftsman. Some authorities credit him with the invention of printing with movable type (using first wooden and then tin letters). He is said to have gone to Mainz, the presumption being that *Gutenberg learned from him, thus not deserving the credit that posterity has bestowed.

Koštunica, Vojislav (1944– ). Serbian politician. A conservative, he was the last president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 2000–03, defeating Slobodan *Miloševic.

Kosygin, Aleksei Nikolaievich (1904–1980). Russian Communist politician, born in St Petersburg. He joined the CPSU in 1923, became a textile engineer, and was Mayor of Leningrad 1938–39, Minister for the Textile Industry 1939–40, Premier of the RSFSR 1943–46 and Minister for Light Industry 1948–58. A protégé of A. A. *Zhdanov and a Politburo member 1948–52, 1960–80, he succeeded *Khrushchev as Premier of the USSR 1964–80. He tried to improve Soviet economic efficiency but lost power to *Brezhnev’s supporters, and died shortly after resigning.

Kotelawala, Sir John Lionel (1895–1980). Sri Lankan politician. Educated at Cambridge, he rose to colonel in the Ceylon Defence Force, served in the first *Senanayake government after independence (1948) and became Prime Minister 1953–56. He was a conservative participant in the Asian Prime Ministers’ conference at Colombo (1954) and the African-Asian conference (1955) at Bandung, Indonesia.

Kotzebue, August Friedrich Ferdinand von (1761–1819). German dramatist, born in Weimar. As a young man he held various offices in the Russian civil service. In Estonia where he was posted (1785–95) he established an amateur theatre for which he wrote Menschenhass und Reue (Misanthropy and Repentance, 1789). Its fame rapidly spread, *Sheridan produced it (1789) at Covent Garden as The Stranger. In the same year Sheridan produced Kind der Liebe as Lovers’ Vows and in 1799 Der Spanier in Peru as Pisarro. Kotzebue wrote some 200 plays as well as tales, historical works and satires. His admirers included *Beethoven and Jane *Austen and he wrote many satires against *Napoléon. In the last years of his life he was the tsar’s representative at Weimar, where a new German constitution was being developed. He was stabbed to death in Mannheim by a member of the Burschenschaften, a nationalist student society.

Bonford, W. H., Theatre, Drama and Audience in Goethe’s Germany. 1950.

Koussevitzky, Sergei Aleksandrovich (1874–1951). Russian-American conductor. He played double-bass in the Bolshoi Orchestra, was soon hailed as a virtuoso and in 1905 married a tea heiress. In 1909 he founded his own orchestra which toured Russia and he also conducted orchestras in Berlin, London and Paris. He left Russia after the 1917 Revolution, settling in Paris where he created another orchestra in 1921. As conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 1924–49, he made many recordings and raised it to the highest rank. He commissioned *Ravel’s orchestration of *Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition, *Bartók’s Concerto for Orchestra, *Britten’s opera Peter Grimes and works by *Stravinsky, *Hindemith, *Harris, *Copland and *Barber. Leonard *Bernstein was his disciple. He created the Tanglewood Festival and the Koussevitzky Foundation.

Kovalevskya, Sofya Vasilyevna (née Krukovskaya) (1850–1891). Russian mathematician and novelist. She studied in Germany, taught in Sweden, wrote an important novel Vera Vorontzoff (1893) and contributed to the theory of differential equations.

Kozintsev, Grigori Mikhailovich (1905–1973). Russian-Jewish film director, born in Kiev. Some of his films have been lost and his reputation depends on powerful versions of Don Quixote (1957), Hamlet (1964) and King Lear (1971).

Kraepelin, Emil (1856–1926). German psychiatrist. Having studied medicine, he filled a number of clinical and academic posts before holding professorships of psychiatry at Heidelberg 1890–1903, and Munich 1904–22. He claimed that the basic cause of mental disorders was physiological and that many problems of insanity would be solved by clinical observations made throughout the patient’s lifetime. A research institute was founded (1917) in accordance with his plans. His Textbook of Psychiatry (first published 1883) was enlarged and modified in successive editions. He visited India, the East Indies and Mexico to pursue comparative psychology.

Krafft-Ebing, Richard, Baron von (1840–1902). German neurologist. He held several chairs of psychiatry in Strasbourg, Graz and Vienna. His case studies Psychopathia Sexualis (1886) were a notable contribution to the study of sexual perversion.

Kraft (or Krafft), Adam (c.1455–1508/9). German sculptor. One of the most prolific and popular of the Nuremberg sculptors, his development makes him a link between the Gothic and Renaissance styles. His most famous work is the 1.6 metre high tabernacle in St Lorenz, Nuremberg, especially remarkable for its tracery and reliefs and for the self-portrait statue on one knee before it.

Kraft, James L(ewis) (1874–1953). Canadian-American manufacturer, born in Ontario. Of German descent, he began manufacturing low cost cheese in Chicago and his brand became the world’s biggest seller.

Kraus, Karl (1874–1936). Austrian-Jewish satirist, journalist and poet. In his journal Die Fackel (‘The Torch’), founded in 1899 and running for 922 issues until his death, he was an insistent, but not totally consistent, critic of corruption, sexual hypocrisy, militarism and the misuse of language, e.g. in propaganda. His public readings were enormously successful and his admirers included *Schoenberg, *Wittgenstein and *Canetti.

Kravchuk, Leonid Makarovich (1934– ). Ukrainian politician. He worked as an apparatchik for the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1958, rising to the Politburo. However, he recognised the growing power of Ukrainian nationalism and on the dissolution of the USSR won election as the first president of Ukraine 1991–94, with separate currency, defence forces and treaty arrangements.

Krebs, Sir Hans Adolf (1900–1981). German British biochemist. He worked with O. H. *Warburg (whose biography he wrote) and F. G. *Hopkins, sharing the 1953 Nobel Prize for Medicine for elucidating the ‘Krebs cycle’, the major energy producer in living organisms, a series of chemical changes in which acids exchange carbon atoms.

Kreisky, Bruno (1911–1990). Austrian politician. Of Jewish origin, he held a doctorate in law from Vienna University, and after *Hitler annexed Austria in 1938, Kreisky lived in Sweden until 1951. He was a socialist Member of Parliament 1956–90, Foreign Minister 1959–66 and Chancellor 1970–83.

Kreisler, Fritz (1875–1962). Austrian violinist and composer, born in Vienna. He became a Catholic convert in 1887, studied in Vienna, attending classes by *Bruckner, and in Paris under Massart. His playing, though often flawless, could be variable in quality, and it was chiefly for his warm and sensuous tone that he became one of the most popular virtuoso soloists in Europe and in the US, where he lived 1914–24, 1939–62. He wrote effective cadenzas for concertos by *Mozart, *Beethoven and *Brahms. In 1935 he revealed that he had composed works which he performed as by *Vivaldi, *Couperin, *Tartini, Martini and other pre-Romantic composers.

Lochner, L. P., Fritz Kreisler. 1950.

Křenek, Ernst (1900–1991). Austrian composer. A disciple of *Schoenberg, he married *Mahler’s daughter Anna briefly, wrote the popular opera Jonny spielt auf (Johnny Strikes Up!, 1927), and worked in the US from 1938. He wrote prolifically in the 12–tone mode and experimented with electronic music.

Kreuger, Ivar (1880–1932). Swedish financier. Using his family firm of Kreuger and Toll as a base for his operations, he became head of the Swedish Match Company, which he developed into a vast international trust and financial agency by lending money to a dozen or more countries impoverished by World War I, in return for match monopolies and contracts. When he committed suicide in Paris, it was discovered to the surprise and consternation of the financial world that he had tried to avert the collapse of his enterprises by a huge and complex conspiracy of forgery and falsification.

Shaplen, R., Kreuger, Genius and Swindler. 1960.

Krishna Menon, Vengalil Krishnan (1897–1974). Indian politician and diplomat. He lived in England from 1924, studied at the London School of Economics, became a lawyer, was a St Pancras borough councillor 1934–47 and the first editor of Pelican Books (1936). A left-wing member of the Indian National Congress, he was strongly anti-British. After India gained independence (1947), he became the first high commissioner in Great Britain. From 1952 to 1956 he was India’s representative at the United Nations and a strong advocate of non-alignment. Back in Indian politics, he represented the left wing in *Nehru’s Congress Government. In 1957 he was appointed Defence Minister. He was forced to resign when the Chinese aggression (1962) revealed the inadequacy of India’s military preparedness. In the elections of 1966 he was defeated.

Krishnamurti, Jiddu (1895–1986). Indian mystic, born near Madras. Sponsored by the theosophist Annie *Besant, who believed him a messiah, he was proclaimed by devotees as leader of the Order of the Star of the East (1911). He disbanded the order in 1929.

Lutyens, M., Krishnamurti: The Years of Awakening. 1975.

Kropotkin, Pyotr Alekseivich, [Prince] (1842–1921). Russian geographer, explorer and anarchist. After investigating glaciation in Finland, Siberia and Manchuria 1871–73, he became attracted to anarchism and renounced his title. After two years’ imprisonment in Russia (1874–76) for his iconoclastic opinions, he escaped to England, Switzerland (until expelled in 1881) and France (being imprisoned on a trumped up sedition charge 1883–86). He lived in England 1886–1917, twice visiting the US, and publication of his ideas (e.g. in The Nineteenth Century and The Atlantic Monthly) caused no problems. He wrote Memoirs of a Revolutionist (1899) and Mutual Aid (1902), the latter a critique of *Darwin’s concept of the survival of the fittest, arguing that mutual cooperation works in sparsely occupied environments, such as Siberia. He returned to Russia after the 1917 Revolution and, although opposed to *Lenin’s dictatorship, was allowed to write and publish. The moral basis of his anarchism was set out in Ethics (1924).

Arakumovic, I., and Woodcock, G., Anarchist Prince. 1971.

Kroto, Sir Harry (Harold Walter Krotoschiner) (1939–2016). British chemist. Of Silesian descent, he studied at Sheffield University and held research chairs at Sussex and at the Royal Society. He worked on carbon atoms found in the form of a ball, known as buckminsterfullerenes, or ‘buckyballs’, sharing the 1996 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on carbon chains and their bonding, then worked in nanotechnology. He was awarded the Copley Medal in 2004 for his work on the fundamental dynamics of carbon chain molecules, leading to the detection of these species (polyynes) in the interstellar medium by radioastronomy. An effective science advocate, he was co-author of the education report chaired by Sir Ken *Robinson.

Kruger, (Stephanus Johannes) Paulus (1825–1904). South African (Boer) politician, born in Cape Colony. His parents were Voortrekkers who took him northwards to the Transvaal, territory outside British control (1839). Prominent as farmer, soldier and politician, after the British annexation of the Transvaal (1877), Kruger was one of the leaders of the revolt (1880) by which independence was regained. Kruger was President of the South African Republic—Transvaal 1883–1902 and had to face the political and social problems raised by the influx of Uitlanders (non-Boer settlers) after the discovery of gold in the Rand. He refused to grant civil rights to the Uitlanders, fearing that they would support *Rhodes’s expansionist policies and dominate the Transvaal. This, coupled with the provocation of the *Jameson Raid were basic causes of the Boer War. Kruger took some part in the early phase of the war but in 1900 sailed to Europe on a Dutch warship in the vain hope of obtaining support for the Boers. He did not return to Africa and died in Switzerland. Kruger, who belonged to a puritanical sect known as Doppers, had honesty, shrewdness and common sense, but lacked any adaptability for conciliation. Known to the Boers as ‘Oom [Uncle] Paul’, he was revered as the exemplar of resistance to the British. In 1898 he created the Sabie Game Reserve, the world’s first, renamed as the Kruger National Park in 1926 and later expanded to 19,500 square kilometres.

Kruger, D. W., Paul Kruger. 1961–63.

Krugman, Paul Robin (1953– ). American economist. Educated at Yale and MIT, he was Professor of Economics at Princeton 2000– and an influential columnist for the New York Times. He won the 2008 Nobel Prize for Economics for his work ‘explaining the patterns of international trade and the geographic concentration of wealth, by examining the effects of economies of scale and of consumer preferences for diverse goods and services’.

Krupp, Alfried (1812–1887). German steel and armament manufacturer. After taking over his father’s metal foundry at Essen (1848) he developed a process for making cast steel, and introduced (1862) the Bessemer steel process. The manufacture of guns started in 1861 and Bismarck’s frequent wars hastened a vast expansion. Coal and iron mines were added in 1876. His paternalistic relationship to his large labour force became traditional in the firm and he offered the best wages and welfare conditions of any in Germany. Under his son Friedrich Alfried Krupp (1854–1902), who added armour plating (1890) and shipbuilding (1902), expansion continued and the number of employees had risen to 43,000 when the firm was taken over by his daughter Bertha (1886–1957). On her marriage (1906) she transferred administrative power to her husband, Gustav von Bohlen und Halbach (1870–1950) known as Krupp von Bohlen. Under his regime, gun manufacture reached a culmination in World War I with the huge howitzers, known as ‘Big Berthas’, with a 42 cm calibre, that smashed Belgian forts, and the ‘Paris Gun’, with only a 21 cm calibre, which shelled Paris in 1918 at a range of 120 km. German defeat meant a temporary decline in Krupp’s fortunes and a switch to the manufacture of locomotives and agricultural machinery. However, an even greater degree of prosperity was attained when *Hitler, whom Krupp partly financed, began rearmament. He was senile at the end of World War II and never tried. His son Alfried Krupp (1907–1967), tried at Nuremberg and sentenced to 12 years’ prison, released in 1951, soon resumed control of his vast industrial empire. In 1968 the company became a public corporation and the family relinquished control.

Klass, G. von. Krupps: The Story of an Industrial Empire. 1954; Manchester. W., The Arms of Krupp. 1968.

Krupskaya, Nadezhda Konstantinovna (1869–1939). Russian revolutionary. She married V. I. *Lenin in 1898, shared his exile and became a powerful influence in education after the Revolution.

Krushchev, N. S.see Khrushchev, N. S.

Krylov, Ivan Andreyevich (1768–1844). Russian writer. Though he also edited satirical journals and wrote plays, his fame rests on his racy and humorous fables. He had translated *La Fontaine, but drew his material largely from peasants met during his years (1793–1806) of wandering through Russia. He has been called ‘the Russian La Fontaine’.

Kubelik, Jan (1880–1940). Czech violinist and composer. He began his platform career in Vienna in 1898 and gained international success through his virtuosity and dramatic style. His son Rafael Kubelik (1914–1996), a conductor and composer, was chief conductor of the Czech Philharmonic 1942–48, leaving after the Communist takeover, and of the Chicago Symphony 1950–53, Covent Garden Opera 1955–58, Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra 1961–85 and Metropolitan Opera, New York 1973–74. He married the Australian soprano Elsie Morison.

Kubitschek de Oliviera, Juscelino (1902–1976). Brazilian politician. Of Czech descent, he became a physician, was Governor of Minas Gerais 1950–54 and secured election as President of Brazil 1956–61. The political heir of *Vargas, he inaugurated Brasilia as the new capital (1960). He was blamed for high rates of inflation and increased foreign debt.

Kublai Khan (1216–1294). First Mongol (Yuan) Emperor of China 1271–94. Grandson of *Genghis Khan, when he became great khan (1259) he gained nominal suzerainty over a territory stretching from the Black Sea to the Pacific. But it was China that stirred his imagination and absorbed his energies. He proclaimed himself Emperor of China to become the first of a new Yuan dynasty and ruled from his capital of Dadu (or Khanbaliq, called Cambaluc by Marco *Polo: the modern Beijing) which he made splendid. Hangzhou, then China’s biggest city, capital of the Sung dynasty, was taken in 1276 but another 15 years elapsed before all China was conquered. During his reign he also sent expeditions to Tibet. Further south he subdued Burma but failed to achieve success against Japan. Unlike his ferocious ancestors, Kublai Khan was a liberal-minded ruler: he welcomed foreigners and fostered the arts and commerce, he established lamaistic Buddhism as the state religion but was tolerant of other faiths. He improved the civil service, and many great public works were carried out during his reign.

Saunders, J. J., The History of the Mongol Conquests. 1971

Kubrick, Stanley (1928–1999). American film director, born in New York. Originally a magazine photographer, he made low-budget documentaries then a series of powerful films including Paths of Glory (1957), Lolita (1962), Dr Strangelove or How I learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964), 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), A Clockwork Orange (1971) and Barry Lyndon (1975), The Shining (1980), Full Metal Jacket (1987) and Eyes Wide Shut (1999).

Kuhn, Thomas S(amuel) (1922–1996). American historian and philosopher of science. Educated at Harvard, he became a physicist and taught at Harvard, Princeton and MIT. In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962 revised 1970) he argued that revolutionary changes occurred when it was recognised (often on inadequate evidence) that the conventional patterns (‘paradigms’) of explanation were no longer adequate: transitions from Ptolemaic to Galilean cosmology, or Newtonian to Einsteinian physics were rapid and demolitionist, not evolutionary and incrementalist.

Kun, Béla (1886–1938). Hungarian Communist revolutionary, born in Transylvania. His father was a secular Jew, his mother a Protestant. He became a journalist, fought in World War I and was captured by the Russians. A co-founder of the Hungarian Communist Party (1918), he led the Hungarian Soviet Republic (March–August 1919), until suppressed by the ‘Whites’ under Miklós *Horthy. He escaped to Vienna, then to the USSR where he directed the brutal purge of ‘Whites’ in Crimea (1920–21). Active in the Comintern, he worked in Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia, then was imprisoned in 1937 as a supporter of *Trotsky and was executed. He was ‘rehabilitated’ in 1956.

Tokes, R. L., Bela Kun and the Hungarian Soviet Republic. 1967.

Kundera, Milan (1929– ). Czech novelist, born in Brno. He worked at the Prague film school, left Czechoslovakia in 1969 and became a professor at Rennes 1975–80. His novels include The Joke (1967), Life is Elsewhere (1973), The Book of Laughter and Forgetting (1979) and The Unbearable Lightness of Being (1982). He became a French citizen in 1981 and wrote in French after 1993.

Küng, Hans (1928– ). Swiss Catholic theologian. Ordained a priest in 1954, he taught at Tübingen from 1960 until his liberal questioning of Catholic orthodoxy led to sanctions (1980) by the Church. His books include Justification (1957),The Church (1967), On Being a Christian (1974) and Does God Exist? (1980).

Kurosawa Akira (1910–1998). Japanese film director, born in Tokyo. Trained in Western art, he became a scriptwriter, working for the director Yamamoto Kajiro. A neo-realist, he combined humanist, radical and traditional elements in his powerful films, emphasising moral and ethical choices, but was also admired for discriminating use of colour, and was generally regarded as the greatest Japanese film maker (certainly the one most admired in the West. His first film was Sugata Sanshino (1943) followed by Rashomon (1951), The Idiot (after *Dostoevsky, 1951), The Seven Samurai (1954), The Throne of Blood (an adaption of Macbeth, 1957), The Lower Depths (after *Gorki, 1957), Red Beard (1965), Derzu Uzala (1976) and Ran (a Samurai version of King Lear, 1985). He won three Oscars.

Richie, D., The Films of Akira Kurosawa. 1965.

Kurtág, György (1926– ). Hungarian composer, born in Romania. He studied with *Messiaen, became a pianist and teacher, then was influenced by the minimalism of Anton *Webern and Samuel *Beckett. Exceptionally prolific, in many forms, piano, chamber, orchestral, vocal and choral, his works include Kafka Fragments (1986), Stele (1994) and the opera Beckett: Fin de Partie (Endgame, 2018). He received many international awards.

Kutuzov, Mikhail Ilarionovich, Prince (1745–1813). Russian marshal, born in St Petersburg. He joined the army at 14, lost an eye fighting the Turks (1774) and learnt about strategy from *Suvarov. He fought against the Turks again 1788–91, became an administrator and diplomat and retired in disfavour in 1802. When Russia joined the coalition against *Napoléon, *Aleksandr I recalled Kutuzov and forced him to engage at Austerlitz (December 1805), against his advice. He lost heavily and was retired again. When Napoléon invaded Russia (1812) Kutuzov replaced *Barklay de Tolly as Commander-in-Chief. He at first continued Barklay’s strategy in avoiding a pitched battle until just before Moscow, at Borodino where, after fearful carnage on both sides, the Russians withdrew. Napoléon occupied Moscow but the advent of winter and the threat of Kutuzov’s undestroyed army decided him to begin his disastrous retreat. Kutuzov won a great victory over *Davout and *Ney at Smolensk and harassed the Grand Army continuously as it straggled homewards. He is revered by the Russians as one of their greatest generals. He plays a significant role in *Tolstoy’s War and Peace.

Kuyper, Abraham (1837–1920). Dutch theologian and politician. Founder of the Anti-Revolutionary Party (1878), he was Prime Minister 1901–05 and helped to negotiate an end to the Boer War (1902). His Calvinist theology had a profound influence on Afrikaner thinking (D. F. *Malan).

Kwaśniewski, Aleksander (1954– ). Polish socialist politician. A former apparatchik and security informer under the United Workers’ Party (i.e. Communist) regime, he was Minister for Sport and Youth Affairs. He founded the Democratic Left Alliance in 1993 and after a very professional electoral campaign defeated Lech *Walesa to become President of Poland 1995–2005. He was a great collector of foreign honours, and went to teach in the United States.

Kyd (or Kydd), Thomas (1558–1594). English playwright, born in London. Little is known of his life except that he was educated at Merchant Taylors’ School, was an associate of *Marlowe, was imprisoned and tortured in 1593 for publishing blasphemies, and died intestate. His fame rests on a single play The Spanish Tragedie, or Hieronimo is mad again (presented 1585–89 and printed in 1592). It tells of a father driven almost mad by the murder of his son, a situation exactly opposite to that in *Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Kyd possibly having written an earlier version, usually called Ur-Hamlet, of which no copy survives. Of other attributions to Kyd, none is certain except Cornelia (1595), a play by Robert Garnier, translated from French.

Freeman, A., Thomas Kyd. 1967.


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