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Dictionary of World Biography

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Ma, Yo-Yo (1955– ). Chinese-American cellist, born in Paris. Son of a singer (mother), violinist and academic (father), he gave concerts from the age of five. The family migrated to the US in 1962. He travelled extensively, specialising in *Bach, and promoted humanitarian causes.

Maazel, Lorin (1930–2014). American musician, born in Paris. An infant prodigy, he was a conductor, violinist and composer. He directed the Deutsche Oper, Berlin 1965–71, the Cleveland Orchestra 1972–82, the Vienna State Opera 1982–84, the Pittsburgh Symphony 1988–96, the Bavarian Radio Symphony 1993–2002 and the New York Philharmonic 2002–09 and made many recordings.

Mabuse (Gossaert), Jan (c.1478–1533/5). Flemish painter. His early work was done in Antwerp where he became a master in 1503. Although often described as a ‘Flemish Romanist’, a visit to Rome in 1508 had little effect on his style except perhaps in his use of light. The influence of *Dürer (not only on his woodcuts and engravings) was much stronger. The nudes Hercules and Deianira (Birmingham) and Neptune and Amphitrite (Berlin) may have been painted (1516–17) as part of a project by Philip, prince bishop of Utrecht, to decorate his castle of Souberg. The earlier Adoration of the Kings (National Gallery, London) is more typically Flemish.

McAdam, John Loudon (1756–1836). Scottish engineer and road-maker, born at Ayr. He went to New York at the age of 14 and returned to Britain in 1783 with a fortune made in commerce. From 1810 his interest in road-making became dominant and the building of experimental stretches of road absorbed most of his fortune. His road-making technique built on a cambered base for better drainage, paved by two layers of broken stone: the lower level, 200 mm thick, used stones of less than 75 mm in diameter, the upper was limited to 20 mm. The stones were held together by natural interlock. Although later bitumen/mastic was applied for a smoother surface McAdam’s pavements had twice *Telford’s carrying capacity. In 1827 he received a government grant of £10,000 and was appointed surveyor-general of metropolitan roads. ‘Macadamised’ roads had been introduced to France, Russia, North America and Australia by 1830.

Lay, M. G., Ways of the World. 1993.

McAdoo, William Gibbs (1863–1941). American politician, born in Georgia. He became a lawyer in Tennessee, then entered business in railway and tunnel construction in New York. Regarded as a progressive on social issues, he was campaign director for Woodrow *Wilson’s campaign for President in 1912. US Secretary of the Treasury 1913–18, in 1914 he married Wilson’s daughter, Eleanor. He introduced the Federal Reserve system as a central bank. A ‘Dry’ on prohibition, McAdoo twice sought the Democratic nomination for President. In 1920 he led on 21 ballots at the Convention but failed to win the required two-thirds majority. In 1924, endorsed both by the Ku Klux Klan and organised labour, he led on 77 ballots, but failed again. He lived in California from 1922 and was a US Senator 1933–39.

McAleese, Mary Patricia (née Leneghan) (1951– ). Irish lawyer, academic and politician, born in Belfast. A barrister and professor of criminal law at the Queen’s University, Belfast, she was elected as President of Ireland 1997–2011, as a political independent. In 2011 she hosted a state visit to the Republic by Queen *Elizabeth II.

MacArthur, Douglas (1880–1964). American General of the Army, born in Little Rock, Arkansas. His father, Lieutenant-General Arthur MacArthur (1845–1912), won the Medal of Honor (1863) in the Civil War, served as Military Governor of the Philippines 1901–05 and as an observer of the Russo-Japanese war. Douglas MacArthur graduated from West Point in 1903 at the head of the class and won a brilliant reputation in France as Commander of the 42nd (‘Rainbow’) division 1918–19. He became Superintendent of the West Point Military Academy 1919–22 and saw further service in the Philippines. As Chief of Staff of the US Army 1930–35, he led troops in Washington (1932) to break up demonstrations by the unemployed. The Filipino Government appointed him as Director of National Defence 1935–37 and he lived in Manila after retirement. The US recalled him to active service in July 1941 and after Pearl Harbor he became General Commanding US Forces in the Far East 1941–42. Ironically, his scheme for defending the Philippines led to a major US defeat, despite skilful delaying actions at Bataan and Corregidor. He was awarded the Medal of Honor in 1942. This was the first time a father and son had been so recognised. President *Roosevelt ordered him to leave the Philippines for Australia. As Supreme Commander, Allied Forces in the South West Pacific 1942–45, he directed US and Australian troops, working closely with *Curtin and *Blamey. The Japanese advance was stopped in New Guinea by Australian soldiers. With Admiral Chester *Nimitz, MacArthur devised an ‘island hopping’ strategy for the recovery of the Pacific. In October 1944, US troops landed on the island of Leyte, fulfilling MacArthur’s pledge: ‘I will return.’ He was promoted five-star General of the Army in 1944 and received a GCB (UK) in 1945. (Lord *Alanbrooke considered him the greatest general of World War II.) MacArthur formally accepted the Japanese surrender (August–September 1945), and as Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Japan 1945–51, virtually revived the Shogunate, ruling with Emperor *Hirohito’s cooperation. A democratic constitution was adopted, trade unions legalised, the armed forces abolished and war crimes trials held. MacArthur became Commander-in-Chief of UN Forces in Korea 1950–51, checked the invasion from North Korea, backed by China, and proposed to bomb Chinese bases north of the Yalu. President *Truman sacked him (April 1951) for challenging a direction to limit the fighting. MacArthur was given a hero’s welcome when he returned to the US for the first time since 1937, but an attempt to launch him politically received little support and he withdrew into retirement. In 1952 he supported Robert A *Taft for the Republican presidential nomination. An impressive and dominating personality combined with longsighted strategic perception and a mastery of the military art place him among history’s greatest commanders.

Clayton James, D., The Years of MacArthur. 3 vols, 1970; Herman, A., Douglas MacArthur. American Warrior. 2016.

Macarthur, John (1767–1834). Australian pioneer, born near Plymouth. He joined the army and in 1789 was posted to the New South Wales Corps, arriving in Sydney with his wife Elizabeth MacArthur (née Veale) (1766–1850) in June 1790. Ambitious, with a flair for publicity and making enemies, he remained in the army but became a landowner at Elizabeth Farm, Parramatta and Camden Park. By breeding merino sheep for wool rather than meat he pioneered the industry that became an Australian mainstay. He clashed with successive governors of New South Wales, and was active in the Rum Rebellion (January 1808), which overthrew William *Bligh. He was in England 1809–17 and his wife managed his sheep flocks with great success. Macarthur became an ultra-conservative in the Legislative Council 1825–32.

Ellis, M. H., John Macarthur. 1955.

Macartney, 1st Earl, George Macartney (1737–1806). Anglo-Irish diplomat and administrator. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin, he became envoy to St Petersburg 1765–67, Governor of the Caribee Islands 1775–79, of Madras 1780–86 and the Cape of Good Hope 1796–98. He led an important but unsuccessful mission to China 1792–94, during the reign of *Qianlong.

Peyrefitte, A. The Collision of Two Civilisations. 1992.

Macaulay, Dame Rose (1881–1958). English novelist. She first won success with Potterism (1920). Among the best known of her many novels are Orphan Island (1924) and, almost at the end of her life, The Towers of Trebizond (1956) for which she was awarded the James Tait Black Memorial Prize. Her astringent and ironic style was much admired. In 1958 she was made a DBE.

Macaulay, Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron (1800–1859). English historian, poet and politician. A precocious child with a prodigious memory, he abandoned law for literature and politics soon after leaving Cambridge. His essays began to appear in the Edinburgh Review in 1825. Their pretext was always a recently published book but in reality they were Macaulay’s own assessments of the subject. First collected in 1843 they give a magnificent impression of brilliance sustained over nearly 20 years, those on *Chatham and *Clive are among the best, that on Warren *Hastings among the most unfair. As a Whig MP 1830–34, 1839–47 and 1852–56, Macaulay displayed his talent in parliament in oratory rather than debate. He went to India (1834) as legal adviser to the supreme council and there he wrote a famous ‘minute’ on education and played the leading part in drawing up a new criminal code. On his return he was Secretary for War 1839–41 and Paymaster General 1846–47. His History of England from the Accession of James II (5 vols, 1848–61, incomplete) was passionate advocacy written from the Whig perspective, with great narrative skill but flawed by an incapacity to understand other points of view.

Millgate, J., Macaulay. 1973.

Macbeth (c.1005–1057). King of Scots 1040–57. Son of the Mórmaer (sub-king) of Moray, he married Gruoch, granddaughter of Kenneth III. He killed *Duncan I, seized his throne and ruled until defeated and killed in battle by Duncan’s son *Malcolm III. His reign seems to have been relatively prosperous. He is said to have made a pilgrimage to Rome (1050). *Shakespeare’s tragedy is based on the account in *Holinshed’s Chronicle but the characters are largely fictional.

MacBride, Sean (1904–1988). Irish politician and lawyer, born in Paris. His father, John MacBride (1868–1916), was executed by the British after the Easter rising and his mother Maud Gonne (1866–1953), an actor and patriot, was the lover of *Yeats. A journalist, active in the Irish Republican Army (IRA), he became its Commander-in-Chief 1936, and from 1937 was a senior barrister. He served in the Irish Dail 1947–57 and was Minister for External Affairs 1948–51. He helped to found Amnesty International (1961), became its chairman 1961–75, worked for UN and UNESCO and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1974.

Maccabaeus, Mattathias (d.c.166 BCE). Jewish Hasmonean ruler. The first members of his dynasty were known as the Maccabees. Mattathias was a Jewish priest who led the revolt against King *Antiochus IV of Syria. It is said that after rejecting all promises made to him to induce him to abandon his faith he killed the first Jew to approach the heathen altar. This was the signal for rebellion. Mattathias gathered an increasing number of followers in the wilderness whence they raided the towns and villages, attacked Syrians and reconverted Jews. After his death his son Judas (Judah) Maccabaeus (d.160 BCE) took command, reconquered Jerusalem and purified the temple (165–164). He made an alliance with the Romans but was killed in battle (160). His brother Jonathan (d.142 BCE), who became high priest, was treacherously executed by the Syrians. Another brother, Simon (d.135 BCE), who also gained Roman recognition and support, completely re-established the independence of the nation (141) and ruled with wisdom and justice until he was murdered by his son-in-law. The Hasmonean dynasty was continued by Simon’s son Johanan Hyrcanus (164–104 BCE), whose son Judas Aristobulus (d.103 BCE) took the title of King. Eventually it was superseded by the Idumaean dynasty to which *Herod the Great belonged.

McCahon, Colin (1919–1987). New Zealand painter. Largely self-taught, he worked through landscapes and religious subjects to word paintings, powerful and disturbing works in which messages, often Biblical or Maori texts, conveyed a desperate need to communicate an inner anguish, e.g. Will he save him? (1959).

McCain, John Sidney III (1936–2018). American Republican politician, born in Panama. Son of an admiral, he served as a naval pilot, became a prisoner of war in Vietnam 1967–73, then entered politics as Congressman 1983–87 and US Senator from Arizona 1987–2018. He was a candidate for Republican nomination for president 2000, losing to George W. *Bush. In 2008 he had a spectacular series of wins in the Republican primaries, was unopposed for the presidential nomination at the convention, but lost to Barack *Obama in November.

McCall Smith, Alexander (1948– ). Scottish novelist and lawyer, born in Zimbabwe. Educated in Botswana and Scotland, McCall Smith became Professor of Medical Law at Edinburgh University, an authority on bioethics and an amateur bassoonist. An astonishingly prolific writer of academic texts, he wrote more than 100 novels and children’s books, including The No. 1 Ladies’ Detective Agency series (1999ff) and the 44 Scotland Street series (2005ff.)

McCarthy, Eugene Joseph (1916–2005). American politician, born in Minnesota. He studied for the priesthood, but became a social science teacher, first at high schools, then at colleges in Minnesota. He was a US Congressman 1949–59 and a senator from Minnesota 1959–71. He became closely identified with the political cause of Adlai *Stevenson and was recognised as a witty and fastidious man with a distaste for the vulgarities of the political routine. In 1968 he campaigned against President *Johnson’s renomination and fought for the Democratic nomination against Hubert *Humphrey and Robert *Kennedy. He sought the nomination again in 1972, ran for president as an Independent in 1976, endorsing Ronald *Reagan in 1980 and Ralph *Nader in 2000. He wrote essays and columns, published volumes of poetry and worked as an editor.

McCarthy, Joe (Joseph Raymond) (1909–1957). American Republican politician. Senator for Wisconsin 1947–57, as chairman of a senatorial committee on subversion, from February 1950 his hectoring inquisitorial methods, hysteria-raising, and a technique of charging people with ‘guilt by association’ constituted a smear campaign (‘McCarthyism’) that provoked mounting national and international criticism. In 1954 the Senate passed a vote of censure on him for breach of constitutional privilege and thereafter his influence rapidly declined. Truman described him as a ‘pathological character assassin’.

Rorty, J. and Decker, M., McCarthy and the Communists. 1972.

McCarthy, Mary (Therese) (1912–1989). American novelist and critic, born in Seattle. A satirist of the intellectual’s attempts to come to terms with modern urban life and human relationships, she is best known for Memories of a Catholic Girlhood (1957), The Groves of Academe (1952) and The Group (1963), the last drawn from her own education at Vassar College. She married four times, once to Edmund *Wilson.

McCartney, Sir (James) Paul (1942– ). English composer, singer and instrumentalist, born in Liverpool. In 1961, he joined the *Beatles, which had been formed by John *Lennon, as singer and bass guitarist. Many of their works were collaborations, but McCartney’s Yesterday became one of the most performed songs in musical history. The Beatles broke up in 1970, but McCartney continued to compose and perform. He became a billionaire, received a knighthood (1997) and a CH (2017) and was an active campaigner for animal rights and music education.

McClellan, George Brinton (1826–1885). American soldier. He served as an engineer in the Mexican War (1846–48) and in 1855 was sent as an observer to the Crimean War, returning to his profession in 1857. On the outbreak of the Civil War he was recalled to military service as Commander of the Department of the Ohio 1861 and briefly (aged only 35) General-in-Chief of the Union Army 1861–62. He disliked and despised President *Lincoln who demoted him (slightly) to command the Army of the Potomac 1862. He blamed Lincoln for the early success of Robert E. *Lee’s advance on Washington, then planned a major amphibious campaign to capture Richmond, the Confederate capital. It was brilliantly conceived but poorly executed. The Battle of Antietem (a.k.a. Sharpsburg), in Maryland (17 September 1862) was the first major action on Union territory and the bloodiest day in US military history. Tactically, it was a draw but proved to be a turning point in the war. McClellan’s failure to pursue Lee resulted in his removal from command; his bitterness never ended. (U. S. *Grant regarded McClellan as ‘a mystery’.) In the 1864 election he was the Democrat candidate for the presidency against *Lincoln. He then became a railroad executive and Governor of New Jersey 1877–81.

McClintock, Barbara (1902–1992). American geneticist. Educated at Cornell University, she devoted herself to plant breeding, working at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory of the Carnegie Institute from 1942. Her decades of work on maize led to the identification of ‘jumping genes’, mobile elements in chromosomes which helped to explain mutability in hereditary traits in some plants. The importance of her research was not recognised until after the revolution in molecular biology promoted by F. H. C. *Crick and J. D. *Watson. She won the 1983 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

McCormack, John (1884–1945). Irish lyric tenor, born in Athlone. He began recording in 1904, was encouraged by Nellie *Melba and sang in opera in Italy, Britain and the US 1906–23. He had exceptional breath control and diction and toured for many years, giving concerts. He became an American citizen in 1919, but returned to Ireland in 1927 and was made a papal count in 1928.

Strong, L. A. G., John McCormack. 1949.

McCormick, Cyrus Hall (1809–1884). American inventor. He was the son of Robert McCormick (1780–1846), a Virginian farmer, who invented (1809) a successful but crude reaping machine. Young McCormick patented a greatly improved model in 1839 and in 1848 arranged for the manufacture of a more advanced version in Chicago. It was exhibited at the Hyde Park Exhibition in London (1851). On his election (1879) to the French Académie des Sciences, McCormick was acclaimed as having done ‘more for science than any living man’. Under the presidency of his son and namesake, also Cyrus Hall McCormick (1859–1936), the firm became the International Harvester Company, one of the greatest firms in the US.

McCormick, C. H., The Century of the Reaper. 1931; Aldrich, L. A., Cyrus McCormick and the Mechanical Reaper. 2002; Welch, C. A., Farmland Innovator. 2007.

McCullers, Carson (née Lula Carson Smith) (1917–1967). American novelist, born in Georgia. She studied music and writing in New York, and wrote in the Southern Gothic tradition. Although crippled by strokes and alcoholism, she achieved consistent success with her novels, several of which were filmed, including The Heart is a Lonely Hunter (1940), The Member of the Wedding (1946) and Clock without Hands (1961).

MacCulloch, (Sir) Diarmaid Ninian John (1951– ). English historian, born in Kent. Professor of Church history at Oxford 1997– , his magisterial A History of Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years (2009) became a BBC television documentary series. He wrote Thomas Cranmer: A Life (1996), Reformation: Europe’s House Divided 1490–1700 (2003), Silence: A Christian History (2013), and Thomas Cromwell: A Life (2018).

MacDiarmid, Hugh (pen name of Christopher Murray Grieve) (1892–1978). Scottish nationalist leader and poet. Written mostly in Scots, the best of his poems give lyrical expression to his feelings for his native land. He became both a Communist and a Scots Nationalist, and his later works, reflecting his social and philosophical concerns which could not be adequately written in Scots, were published in English.

Buthley, K., Hugh MacDiarmid. 1964.

Macdonald, Dwight (1906–1982). American critic, born in New York City. Educated at Yale, originally a supporter of *Trotsky, sympathetic to anarchism, he wrote for Fortune magazine (1930–36), then Partisan Review (1938–43), Politics (1944–49), The New Yorker (1951–71), Esquire (1960–66) and The New York Review of Books (1963–80). His range of interests included film, politics and literature. He was a penetrating opponent of dictatorship and some aspects of mass culture. He edited Parodies: An Anthology from Chaucer to Beerbohm—and After (1960), and some of his most trenchant writing is in Against the American Grain: Essays on the Effects of Mass Culture (1962).

MacDonald, Flora (1722–1790). Scottish heroine. After the defeat at Culloden had ended the Jacobite rising (1745–46), she aided the escape of Charles Edward *Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) by bringing him, disguised as her maid, safely to the island of Skye. Captured 10 days later, she was released in 1747. She married in 1750 and, after living in North Carolina 1774–79 with her husband (also a MacDonald), she died in Skye leaving many descendants to hand down the story.

Linklater, E., The Prince in the Heather. 1965; MacLeod, R. H., Flora MacDonald. 1995.

MacDonald, J(ames) Ramsay (1866–1937). British Labour politician, born at Lossiemouth. Educated at the village school where he later became a pupil teacher, he went to London (1884) but, after a breakdown of health, abandoned his studies in science for political journalism. A determined propagandist for socialism, he joined the Independent Labour Party (1893) and became Secretary (1900) of the newly formed Labour Party. He was a Member of Parliament 1906–18; 1922–35; 1936–37, originally elected for Leicester, but later holding three other seats. He became Chairman (in effect, Leader) of the Parliamentary Labour Party 1911–14, resigning because of his pacifist opposition to World War I. (Arthur *Henderson succeeded.)

Defeated in Leicester in the ‘khaki election’ of 1918, he was re-elected in 1922 as one of 140 Labour members, relegating the Liberals to third place. MacDonald again became Leader of the British Labour Party 1922–31, and Leader of the Opposition 1922–24. In a snap election (December 1923) called by *Baldwin on the protection issue, Labour and the Liberals won a majority for free trade. MacDonald became the first Labour Prime Minister (and foreign minister) January–November 1924, with Liberal support. The *Zinoviev letter incident led to press allegations of Communist influence on Labour. The Liberals withdrew their support and the elections of November 1924 resulted in a Conservative victory. (The Liberals suffered even heavier losses.) MacDonald was Prime Minister again 1929–35 (Labour 1929–31, then, after his expulsion, as ‘National Labour’, a small rump, 1931–35). MacDonald’s second government lacked any clear idea of how to deal with the Great Depression and his chancellor, *Snowden, was ultra-cautious, rejecting *Mosley’s alternative program. When a majority of Labour ministers refused to accept Budget cuts, MacDonald resigned, then continued as Prime Minister of a National Government 1931–35 with the Conservatives and some Liberals, and was expelled from the Labour Party. He came under increasing Conservative domination and in declining health, suffered memory loss and occasional incoherence. He resigned as Prime Minister, served as Lord President of the Council under Baldwin 1935–37, then retired, dying a week later on a sea voyage to South America.

Marquand, D., Ramsay MacDonald. 1976.

MacDonald, Sir John A(lexander) (1815–1891). Canadian Conservative politician, born in Glasgow. He emigrated with his parents to Canada when he was five and became a lawyer in Kingston, Ontario. In 1844 he became a Conservative member of the Legislature of Upper Canada and from 1847 held Cabinet offices. From 1856, as leader of the government, he played the principal part in the discussions and negotiations leading to the formation of the dominion of Canada, of which he became first Prime Minister 1867–73 and 1878–91. One of the great benefits he conferred upon Canada was encouraging the building of railways, as a means of linking the widely separated areas of the vast country and providing a secure basis for unity. He also introduced tariff protection of industry. Following the ‘Pacific scandal’, charges that he accepted campaign funds from a railroad contractor, Sir Hugh Allan, he resigned (1873) and was beaten in the ensuing elections. Alexander *Mackenzie then became Prime Minister, but MacDonald returned to office at the 1878 election, remaining in office until his death from a stroke.

Creighton, D., Sir John A. MacDonald, 2 vols, 1952–55.

MacDonald, Malcolm John (1901–1981). British administrator. Son of J. Ramsay *MacDonald, he was an MP 1929–35 and 1936–45 (Labour until 1931, then National Labour), Dominions Secretary 1935–39 and Colonial Secretary 1935 and 1938–40. High Commissioner to Canada 1941–46 and Governor-General of the Malayan Union 1946–48, he became Commissioner-General for Southeast Asia 1948–55 and High Commissioner in India 1955–60. He served in Kenya at the time of transition to self-government (*Kenyatta) as Governor-General 1963–64 and High Commissioner 1964–65. He was awarded the OM in 1969.

McDougall, William (1871–1938). Anglo-American psychologist. Educated in England and Germany, he became professor of psychology at Harvard 1920–27 and Duke University, North Carolina 1927–38. He followed *Lamarck and *Jung rather than *Darwin and *Freud, opposed behaviourism, advocated eugenics, devoted much effort to psychic research and the paranormal and sold many books.

McEwan, Ian (Russell) (1948– ). English novelist, short story and screen writer. He graduated from the University of East Anglia, and his novels include Enduring Love (1997), Amsterdam (1998: Man Booker Prize), Atonement (2001), Saturday (2005), On Chesil Beach (2007), and Solar (2010).

McEwen, Sir John (1900–1980). Australian politician and farmer. A soldier settler after World War I, he entered parliament in 1934, was a minister 1937–41 and 1949–71, becoming became Leader of the Country Party 1958–71 and Deputy Prime Minister. Long recognised as the strong man of the Commonwealth Government, on the disappearance of Harold *Holt he was Prime Minister briefly (December 1967–January 1968). He received a CH in 1969 and was knighted (GCMG) in 1971. In retirement he suffered agonies from dermatitis, and died of self-imposed starvation.

McGovern, George Stanley (1922–2012). US politician. The son of a clergyman, he was trained for the Methodist ministry, served as a bomber pilot in World War II, then took a PhD in history. He served as a congressman from South Dakota 1957–61, foundation Director of the Peace Corps 1961–62 and US Senator 1963–81. In 1972, he won the Democratic nomination for president as an anti-war candidate, but Richard *Nixon defeated him by a 61 per cent to 37 per cent margin. He was US Ambassador to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 1998–2001.

MacGregor, (Robert) Neil (1946– ). British art historian and museum director, born in Glasgow. Educated in Paris, Oxford, Edinburgh, and London, he worked with Anthony *Blunt and was editor of The Burlington Magazine 1981–87. He was Director of the National Gallery, London, 1987–2002 and the British Museum 2002–15. He presented illuminating television and radio series and wrote History of the World in 100 Objects (2010), Shakespeare’s Restless World (2013), Germany: Memories of a Nation (2014) and Living with the Gods (2018). He was awarded the OM in 2010.

McGuffey, William Holmes (1800–1873). American educator, born in Pennsylvania. He taught in Ohio, after picking up a sporadic education, and was appointed to the chair of mental and moral philosophy at the University of Virginia in 1845. His name was immortalised by his five volumes known as McGuffey’s Eclectic Readers (1836–44) of which 122,000,000 copies were sold between 1836 and 1920. These became the model for school readers throughout the world and had an extraordinary influence in the US, especially where reading material was scarce. They contained extracts from the Bible, *Shakespeare, Samuel *Johnson and *Dickens and proclaimed a philosophy based on Alexander *Hamilton’s concept of democracy, *Calvin’s theology, and *Blackstone’s view of property.

McGuinness, (James) Martin (Pacelli). (Séamus Máirtín Pacelli Mag Aonghusa) (1950–2017). Irish politician. After being active with the Provisional IRA, he worked with Sinn Féin, was elected to the UK House of Commons 1997–2013, but never sat. Following a peace agreement in Ulster, he served as Deputy First Minister 2007–17, working with Ian *Paisley.

Mach, Ernst (1838–1916). Austrian physicist and philosopher. He was professor of mathematics at Graz 1864–67, of physics at Prague 1867–95 and at Vienna 1895–1901. He investigated the behaviour of projectiles at high speeds and thus provided valuable data on the phenomena of supersonic flight, the ratio of the airspeed on an aircraft to the speed of sound was named, after him, the ‘Mach number’. His theoretical studies of mechanics and thermodynamics led him to a reassessment of Newtonian concepts and influenced Einstein in his development of the relativity theory. As a philosopher, Mach held that the laws of physics should be divorced from metaphysical speculation and should be pure descriptions of observed data. In that sense he can be described as a phenomenalist.

Machado de Assis, Joaquim Maria (1839–1908). Brazilian novelist and poet, born in Rio de Janeiro. Of mixed Negro and Portuguese descent, he suffered from epilepsy and poverty as a youth. He became a typesetter, then a journalist. Regarded as the most important Brazilian writer, his novels include The Posthumous Memoirs of Brás Cubas (1881 translated as Epitaph of a Small Winner 1952) and Dom Casmurro (1900, 1953). His work combined cynicism, urbanity, irony, wit and pessimism. Machado was the first president of the Brazilian Academy of Letters 1896–1908.

Machaut, Guillaume de (1300–1377). French composer and poet. A priest in the service of *Charles V, he is credited with the first complete Mass by one composer and his Messe de Nostre Dame was one of the greatest works of the 14th century.

Machiavelli, Niccolò (1469–1527). Italian diplomat and writer, born in Florence. Son of a lawyer, he held office as Secretary of the Council of Ten in charge of Florentine foreign affairs from 1498 until 1512 when the republic fell and the *Medici regained power. During those years he was sent on diplomatic missions to *Louis XII of France and the emperor *Maximilian, and while in attendance upon Cesare *Borgia was able to study the practices and motives of the ambitious prince. Back in Florence he organised the citizen army that captured Pisa (1509). When the Medici returned, Machiavelli was imprisoned for a time and had to retire from public life. He occupied himself by writing not only to instruct but to amuse, as in the lively, satirical and bawdy play La Mandragola. His serious works include Discourses on Livy, The Art of War, a History of Florence and the book upon which his fame and his sinister reputation rest, Il Principe (The Prince, 1513), largely based on his observations of Cesare *Borgia. Originally dedicated to the younger Lorenzo de’ Medici (1492–1519), grandson of ‘the Magnificent’, by whom Machiavelli may have hoped that Italy might be saved from foreign intervention and united under a single rule, the book was not actually published until 1532. Il Principe sets out to give precise and practical information concerning the qualities and practices necessary for a prince to achieve these worthy ends in a corrupt age. It is thus a work not of moral precept but of practical instruction, and in so far as it is held to reflect Machiavelli’s personal character, it defames him. The view of *Spinoza and *Rousseau is now generally accepted: that The Prince is a savage satire against tyranny by a man of profoundly pessimistic insight who recognised that the methods he detested (and scrupulously refrained from in his own life) were likelier to be successful than policies of restraint and conciliation. He bases the argument of The Prince on the contention that in an age where everyone is self-seeking the only hope lies in a single ruler whose sole interest would be his people’s welfare, but that in order to obtain that position and achieve that aim it is necessary to rule despotically, to cast all moral principles aside and concentrate entirely on the end in view. The cynical dictum ‘the end justifies the means’ had long been approved in practice. The odium that was attached to Machiavelli’s name was due to the fact that he seemed to give it theoretical justification. In Elizabethan and Jacobean England, Machiavelli and their perception of machiavellian politics were so execrated that his works and possibly his name (Old Nick) became synonymous with the devil. Machiavelli returned to public life in his later years and performed some services for Pope *Clement VII.

Hale, J. R., Machiavelli and Renaissance History. Rev. ed. 1972; de Grazia, S., Machiavelli in Hell. 1989; Skinner, Q., Machiavelli. A Very Short Introduction. 2000; Oppenheimer, M., Machiavelli: a life byond ideology. 2011; Vivanti, C., Niccolò Machiavelli: An Intellectual Biography. 2013.

McKell, Sir William John (1891–1985). Australian Labor politician. Originally a boiler-maker, he entered the New South Wales State Parliament in 1917, studied law and became a KC and was Premier 1941–47, retiring on his controversial appointment as the second native-born Governor-General of Australia 1947–53.

McKellen, Sir Ian Murray (1939– ). English actor. He excelled in *Shakespeare and *Chekhov and was a memorable *Salieri in Amadeus. He starred in Richard Locraine’s film Richard III (1996) and as Gandalf in The Lord of the Rings (2001). He was an outstanding Edgar in *Strindberg’s The Dance of Death, Lear in King Lear and Estragon in *Beckett’s Waiting for Godot, and received a CH in 2008.

O’Connor, G., Ian McKellen. 2019.

Mackensen, Anton Ludwig Friedrich August von (1849–1945). German field marshal. One of the most successful commanders of World War I, he drove the Russians from Galicia, overran Serbia 1915, and conquered Romania 1916–17.

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander (1764–1820). Scottish explorer of Canada. His interest in a fur-trading company provided opportunities for journeys of exploration. He reached (1789) the mouth of what is now called the Mackenzie River and (1792–93) made the first expedition across the Rockies to the Pacific. He was knighted in 1802.

Mackenzie, Alexander (1822–1892). Canadian politician, born in Scotland. He emigrated (1842) to Canada and led the Liberal opposition to Sir John *MacDonald in the dominion parliament 1867–73. He became the first Liberal Prime Minister 1873–78, serving as Opposition Leader again 1878–80.

Mackenzie, Sir (Edward Montague) Compton (1883–1972). English novelist and editor, born in Durham. Educated at Oxford, his earlier novels, include The Passionate Elopement (1911), Carnival (1912), Sinister Street (1913–14), perhaps his greatest achievement, and Sylvia Scarlett (1918). During World War I he served in the Gallipoli campaign and in military intelligence in the Near East. In 1923 he founded The Gramophone the first magazine of its type, and remained its editor until 1961. An ardent Scottish nationalist, he was elected as Lord Rector of Glasgow University (1931–34) and in 1938 published The Windsor Tapestry a study of Edward VIII’s abdication. Four Kinds of Love (1937–45), a somewhat pretentious novel about the inter-war years, followed. He lived on the island of Barra 1939–45 and his Scottish experiences led to the very funny novels Monarch of the Glen (1941) and Whisky Galore (1947: also a successful film). Mackenzie was also a poet, essayist, journalist, and television lecturer. His autobiography My Life and Times appeared, in 10 ‘octaves’ between 1963 and 1971.

Mackenzie, William Lyon (1795–1861). Canadian politician. An emigrant from Scotland (1820) he founded in York (now Toronto) a newspaper, the Colonial Advocate in which he demanded self-government for Upper Canada. Several times he was elected to the assembly and as often expelled. In 1837 he led an armed rebellion that proved a complete fiasco. Mackenzie took refuge in the US but returned (1849) under an amnesty and served (1850–58) in the legislature. His main achievement was to bring home to the British Government the urgency of constitutional reform. His grandson was W. L. Mackenzie *King.

MacKillop, Mary Helen (St Mary of the Cross MacKillop) (1842–1909). Australian Catholic religious, born in Melbourne. Of Scottish descent, in 1866 in Penola, South Australia, she founded the Order of the Josephites (Congregation of the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart), devoted to Aboriginals and the poor. She had a turbulent relationship with superiors and was briefly excommunicated (1871). Her beatification was proclaimed in Sydney in 1995 by *John Paul II and canonisation occurred in Rome in October 2010.

Gardiner, P., Mary MacKillop. 1993.

Mackinder, Sir Halford John (1861–1947). English geographer. His appointment as reader in geography at Oxford (1887) marked a belated English recognition of the subject as an academic discipline. In 1899 he made the first recorded ascent of Mt Kenya. He directed the London School of Economics 1903–08, became professor of geography at London University 1908–15 and a Conservative MP 1910–22. His application of geography to political questions was borrowed by Karl *Haushofer, associated with the Eurasian ‘Heartland’ theory. Mackinder’s books include Britain and the British Seas (1902).

Gilbert, E. W., Sir Halford Mackinder 1861–1947. 1963.

McKinley, William (1843–1901). 25th President of the US 1897–1901. He served in the Union army during the Civil War, studied law and served as a Republican in Congress 1877–83 and 1885–91. Throughout his political career he supported the high tariff policy of the industrialists and it was with their support that, after serving as Governor of Ohio 1892–96, he was elected President (1896), defeating William Jennings *Bryan, and again in 1900. His administration was notable for the successful Spanish-American War by which the US gained control of the Philippines and Cuba. McKinley, re-elected (1900) as a champion of imperialism, was shot at Buffalo station by an anarchist, Leon Czolgosz, and died eight days later. Theodore *Roosevelt succeeded.

Leech, M. K., In the Days of McKinley. 1959; Vidal, G., Empire 1987.

Mackintosh, Charles Rennie (1868–1928). Scottish architect and designer, born in Glasgow. A pioneer of the ‘Modern Movement’, Mackintosh discarded historicism in his buildings and became the centre of a group in Glasgow which, having aroused Continental interest, was asked to exhibit in Vienna (1901) and Turin (1902). His Glasgow School of Art (1896–99), designed when he was 28, is, with its great area of window glass, remarkably advanced for its time.

Howarth, T., Charles Rennie Mackintosh and the Modern Movement. 1952; McKean, J., Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Architect, Artist, Icon. 2001; Stark, D., Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Co. 2004; Pickeral, T., Mackintosh. 2004.

MacLeish, Archibald (1892–1982). American poet and dramatist. In his earlier lyrics, e.g. Frescoes for Mr Rockefeller’s City (1933), he showed himself to be a social critic but was better known for his long poem, Conquistador which won the Pulitzer Prize (1932). He lived in France for many years and his poetry was deeply influenced by *Eliot and *Pound. As Librarian of Congress 1939–44 and Assistant Secretary of State 1944–45, he took an active role in preparing war propaganda and was a founder of UNESCO (1945). He won a second Pulitzer Prize (1953) for his Collected Poems. His play, J. B., a religious parable based on the story of Job, was produced in 1958 and won a third Pulitzer. Edmund *Wilson despised him as an opportunistic mediocrity.

MacLeod, George Fielden, Baron MacLeod of Fuinary (1895–1991). Scottish clergyman. Educated at Winchester and Oxford, he won an MC in World War I and in 1938 founded the Iona Community which attracted international interest. He was Moderator of the Church of Scotland 1957–58. A notable broadcaster and preacher, he called himself ‘an uncomfortable socialist and a reluctant pacifist’. He inherited a baronetcy but refused to use the title, but accepted a life peerage in 1967 and later joined the Greens.

Macleod, Iain Norman (1913–1970). English Conservative politician. After war service, he became a journalist and writer on bridge, was an MP 1950–70, and a reforming minister 1952–63, declining to serve under *Home. He wrote a biography of Neville *Chamberlain (1961), edited The Spectator 1963–65 and died suddenly after four weeks as *Heath’s Chancellor of the Exchequer 1970.

McLuhan, (Herbert) Marshall (1911–1980). Canadian media analyst, born in Alberta. Educated at Manitoba and Cambridge, he taught in the US and Canada, directing the centre for culture and technology at Toronto University 1964–76. His work examined the impact of mass media and advertising. His controversial books include The Mechanical Bride (1951), The Gutenberg Galaxy (1962), Understanding Media (1964), The Medium is the Massage (1967), War and Peace in the Global Village (1968), Take Today: Executive as Drop-Out (1972) and City as Classroom (1977). He defined ‘media’ as extensions of human capacity and included electric light, vehicles and tools as well as newspapers, telephones, radio and television. He described television as a ‘cool’ (low definition) medium aimed at group (or family) viewing, favouring low intensity subjects or events (e.g. J. F. *Kennedy not R. M. *Nixon, sports programs not war reportage, variety not intensity), while ‘hot’ (high definition) media such as film or radio were better suited for propaganda aimed at an isolated individual. He argued that ‘the medium is the message (or massage)’, i.e. communication environments influence total response rather than specific program content: literacy or television availability alters lifestyle more than individual books or programs.

MacMahon, (Marie Edmé) Patrice Maurice de (1808–1893). French marshal. Of Irish descent, he served in the Crimea, was made a marshal and given the title Duke of Magenta for his part in the North Italian campaign (1859), and was Governor-General of Algeria 1864–70. In the Franco-Prussian War he commanded the 1st Army Corps and was captured at Sedan. In 1871 he suppressed the revolt of the Paris commune. Though a monarchist, he was elected as President of the Third French Republic in 1873, succeeding Adolphe *Thiers, but resigned in 1879.

McMahon, Sir William (1908–1988). Australian Liberal politician. A Sydney solicitor, he was a member of the Commonwealth Parliament 1949–82, a minister from 1951,Treasurer 1966–69 and Foreign Minister 1969–71. He displaced John *Gorton as Liberal Leader and was Prime Minister 1971–72. He lacked gravitas and by 1972 he, and the Coalition, had run out of ideas. His surprisingly narrow defeat by Gough *Whitlam ended 23 years of Coalition rule. His reputation for deviousness meant that he had no defenders, in or out of his Party. He was created CH in 1972 and GCMG in 1977.

Mullins, P., Tiberius with a Telephone. 2018.

Macmillan, Daniel (1813–1896), and Alexander (1818–1896). British publishers. Sons of a Scottish crofter, they made their way to England, had a small bookshop in Aldersgate St, London, and borrowed money to buy a larger one in Cambridge (1844). Among their most successful early publications were Westward Ho! by Charles *Kingsley and Tom Brown’s Schooldays by Thomas *Hughes. They set up a London branch in 1858 and soon based the firm there.

McMillan, Edwin Mattison (1907–1991). American physicist. He worked at the University of California, Berkeley, with E. O. *Lawrence, and in 1940 produced the transuranic element Neptunium (Np). During World War II he worked on radar, sonar and the ‘Manhattan Project’. He shared the 1951 Nobel Prize for Physics with Glenn *Seaborg.

Macmillan, (Maurice) Harold, 1st Earl of Stockton (1894–1986). British Conservative politician, born in London. A member of the famous publishing family, he was educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, and was five times wounded as a Guards officer in World War I. He returned to publishing in 1920 and was a Conservative MP 1924–29, 1931–45, 1945–64. He gained some reputation (even notoriety, with his colleagues) as an independent minded politician with sympathy for the unemployed and a supporter of the interventionist economics of his friend J. M. *Keynes. He was 46 when *Churchill first appointed him as an Undersecretary (1940), and his service as Minister Resident in North Africa 1942–45, based in Algiers, helped to develop a working relationship with General Charles *de Gaulle and General Dwight *Eisenhower. He lost his seat in the 1945 election but soon returned through a by-election and was active in the Oppositon front bench. After Churchill’s return to office in 1951 he was an energetic and successful Minister for Housing 1951–54, exceeding a Party promise to increase the total number of houses built to 300,000 per annum. Minister of Defence 1954–55, he succeeded Anthony *Eden as Foreign Secretary April–December 1955 and became Chancellor of the Exchequer 1955–57. His role in the political crisis over the British-French invasion of Suez was ambiguous: his rival *Butler said he was ‘first in and first out’. When Eden resigned after the Suez adventure failed, complicated by his ill-health (January 1957), Macmillan was appointed Prime Minister, serving until October 1963, the longest single term since *Asquith. He rapidly restored the party image blurred by the Egyptian adventure and for a time (marked by his election triumph in 1959) seemed to have the magic touch that brought prosperity and success. But as the years went by the administration seemed to lose momentum and the government’s popularity began to decline. His important ‘wind of change’ speech (February 1960) to the South African Parliament gave strong support for decolonisation and democratic rule in Africa. Elected as Chancellor of Oxford University in March 1960, defeating Oliver *Franks, he served until his death. Macmillan drastically reconstructed his government in 1962. In January 1963 de Gaulle’s refusal to admit Britain to the Common Market, and later the *Profumo affair were major failures. Macmillan’s future resolved itself when in October a diagnosis of prostate cancer, wrongly thought to be inoperable, led to his resignation. He ensured that *Butler did not succeed and the prime ministership went unexpectedly to the 13th Earl of Home (Sir Alec Douglas *Home). Macmillan married (1920) Lady Dorothy Cavendish (1900–1966), daughter of the 9th Duke of Devonshire, and the marriage was deeply unhappy: she loved another MP, Robert Boothby, and he continued to mourn. His six volumes of autobiography (1966–73) were surprisingly dull: Enoch *Powell wrote that reading them was like ‘chewing on cardboard’. His languid Edwardian demeanour was deceptive, concealing a conflicted interior. Like *Churchill, he had an American mother (from Indiana); with *Attlee he was the only British Prime Minister in three centuries wounded in action; he had the unhappiest prime ministerial marriage since Lord * Melbourne; and was the best-read prime minister since *Gladstone. Awarded an OM in 1976, he received an earldom on his 90th birthday. He outlived his son, Maurice Victor Macmillan (1921–1984), who followed him into publishing and politics as a Conservative MP and was Chief Secretary of the Treasury 1970–72, Secretary of State for Employment 1972–73 and Paymaster-General 1973–74.

Hutchinson, G., The Last Edwardian at No 10. 1980; Horne, A. Macmillan: An Official Biography. 2 vols, 1988, 1989; Thorpe, D. R., Supermac: The Life of Harold Macmillan. 2010.

MacMillan, Sir James (Loy) (1959– ). Scottish composer, born in Ayrshire. A practising Catholic, very prolific, his passionate and inventive choral works attracted international attention and include Magnificat (1999), the cantata Seven Last Words from the Cross (1993), the St John Passion (2007), Tu es Petrus (2010), Since It Was the Day of Preparation… (2012), the St Luke Passion (2013), and Stabat Mater (2016). He composed four symphonies, concertos for piano, violin, viola, cello, oboe, trumpet and percussion, three operas and three string quartets.

McMillan, Margaret (1860–1931). Scottish educationist, born in New York. Her special interest and that of her sister Rachel McMillan (1859–1917) was the physical education and health of small children. A Christian Socialist and active Fabian, she founded several clinics on her own initiative, that at Deptford (1910) being the largest. She wrote The Child and the State (1911) and was created CH in 1927.

MacNamara, Robert Strange (1916–2009). American administrator, born in San Francisco. A graduate of Berkeley and Harvard, after serving in World War II with the air force he joined the Ford Motor Company (1945) and became its managing director (1955) and president (1960). He was the longest serving US secretary of defense 1961–68, under *Kennedy and *Johnson, during the Vietnam War. Originally a ‘hawk’ on Vietnam, he became profoundly disillusioned. President of the World Bank 1969–80, he wrote a poignant memoir In Retrospect (1995). The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara (2003) was an Academy Award winning documentary.

McNaughton, Andrew George Latta (1887–1966). Canadian soldier, born in Saskatchewan. Educated as an engineer at McGill, after serving as an artillery officer in World War I he was Canada’s Chief of the General Staff 1929–35, President of the National Research Council 1935–39 and commanded Canadian forces in Britain in World War II 1939–43. He had good relations with *Churchill, bad with *Alanbrooke. Mackenzie *King wanted McNaughton as the first Canadian national to be Governor-General but he made the mistake of entering politics as Minister for National Defence 1944–45, then failed to win a seat in Parliament. Appointed CH in 1946, he became Chairman of the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission 1946–48 and Ambassador to the UN 1948–49.

MacNeice, Louis (1907–1963). Anglo-Irish poet, born in Belfast. Educated at Oxford, he was associated with *Auden, *Day Lewis and *Spender in the ‘Oxford Group’ in the 1930s. He lectured in classics at Birmingham and London, joining the BBC in 1941. His Collected Poems appeared in 1949. Apart from translations from the Greek and critical works, e.g. on *Yeats (1941), he wrote Christopher Columbus (1944) one of several radio plays, and The Dark Tower (1947) a collection of scripts.

Press, J., Louis MacNeice. 1966.

McNeile, (Herman) Cyril (pen name ‘Sapper’) (1888–1937). English thriller writer. A retired army officer, he became a best-selling author with his novels featuring the character ‘Bulldog’ Drummond (largely based on himself); 23 films were also made.

Macpherson, James (1738–1796). Scottish author. From 1760 he published a series of poems he claimed were translations from the Gaelic of a 3rd-century CE bard named Ossian. These poems were widely admired, by *Jefferson, *Goethe, *Napoléon, *Ingres and others, and were an important influence behind the Romantic revival. But their genuineness was soon suspect, with Samuel *Johnson conspicuous among the doubters. Challenged to produce his sources, Macpherson fabricated Gaelic originals. After his death a commission considered that the works (Fingal, an epic in six books, is the best known) were free adaptations, with passages of Macpherson’s own inserted, of traditional Gaelic poems. This is still the general view. He was London agent to the Nabob of Arcot and an MP 1780–96.

McPherson, Aimée Semple (née Aimée Elizabeth Kennedy) (1890–1944). American Christian revivalist, born in Canada. She toured in the US, China and Europe, and was the founder of the Angelus Temple in Los Angeles (1921) and the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel (1930), which soon had several hundred churches in America and many missions abroad. Three marriages and a claim to have been kidnapped (1926) were among the episodes of her colourful career. She died of an overdose of barbiturates, probably accidental.

McPherson, A. S., The Story of My Life. 1951.

Macquarie, Lachlan (1761–1824). Scottish soldier. Army service took him to Canada, India, the East Indies and Egypt before he came to Australia as Governor of New South Wales 1810–21. By encouraging the construction of roads, bridges and public buildings, by founding the first bank (1817) he changed a penal settlement into a flourishing embryo colony, and founded civilian society in Australia. He believed that ex-prisoners (‘emancipists’) should have equal rights with free settlers. He met opposition on this and resigned (1821).

Ellis, M. H., Lachlan Macquarie. His Life Adventures and Time. 1947.

Macready, William Charles (1793–1873). British actor. He came from a theatrical family and made his debut in Birmingham in 1816. After the death (1833) of *Kean, Macready became the leading actor of his time and his management (1837–43) at Covent Garden and Drury Lane, during which he was both producer and actor, was famous. During a visit to New York (1849), 20 lives were lost when a mob, incited by an envious American actor, Edwin *Forrest, supported by Nativists, tried to break into the theatre where Macready was performing. His most famous parts included Macbeth, Lear, Iago and King John and it is said that he tried ‘to combine the dignity of the Kembles with the naturalness of Kean’.

Trewin, J. C., Mr. Macready, a 19th Century Tragedian and his Theatre. 1955.

Macron, Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric (1977– ). French politician, born in Amiens. Son of a physician and a neurologist, he won degrees at the University of Paris X, Sciences Po and ENA (École nationale d’administration), became an inspector of finances, briefly joined the Socialist Party, then worked for the Rothschild Bank. He was a staffer for President *Hollande 2012–14, then Minister for Economics, Industry and Digital Affairs 2014–16. He resigned in 2016 and founded a new political party, La République en Marche! (LREM). He won election as President of France 2017– , after the Socialist vote collapsed, the conservatives faded and in the second round he faced Marine *Le Pen. At 39, Macron became the youngest French Head of State since *Napoléon. LREM won a comfortable majority in the National Assembly elections in June 2017, but voter turnout was very low.

MacSwiney, Terence (1880–1920). Irish nationalist. He took part in the Easter Rising (1916) and after revolutionary activity in the Irish Republican Army became Lord Mayor of Cork in 1920. In August he was arrested on a sedition charge and his death in October after a 74–day hunger strike provoked worldwide sympathy and protest.

McVeigh, Timothy J. (1968–2001). American terrorist. A Gulf War veteran, he was convicted of murder for the Oklahoma City bombing of April 1995, in which 168 people died, and was executed by lethal injection.

Madariaga y Rojo, Salvador (1886–1978). Spanish author. He served as Director of Disarmament for the League of Nations 1922–27. He was professor of Spanish studies at Oxford University 1928–31 and, after the establishment of the Republic, Ambassador to the US 1931–32 and to France 1932–36. He stood aloof from the Spanish Civil War but in England after 1950 he was a frequent and outspoken critic of the *Franco regime. Amongst his extensive literary works are books on *Bolívar, *Columbus, Don Quixote, Hamlet and *Shelley, and he also wrote on historical and political topics.

Madero, Francisco (1873–1913). Mexican politician. Educated abroad, he returned with liberal and humanitarian ideas to become (1909) the principal opponent of the re-election of the dictatorial president *Diaz. When Diaz declared himself re-elected, a local rising in response to Madero’s agitation caused the administration suddenly to collapse and Diaz fled (May 1911). Madero was elected President with popular acclaim but, when his incompetence provoked rebellions, he was induced to resign and then murdered by his own Commander-in-Chief, General *Huerta.

Madison, James (1751–1836). 4th President of the US 1809–17. Born at Port Conway, Virginia, son of a landowner from a prominent family, he studied at New Jersey College (later Princeton University) and at a precocious age helped to draft the Virginia State Constitution (1776), serving in the Continental Congress 1780–83 and the Virginia Legislature 1784–86. At the Federal Constitutional Convention (1787) held at Philadelphia he was, despite his youth, the major intellectual force in shaping the US Constitution (although Gouverneur *Morris was the principal draftsman). He contributed to The Federalist (1787–88) with *Hamilton and *Jay, showing remarkable prescience about the problems of large government, the development of factions, information flow and oligopoly. As a Member of the US House of Representatives 1789–97, he campaigned for the adoption of the Bill of Rights and against Hamilton’s financial policies. He was *Jefferson’s Secretary of State 1801–09, arranged the ‘Louisiana purchase’ from France, and succeeded as Leader of the Democratic-Republicans. Elected as President in 1808 (defeating C.C. *Pinckney) and 1812 (De Witt *Clinton), his second term was marked by the unpopular war with Britain (1812–14), known as ‘Madison’s war’, in which Washington was captured and the White House burned. His wife Dolley Madison (née Payne) (1768–1849) was White House hostess for Jefferson (a widower) and himself. He was rector of the University of Virginia 1826–36 and died at his home in Montpelier. In 20 Presidential ranking lists by historians and political scientists, Madison scored No. 14 in the aggregate. His presidency was disappointing, after the brilliance he showed as a young man in framing the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

Brant, I., The Fourth President. 1970; Ketcham, R., James Madison: A Biography. 1990; Rutland, R. A., James Madison and the American Nation. 1995; Wills, G., James Madison. 2002; Feldman, N., The Three Lives of James Madison: Genius, Partisan, President. 2017.

Madonna (Louise Veronica Ciccone) (1958– ). American singer and actor, born in Bay City, Michigan. She became a super-celebrity, appearing in several films including In Bed with Madonna (1991) and sold about 60,000,000 records. Her fame depended on shock appeal rather than talent. Her book Madonna: Sex (1992) was an immediate succès de scandale, despite contemptuous reviews.

Maecenas, Gaius Cilnius (c.70–8 BCE). Roman statesman. Friend and counsellor of the Roman emperor *Augustus, though without specific office, he acted as the Emperor’s chief minister and had great influence over him. He was renowned for his wealth and luxury and for his patronage of writers, e.g. *Virgil and *Horace.

Maeterlinck, Maurice (Mooris) Polidor Marie Bernhard, Comte (1862–1949). Belgian poet and dramatist, born in Ghent. He studied law at Ghent but went to Paris (1887) and soon came under the influence of the French’ symbolists’ as seen, notably, in his metaphysical dramas, e.g. Pelleas and Melisande (1892) later the basis of an opera by *Debussy, and The Bluebird (1909) a children’s favourite despite its mysticism. Maeterlinck also wrote a series of popular works on natural history, e.g. The Life of the Bee (1901) and The Intelligence of Flowers (1907). After being nominated eight times, in 1911 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature and in 1932 was created a count.

Halls, W. D., Maurice Maeterlinck. 1960.

Magellan, Ferdinand (Fernão de Magalhães) (c.1480–1521). Portuguese explorer. While on service in Morocco he was accused of theft and made an unauthorised return to Portugal to appeal against the charge. Unable to gain satisfaction, he offered his services to Spain and obtained acceptance of a scheme to sail to the Moluccas (East Indies) from the west. He sailed (1519) with five ships and rounded South America through the straits that now bear his name into the Pacific (the name of which was suggested to him by the fine weather he encountered there). He reached the Philippines where he was killed in a skirmish with natives. His ship was sailed back to Spain by his second in command, Sebastian del Cano, who then completed (1522) the first circumnavigation of the world, which also established that the Americas were a separate continent.

Guillemard, F. H. H., The Life of Ferdinand Magellan and the first Circumnavigation of the Globe 1480–1521. Repr. 1971.

Magendie, François (1783–1855). French physician. Considered a founder of experimental physiology, he investigated the relationship of the nervous system with the spinal chord and the effects and uses of strychnine, iodine, morphine and various other drugs. He demonstrated the stomach’s passive role in vomiting and studied emetics. He did much work on the nerves of the skull and a canal leading from the fourth ventricle is named after him the ‘foramen of Magendie’. He was elected a member of the Académie des Sciences (1821) and was its president (1837). In 1831 he became professor of medicine at the Collège de France.

Maginot, André (1877–1932). French politician. As Minister of War 1922–24 and 1929–32, he ordered the construction of the ‘Maginot line’, a series of immense fortifications, concealed weapons, underground storehouses and living quarters on the Franco-German frontier. In World War II it was outflanked by the German advance through Belgium and its defensive strength was never put to the test.

Magritte, René François Ghislain (1898–1967). Belgian artist. An important member of the Surrealist movement, he trained at the Brussels Academy from 1916 and began his career as a wallpaper designer. He became a full-time painter in 1926 and held his first one-man exhibition 10 years later. His pictures are realistic, even mundane, but they are put together in composite images that are bizarre, sinister, comic or nightmarish.

Nadeau, M., The History of Surrealism. 1965.

Magsaysay, Ramon (1907–1957). Filipino politician. A mechanic by trade, he became famous for his exploits in the anti-Japanese underground movement. Afterwards he was equally successful against the revolutionary Communists. Secretary of National Defence 1950–53 and President 1953–57, he was killed in an air crash.

Mahan, Alfred Thayer (1840–1914). American naval historian. He served in the navy (1856–96), retired as Captain but was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1906. His great work, The Influence of Sea Power upon History 1660–1783 (1890) proved a powerful stimulant to political thought on this subject, its thesis based on, and strikingly confirmed by, British imperial growth. He also wrote a life of *Nelson (1897). He coined the term ‘the Middle East’ (1902).

Mahathir bin Mohammed (1925– ). Malaysian politician. Educated in Singapore, he practised medicine, was active in the United Malay National Organisation (UMNO) from 1964 and became Minister for Education 1974–77, Trade and Industry 1977–81 and Prime Minister 1981–2003. He also held other portfolios including Defence, Home Affairs and Justice. In 1998 he sacked his deputy *Anwar Ibrahim, whose jailing for sedition and sodomy was seen as a political act.

At the age of 92 he returned to active politics in an unexpected alliance with Anwar, defeated his former protégé *Najib Razak on the issue of corruption and was Prime Minister again 2018–20, ending the 61-year rule of his former party.

Mahdi, El (= ‘the expected one’). Title used by Shi’ite Muslims for a hidden imam who will reveal himself as a deliverer, especially claimed by Mohammed Ahmed ibn Abdullah (c.1841–1885), a Sudanese tribesman who proclaimed himself in 1881 and led a revolt against Egyptian rule. He controlled the Sudan by 1883. General *Gordon, sent to evacuate foreigners (1884), was killed at Khartoum after a long siege. *Wolseley arrived too late to save Gordon. Within weeks, El Mahdi had died of typhus. The Mahdists controlled the Sudan until their final defeat at Omdurman (1898) by *Kitchener, who desecrated El Mahdi’s tomb.

Holt, P. M. The Mahdist State in the Sudan. 2nd ed. 1970.

Mahfouz, Naguib (1911–2006). Egyptian novelist, playwright and screenwriter, born in Cairo. Educated at Cairo University, he worked in the cultural section of the civil service 1934–71. He wrote 40 novels and 30 screenplays, some of which were banned because of his political and social views. His novels include The Cairo Trilogy (1956–57), Chatting on the Nile (1966) and Miramar (1967). He was the first writer in Arabic to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature (1988).

Mahler, Gustav (1860–1911). Austrian composer and conductor, born in Kaliste, Bohemia. Son of a distiller and tavern owner, he was the second of 14 children, only six of whom survived infancy. He studied at the Vienna Conservatoire and the University, and attended *Bruckner’s lectures (which he sometimes denied). In 1897 he converted from Judaism to Catholicism. Regarded as the greatest conductor of his era, he directed the Budapest Opera 1888–91, the Hamburg Opera 1891–97, the Vienna Court Opera 1897–1907, the Metropolitan Opera, New York 1908–10 and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra 1909–11. (In 1892 he had premiered *Wagner’s Ring cycle in London.)

As a composer, he was greatly influenced by *Beethoven, *Schubert, *Wagner, Bruckner and, later, *Bach. He wrote 10 symphonies. Symphonies No. 1 (‘The Titan’, 1888), 5 (1902), 6 (1904), 7 (1905) and 9 (1910) are for orchestra. Nos. 2 (‘Resurrection’, 1894), 3 (1896), 4 (1900), 8 (‘Symphony of a Thousand’, 1907) include movements for solo voice, soli and chorus, with orchestra. The unfinished Symphony No. 10 was performed in 1964 in a version partly reconstructed from Mahler’s notes by Deryck Cooke. He wrote four important song cycles for voice and orchestra: Lieder eines fahrenden (Songs of a Wayfarer, 1883–85), Des Knaben Wunderhorn (Youth’s Magic Horn, 1892–98), Kindertotenlieder (Songs on the Death of Children, 1901–04) and Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth, 1908–09).

Mahler’s music, in its prolixity (most of the works, including all the symphonies, are unusually long), its emotionalism, its sudden and extreme changes of mood, its programmatic content and its use of large orchestral and vocal forces, represents in many ways the culmination of the Romantic movement in music. Mahler commented to *Sibelius that ‘the symphony should be like the world: it must embrace everything’. Resemblances between Mahler and Bruckner are only superficial (length, complex texture, much repetition, heavy orchestral palette). Bruckner’s world is religious—nature as a revelation of God’s glory. Mahler’s world is secular, fuelled by angst, mitigated by understanding and release. Bruckner seems to be contemplating a mountain range or a cathedral nave, Mahler seems to be gazing into an abyss, or anticipating the Holocaust, which occurred barely 30 years after his death.

While Mahler had outstanding early advocates including *Mengelberg, *Walter, *Klemperer and *Stokowski, there were notable sceptics, *Toscanini being the most important. Since the 1950s Mahler has been regarded as a master, and 20 complete sets of his symphonies were available on CD or for download in 2017.

The fluctuating quality of the musical material and the uncertainty of taste which are the obverse of its positive qualities have led to critical division as to its worth, but Mahler’s originality and inventiveness have been widely recognised, and influenced *Shostakovich and (notably in his use of the orchestral song cycle) *Britten. He died in Vienna of infective endocarditis which destroyed his heart valves.

His widow Alma (Maria) Mahler, née Schindler (1879–1964) composed impressive songs, of which 17 survive. When she married Mahler (1902) he forbade her to compose. They had two daughters: one died in 1907. In 1910 she began an affair with the architect Walter *Gropius, but stayed with Mahler until his death. She was married to Gropius 1915–20, and to Franz *Werfel 1929–45. Her lovers included Oskar *Kokoschka and Gustav *Klimt. She lived in the United States from 1940, published an autobiography And the bridge is love (1958) and died in New York City. Although two of her husbands (and some lovers) were Jewish, she was virulently anti-Semitic.

de La Grange, H.-L., Mahler. 4 vols, 1979, 1995, 2000, 2008; Kennedy, M., Mahler. 1974; Lebrecht, N., Why Mahler? How One Man and Ten Symphonies Changed the World. 2010; Fischer, J. M., Gustav Mahler. 2011; Haste, C., Passionate Spirit. The Life of Alma Mahler. 2019.

Mahomet see Muhammad

Mailer, Norman (1923–2007). American novelist, essayist, journalist, commentator, film maker and political activist, born in Brooklyn. Educated at Harvard, his army service in the Pacific during World War II provided the background for that ‘nightmarish piece of realism’ The Naked and the Dead (1948). Later writings include The White Negro (1958), Advertisements for Myself (1959), An American Dream (1966), The Armies of the Night (1968, Pulitzer Prize), A Fire on the Moon (1971), Marilyn (1973), The Executioner’s Song (1979, Pulitzer Prize), Ancient Evenings (1983), Harlot’s Ghost (1991), The Gospel According to the Son (1997) and The Time of our Time (1998).

Maillol, Aristide (1861–1944). French sculptor. He turned from painting to tapestry designing and then, owing to failing sight, to monumental sculpture (c.1900). Nearly all his works are nudes, realistic in conception but idealised to some extent in execution. He made a special study of the proper use of his materials, clay, bronze and marble.

George, W., Aristide Maillol. 1965.

Maimonides (also known as RaMBaM, acronym for Rabbi Moishe ben Maymun) (1135–1204). Jewish philosopher, jurist and physician, born in Córdoba, Spain. The fundamentalist Almohads seized power in Córdoba in 1148 and in 1159 Maimonides and his family moved to Fez, Morocco, then in 1165 to Palestine. He received orthodox Jewish training, and in addition studied philosophy and law. In 1166 he settled in Egypt, where he became head of the Jewish community and physician to *Saladin. A polymath, he wrote works of popular Jewish religious devotion, a major codification of the Jewish law, a philosophical-religious work, called The Guide for the Perplexed and a number of medical works. He is the leading exponent of the school of Jewish Aristotelianism. Like *Aristotle, Maimonides asserts the rationality of God, and man’s duty through the use of his reason to comprehend the Divine Mind. But Maimonides also emphasised the limits of human reason, which was unable to know the Divine attributes directly and positively. This secured a place for faith, and for positive revelation, both of which were central to his beliefs. This religious vision informed his scientific studies. He did not believe that science had achieved certain knowledge of nature. As a physician, Maimonides closely followed *Galen, although he regarded him as ignorant of theology. His writings became canonical for Jewish philosophy for the next few centuries, and also exercised considerable influence over Thomas *Aquinas and other Scholastics.

Minkin, J. S., The World of Moses Maimonides. 1958.

Maine, Sir Henry James Sumner (1822–1888). English legal historian. After showing academic brilliance he became Regius professor of civil law at Cambridge University 1847–54, being called to the bar in 1850. The remainder of his career was divided between academic legal appointments and positions in India and the Indian Office at home, which enabled him to reform and shape the legal system of that country. He is most famous, however, for his classic studies of the evolution of legal and social institutions, e.g. Ancient Law (1861), Early History of Institutions (1875) and Early Law and Custom (1883).

Maintenon, Françoise d’Aubigné, Marquise de (1635–1719). French morganatic wife of *Louis XIV. She lived in Martinique with her Huguenot father until his death, when she returned to France, was converted to Roman Catholicism and was in great poverty when she married the poet *Scarron (1652). In 1669, by then a widow, she was chosen as governess to the king’s sons by Madame de *Montespan whom she succeeded in the king’s affections (1680). In 1684 the king married her secretly. She was an intelligent and attractive woman, who behaved with complete discretion and exercised little influence on politics. The king bestowed upon her the chateau of Maintenon and the title of Marquise.

Maistre, Joseph de (1753–1821). French (Savoyard) writer and diplomat. He studied with the Jesuits, became a passionate opponent of the French Revolution, was a senator from Savoy 1788–92, then lived in Switzerland. The King of Piedmont-Sardinia sent him as Ambassador to Russia 1803–17 and in his St Petersburg Dialogues (left incomplete on his death) he argued for a divinely ordained authoritarian state, insisting that the executioner protected society from disorder. He produced a catalogue of enemies, including scientists, humanists, intellectuals, liberals, Protestants, Jews and Freemasons.

Berlin, I., The Crooked Timber of Humanity. 1990.

Maitland, Frederick William (1850–1906). English legal historian, born in London. Educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, after 15 years at the bar he devoted the rest of his life to historical work. In 1884, he became Reader, then Professor of the Laws of England at Cambridge 1888–1906. He founded the Selden Society in 1887. The breadth and profundity of his research, his imaginative power of recalling the past and his brilliance of style combine to make his History of English Law Before the Time of Edward I (1895), with contributions by Sir Frederick Pollock (1845–1937), a classic work in this field. His other works include a constitutional history (from Edward I) published posthumously.

Major, Sir John Roy (1943– ). British Conservative politician, born in Merton. Son of a trapeze artist who later manufactured garden ornaments, he was educated at Rutlish Grammar School but did not attend university. He worked for the Standard Chartered Bank in England and Nigeria and was a Lambeth Borough councillor 1968–71. A Conservative MP 1979–2001, he held several minor offices until his period of rapid promotion began in 1986. He served as Minister for Social Security 1986–87, Chief Secretary to the Treasury 1987–89, Foreign Secretary July–Oct. 1989 and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1989–90. When Margaret *Thatcher was challenged for the Conservative leadership in November 1990 by Michael *Heseltine, after an inconclusive first ballot she withdrew and ensured Major’s succession, although his social and political views were more liberal than hers. Prime Minister 1990–97, he supported President *Bush strongly in the Gulf War 1991. The Conservatives won the April 1992 general election but Major faced growing internal dissension from opponents of his moderately pro-European policies. In May 1997 the Conservatives suffered their heaviest defeat since 1832, losing to Tony *Blair’s New Labour. He received a CH in 1998 and a KG in 2005, but declined a peerage in 2001.

Makarios III (Mikhail Khristodolou Mouskos) (1913–1977). Cypriot Archbishop and President. As Archbishop of the Orthodox Church of Cyprus (1950–77), he was political leader of the Enosis movement which demanded the end of British rule and union with Greece. He was exiled to the Seychelles (1956) but returned to Cyprus (1957) and became its first President (1960–74, 1974–77) after the conclusion of an agreement between Britain, Greece and Turkey for an independent Cyprus. There were several assassination attempts and in 1974 he was deposed as President for a few days and escaped after an attempt on his life. He returned to Cyprus as President in December 1974. His presidency was marred by a failure to weld Cyprus into a single sovereign state.

Malaki, Nouri Mohammed Kamit Hasan al- (1950– ). Iraqi politician. Educated in Baghdad, and a Shi’ite, in exile in Damascus 1979–2003, he was Prime Minister 2006–14.

Malala (Malala Yousafzai) (1997– ). Pakistani feminist, peace and education activist, born in Mingora. She grew up in the Swat Valley in north-western Pakistan, an area which came under Taliban influence, and from the age of 12 published a blog advocating education for women and girls, which led to threats to her life. In October 2012 she was shot in the head by a Taliban gunman, and after several operations in Pakistan was flown to England for treatment. On recovery, she resumed her studies in Birmingham. She spoke eloquently to the United Nations, received the Sakharov Prize (2013) and the World Children’s Prize (2014).

At the age of 17, she was awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize for Peace, making her the youngest Laureate by far. She shared the prize with Kailash *Satyarthi, an Indian campaigner for children’s rights.

Malamud, Bernard (1914–1986). American novelist, born in Brooklyn. His masterpiece was The Fixer (1966), based on an accusation of ritual murder in tsarist Russia. Other novels included The Assistant (1957), A New Life (1961) and God’s Grace (1982).

Malan, Daniel François (1874–1959). South African Nationalist politician, born in Cape Colony (now Cape Province). He was a preacher and journalist before entering political life as a member of the Union House of Assembly 1919–54. Under *Hertzog, as Minister of the Interior, Public Health and Education 1924–33, he legislated for a national flag and recognition of Afrikaans as an official language. He led the Nationalists 1936–54 and urged neutrality in World War I. In 1948 his party defeated *Smuts’ Unionists and instituted the policy of apartheid, complete social and political segregation of the races, although he seemed mild compared with his successors *Strijdom and *Verwoerd.

Malaparte, Curzio (real name Kurt Erich Suckert) (1898–1957). Italian journalist, playwright and novelist. After war service, he was an enthusiastic propagandist not only for Fascism but also for avante garde literature and wrote on revolutionary violence in his Coup d’etat (1932). He was expelled from the Party in 1941 and imprisoned. He wrote two powerful war novels, Kaputt (1944) and The Skin (1949).

Malatesta, Sigismondo Pandolfo (1417–1468). Italian soldier. He succeeded his uncle as lord of Rimini in 1432. Though he was a condottiere or mercenary captain, cruel, profligate and described by Pope *Pius II as ‘the enemy of God and man’ he was a scholar and friend of scholars: on his orders the cathedral of Rimini was converted into a temple of the arts.

Malcolm III (Canmore) (c.1031–1093). King of Scots 1058–93. Son of *Duncan I, after his father was killed and the throne usurped by *Macbeth he took refuge in England. In 1054, with the help of his uncle Siward, Earl of Northumbria, he recovered southern Scotland and in 1057 he defeated and killed Macbeth in battle. After the Norman conquest of England he supported the claims of *Edgar the Aetheling (brother of his wife, *St Margaret) but was forced by *William I to pay tribute. When *William Rufus succeeded, Malcolm was trapped and killed during a raid on Northumbria.

Malcolm X (Malcolm Little) (1925–1965). African-American political and religious leader, born in Omaha. Imprisoned for robbery (1946–52), he joined Elijah Muhammed’s Black Muslims, became its leading spokesman and advocated black violence to redress the history of white violence against Negroes. Expelled from the Black Muslims, he formed the Organisation of Afro-American Unity (1964), began urging closer racial harmony and was murdered in Harlem.

Malcolm X., Autobiography. 1965.

Malcolm, Janet (née Jana Wienovera) (1934– ). American journalist and essayist, born in Prague. Her family escaped from Czechoslovakia in 1939, she grew up in New York and studied at the University of Michigan. An outstanding practitioner of ‘the New Journalism’, she wrote for The New Yorker and The New York Review of Books. Her essays and reviews had a disconcerting penetration. Her books include: Psychoanalysis: The Impossible Profession (1981), In the Freud Archives (1984), The Journalist and the Murderer (1990), The Silent Woman: Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes (1994), Reading Chekhov (2001) and Two Lives: Gertrude and Alice (2007). Helen *Garner commented ‘Her writing turns you into a better reader … She is brilliant in revealing things in stages … [and] yokes the familiar with the strange in the way dreams do’.

Malebranche, Nicolas (1638–1715). French philosopher. His philosophical ideas brought him a contemporary esteem second only to that of *Descartes, many of whose views he shared. Dismissing the information provided by the senses as confused, Malebranche taught that truth could only be apprehended through what he termed ‘clear ideas’ and that the seat of such ‘clear ideas’ (though not in a vocational sense) was God. He denied that there was a direct causal relation between mind and matter. Sensation on the one hand, and the physical activity that follows an act of willing on the other, he explained as occasional acts of God in creating new mental images to correspond with items in the physical order or in creating new physical conditions to correspond with a mental picture. His De la Recherche de la vérité (1674) contains the best exposition of his philosophy. Apart from philosophy Malebranche was well known as a physicist, especially for his work in optics.

Malenkov, Georgi Maksimilianovich (1902–1988). Russian Communist politician. He rose quickly in the Communist Party organisation and as head of the party secret service was closely associated with the purges of 1936–39. During World War II he reorganised industrial production and railway transport. As Deputy Premier 1946–53 and a Politburo member 1946–55, he was Stalin’s closest associate and on his death (March 1953) succeeded him as Premier and (for eight days, until he lost that position to *Khrushchev), General Secretary of the CPSU. Forced out as Premier in 1955, in favour of Khrushchev’s nominee *Bulganin, he became Minister for Electric Power Stations 1955–57.

Malherbe, François de (1555–1628). French poet and grammarian. His early life was spent mostly in Provence but in 1605 he obtained a post at court and the patronage of *Henri IV, *Louis XIII and Cardinal *Richelieu. His importance lay not so much in his own verse, which consisted mainly of conventional accounts of noble deeds or adaptations of poems by ancient or contemporary writers, as in his achievements as a grammarian. He was largely responsible for creating a clear and easily understandable literary language, free of the archaisms, pedantries and foreign influences that had made the work of his predecessors obscure. Moreover he laid down firm rules for the various verse forms and showed how to combine euphony with sense.

Fromilhagne, R., Malherbe. 1954.

Malibran, Maria (Felicitas) (née Garcia) (1808–1836). French mezzo-soprano, born in Paris. Daughter of Manuel *Garcia and sister of Pauline *Viardot, she studied with her father, but performed under her husband’s name. In 1825 she sang in London and New York, specialising in *Rossini’s operas, but appeared as Leonora in Fidelio. Malibran could sing as soprano and contralto and her extraordinary range made her a sensation in London, New York, Paris and Milan. She created the role of Maria Stuarda in *Donizetti’s opera (Milan, 1835) and died after a riding accident.

Malik, Jacob Aleksandrovich (1906–1980). Russian diplomat, born in Ukraine. He rose to high office under *Stalin. After serving as Ambassador to Japan 1942–45 he became Deputy Foreign Minister in 1946 and Soviet Ambassador to the UN 1948–53, 1968–76, Ambassador to Britain 1953–60 and Deputy Foreign Minister 1960–68.

Malinovsky, Rodion Yakovlevich (1898–1967). Russian marshal. He served with the French army in World War I, and in World War II he was one of the most successful Russian commanders. After a fighting retreat in the Ukraine (1941) he commanded one of the armies which in 1942 surrounded and enforced the surrender of General Paulus at Stalingrad. Thenceforward on the offensive, he retook Odessa (April 1944) and by the end of that year was advancing through Romania and Hungary. In the next year he liberated Czechoslovakia. He succeeded *Zhukov as Minister of Defence 1957–67.

Malinowski, Bronislaw Kaspar (1884–1942). Polish anthropologist. In 1914 he accompanied an anthropological expedition to New Guinea and continued to Australia, where he worked with Baldwin *Spencer. On his return he joined the teaching staff at London University and became (1927) professor in social anthropology. He introduced the method of investigation by functional comparison of the activities of different peoples. Among his books were Crime and Custom in Savage Society (1926) and Sex and Repression in Savage Society (1927).

Malipiero, Gian Francesco (1882–1973). Italian composer. Musicologist, teacher and (from 1934) and director of the Liceo Musicale in Venice 1939–52, he edited the works of *Monteverdi and *Vivaldi. He composed symphonic poems, chamber music, piano solos and some operas, e.g. Julius Caesar (1936) and Antony and Cleopatra (1938).

Mallarmé, Stéphane (1842–1898). French symbolist poet, born in Paris. Having decided to learn English in order to read and translate Edgar Allan *Poe, he was in London for that purpose (1862–63) and spent the rest of his active life teaching English in various French towns and eventually in Paris. There he came to admire the Impressionists and especially *Manet, whose close friend he became. He tried to bring light and movement into his creations with words as the Impressionists had done with paint, thus the sound and rhythm of the words, as in music conveyed their meaning directly to the senses of the reader. Moreover, as a follower of *Baudelaire, he gave to certain key words the quality of symbols which evoke picture patterns in the mind that go far beyond a purely linguistic interpretation. Mallarmé was not prolific and was at his best in short pieces such as L’Après midi d’un faune (1875), which inspired *Debussy’s prelude. Mallarmé also had a talent for gay, witty but, alas, unrecorded talk, and the gatherings on his ‘Tuesday evenings’ became famous.

Malle, Louis (1932–1995). French film director. His films included Le feu follet (1963), Le Souffle au coeur (1971), Lacombe,Lucien (1973), Atlantic City (1980), Au revoir les enfants (1987) and the long documentary L’Inde fantôme (1972). He married the actor Candice Bergen in 1980.

Malmesbury, William of see William of Malmesbury

Malone, Edmund (1741–1812). Irish editor and critic. He abandoned the law for literature and moved to London, where he became a friend of Samuel *Johnson. His great edition of *Shakespeare appeared in 1790, and the revised edition published after his death in 1821 was by far the best up to that time. He also exposed the literary forgeries of William Henry *Ireland and Thomas *Chatterton. He is commemorated by the Malone Society (founded 1907) which prints texts and documents relating to the study of Elizabethan drama.

Malory, Sir Thomas (c.1415–c.1471). English writer of Arthurian romances. Little is known with certainty about his life, the most probable identification is with a Warwickshire knight in the service of the Earl (later Duke) of Warwick. If so, most of his writing must have been done in prison, where he spent a large part of his life charged with a number of violent crimes. His eight Arthurian romances were published by *Caxton in 1485 (though the text found at Winchester College in 1934 is held to be more authentic). The work consists almost entirely of adaptations from the French 13th-century versions, written to idealise the medieval code of chivalry. Malory, writing two centuries later in English prose, is no nearer than his originals to creating a realistic historical picture. Arthur is no Romano-British chieftain, and both he and his companions dress as 12th-century knights and their exploits are those about which the troubadours sang, but Malory’s approach to character is more realistic and he writes with directness and vigour. Two main themes compose the story that runs through the eight romances: (a) the tragic end of Arthur’s reign and the breakup of the knightly brotherhood that gathered at the Round Table; (b) Launcelot’s failure, through sin, to find the Holy Grail (the cup used at the Last Supper) and Galahad’s success. Almost all later versions of the legends, e.g. Tennyson’s Idylls of the King, are based on Malory (*Geoffrey of Monmouth).

Reiss, E., Sir Thomas Malory. 1966; Field, P. J. C., The Life and Times of Sir Thomas Malory. 1993; Hardyment, C., Malory: The Life and Times of King Arthur’s Chronicler. 2005.

Malouf, David George Joseph (1934– ). Australian novelist and poet, born in Brisbane. His novels include An Imaginary Life (1979), Fly Away Peter (1982), Harland’s Half Acre (1984), The Great World (1990) and Remembering Babylon (1993). Ransom (2009) is a powerful adaptation, from The Iliad, of Priam’s mission to reclaim the body of his son Hector from Achilles. He wrote the libretto for Richard Meale’s opera Voss (1986), based on Patrick *White’s novel.

Malpighi, Marcello (1628–1694). Italian anatomist and microscopist. He studied and (from 1666) was a professor at Bologna University. Malpighi virtually founded histology (including that of plants) and is noted for his studies of the structure of the brain, lungs, glands and liver and especially for extending *Harvey’s work on the circulation of the blood, by discovering the capillaries. He also investigated muscular cells and wrote a treatise on the silkworm.

Adelmann, H., Marcello Malpighi and the Evolution of Embryology. 5 vols, 1966.

Malraux, André (1901–1976). French writer and politician. Having studied oriental languages he accompanied an archaeological expedition to Indo-China 1923–25, where, as a Communist, he claimed to have played an important part in Chinese politics 1925–27. He used his varied experiences in his novels, e.g. Les Conquéants (1928) and La Condition humaine (1933, winner of the Prix Goncourt) and L’Espoir (1937). He commanded the foreign air corps fighting against *Franco in the Spanish Civil War, and during World War II became a leader of the French resistance movement. As a friend and admirer of *de Gaulle, he was Minister for Information 1945–46, 1958 and an energetic and imaginative minister for cultural affairs 1958–69. His works on the psychology and history of art include The Voices of Silence (1951, translated 1953) and Museum without Walls (1952–54, 1967).

Suares, G., Malraux: Past Present and Future. 1974.

Malthus, Thomas Robert (1766–1834). English population theorist, born near Dorking. He distinguished himself in mathematics at Cambridge, where he became (1797) a Fellow of Jesus College. Meanwhile he had taken holy orders and led a county clergyman’s life in Surrey until (1805) he became a teacher at Haileybury College, where he worked for the rest of his life. In his famous Essay on the Principle of Population (published anonymously in 1798 and revised in 1803) he argued that population tends to increase at a geometric ratio (each generation can double up) while the means of subsistence only increases incrementally (at an arithmetic ratio), and that the only constraints to population growth were famine, war, disease, celibacy, infanticide and the ‘vicious practice’ of contraception. When Malthus wrote, world population was 800 million. (By March 2012 it was 7.0 billion, most living far longer and consuming more than people of Malthus’s time.) Marxists and Catholics both attacked Malthus for his complacent acceptance of high death rates for the poor. He ignored the impact of technology in agriculture, although the problems of water supply and inadequate soil for farming are increasingly serious. *Darwin’s concept of ‘the survival of the fittest’ was influenced by his reading of Malthus.

Bonar, J., Malthus and His Work. 1966.

Malvern, Godfrey Martin Huggins, 1st Viscount see Huggins, Godfrey Martin, 1st Viscount Malvern

Mamum (Abul Abbas Abdallah al Mamum) (786–833). Abbasid caliph of Baghdad 809–33. Son of *Harun al-Raschid, politically his reign was troubled, but it was a time of great intellectual distinction as Mamum encouraged learning, especially the study of Greek science. Many Greek works were preserved through their translation into Arabic in his ‘House of Wisdom’ (founded 830), where he gathered together the leading scholars of his day.

Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahia (1918–2013). South African political leader, born in Mvezo, Cape Province. A Xhosa, and a chief of the Tembu clan, he rejected tribal life, but was often called Mandiba, his Xhosa name. Educated at the University College of Fort Hare and the University of Witwatersrand, he became a lawyer in Johannesburg (1952) and national organiser of the African National Congress (ANC). In 1958 he married Winnie (Nomzano Zaniewe) Madikizela (1936–2018). After a long trial for treason (1956–61) he was acquitted in 1961. He was sentenced to five years’ jail in 1962 for ‘incitement’ and leaving South Africa without permission. In 1964 he was sentenced to life imprisonment, after a long trial at Rivonia, on a charge of sabotage and conspiracy. He survived 27 years in prison, (14 at Robben Island) without deterioration, renounced thoughts of retribution and assumed the moral leadership of the ANC while Oliver Tambo (1917–1993) ran the organisation from London. Following the election of F. W. *de Klerk as President, Mandela was released in February 1990 and was National President of the ANC 1991–97. He toured extensively and received many international awards. He wrote the autobiography Long Walk to Freedom (1994). Winnie Mandela was convicted of kidnapping in June 1992, sentenced to six years’ jail but after an appeal this was reduced to a fine. The Mandelas separated in 1992 and divorced in 1996. He shared the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize with de Klerk. In May 1994 he was elected President of the Republic of South Africa in a Government of National Unity, after the ANC won 62.6 per cent of the vote in the first election based on universal suffrage. Winnie became Deputy Minister for Arts, Culture, Science and Technology 1994–95. He received the British OM (1995), a Canadian CC (1998), an Australian AC (1999), a British QC (2000), the US Presidential Medal of Freedom (2002), and many foreign citizenships and honorary degrees. He married Graça Macel, widow of the President of Mozambique, on his 80th birthday, and retired in June 1999, but was active in campaigning about HIV-AIDS and for world peace. He died of a lung infection in 2013. His memorial service in Johannesburg was attended by four US Presidents and he was acclaimed as a hero of our times.

Sampson, A., Mandela. The Authorised Biography. 1999; Meredith, M., Mandela. 1997, rev. 2010.

Mandelbrot, Benoît (1924–2010). French-American mathematician, born in Warsaw. Educated in Paris and at CalTech, he taught at Geneva, Lille, Paris, and Harvard universities, worked for IBM in New York 1958–93, then, at 80, became Sterling professor of mathematical sciences at Yale (2004). From 1967 he worked on ‘chaos’ theory, an attempt to describe the operation of persistently unstable systems e.g. weather, traffic, erosion, turbulence. In 1975 he introduced ‘fractal geometry’ as a new branch of mathematics, describing the extreme complexity of three-dimensional natural shapes, in contrast to Euclidian geometry in which objects are represented as flat and straight lines are typical. He coined the word ‘fractal’ (i.e. broken) to describe the edging of clouds, trees, mountains or seacoasts characterised by ‘scale invariant’ repetition of shape, demonstrating order in systems that appear to be chaotic. ‘Mandelbrot sets’, with their spectacular imagery generated by algorithms, have become an increasingly familiar form of computer graphics. Fractal theory is being applied in many areas, including pollution control, coastal management, meteorology, astronomy, physiology and designer drugs. His books include Fractals: Form, Chance and Dimension (1977) and The Fractal Geometry of Nature (1982). Asteroid 27500 was named for him. He was awarded the Wolf Prize for Physics in 1993 and the Japan Prize in 2003.

Gleick, J., Chaos—Making a New Science. 1987; Mandelbrot, B. B, The Fractalist: Memoir of a Scientific Maverick. 2013.

Mandelstam, Osip Emilyevich (1891–1938). Russian poet, born in Warsaw. Educated in the West, he became a leader of the Acmeist (*Akhmatova) movement. He saw poetry as an instinctive recognition of cultural order and continuity in contrast to the chaos and fragmentation of man in nature, and published the collections Kamen (1913) and Tristiya (1922). In 1934 he was exiled and later died in a labour camp. Forgotten until the 1960s, he is now regarded as a poet of the first rank. His widow, Nadezhda Yakovlevna Mandelstam (née Khazina) (1899–1980) memorised his poetry to preserve it and wrote two remarkable memoirs, Hope against Hope (1971) and Hope Abandoned (1973).

Mandeville, Sir John (fl. 14th century?). English travel writer, ostensible author of a popular medieval travel book. In the preface the alleged author claims to have been born at St Albans and in the epilogue states that the memoirs were written in 1357 and that his journeys had begun 35 years previously. The earliest MS, which probably contains the original text, is the French (translations into English and many other languages exist) and dates from 1371. The first part, which takes the reader to the Holy Land and neighbouring countries, is possibly the genuine record of some traveller, but the second part describing journeys in Asia extending to China is merely a compilation from other writers.

Letts, M., Sir John Mandeville: The Man and His Book. 1949.

Manet, Edouard (1832–1883). French painter, born in Paris. From an affluent family, he was able to pursue his vocation and enjoy travel without hardship. Among early influences were *Goya and *Velázquez, and even in later life his paintings reflect what he had learnt from their work. The period which later made him recognised as a forerunner of the Impressionists began when (1863) his Déjeuner sur l’herbe was rejected by the Salon. The subject, in which two women—one naked and one half-naked—are at a picnic with two fully dressed men, was an assertion in paint that the only point of view that should count is the pictorial one. But though to some such an explanation only added to the offence, the young men (*Monet, *Renoir, *Pissarro etc.) who were later to be dubbed ‘Impressionists’ found inspiration in the picture. His Olympia (1865) was attacked as indecent with even more venom. Like the Impressionists, Manet began (1870) to paint in the open air, but he was less concerned with landscape and the effects of sunlight than with the portrayal of the gay and lively scenes around him, e.g. racecourse scenes (1872) and at the end of his life famous Bar aux Folies Bergère (1882, National Gallery, London). Some of his portraits, e.g. of Zola, are important. His Execution of Emperor Maximilian (two versions, 1867, 1869) was influenced by *Goya. He died after surgery to remove his left, gangrenous, foot.

Mani (c.216–c.276). Persian mystic. Founder of the Manichean sect, he spent the last 30 years of his life on missionary journeys throughout the Persian empire and even reached the borderlands of India and China. He was put to death at the instigation of the Zoroastrian priesthood. In his teaching Mani speaks of the two ‘roots’, God and matter, equated with good and evil, light and darkness. Mani’s teaching was intended to produce a synthesis of Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Buddhism; at first the sect grew rapidly but wilted under persecution, and by the 10th century was virtually extinct. Traces of its teaching, however, survived among the Albigenses of medieval France and the Bogomili of the Balkans.

Manin, Daniele (1804–1857). Italian lawyer and politician, born in Venice. An ardent liberal and nationalist, he was imprisoned for his outspoken denunciation of Austrian rule in northern Italy but was released by the populace during the 1848 revolts and was subsequently elected President of the new Venetian republic. When the Austrians besieged the city he inspired a heroic defence (April–August 1849) ending in capitulation enforced by starvation and disease. Manin, excluded from an amnesty, died in Paris.

Mann, (Luis) Heinrich (1871–1950). German novelist. After an early period as a romantic monarchist, he was attracted by French liberal philosophy and adopted a utopian progressivism, breaking with his younger brother Thomas *Mann because of his passionate opposition to World War I. His books include Professor Unrat (1905) filmed by Fritz *Lang as The Blue Angel (1928), Der Untertan (‘The Man of Straw’, 1918) and the Henri Quatre novels (1935, 1938). He left Germany in 1933 lived in France until 1940, then in the US. He was recognised as leader of the German literary left.

Mann, Thomas (1875–1955). German novelist and critic, born in Lübeck. From an old Hansa family, he was working in an insurance office at Munich when he wrote his first novel Buddenbrooks (1901). In this and other works he illustrates the opposition between the extrovert life of the ordinary bourgeois and that of the intellectual and artist. It is the emergence of the traits of the latter that he regards as a sign of decay, remarking, too, on the affinity of genius with disease and the ‘fascination of death’. Mann described himself as ‘primarily a humorist’ but it is with such psychological problems that he is most deeply concerned and in probing them he reveals the particular influence of *Schopenhauer and *Wagner. The short novels Death in Venice (1912), Tristan (1913) and Tonio Kroger (1914) were all successful but because of World War I, during which he wrote Reflections of a Nonpolitical Man (1916) it was not until 1924 that his next major work, The Magic Mountain (Der Zauberberg), appeared. Here life in a tuberculosis sanatorium symbolises the disintegrating civilisation of Europe.

Later works include Children and Fools (1928), Mario and the Magician (1930) and the biblical tetralogy (1934–44) on Joseph and his brethren, in which he stresses the mutual dependence of God and man. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature (1929) but left Germany when *Hitler came to power and eventually (1938) settled in the US, of which he became a citizen in 1944. Among novels of his last period were Dr Faustus (1948), The Black Swan (1955) and the posthumously published comic novel The Confessions of Felix Krull. He also wrote many essays on literary subjects and contemporary themes. His diaries, largely homoerotic, were published between 1979 and 1995.

His daughter, Erika Mann (1905–1969), an actor and author, married the actor-director Gustaf Gründgens (1899–1963) and later (1935) the poet W. H. *Auden, but never lived with him. Of his sons Klaus Mann (1906–1949), a novelist, essayist and playwright, wrote the novel Mephisto (1936), based on Gründgens’ political accommodation with the Nazis (later an acclaimed film by Istvan Szabo, 1981), became a US citizen and committed suicide, while Golo Mann (1909–1994), a historian, taught in the US, Germany and Switzerland, and wrote many books.

Heibut, A., Thomas Mann: Eros and Literature. 1995; Hayman, R., Thomas Mann: A Biography. 1995; Harpprecht, K., Thomas Mann: Eine Biographie. 1995.

Mannerheim, Carl Gustaf Emil, Baron (1867–1951). Finnish marshal and politician, born in Askainen. Of Swedish descent, he joined the Russian Army in 1889, explored Central Asia on horseback (1906–08) and became a lieutenant general in World War I. When Finland declared its independence from Russia after the November 1917 Revolution, he commanded the Finnish ‘White’ forces which (with German help) defeated the Bolshevik ‘Reds’ in a bitter four-month war. Regent of Finland 1918–19, he was defeated for the presidency in 1919 by Kaarlo *Stählberg and retired until recalled as Chairman of the National Defence Council 1931–39, when he built the Mannerheim Line as a defence against the USSR. Commander-in-Chief, Finnish Defence Forces 1939–46, he fought the invading Russians in ‘the Winter War’ 1939–40, leading to the cession of some territory. Hostilities with Russia resumed in ‘the Continuation War’ 1941–44, resulting in more territorial losses. In 1942, Mannerheim turned 75, was created Marshal of Finland and had an unexpected and unwelcome visit from *Hitler. He refused to collaborate in persecuting Jews or gypsies, opposed a formal alliance with Germany and Finland and took no part in the siege of Leningrad. *Stalin seems to have had some wary respect for the Marshal. Elected President of Finland (1944), he negotiated peace with *Stalin and retired in 1946. He suffered from stomach ulcers, retired to Switzerland and died in Lausanne. In 2004, in a national poll, he was voted as the greatest of all Finns.

Warner, O., Marshal Mannerheim and the Finns. 1967.

Manning, Henry Edward (1808–1892). English cardinal. After a distinguished academic career at Oxford he was ordained (1832) an Anglican clergyman and became Archdeacon of Chichester (1841). A widower, in 1851 he became a Roman Catholic priest and soon rose to prominence. He established (1857) the Congregation of St Charles (Borromeo) in London and in 1865, after being provost of the metropolitan chapter of Westminster, succeeded Cardinal *Wiseman as Archbishop. Created cardinal in 1875, he was a strong supporter of the dogma of papal infallibility as defined at the Vatican Council (1870) and in social affairs was identified with prison reform, education and help for the poor. He had an uncomfortable relationship with Cardinal *Newman.

Mannix, Daniel (1864–1963). Australian Catholic prelate, born in County Cork, Ireland. He was President of Maynooth Theological College 1903–12, then went to Australia as coadjutor Archbishop of Melbourne (1913) succeeding as Archbishop 1917–63. He had been a strong supporter of Home Rule for Ireland and attacked World War I as a trade war. He assumed virtual leadership of Australian Catholics for more than 40 years. He fought for state aid for Catholic schools, against W. M. *Hughes over conscription in 1916 and 1917, and supported first the Australian Labor Party, then (from 1955) the anti-Communist Democratic Labor Party.

Griffin, J., Daniel Mannix. Beyond the Myths, 2012; Niall, B., Mannix. 2015.

Manoel I (known as ‘the Fortunate’) (1469–1521). King of Portugal 1495–1521. He succeeded his elder brother, *João II, who was assassinated. His nickname was due more to events and circumstances than to his own abilities. He did, however, encourage the great revival of arts and letters that marked his reign and the term ‘Manoeline style’ applied to the architecture of the period was not merely an empty compliment. Moreover the ‘Manoeline Ordinances’ were an important revision of the first systematic collection of laws made by Alfonso V. Manoel’s reign. Marred by the expulsion of Moors and Jews, his reign saw the rounding of the Cape of Good Hope by *Dias, the voyage of Vasco da *Gama to India, the discovery of Brazil and finally the start of *Magellan on his last and greatest voyage.

Sanceau, E., The Reign of the Fortunate King 1495–1521. 1969.

Manoel II (Manuel Maria Filipe Carlos Amélio Luís Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Francisco de Assis Eugénio de Orleães Sabóia e Saxe-Coburgo-Gotha Bragança) (1889–1932). Last King of Portugal and the Argives 1908–10. He succeeded when his father, King Carlos, and his elder brother Luis Felipe were assassinated, but abdicated on the outbreak of the 1910 revolution. He lived in Twickenham from 1910 and became known as an antiquarian and bibliophile.

Mansart, Jules Hardouin (1646–1708). French architect. His original surname was Hardouin, but he added the name of his great uncle François Mansart (1598–1666), the architect who developed the mansard (attic) roof, named for him. A lifelong favourite of *Louis XIV, he rose in a short time to the position of Architect to the King (1675) and became Surveyor of the Royal Works in 1699. He was responsible for the Grand Trianon and other buildings at Versailles and for the Dôme des Invalides (1716), Paris. As a town planner, he created in Paris the Place des Victoires (1684–86) and the Place Vendôme (1699).

Mansfeld, Pieter Ernst, Graf von (c.1580–1626). German military commander. In the early stages of the Thirty Years’ War (from 1618) he played a leading part in securing *Frederick V’s (temporary) position as King of Bohemia. After Frederick’s expulsion he waged an independent campaign against the emperor *Ferdinand II. In 1624 with the aid of French and English subsidies he again took the field, but in 1626 he was defeated by the imperialists under *Wallenstein at Dessau and died in the same year.

Mansfield, Katherine (Kathleen Mansfield Beauchamp) (1888–1923). New Zealand short story writer, born in Wellington. She arrived in London at the age of 20 and wrote a series of sensitive and sometimes ironic short stories that soon proved her meticulous craftsmanship and mastery of that difficult form. Her volumes include In a German Pension (1911), written while recovering in Bavaria from a miscarriage, Bliss and Other Stories (1920), which established her fame, and The Garden Party (1922) containing ‘The Daughters of the Late Colonel’ and ‘The Voyage’. She married (1918) John Middleton *Murry and died of tuberculosis in France.

Tomalin, C., Katherine Mansfield: A Secret Life. 1987.

Mansfield, William Murray, 1st Earl of (1705–1793). British lawyer, born in Scotland. Fourth son of David, Viscount Stormont, he was called to the bar (1731) and after 10 years of successful practice became a Member of Parliament 1742–56, Solicitor-General 1742–54 and Attorney-General 1754–56. *Newcastle appointed him as Lord Chief Justice of the King’s Bench 1756–88, being created Baron Mansfield (1756), advanced to an earldom in 1776. Contrary to precedent, he remained as a Cabinet member 1757–63. He was a very efficient judge, speeded up trials, reformed the common law and consolidated commercial law. Attacks on the government between 1768–71 by the anonymous pamphleteer ‘Junius’ led to the publishers being tried for seditious libel, but juries refused to convict. Mansfield’s judgment in Scarlett’s case (1772) declared slavery illegal in England and Wales (but did not affect the slave trade). He had powerful enemies, including *Pitt the Elder, but was admired for his eloquence and learning, and is regarded as one of the greatest common law judges.

Poser, N.S., Lord Mansfield. Justice in the Age of Reason. 2013.

Manson, Sir Patrick (1844–1922). Scottish physician and parasitologist, born in Aberdeen. From a wealthy family, he graduated in medicine from Aberdeen University and worked in China for 24 years. He specialised in elephantiasis, blackwater fever, leprosy and a heart disease he identified as beriberi. He determined that the transmission of elephantiasis was via the mosquito. His researches suggested that the worm that caught the disease developed in the common brown mosquito. Manson’s understanding of the role of the mosquito as a parasite became fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of a host of tropical illnesses. Manson, however, was mistaken in some of his ideas. He thought that mosquitoes bit only once, and that man became infected by ingesting the larvae in water. Manson later pioneered the understanding of the transmission of malaria by mosquitoes. By 1898 he had developed a sophisticated understanding of the life cycle of the parasite, and had grasped the importance of protecting humans against mosquitoes at night. He was largely instrumental in setting up the London School of Tropical Medicine in 1899, and was a tireless teacher. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize 15 times.

Manson-Bahr, P., Patrick Manson, The Father of Tropical Medicine. 1962.

Manstein, Fritz Erich von (1887–1973). German soldier. After serving as Chief of Staff in Poland and France in the early stages of World War II he held commands on the Russian front. In the great southern campaigns he showed, both in advance and retreat, superb skill in coordinating the movements of military formations of the largest scale, and was generally considered the ablest of German generals during the war. He was ordered to retire in 1944 by *Hitler, whose policy of clinging to untenable positions until they were overwhelmed he resolutely opposed. Sentenced in 1949 to 18 years’ imprisonment for war crimes, he was freed in 1953.

Manstein, F. E. von, Lost Victories. 1959.

Mantegna, Andrea (c.1431–1506). Italian painter, born in Isola di Carturo. The founder of the Paduan school, Francesco Squarcione, adopted him when he was orphaned, but by 1458 when he painted a series of frescoes on the life of St James (destroyed in World War II) he was working independently. The most important influence on his work was derived from his study of archaeology, stimulated by the drawings of his father-in-law Jacopo *Bellini. He went to Rome to study classical buildings and was a collector of coins and fragments. Even in biblical subjects, e.g. the Agony in the Garden (National Gallery, London), he betrays his zeal to introduce classical details into his composition. His knowledge of perspective was profound and he used it, e.g. in the Lamentation of the Dead Christ (at Milan), in an astonishingly bold manner. In the early 1460s Mantegna was called to Mantua to decorate the Camera d’egli Sposi in the palace with scenes from the lives of the Gonzagas, the ruling House, with which he remained, with intervals, for the rest of his life. While there he painted the pictures representing the Triumph of Julius Caesar (c.1486–94), bought by *Charles I of England and now, much damaged and restored, at Hampton Court.

Tietze-Courat, E. (ed.), Mantegna: Paintings, Drawings, Engravings. 1955.

Mantel, Dame Hilary Mary (née Thompson) (1952– ). English novelist, born in Derbyshire. Educated at Sheffield University, she was a social worker and retailer, lived in Botswana and Saudi Arabia and suffered debilitating illness. Her first novel was Every Day is Mother’s Day (1985). A Place of Greater Safety (1992) describes the Reign of Terror in France in 1794. She achieved great critical success and enormous sales with novels written around Thomas *Cromwell, *Henry VIII’s adviser, Wolf Hall (2009) and Bring Up the Bodies (2012), winning the Man Booker Prize with each, and The Mirror and the Light (2020). She also wrote a memoir and critical essays. She delivered the BBC’s Reith Lectures in 2017.

Mantoux, Charles (1877–1947). French physician. He devised the Mantoux test for tuberculosis and investigated the formation of tubercular cavities in the lungs.

Manutius, Aldus (Teobaldo Pio Manuzio or Mannucci) (1450–1515). Italian scholar and printer. He founded (1490) the press in Venice now known as the Aldine, and he was the first to print and publish the works of such classical authors as *Aristotle, *Sophocles, *Plato and *Xenophon. He devised italic printing and designed the first font of Greek type. Manutius was a friend of *Erasmus and other enthusiasts for the ‘new learning’. His work was continued by his son Paolo Manutius (1512–1574) and grandson Aldus Manutius the Younger (1547–1597).

Manzoni, Alessandro (1785–1873). Italian writer, born in Milan. Grandson of Cesare *Beccaria, he spent his early manhood in Paris where he was influenced by the prevailing scepticism until he reconverted to Catholicism (c.1810) soon after his first marriage. All his work shows a liberal outlook and deep moral purpose. He worked very slowly: the two well known odes on the death of *Napoléon and the Piedmontese rising (1812) against the Austrians, together with a few hymns, comprise almost his entire poetic output. Two tragedies with stories derived from the early Middle Ages reflect a mood of pessimism caused by the failure of liberal movements in the early 1820s; finally in 1827 came his great and only novel I Promessi Sposi (The Betrothed). This historical romance set in 17th-century Lombardi under Spanish rule (the Spanish representing the Austrians of his own day), was at once hailed as a masterpiece and is still held to be among the greatest of Italian novels. It took six years to write and was constantly revised, but marks the end of his creative period, except for a number of critical essays. Both of his wives and most of his children predeceased him. He supported the struggle for Italian unification, promoted use of the Tuscan dialect as the national language and was a senator 1860–73. *Verdi dedicated his Requiem to Manzoni’s memory.

Colquhuon, A., Manzoni and His Times. 1954.

Mao Zedong (also Mao Tse-tung) (1893–1976). Chinese Communist leader, born in Shaoshan, Hunan province. Son of a small landowner, he returned to school after a brief child marriage, and became a voracious reader (*Rousseau, *Darwin, *Spencer and *Mill), later turning to *Marx. He served in *Sun Yatsen’s revolutionary army (1911) and studied at Changsha teachers’ training school. Unlike *Li Lisan, *Zhu De and *Zhou Enlai, he did not study abroad. Mao worked as a laundry man in Shanghai (1919), then as a teacher, trade union secretary and library assistant at Peking National University. He was one of the 12 foundation members of the Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai (July 1921, *Chen Du-xiu). As CCP secretary in Hunan 1921–25, he organised trades unions and worked closely with the Guomindang. He set up more than 50 peasant unions 1925–27. After the risings of 1927 were defeated in the cities, he founded a workers’ and peasants’ army in Hunan with Zhu De and was a political commissar of the Red Army 1930–31. In 1930 his second wife Yang Kaihui and his sister were executed by a Guomindang warlord. Ultimately he won major support from the Central Committee for his view that revolution must be based on the peasantry rather than the proletariat which barely existed in China. Mao was Chairman of the Soviet Republic in Jiangxi Province 1931–34. Chairman of the CCP from January 1935 until his death in September 1976, he was only recognised as the dominant leader after the ‘Long March’ (October 1934 – October 1935, with the rear guard arriving in January 1936). After repeated Guomindang attacks, 80,000 people walked 9,650 kilometres, fighting 15 major battles on the way, from Jiangxi to the caves in Yan’an, Shaanxi Province: only 20,000 survived and Mao’s three children were lost on the way. From 1937 to 1945 Mao collaborated with *Chiang Kaishek against the Japanese. By 1945 the Red Army had 1,000,000 soldiers and controlled the northwest. Civil war resumed in 1946. On the Guomindang’s defeat and withdrawal to Taiwan, Mao proclaimed the foundation of the Chinese Peoples’ Republic (1 October 1949) and served as Chairman (i.e. President) 1949–59, retiring as head of state to devote himself to party organisation and ideological formation. He visited the USSR Dec. 1949–Feb. 1950, for his first and only meeting with *Stalin, who resented Mao’s success and had failed to support the resumption of civil war in China in 1945. The outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950 surprised Mao, who saw it as a Soviet operation. The US, however, was convinced that China had instigated the war. When *MacArthur proposed to bomb Chinese bases north of the Yalu River in October 1950, China sent volunteers to Korea. Stalin then reduced his commitment to *Kim Il Sung, putting China in jeopardy. Mao returned to Moscow in 1953 (for Stalin’s funeral) and in 1957 to meet *Khrushchev. After a brief period of liberalism (‘Let a Hundred Flowers Bloom’) in 1956–57, came the Great Leap Forward (1958–61), a period of forced collectivisation in agriculture, mass mobilisation of labour and the introduction of small scale industrialisation. Food supply collapsed and deaths due to starvation have been estimated at 30 million. China occupied Tibet in 1959 and exploded its first atom bomb in 1964. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution was launched in 1965, as an attack on bureaucracy and privilege, but also on China’s history, culture and tradition. Western cultural influence was also denounced. *Zhou Enlai was abused but survived as Premier. *Deng was publicly humiliated, *Liu Shaoqi disgraced and imprisoned. Mao’s Communism was highly moralistic, decentralised and ostensibly anti-bureaucratic. Unlike the Soviet CP, Mao used rival forces (e.g. the army, Red Guards) to discipline the party organisation. He wrote many works on ideology and strategy and was a gifted lyric poet and ‘grass’ (i.e. vernacular) calligrapher. His precepts (‘Mao Zedong thought’), as contained in the ‘little red book’, had the force of moral law. The Red Guards were especially destructive. In the Cultural Revolution some of the worst outrages were attributable to Kang Sheng (c.1900–1975), chief of the secret police and Chen Boda, one of Mao’s secretaries. Perhaps four million people were killed in the terror. In 1968 the army stepped in and imposed some degree of military rule, which weakened Mao’s position. After the defection of his chosen successor *Lin Biao in 1971, Mao’s direct power declined even further. From 1973 he was virtually blind and helpless until his death in Beijing. His third wife Jiang Qing (1914?–1991), formerly called Lan Ping, was a film actor before her marriage in 1938. In 1966 she emerged as a public figure, took a leading role in the Cultural Revolution, rose to fourth place in the Politburo and was a fierce opponent of Zhou. Demoted at the 1973 Congress, she was denounced as one of the ‘Gang of Four’ and given a suspended death sentence in 1981 after a show trial. She died in prison, probably by suicide.

Wilson. D., Mao: The People’s Emperor. 1979; Terrill, R., Mao. 1980; Salisbury, H., The New Emperors: Mao and Deng. 1992.

Marat, Jean Paul (1743–1793). French revolutionary journalist. A physician, especially interested in optics, he had travelled much and spent many years in England before returning to France and becoming physician to the Duke of Artois’ household troops. After the outbreak of the Revolution he founded (1789) an extremist newspaper L’Ami du peuple which in 1793 played a considerable part in rousing public opinion against the Girondists. Charlotte *Corday, a member of that party, came from Normandy to assassinate him, found him in his bath where, as a sufferer from a skin disease (probably dermatitis herpetiformis), he transacted much business, and stabbed him to death.

Marceau, Marcel (1923–2007). French mime, born in Strasbourg. From 1949 he directed his own mime company, and a school of mime-drama in Paris from 1978. He toured incessantly, appearing in film, ballet and on television.

Marchand, Jean Baptiste (1863–1934). French soldier and explorer. Having successfully led an expedition from Senegal to the sources of the Niger he was ordered to extend the area of French interest by an advance across Central Africa. When he reached Fashoda in the southern Sudan (1898) he refused the demands of *Kitchener to evacuate that area and thus caused such tension between France and Britain that a threat of war was averted only by the French Government’s order to Captain Marchand to withdraw.

Marco Polo see Polo, Marco

Marconi, Guglielmo, Marchese (1874–1937). Italian physicist and inventor, born in Bologna. From an affluent family, with an Irish mother, he was privately tutored, studied at Livorno (Leghorn) under Prof. Vincenzo Rosa but did not attend a university. He experimented with primitive wireless equipment based on the work of *Hertz and *Maxwell and is credited with the first practical system using radio for signalling in Morse code, although several others, particularly the Russian scientist Aleksandr Stepanovich Popov (1859–1905), had paralleled his work to some degree. By 1895 he could transmit signals between points a mile (1.6 km) apart. By 1896, attracting no interest in Italy, he went to England and enlisted support from the British Post Office: he transmitted Morse over 9 miles (14.5 km) and took out the world’s first radio patent. By 1898 he could send messages from England to France, and on 12 December 1901 successfully transmitted across the Atlantic from Poldhu, Cornwall, to St Johns, Newfoundland. He had assumed (correctly) that radio signals would follow the curvature of the earth, and not travel in a straight line. (The explanation was later proved by *Heaviside.) The Marconi Telegraph Company which he founded in 1897 played a major part in the development of radio, television and electronics. In 1905 he married the Hon. Beatrice O’Brien and had three children. They divorced and he remarried in 1927. Marconi shared the 1909 Nobel Prize for Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun (1850–1918), the developer of crystals as radio detectors. He became a senator 1915–37, delegate to the Paris Peace Conference (1919), a strong supporter of *Mussolini, an anti-Semite and President of the Royal Italian Academy 1930–37. Britain gave him a GCVO in 1914 and he was created Marchese (Marquis) in 1929.

Baker, W. J., A History of the Marconi Company. 1970; Raboy, M., Marconi. The man who networked the world. 2016.

Marcos, Ferdinand Edralin (1917–1989). Filipino politician. He claimed to be the most highly decorated Filipino war hero, became a lawyer and a congressman 1949–65, serving as President of the Philippines 1966–86. The constitution was changed to allow him to rule for a record term and martial law imposed 1973–81. After a fraudulent election in 1986, pressure from the US, the Church and the military forced him into affluent exile and Mrs Corazon *Aquino took office. He died in Hawaii and was buried in the Philippines in 1993. His wife, Imelda Romualdez Marcos (1931– ), was appointed Governor of Metro Manila 1975–86, and Secretary of the Department of Ecology and Human Settlements 1978–86. In 1993 she was sentenced to 18 years’ jail for corruption, but was released pending appeals.

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (121–180). Roman Emperor 161–80. Born in Rome to a noble family, he took the additional name Antoninus when he was adopted (138) by *Antoninus Pius, whom *Hadrian chose as his successor and whose daughter, Faustina, Marcus married (145). When Marcus succeeded Antoninus as Emperor, he shared the government with Lucius Aurelius Verus, adopted by Antoninus at the same time as himself. From 162 to 165 the armies of Verus (d 169) fought the Parthians successfully in Armenia, where a puppet ruler was installed, and in Mesopotamia where Ctesiphon was taken by Avidius Cassius, whose subsequent rebellion (175) Marcus easily overcame. Meanwhile the Germanic tribes, the Marcomanni and Quadi, had broken through the northern frontiers and were threatening Italy and the Balkans. Marcus had fought two successful campaigns against them when he died at Vindabona (modern Vienna). A successful general, a wise and patient ruler, Marcus Aurelius is perhaps best known as a Stoic philosopher and his introspective Meditations, written in Greek, has been one of the most influential books ever composed by a ruler. He reveals himself, without arrogance, as an instrument used for a time by providence to guide the Roman Empire towards its destiny of becoming part of a dimly perceived world order. The virtues he espoused were those usually regarded as Christian, but he saw Christianity as an emotional, intolerant and disruptive sect that sought the empire’s protection while refusing or avoiding military service and other duties. Such persecution as he practised was on public not religious grounds. His reign was looked back on by later Romans as a Golden Age. His son *Commodus succeeded.

Birley, A., Marcus Aurelius. 1966.

Marcuse, Herbert (1898–1979). German American philosopher, born in Berlin. Educated at Freiburg, he became Martin *Heidegger’s assistant, left Germany in 1933 and worked in the US for the State Department and the Office of Strategic Services, later holding professorships at Brandeis University 1954–65 and the University of California at San Diego 1965–76. His books became enormously influential with the ‘New Left’ and the students in revolt during the late 1960s. Although deeply influenced by *Marx and *Freud, Marcuse was primarily a disciple of *Hegel and advanced a complete body of philosophical doctrine, being sharply critical of logical positivism, scientific attitudes or analysis. He denounced the ‘hell of the affluent society’, argued that sexual freedom was an anti-revolutionary device and (in his Critique of Pure Tolerance, 1966) contended that tolerance was outmoded when it served subtle enslavement through fraudulent democracy in the industrial state. He called for ‘selective intolerance’ and ‘counter-indoctrination’ where necessary. His books include Eros and Civilisation (1955) and One-Dimensional Man (1964).

Margaret (known as ‘the Maid of Norway’) (1283–1290). Queen of Scotland 1286–90. Daughter of Eric II of Norway, she was granddaughter of the Scottish king *Alexander III whose death (1286) left her as sole heir to the throne. *Edward I of England intended that she should marry his son (afterwards *Edward II) and so effect the union of the two crowns, but the scheme came to nothing as she died aboard the ship that was carrying her to Scotland, and union came only several centuries later.

Margaret of Anjou (1430–1482). English queen consort 1445–61, 1470–71. She married *Henry VI in 1445. A cousin of the French king and daughter of René, Duke of Anjou, titular king of Sicily and Jerusalem, her French birth made her very unpopular in England. When the Wars of the Roses broke out and her saintly husband began to show mental incapacity, she was, with her courage and strength of character, the life and soul of the Lancastrian cause. She was finally captured after the Battle of Tewkesbury (1471), where her son Edward was killed, and she was imprisoned until ransomed by *Louis XI of France.

Bagley, J. J., Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England. 1948.

Margaret (Rose) (1930–2002). British princess. Younger daughter of King *George VI and sister of Queen *Elizabeth II, she was born at Glamis Castle in Scotland, the seat of her mother’s family. She married (1960) Antony Armstrong-Jones, a London photographer, afterwards created Earl of *Snowdon; they divorced in 1978.

Margaret (Tudor) (1489–1541). Scottish queen consort 1503–13. Daughter of *Henry VII of England, her marriage (1503) to *James IV of Scotland provided the link between the Tudor and Stewart (Stuart) dynasties, upon which depended the union of the crowns of the two countries under *James VI and I, the first king of Great Britain. After her husband’s death at Flodden, she married Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, who headed the English faction at the Scottish court.

Margrete (or Margaret: Margrete Valdemarsdatter) (1353–1412). Queen of Denmark and Norway 1387–1412 and Sweden 1389–1412. Daughter of Valdemar IV of Denmark and wife of Haakon VI of Norway she became, on her father’s death (1376), regent for her son Olaf, infant King of Denmark and (1380) of Norway. A tribute to her qualities was paid when on Olaf’s sudden death (1387) she was permitted to continue her rule of both countries. In 1389 at the request of dissident nobles in Sweden she defeated King Albrecht and added that country (nominally on behalf of her grandnephew, Eric of Pomerania) to the area under her control. By the Union of Kalmar (1397) Eric became King of all three countries but Margaret maintained her strong personal rule until her death.

Margrethe II (1940– ). Queen of Denmark 1972– . Daughter of King *Frederick IX, she travelled extensively, illustrated *Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings and became a British LG.

Marguerite (Margaret) of Navarre (1492–1549). French author, Queen of Navarre. Sister of *François I of France, through her marriage to *Henri II of Navarre she became the grandmother of *Henri IV of France and the ancestress of the Bourbon kings. She was learned and pious but also gay and tolerant; her courts became centres of humanist culture and places of refuge for persecuted scholars. In the Heptameron, following the pattern set by *Boccaccio’s Decameron, five gentlemen and ladies held up by the floods beguile the time with stories, but though ribaldry is present in her stories, Margaret, unlike Boccaccio, treats love as a serious, and often tragic passion.

Maria II (Maria da Glória Joana Carlota Leopoldina da Cruz Francisca Xavier de Paula Isidora Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga Habsburgo-Bragança) (1819–1853). Queen of Portugal 1826–28; 1834–53. Born in Rio de Janeiro, she was daughter of *Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil and King of Portugal. Pedro renounced the Portuguese throne in favour of his young daughter in 1826, but she was deposed by her absolutist uncle Miguel I (1802–1866). Her father abdicated from the throne of Brazil, led a liberal revolt against Miguel and restored Maria as queen in 1834. She was known as ‘the Educator’.

Maria Carolina of Austria (Maria Carolina Louise Josepha Johanna Antonia) (1752–1814). Queen consort of Naples and Sicily. Daughter of *Maria Theresa of the Holy Roman Empire, she married *Ferdinand I and through her favourite Sir John Acton (1736–1811) became de facto ruler of her husband’s kingdoms. Like her brothers *Joseph II and *Leopold II she was an enlightened despot, but turned reactionary after the French Revolution and the execution of her sister *Marie Antoinette.

Maria Theresa (Maria Theresia) (1717–1780). Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia 1740–80, Empress consort 1745–65. Daughter and heiress of the emperor *Charles VI she became Empress when her husband *Franz of Lorraine (married 1736) was elected Emperor (1745). By the Pragmatic Sanction, Charles VI had sought to guarantee his daughter’s succession to all Habsburg lands but on his death (1740) *Friedrich II (the Great) of Prussia invaded Silesia and provoked the War of the Austrian Succession, as a result of which he retained the province but recognised the Pragmatic Sanction in other respects. By making an alliance with France, Maria Theresa hoped to regain Silesia but failed to achieve her purpose in the Seven Years’ War (1756–63). She was an unwilling partner in the partition of Poland (1772), from which she acquired Galicia. In the administration of her many territories, Maria Theresa proved herself a wise and prudent practitioner of the system of paternal government then in vogue. She freed the peasants from many feudal burdens, abolished torture and did much to foster education, trade and industry and to reform the legal and taxation systems. She associated her son *Joseph II with herself as ruler when he was elected Emperor on his father’s death (1765). Her 15 other children included the emperor *Leopold II and *Marie Antoinette, Queen of France.

Pick, R., Empress Maria Theresa. 1966.

Marie Antoinette (1755–1793). Queen consort of France 1774–92. Daughter of *Maria Theresa of Austria, she married the future *Louis XVI of France in 1770, four years before he became King. She retained his complete devotion throughout his life. Her frivolity and extravagance made her unpopular but she was not unkind. She was further discredited by an obscure confidence trick by which Cardinal de Rohan was induced to promise payment for a diamond necklace of great value allegedly for the queen. Marie Antoinette was almost certainly ignorant of the entire affair. In the Revolution, Marie Antoinette inspired the court partly by her firmness and courage but her course of action, e.g. the mismanaged flight of the royal family to Varennes (1791) and her secret correspondence (especially with her brother the emperor *Leopold II) asking for intervention, did much to bring about the deposition of her husband (1792), his death on the guillotine (January 1793) and her own in the following October. Her son (*Louis XVII) died in prison. Her daughter Marie Thérèse Charlotte (1778–1851) became Duchess of Angoulême.

Cronin, V., Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. 1974.

Marie de Medicis (1573–1642). Queen of France. Daughter of Grandduke Francis I of Tuscany, she became (1600) the second wife of *Henri IV of France. As regent after his assassination (1610), she dismissed the experienced minister *Sully and squandered wealth on her favourite, Concino Concini. Her son Louis *XIII had Concini murdered but was content to let power pass to *Richelieu. Having failed to displace him, she retired to live in exile, mainly in the Low Countries.

Marie Louise (1791–1847). Empress of the French. Daughter of *Franz II, last Holy Roman emperor and first emperor of Austria, she was forced to marry (1810) *Napoléon I, and became the mother of his son (1811), known later as the Duke of Reichstadt (*Napoléon II), who, after his father’s abdication, was brought up by his Austrian grandfather. Marie Louise, who refused to accompany her husband into exile, was given the duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla. She became the mistress of the Austrian general, Adam Adalbert Neipperg, whom she secretly married (1821) after Napoléon’s death. In 1834 she married Charles-René, Comte de Bombelles.

Turnbull, P., Napoleon’s Second Empress: Marie Louise. 1971.

Marin, John (1870–1953). American painter, born in New Jersey. Most of his paintings depict scenes on the coasts of Maine. His composition shows the influence of *Cézanne, and he used expressionist and abstract painting techniques to achieve representational results. He is best known for his watercolours but used oils more freely in later life.

Williams, W. C., John Marin. 1956; Young, J. S., John Marin: The Edge of Abstraction. 2006; Balken, D. B., John Marin: Modernist at Mid-Century. 2011.

Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso (1876–1944). Italian writer, born in Alexandria. After studying in France he developed his theory of ‘Futurism’, which rejected the past and exalted present and future, glorifying machinery and war (seen as a cleansing mechanism). He joined the Fascists, hailed *Mussolini as an embodiment of Futurist aims and was a prolific writer of poetry, plays and novels.

Maritain, Jacques (1882–1973). French philosopher. After being a pupil of *Bergson, he was converted to Catholicism (1906) and became an exponent of the philosophy of St Thomas *Aquinas, seeing in it a solution of modern problems of the mind, of society and of culture. He became a professor of the Institut Catholique in Paris and from 1933 taught at Toronto. After World War II he was French Ambassador to the Vatican 1945–48 and then a professor at Princeton, NJ 1948–52.

Marius, Gaius (157–86 BCE). Roman soldier and politician. Seven times elected consul, his first campaign was in Spain (134–133) where he later served as propraetor. He took part (109–108) in the war in Numidia against *Jugurtha under Metellus to whose command he succeeded (107). As Consul in that year he abolished the property qualification for military service and thus founded a virtually professional and more efficient army. He brought the war in Africa to an end (107–105), though it was actually *Sulla, soon to be his deadly rival, who captured Jugurtha. He was again elected Consul for the five successive years 104 to 100, during which he trained his army and eventually crushed the Teutoni (at Aquae Sextiae in 102) and the Cimbri (at Vercellae in 101), who were invading Italy from the north. These successes were followed by a period of eclipse after he had let himself become the tool of the demagogue Saturnius during his consulship of 100. He took part in the Social War (91–88) which was followed by enfranchisement of the Italians as Roman citizens, but in 88 the new electors were organised to vote for the super-session of the consul Sulla by Marius in the war against Mithridates. Sulla responded by marching his legions back to Rome, getting the legislation repealed and Marius exiled. But as soon as Sulla was in the East the new consul Cinna brought Marius back and for Sulla’s supporters a reign of terror followed (87), for which vengeance came only after Marius’s death. Meanwhile it had been shown how easily a successful general could usurp civil power, an example that inspired many similar events.

Carney, T. F., A Biography of Gaius Marius. 1970.

Mark Antony see Antony, Mark

Mark, St (also called John Mark, Yohan’an to the Jews, Marcus to the Romans) (c.10–70 CE). Christian apostle, one of the four evangelists. The earliest Christians met at the house of his mother, Mary, and he met *Paul through his cousin *Barnabas. Mark accompanied them on their first missionary journey, but at Perga left them to return to Jerusalem, which led Paul to refuse to take him on his second journey. The result was a split, with Barnabas taking Mark to his native Cyprus. The friendly references in Paul’s Epistles indicate a reconciliation, and Mark is mentioned as sharing Paul’s imprisonment, probably in Rome. He then worked closely with *Peter (‘my son Mark’, I Peter v:13) and, according to Papias and Irenaeus, his Gospel was written after the martyrdom of Peter and Paul but probably before the destruction of Jerusalem. St Mark’s Gospel is the shortest of the synoptics, with a dramatic, abrupt narrative and is thought to be the earliest. Written in Greek, it is addressed to a Roman audience, somewhat anti-Jewish in tone and with a shaky grasp of Palestinian geography (curious in a work thought to embody Peter’s recollections). According to tradition, Mark became the first bishop of Alexandria and died there, but in 828 his remains were stolen and transferred to Venice.

Mark Twain see Twain, Mark

Markievicz, Constance Georgine, Countess (née Gore Booth) (1868–1927). Irish suffragist and nationalist, born in London. She studied painting in Paris and married (1900) a Polish artist who claimed noble status. Active in the Irish nationalist cause, she was sentenced to death for her part in the Easter Rising in Dublin (1916) but, after commutation, was released in 1917. A Catholic convert, she was imprisoned again when, in December 1918, as a Sinn Féin candidate, she became the first woman elected to the House of Commons, refusing to take her seat. She was Minister of Labour under *De Valera 1919–22 and a Member of the Dáil Éireann 1921–22; 1923–27.

Markova, Dame Alicia (Alice Marks) (1910–2004). English ballerina. She joined the *Diaghilev company in 1924, her work with them being the strongest influence on her future career. She danced with the Sadler’s Wells Ballet (1933–35), toured with her own Markova-Dolin Ballet (1935–38), joined the Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo (1938) and danced with the New York Metropolitan Opera Ballet during World War II. She was a founder and prima ballerina (1950–52) of the London Festival Ballet. Her dancing, particularly in partnership with Anton *Dolin, was probably the nearest approximation to the Russian tradition and she did much to raise technical and artistic standards. In 1963 she was made a DBE, retired from dancing and began a new career as producer and teacher. She was Director of the New York Metropolitan Opera Ballet (1963–69), professor of ballet at Cincinnati University Conservatory of Music (1970), and Governor of the Royal Ballet (1973).

Marlborough, Duchess of, Sarah Churchill (née Jennings) see under Marlborough, 1st Duke of

Marlborough, John Churchill, 1st Duke of (1650–1722). English general, born in Ashe, Devon. His father, Sir Winston Churchill, a royalist, forced to sell his property to pay a fine for his part in the Civil War, was recalled to court in 1663. John was sent to St Paul’s School; his sister Arabella became the mistress of the Duke of York (later *James II), who obtained for her brother a commission in the guards. Churchill served in Tangiers (1668–70) and in the third Dutch War, at first with the fleet (1672) and then (from 1673) with a British contingent under the French commander *Turenne, from whom he learnt much of the art of war. In the winter of 1677–78 he married one of the Duchess of York’s ladies-in-waiting, the dominating and ambitious Sarah Jennings (1660–1744), who commanded his lifelong devotion and did much to steer his fortunes.

Under James II, Churchill played a leading part against *Monmouth at Sedgemoor, but joined *William of Orange when he landed (1688) and was created Earl of Marlborough. Commander-in-Chief in England during William’s absence in Ireland (1690), in 1692 he was suddenly dismissed from all his posts and for a time imprisoned in the Tower of London on forged evidence that he was plotting to restore James. Restored to favour in 1698, when the War of the Spanish Succession broke out (1701) he was appointed to command the British forces in Holland. On the accession of *Anne (1702), over whom the influence of Marlborough’s wife Sarah was complete, he was made Captain General of all British forces at home and abroad, and with Dutch consent, Supreme Commander of all allied forces against France. Further to safeguard his power, his friend Sidney *Godolphin, whose son was married to Marlborough’s daughter, was Lord Treasurer. Marlborough’s first great victory at Blenheim (1704) resulted from a march to the Danube and the effective support of the imperial commander Prince *Eugène. The chain of victories was continued by Ramillies (1706), Oudenarde (1708), which led to the fall of Lille, and Malplaquet (1709) which opened the way (1710–11) to the capture, one by one, of the great fortresses protecting the French frontier. But at home, from Marlborough’s point of view, catastrophe had occurred. His wife was replaced in the royal affections by Mrs Abigail Masham, and as head of the government, the sympathetic Godolphin was replaced by the hostile Robert *Harley. In autumn 1711 Marlborough was dismissed from all his offices and the war was hurried to a close (1713). After Anne’s death (1714) Marlborough was reinstated by *George I, and he had to console him with the ducal title (1702) and the parliamentary vote, earned by his first great victory, which resulted in the construction of *Vanbrugh’s magnificent Blenheim Palace. Sarah, his duchess, fruitfully spent the 22 years by which she survived him in embellishing the mighty domain and haggling over the necessary funds; she left £3 million. Marlborough was among the greatest captains of his own or any time. He was avaricious and his political loyalties sometimes wavered, but his care for the welfare of his troops won their love and he had a generosity of mind and a greatness of spirit that matched his deeds. Later dukes of Marlborough (and Sir Winston Spencer *Churchill) were descended from the 1st Duke’s daughter, Anne Spencer, Countess of Sunderland.

Churchill, W. S., Marlborough. 4 vols, 1933–38; Rowse, A. L., The Early Churchills. 1956; Jones, J. R., Marlborough. 1993; Holmes, R., Marlborough. England’s Fragile Genius. 2006.

Marlowe, Christopher (1564–1593). English dramatist and poet, born in Canterbury. Two months older than *Shakespeare, he was the son of a shoemaker, went to King’s School, Canterbury, and graduated BA (1584) at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. (Following intervention by the Privy Council he was promoted MA in 1587.) After moving to London (1587?), he seems to have lived, despite his almost immediate fame as a playwright, a dangerous underworld existence linked in some sort of way with secret service work. An active homosexual and religious sceptic, a warrant for his arrest on charges of atheism and sedition was issued three weeks before he died. He was stabbed to death, probably murdered, by Ingram Frizer in a tavern brawl in Deptford. Frizer was quickly pardoned.

The subject of his first play Tamburlaine the Great (1587) is the life of the great Mongol conqueror *Timur the Lame. It was followed by The Tragical History of Dr Faustus (1588), relating the story of the German necromancer who sold his soul to the devil, The Jew of Malta (1589), an almost fantastic tale of revenge and murder, and Edward II (1592). Lesser works are The Massacre of Paris (1593) and Dido Queen of Carthage (c.1593, written in collaboration with Thomas *Nash). Marlowe was the first to realise the full potentialities (both rhetorical and dramatic) of blank verse for tragedy and thus paved the way for *Shakespeare, with whom he may have collaborated in the writing of Titus Andronicus and Henry VI. He also introduced the tragedy of character (e.g. the effects of power) as opposed to the tragedy of events, though he does this with less subtlety than Shakespeare and his minor characters are often sketchily drawn. In addition to his dramatic work Marlowe translated from *Ovid and *Lucan and wrote much poetry; Hero and Leander (1598), completed by George *Chapman, is his best known poem. The song Come live with me and be my love was published in The Passionate Pilgrim (1599).

Burgess, A., A Dead Man in Deptford. 1995; Nicholl, C., The Reckoning: The Murder of Christopher Marlowe. 1995.

Marmot, Sir Michael Gideon (1945– ). Anglo-Australian epidemiologist and health equity analyst, born in London. Educated in Sydney, he then worked in California and London, becoming director of the Institute of Health Equity at University College, London. He was recognised as the international authority on the impact of class, location, education and diet on life expectancy and chronic illness. He wrote The Status Syndrome (2004) and The Health Gap (2015), chaired the World Medical Association 2015–16 and delivered the 2016 ABC Boyer Lectures.

Marot, Clément (1496–1544). French poet, born in Cahors. At the court of *François I and his sister *Margaret of Navarre, Marot gained favour by graceful and witty satires, elegies, rondeaux and ballads. His translation of the Psalms led to furious attacks from the Sorbonne, despite the king’s protection. He moved to Geneva but felt uncomfortable under *Calvin’s regime and died as an exile in Turin. In literary history, he stands at the junction point of medieval and Renaissance styles.

Mayer, C. A., Clément Marot. 1972.

Marquand, J(ohn) P(hillips) (1893–1960). American novelist. He became popular with a series of stories about the Japanese detective, Mr Moto, but later wrote a series of sharp edged satires on society in New England, e.g. The Late George Apley (1937), which won the Pulitzer Prize, and H.M. Pullam Esq. (1941).

Marquet, Albert (1875–1947). French painter. One of the Fauves, closely associated with *Matisse, his later landscapes were naturalistic.

Marquez, Gabriel Garcia see Garcia Marquez, Gabriel

Marquis, Don(ald Robert Perry) (1878–1937). American journalist and humorist. As a journalist he worked in Atlanta with Joel Chandler *Harris, creator of Uncle Remus. In archy and mehitabel (1927), and later collections, he published the stories of archy the cockroach and mehitabel (‘toujours gai’) the cat.

Anthony, E., O Rare Don Marquis. 1962.

Marriner, Sir Neville (1924–2016). English conductor, born in Lincoln. A violinist, he studied with Pierre *Monteux and founded the Academy of St Martin in the Fields in 1958. He received a CH in 2015.

Marryat, Frederick (1792–1848). English sailor and novelist. After many years in the navy, during which he fought in the Napoléonic Wars and in Burma, he retired to write popular adventure stories, e.g. Peter Simple (1834), Mr Midshipman Easy (1836), Masterman Ready (1841) and The Children of the New Forest (1847).

Warner, O., Captain Marryat. 1953.

Marsh, Dame (Edith) Ngaio (1899–1982). New Zealand novelist and theatre director. She was second only to Agatha *Christie as a prolific writer of detective stories and superior as a stylist.

Marsh, George Perkins (1801–1882). American writer, born in Woodstock, Vermont. He was a lawyer, philologist (said to have mastered 20 languages), US Congressman 1843–49, art collector and diplomat, who served as Minister Resident to the Ottoman Empire 1850–53 and Minister to Italy 1861–82. He was buried in Rome. Profoundly influenced by *Humboldt, his book, Man and Nature (1864, revised and retitled in 1874 as The Earth as Modified by Human Action) developed the concepts of resource management and anticipated ecology as a major study. He warned that ‘climatic excess’, compounded by deforestation, might lead to ‘extinction of the [human] species’.

Marshal, William, 1st Earl of Pembroke (second creation) (1147?–1219). Anglo-Norman knight and administrator, born in Caversham. Son of a minor landowner, he became famous for his success in tournaments and as a warrior. His marriage to Isobel, daughter of ‘Strongbow’, Earl of *Pembroke, brought him wealth and a recreation of the earldom. Joint-marshal and justiciar to *Richard I, he was consistently faithful to King *John but played a major role in the adoption of Magna Carta (1215). As Regent for the young *Henry III (1216–19), he expelled a French invasion and resisted papal influence. He became a Templar and was buried in the Temple Church in London. Regarded as a paragon of chivalry, he was the subject of a very early biography (in French) and appears as a character in books and films about medieval England.

Crouch, D., William Marshal: Knighthood, War and Chivalry 1147–1219. 2002; Asbridge, T., The Greatest Knight: The Remarkable Life of William Marshal, Power Behind Five English Thrones. 2015.

Marshall, Alfred (1842–1924). English economist. From the time he became an undergraduate at Cambridge his whole life was spent in academic circles. After resigning (1881) for health reasons as principal of the new University College at Bristol he returned to Cambridge as professor of political economy 1885–1908. He was the last of the line of the great classical economists and his Principles of Economics (1890) became a standard work used by generations of students. Though some of its conclusions are now disputed or outmoded it remains a basic work. He also wrote Industry and Trade (1919) and Money, Credit and Commerce (1923).

Marshall, Barry James (1951– ). Australian medical scientist, born in Kalgoorlie. His pioneering work, with Robin *Warren, overturned conventional wisdom and identified Helicobacter pylori as a major cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. They shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2005.

Marshall, George C(atlett) (1880–1959). American general, born in Uniontown, Pa. He entered the Virginia Military Institute in 1897 and was commissioned in 1902. He served in the Philippines (1902–03) and France (1917–19), became ADC to General J. J. *Pershing 1919–24, was a military observer in China (1924–27) and Assistant Commandant of the Ft. Benning, Ga. Infantry School 1927–33. President *Roosevelt appointed him as Chief of Staff of the US Army 1939–45, promoting him over 200 senior officers (many of them younger). The US Army increased from 200,000 soldiers to 8,300,000 under his direction. He attended the important wartime conferences at Casablanca, Québec, Cairo, Teheran and Yalta and played a vital role in determining the ‘beat *Hitler first’ strategy. He was the original choice as Supreme Commander for the allied invasion of Europe, but when Roosevelt preferred to keep Marshall in the US the job went to *Eisenhower. He became a five-star general of the army in 1944 and the British gave him a GCB. *Truman appointed him as Special Ambassador to China 1945–47, hoping that he could mediate in the civil war between *Chiang and *Mao. As US Secretary of State 1947–49, he proposed the European Recovery Plan (the Marshall Plan), providing $US12 billion in economic aid in the period 1948–51 for the reconstruction of Europe. (The USSR was invited to participate in Marshall aid but refused.) After the outbreak of the Korean War, Marshall became US Secretary of Defence 1950–51 and supported Truman’s dismissal (1951) of Douglas *MacArthur. He received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1953 and refused to write memoirs. Truman considered him the greatest contemporary American. (British observers were less generous and thought that his slowness just indicated slowness.)

Pogue, F. C., George C. Marshall. 4 vols, 1963, 1966, 1973, 1987. Mosley, L., Marshall: Organiser of Victory. 1982.

Marshall, John (1755–1835). American lawyer and judge, born in Midland, Virginia. He served in the War of Independence, was called to the bar and from 1783 practised in Richmond where he soon rose to be head of the Virginian bar. He served in the state legislature 1782–88 and 1795–97 and led the Federalist Party in Virginia. Wider fame came when he was sent to Paris to negotiate with the Directory. The exposure in the famous XYZ letters of *Talleyrand’s unsuccessful attempt to bribe the delegates made Marshall a popular hero. He was elected to the US Congress in 1799 and President *Adams made him Secretary of State 1800–01 and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 1801–35. Marshall used his powers of interpreting the Constitution to strengthen the Federal Government and issued several judgments invalidating acts of state legislatures that aimed at or tended to nullify acts of Congress. However, he tried to protect the individual from state oppression.

Marshall, Sir John Ross (1912–1988). New Zealand politician. A lawyer, he was MP 1945–75, a minister 1951–57, 1960–72, Leader of the National Party 1971–72 and Prime Minister 1971–72.

Marshall, Thomas Riley (1854–1925). American Democratic politician, born in Indiana. A lawyer and mild progressive, he was Governor of Indiana 1909–13, and served two terms as Woodrow *Wilson’s Vice President 1913–21. They disagreed about policy and the Vice President’s role in the administration. When Wilson suffered strokes in 1919, senior officials urged Marshall to assume the role of Acting President but he refused to set a precedent, despite the executive appearing to be paralysed.

Marshall, Thurgood (1908–1993). American lawyer and judge, born in Maryland. The great-grandson of a slave, educated at Lincoln and Howard universities, he was admitted to practice in 1933 and as legal counsel for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples (NAACP) 1940–61, argued many important cases establishing black rights. He was a Circuit Court Judge of Appeal 1961–65, Solicitor General of the US 1965–67 and became the first African-American appointed a justice of the US Supreme Court 1967–91.

Marsiglio of Padua (c.1280–c.1342). Italian scholar. He was the author (or co-author) of Defensor Paeis, an exposition of political ideas, based on the constitutions of some of the city states of northern Italy, that (a) the source of political power should be the people (i.e. all adult citizens); but (b) executive action should be delegated either to a council or to a single despot; and (c) the Church should be a solely spiritual body and papal supremacy was unjustified. These views were immediately condemned as heretical (1327) and Marsiglio fled to Paris. Later he was to see his persecutor, Pope John XXII, deposed, and an emperor elected by an assembly in Rome. Though this development proved ephemeral, Defensor Pacis guided much subsequent political thinking.

Marston, John (1576–1634). English dramatist. He wrote coarse, vigorous satire and a number of tragedies, some of them in collaboration with other dramatists. He started the campaign of mutual satire (1599–1601), the ‘war of the theatres’, with Ben *Jonson, but later became his friend and collaborator. His most interesting plays include The Malcontent (1604, with additions by Webster), Eastward Ho! (1605, with Ben Jonson and George Chapman) and The Dutch Courtesan (1605).

Martel, Charles see Charles Martel

Marti, José (1853–1895). Cuban writer and patriot. He was equally distinguished as a writer of prose and poetry and as leader of the Cuban struggle for independence from Spain. When only 16 he was exiled for political activity and for many years he was obliged to live abroad in Mexico, Guatemala, Spain and the US. While in the US he organised the Cuban revolutionary party of which he was an outstanding leader. The Cuban rising against the Spaniards began in 1895 and Marti was killed in the opening stages at the Battle of Dos Rios.

Martial (Marcus Valerius Martialis) (c.40–c.104). Latin poet and epigrammatist, born in Spain. He went to Rome where the wit and topicality of his verses won the approval of the emperors Titus and Domitian and widespread support. He wrote 15 books, containing several hundred epigrams, polished, cunningly twisted and frequently indecent, which became the models for the epigram in post-Renaissance Europe. He spent his last years at his native Bilbilis.

Carrington, A. G., Aspects of Martial’s Epigrams. 1960.

Martin, Frank (1890–1974). Swiss composer, born in Geneva. He was a prolific producer with an eclectic style, including the passionate Mass for double choir (1922–26), ballets and operas, a concerto for seven wind instruments (1949), Polyptych for violin and two string orchestras (1973), concertos for cello, violin, piano and saxophone, much chamber music and the familiar Petite symphonie concertante (1945). The conductor Ernest *Ansermet premiered much of his work.

Martin, George R(aymond) R(ichard) (1948– ). American novelist, born in New Jersey. Originally a science fiction writer, he turned to vampire and horror stories. His incomplete historical series A Song of Ice and Fire (1996ff) sold 60 million copies and was the basis of the Game of Thrones series on television.

Martin, John (1789–1854). English painter of the Romantic school. For a time hailed as a rival to Turner, his vast canvases, e.g. Belshazzar’s Feast (1821) and The Deluge (1826), teem with people and incident and brought him a great, but transient, popularity.

Balston, T., John Martin 1789–1854—His Life and Works. 1947.

Martin, (Basil) Kingsley (1897–1969). English journalist. During his editorship of the New Statesman (1931–60), he secured a commanding influence over the left-wing intellectuals of the Labour Party but had a blind spot about Stalin.

Rolph, C. L., Kingsley: Life, Letters and Diaries of Kingsley Martin. 1973.

Martin, Paul (1938– ). Canadian Liberal politician. Minister for Finance 1993–2002, he succeeded Jean *Chrétien as Prime Minister of Canada 2003–06.

Martin du Gard, Roger (1881–1958). French novelist. His work went unrecognised until his novel Jean Barois (1913) a powerful description of the France of the *Dreyfus era. His eight-part novel The World of the Thibaults won him the Nobel Prize for Literature (1937).

Schalk, D. C., Roger Martin du Gard, the Novelist and History. 1967.

Martin of Tours, St (c.316–397). Roman prelate in Gaul, born in Pannonia (now Hungary). Son of a military tribune, he served in the Roman army. Converted to Christianity, he studied under Hilary of Poitiers, founded a convent nearby, sharing with the monks a life of seclusion and great austerity. As Bishop of Tours (c.371–397), to avoid the distraction of the crowds attracted by his reputation for saintliness and miracles, he founded and lived in the monastery of Marmoutier. His feast day (11 November) became associated with a period of warm weather which often occurs about that time known as a St Martin’s Summer.

Martineau, Harriet (1802–1876). English writer, born in Norwich. Daughter of a manufacturer, in her time her books were very popular. They included Illustrations of Political Economy (1832–34), Poor Law and Paupers Illustrated (1833), Society in America (1837), written after a visit to America, and Letters on Mesmerism (1845), a result of her belief that she owed recovery from serious illness to hypnotic treatment. Her aim in each case was to present a simplification (sometimes in fictional disguise) of serious themes. Her other work, historical, philosophic and autobiographical, much of it quite ephemeral, includes a novel, Deerbrook (1839), and books for children. She was a model for *Dickens’ Mrs Jellyby in Bleak House.

Webb, R. K., Harriet Martineau, a Radical Victorian. 1960.

Martinet, Jean (d.1672). French military engineer. His severe system of drill made his name a synonym for a harsh disciplinarian.

Martini, Carlo Maria (1927–2012). Italian cardinal, born in Turin. Ordained in 1952, and a Jesuit, he was Archbishop of Milan 1980–2002. He criticised the organisation of the Church as being ‘200 years out of date’.

Martini, Simone (c.1284–1344). Italian painter, born in Siena. Regarded as second only to *Giotto of the late Gothic painters, he returned to Siena (1321) after working at Naples for the Angevin court, at Orvieto and at Pisa. Except for intervals at Assisi to work on the scenes from the life of St Martin in the lower church of St Francis, he stayed at Siena until 1339, when on the summons of Pope Benedict XII he went to Avignon, where his work included the small panel (now at Liverpool) of the Holy Family, and where he died. Of his work at Siena, the fresco (1328) of Guidoriccio da Fogliano, destined for the council chamber, and the altarpiece of the Annunciation for the cathedral (now in the Uffizi, Florence) are among the best known. The two saints at the outside of the latter are probably the work of Lippo Memmi, but the work as a whole, with its graceful figures harmoniously posed against a gold back ground shows his treatment of his subjects at its best.

Paccagninni, G., Simone Martini. 1957.

Martinu, Bohuslav (1890–1959). Czech composer. A pupil of *Suk and *Roussel, he became a teacher and orchestral violinist, living in Paris 1923–40, the US 1941–53 and dying in Switzerland. His works include six symphonies, 11 concertos, 16 operas, including Julietta (1937), the oratorio The Epic of Gilgamesh (1954), and vast quantities of chamber music.

Martov, Yulie Osipovich (originally Zederbaum) (1873–1923). Russian-Jewish politician. Once *Lenin’s closest friend, he led the Mensheviks from 1903, opposed the Bolshevik dictatorship in 1917 and was consigned to ‘the garbage can of history’ by *Trotsky. He died in exile in Germany.

Marvell, Andrew (1621–1678). English poet. Son of a Yorkshire clergyman, he held a number of posts as tutor, notably to Lord *Fairfax’s daughter at Nun Appleton where some of his best work, poems of wit and grace in praise of gardens and country life, was written. Politically a follower of *Cromwell, he could not withhold admiration for *Charles I’s bearing on the scaffold:

He nothing common did or mean

Upon that memorable scene.

Later he worked with *Milton in government service, was Latin secretary 1657–60 and went with an embassy to Russia 1663–65. He was MP for Hull 1659–78. Marvell did not marry and his love poems seldom carry conviction, though occasional lines such as

But at my back I always hear

Time’s wingèd Chariot hurrying near

have earned immortality. In later life he became a satirist of an arbitrary government which he deplored. He died of malaria.

Legouis, P., Andrew Marvell: Poet, Puritan, Patriot. 2nd ed. 1968.

Marx, Karl Heinrich (1818–1883). German-Jewish political philosopher, born at Trier. His father, a lawyer, converted to Christianity from Judaism. Educated at the universities of Bonn and Berlin, he abandoned law for history and philosophy. His comic novel Scorpion and Felix (1837), influenced by *Sterne, was unpublished. (Sterne and *Swift were major stylistic influences.) He edited the Rheinische Zeitung from 1842 to 1843, when the Prussian government suppressed it for its radicalism. In 1843 he married Jenny von Westphalen (1814–1881) and moved to Paris, where he came to know Friedrich *Engels. Expelled from France (1845), he moved to Brussels where, with Engels, he reorganised the Communist League, for which they wrote the famous Communist Manifesto (1848). This, though it contained a preformulation of the views later worked out in detail, was essentially a call to revolutionary action, ending with the exhortation ‘The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to gain. Workers of the world unite.’ Marx took part in the revolutionary risings in the Rhineland in 1848 and after their failure, settled (1849) in London for the rest of his life. After 15 years of research he wrote Grundrisse (‘Foundations’) at great speed in 1857–58. This was the framework of a vast incomplete work of which Das Kapital was only a part. Grundrisse included material on alienation, the impact of technology, the economies of time and his utopian vision. His writing was passionate and often ironic. Karl *Kautsky published excerpts in 1903, but the complete Grundrisse did not appear until 1939–41 in Moscow, and in English translation until 1973.

Despite his background, Marx’ writings suggest elements of anti-Semitism and anti-feminism.

He resumed active political work as founder and secretary of the International Working Men’s Association (later known as the First International) 1864–72. Here he had to contend with the views of rival leaders, especially the anarchist *Bakunin, whose withdrawal he forced in 1869. After the death of *Lassalle, Marx’ influence became predominant in the German Social Democratic Party, and Marxist parties were founded in France and Russia during his lifetime. For more than 12 hours each day he worked in the reading room of the British Museum on Das Kapital. Volume I was published in Hamburg in 1867 (in Russian translation in 1872, French 1872–75 and English 1887). Volume II, edited by Engels, appeared in 1885 and Volume III, completed by Engels from Marx’s notes and private papers, in 1894. Marx was often in extreme poverty and from 1868 depended on an annual allowance of £350 from Engels. His application for British citizenship (1874) was refused. He died in Kentish Town in March 1883 and was buried in Highgate Cemetery.

Marx’ philosophical basis is an adaptation of *Hegel’s dialectical system. With Marx it becomes dialectical materialism: historical stages succeed one another by way of conflict; the economic basis of one phase provokes its antithesis and the two then merge into a third. Thus the bourgeoisie displaced feudal society and the stage was then set for the final struggle between the bourgeoisie and the working classes. On the theoretical economic side Marx followed the classical economists in their concept of the labour theory of value. A capitalist society depended, in his view, on ‘surplus value’, i.e. that part of the amount received for the product of labour in excess of the amount paid for labour. Moreover, as the larger capitalist devoured the smaller, so its members would become fewer and richer, while the proletariat, its bargaining power reduced as the means by which labour can be employed (hand, factories, machines etc.) became concentrated in fewer and fewer hands, would become relatively poorer. That being so, a clash was inevitable and the Communist’s part therefore must be to educate the proletariat in the role it must play both to hasten events and to bring about the desired future, in which production would be carried out for the good of all in a classless society. Since a capitalist state is the instrument by which the exploitation of the proletariat is carried out political action must be revolutionary. If successful, the next stage (from which no Communist state has yet emerged) must, as Marx foresaw, be a dictatorship of the proletariat, necessary to prevent counter-revolution. This would be eventually followed by the third stage, the withering away of the state and the emergence of a classless society living and working in the perfectionist conditions referred to above. Marx developed his theories against the background of capitalist development as it existed in England in the middle of the 19th century. He claimed to have done for economics and history what Charles *Darwin had achieved in biology.

While authoritarian states claiming to be Marxist (or Marxist-Leninist) mostly failed spectacularly, Marx raised many issues with 21st-century significance: a technological revolution, the rise of a managerial and professional class, the distinction between labour/time-saving and labour/time-absorbing work, that liberty depends on having ‘disposable time’, rejecting the idea that production and wealth creation are ends in themselves.

The influence of Marx’ writings, though often misunderstood, has been immense. Socialist parties, claiming to be ‘Marxist’, were created in his lifetime, but Marx kept his distance. In 1882 he wrote: ‘What is certain is that, as for me, I am not a Marxist.’

His youngest child (Jenny Julia) Eleanor Marx, often known as ‘Tussy’ (1855–1898), was her father’s closest companion and secretary. She made the first English translation (1892) of *Flaubert’s Madame Bovary, translated four plays by *Ibsen and works by *Bernstein and *Plekhanov. From 1884 she lived with Edward Aveling (1849–1898), who had been a translator of Das Kapital. Together they wrote The Woman Question (1886), toured the US in 1886 (with Wilhelm *Liebknecht) raising money for the SDP. She had unfulfilled ambitions as an actor, and committed suicide after Aveling deserted her and married secretly. He died of kidney disease four months after Eleanor.

McLellan, D., Karl Marx. 1973; Singer, P., Marx. 1980; Wheen, F., Karl Marx: A Life. 1999; Sperber, J., Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life. 2013; Stedman Jones, G., Karl Marx. Greatness and Illusion. 2016; Claeys, G., Marx and Marxism. 2018; Barker, J., Marx Returns. 2018; Kapp, Y., Eleanor Marx. 1976; Holmes, R., Eleanor Marx. A Life. 2014; Dawkins, P., Miss Marx. 2015; Liedman, S.-E., A World to Win: The Life and Works of Karl Marx. 2015/2018.

Marx Brothers. Jewish-American family of comedians, born in New York City. Four of them, ‘Groucho’ (Julius, 1890–1977), ‘Chico’ (Leonard, 1891–1961), ‘Harpo’ (Arthur, 1893–1964) and, until his withdrawal (1935), ‘Zeppo’ (Herbert, 1901–1979), became famous in vaudeville and developed a surrealistic humour of their own in 13 successful films (after 1929) including Duck Soup, A Night at The Opera, A Day at the Races, At the Circus, Go West and The Big Store. Another brother ‘Gummo’ (Milton, 1898–1977), left vaudeville early and became successful in business.

Mary (Hebrew: Miriam) (fl 1st century CE). Mother of *Jesus Christ, known also as the Blessed Virgin. According to apocryphal gospels, she was the daughter of St Anne and Joachim. The narratives of the Annunciation, the miraculous conception and the birth of Jesus Christ at Bethlehem are told with varying details in the Gospels of St *Matthew and St *Luke, where also it is recorded that her husband Joseph was a carpenter of Nazareth in Galilee. The most important of the very few other biblical references is in St John’s Gospel which relates that she stood by the cross at the Crucifixion and that Jesus entrusted her to the care of that unnamed ‘beloved disciple’, who took her to his own home. According to tradition, she lived at Ephesus in the care of St *John the Divine; in Catholic teaching she was ‘bodily assumed’.

The doctrine of her Perpetual Virginity (i.e. that she had no natural children) was adopted by the Council of Chalcedon in 451. Her Immaculate Conception (i.e. that she was the subject of a virgin birth) was proclaimed in 1854 by Pope *Pius IX, followed by the doctrine of the Bodily Assumption (1950) and the title Queen of Heaven (1954).

Mary I (1516–1558). Queen of England 1553–58. Daughter of *Henry VIII by his first wife *Katherine of Aragon, Mary’s prospects were at first brilliant and negotiations for marriage were pressed forward with royal suitors (including the emperor *Charles V) from her childhood days. But all was changed when Henry and her mother became estranged and the marriage was annulled (1533). Mary had to live in retirement and even acknowledged herself to be illegitimate. She was restored to the line of succession by her father’s will but her way of life was hardly changed while her Protestant brother *Edward VI was on the throne. On his death, however, she foiled, with general public support, the Duke of *Northumberland’s bold attempt to transfer the crown to his own family by establishing the claim of his daughter-in-law Lady Jane *Grey. Unfortunately Mary, who began her reign with the avowed aim of restoring the supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church, was already a frustrated and embittered woman and, though she at first acted with caution, her proposed marriage to Philip (Felipe, later *Philip II) of Spain deprived her of much of her popularity and provoked a rebellion by Sir Thomas *Wyatt. This was suppressed, but the marriage (1554) brought her no joy, as Philip, who left the country in 1555, could not conceal his indifference and the false pregnancies which deluded her into making all preparations for an expected child deprived him of his political hopes. She may have suffered from a pituitary gland disorder, accounting for her infertility, deep voice and dry skin.

Meanwhile Roman supremacy was restored (1554) and Cardinal Reginald *Pole, the papal legate and later Archbishop of Canterbury, became Mary’s chief adviser. The persecutions which were to make the queen remembered as ‘Bloody Mary’ began in 1555. The first to die were *Ridley and *Latimer, and *Cranmer (1556) and almost 300 followed, 60 of them women, for which she bears the main responsibility. She became hated and even Philip was appalled by her severity. In 1557 the English were dragged into the Spanish war against France, the only result being the loss (1558) of their last Continental possession, Calais, the name said to be written on Mary’s heart when, tormented in mind and body and almost unlamented, she died. She was succeeded by her half-sister *Elizabeth.

Mary II (née Stuart, by marriage van Oranje-Nassau) (1662–1694). Queen regnant of England, Scotland and Ireland 1689–94. The elder daughter of James, Duke of York (*James II), by his first wife Anne Hyde, she married (1677) her first cousin William, Prince of Orange (later *William III). After her father’s deposition, she and her husband were invited to become joint sovereigns. She was estranged from her sister *Anne and they last met in 1692. Mary was much loved and after her early death, from smallpox, deeply mourned.

Van Der See, B. and H. A., William and Mary. 1973; Van der Kiste, J., William and Mary. 2003.

Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–1587). Queen of Scotland 1542–67. Born in Linlithgow Palace, daughter of *James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise, she was half French, one quarter Scots, one quarter English. She became Queen of Scotland, the eighth of the *Stewart dynasty, when her father died six days after her birth. To keep her out of the hands of the Protestant or ‘English’ party who wished her to marry the future *Edward VI, she was sent to France, her mother remaining in Scotland as regent. On her return in August 1561, while remaining a Catholic, she was able to negotiate a political-religious settlement with the nobility and supporters of John *Knox. She married three times: (1) in 1558 to the French dauphin who became *François II and died in 1560, (2) in 1565 to her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord *Darnley, who fathered her only child *James VI of Scotland (and I of England), murdered her confidante David *Rizzio and was blown up in February 1567, and (3) in May 1567 to James Hepburn, Earl of *Bothwell, who had murdered Darnley. Her last marriage was politically disastrous and she lost all support: the army deserted, Bothwell fled to Denmark and in June 1567 she was deposed in favour of her son. After an attempt to regain power failed in June 1568, she sought asylum in England. Her grandmother *Margaret (Tudor) had been *Henry VIII’s sister and if *Elizabeth I died without issue Mary was next in line for the English throne: Catholics considered Elizabeth to be illegitimate which would make Mary the rightful queen already. Elizabeth kept her as a prisoner until her death because she was a rallying point for English Catholics. Elizabeth believed that she was part of a series of conspiracies (the evidence is not completely convincing) and after the *Babington plot, Mary was tried for treason at Fotheringay Castle (October 1586), convicted and beheaded (February 1587) and buried at Peterborough Cathedral. On Elizabeth’s death in 1603, Mary’s son James succeeded as King of England. In 1612 Mary was exhumed and reinterred in Westminster Abbey, parallel to Elizabeth. Mary was a romantic figure, the subject of books, plays, films and *Donizetti’s opera Maria Stuarda.

Fraser, A., Mary Queen of Scots. 1969.

Mary (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes) (1867–1953). Queen consort of the United Kingdom 1910–36. Daughter of Francis, Duke of Teck, and a great-granddaughter of *George III, in 1891 she became engaged to Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence (d.1892), eldest son of the future *Edward VII. In 1893 she married his brother, the Duke of York, who ascended the throne (1910) as *George V. The grace and dignity as well as the unwearying thoroughness with which she performed her royal duties and the particular interest she showed in the work of women’s organisations won wide respect. In the pursuit of her main hobby, the collection of antiques, she showed enthusiasm and flair. She was the principal architect of the mystique of the modern British monarchy.

Pope-Hennessy, J., Queen Mary. 1959.

Mary Magdalen, St (or Mary of Magdala) (fl. 1st century CE). Christian disciple. The Gospels relate that *Jesus cast out seven devils from her, that she became a devoted disciple and that she was the first to whom Jesus appeared after the Resurrection. Tradition also links her with a penitent, unnamed sinner mentioned by St *Luke. Her name has come to symbolise the harlot restored to purity by faith and penitence. In Eastern tradition she died in Ephesus, in French tradition in Provence. Some legends describe her as the wife of *John the Divine, others as the wife of Jesus (assuming that he survived the crucifixion). Sometimes identified with Mary of Bethany, sister of Martha and Lazarus, her name is commemorated by churches or colleges bearing the name Madeleine or Magdalen. In religious art she is often depicted as weeping, hence the word ‘maudlin’.

Haskins, S., Mary Magdalen. 1993.

Mary of Modena (Maria Beatrice Anna Margherita Isabella d’Este) (1658–1718). Queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland 1685–88. Born in Modena, daughter of Duke Alfonso IV, she married James, Duke of York (later *James II) in 1673. Birth (1688) of a son, James Edward *Stuart, an event that seemed likely to perpetuate a Roman Catholic dynasty, was one of the causes of the revolution that deposed James. The story that the baby was not hers but had been smuggled into the palace in a warming pan may be discarded.

Masaccio (‘clumsy’, nickname of Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone) (1401–1428). Italian painter, born in San Giovanni Valdarno. He lived and worked mostly in Florence until he went (1427) to Rome where he died. He probably derived from his contemporary *Brunelleschi much of the knowledge of perspective and space revealed in his pictures. In particular he mastered tonal perspective, by which an appearance of depth is achieved by gradations of colour. He is also said to have been the first to light his pictures at a constant angle from a single point of origin. The figures are solidly and realistically conceived and belong naturally to their surroundings. His finest work is generally held to be the frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel of the Carmelite Church, Florence, but the fact that he worked in collaboration with *Masolino has caused an acute artistic controversy as to the part played by each. The finest of Masaccio’s undisputed works include the Expulsion from Paradise and Tribute to Caesar. Masaccio is ranked as one of the greatest figures in Renaissance art between *Giotto and *Leonardo da Vinci.

Salmi, M., Masaccio. 1948; Spike, J. T., Masaccio. 1996; Ahl, D. C., The Cambridge Companion to Masaccio. 2002.

Masaryk, Tomáš Garrigue (1850–1937). Czechoslovakian politician, writer and academic. Son of a Slovak coachman, he studied sociology and philosophy at Vienna University and in 1882 took up a professorship at the re-established Czech University at Prague, and wrote several books on philosophy, sociology and Slav nationalism. Meanwhile, in Brooklyn (1878) he married an American, Charlotte Garrigue, whose name he adopted. In 1891 he was first elected to the Reichsrat and though he resigned in 1893 he gradually became recognised as the spokesman of all the Slav minorities in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was re-elected to parliament in 1907 but when World War I broke out (1914) he at once saw it as an opportunity to obtain independence for the subject peoples. In December 1914 he escaped to Italy and in one country after another, Switzerland, France, Britain, Russia and the US, pressed his cause. He organised a Czech national council in Paris (1916) and in May 1917 went to Russia to build up a Czech Legion (mainly from prisoners of war). After the Bolshevik Revolution the Legion reached the Pacific via Siberia and reached America where Masaryk awaited it.

At last (June 1918) the governments of Great Britain, France and the US recognised Czechoslovakia as an independent ally, with Masaryk as the government’s provisional head. In December with the Austro-Hungarian regime collapsed around him, Masaryk returned triumphantly as President Liberator of the new state of Czechoslovakia. As President 1918–35, his wisdom and liberality of mind inspired the growth of Czechoslovakia as the most prosperous and progressive country of the new Europe. He retired at the age of 85 and was succeeded by Eduard *Beneš.

The shadow of *Hitler was already looming when he died but it was upon his son Jan Garrigue Masaryk (1886–1948) that the darkness fell. He was Ambassador of Czechoslovakia in London 1925–28, resigning after the Munich agreement. He served as Foreign Minister of Czechslovakia 1940–48, first in the government-in-exile established in London in World War II, then under the restored government of *Beneš, remaining under *Gottwald’s National Front, hoping to retain a democratic presence. One month after Gottwald took complete control (February 1948), he died, mysteriously and controversially; almost certainly being defenestrated from the Foreign Office by NKVD agents. (The alternative version is that he shot himself.)

Birley, R., Thomas Masaryk. 1951.

Mascagni, Pietro (1863–1945). Italian composer. After abandoning law he became famous with the one-act opera Cavalleria Rusticana (1890). This, a brutal and melodramatic treatment of a subject drawn from working-class life, established the style of Italian opera known as verismo. None of his later operas, e.g. L’Amico Fritz (1891) and La Maschera (1901), won the same celebrity.

Masefield, John (Edward) (1878–1967). English poet and novelist, born in Herefordshire. After an unhappy childhood, he was a merchant seaman 1889–97, discovered poetry and after intense reading (and marriage to a teacher) began composing poetry himself. Some of his finest poems and stories are concerned with the sea. Salt Water Ballads (1902), including ‘Sea Fever’, was followed by the long narrative poem The Everlasting Mercy (1911), Reynard the Fox (1919) and Right Royal (1920). His prose works include Gallipoli (1916) and The Battle of the Somme (1919), 24 novels, including books for children and Sard Harker (1924), eight plays and literary studies. He succeeded Robert *Bridges as Poet Laureate 1930–67 and received the OM (1935).

Babington-Smith, C., John Masefield. 1978.

Masinissa (Massinissa) (c.238–149 BCE). King of Numidia. His state (roughly modern Algeria) was a vassal of Carthage. He transferred his allegiance to Rome during the Second Punic War (206) and his cavalry carried out the decisive charge at the Battle of Zama when *Hannibal was defeated. His kingdom grew strong and prosperous. In 150 a Carthaginian attack on Numidia, then the ally of Rome, led to the Third Punic War.

Maslow, Abraham Harold (1908–1970). American psychologist and educator. His text book Motivation and Personality (1954) identified a ‘hierarchy of needs’ in human development and has been influential in sociology.

Masolino da Panicale (c.1383–1447). Italian painter. He assisted *Ghiberti and may have taught *Masaccio, with whom he collaborated and by whose techniques he was much influenced. His most important works are the frescoes rediscovered (1843) under whitewash at Castiglione d’Olona. The frescoes in San Clemente at Rome have also been attributed to him.

Mason, Charles (1730–1787). American surveyor. Employed with Jeremiah Dixon to mark out (1763–67) the boundary between the American colonies Pennsylvania and Maryland, this Mason-Dixon line came to be regarded as the frontier between North and South in the US.

Maspero, Gaston Camille Charles (1846–1916). French Egyptologist. While in Egypt (1880–86) as director of excavations and curator of the museum at Cairo, he discovered 40 royal mummies (including *Seti I and *Rameses II) at Deir el Bahri. He returned (1886) to Paris to take up a professorship, but was appointed Director of the Department of Antiquities in Cairo 1889–1914 and reorganised with an efficiency that earned him a KCMG.

Masséna, André, Duke of Rivoli, Prince of Essling (1758–1817). French marshal, born in Nice (then in the kingdom of Sardinia). He became a soldier, but during the Revolution he volunteered for the French army and by the end of 1793 was a divisional general. He made a name for himself in the Italian campaigns against the Austrians where the Rivoli (1797), from which he took his title, was his most striking success and against the Russian general *Suvarov in Switzerland (1799). Thereafter he fought in nearly all *Napoléon’s campaigns in central Europe and won his princely title by his heroic covering of the Danube crossing (1809) at Aspen or Essling. Sent to Spain in 1810 he drove *Wellington right back to the lines of Torres Vedras but, on finding the position impregnable, extricated himself by a masterly retreat. Napoléon chose to make him a scapegoat, refused to employ him on his Russian campaign and himself received no reply when he called for Massena’s aid after the escape from Elba.

Massenet, Jules Emile Frédéric (1842–1912). French composer. He won the Prix de Rome (1866) and taught at the Paris Conservatoire 1878–96. *Ravel was a pupil. He wrote 26 staged operas, unfailingly melodious, strikingly orchestrated, deeply romantic and psychologically astute. (*Debussy called him ‘the musical historian of the female soul’.) His most performed operas are Manon (1881), Esclarmonde (1889), Werther (1892) and Thaïs (1894). He also wrote 281 songs and orchestral, choral and piano works.

Massey, (Charles) Vincent (1887–1967). Canadian diplomat and administrator. The grandson of Hart Massey (1823–1896), founder of an agricultural machinery company (later named Massey-Harris, then Massey-Ferguson), he served as Minister to the US 1926–30 (Canada’s first diplomatic posting), High Commissioner in London 1935–46 and the first native-born Governor-General of Canada 1952–59. He received a CH in 1946. His brother, Raymond Massey (1896–1983), was a character actor on stage and screen in Britain and the US. Raymond’s son Daniel (1933–1998) and daughter Anna (1937–2011) were distinguished stage, screen and television actors in England.

Massey, William Ferguson (1856–1925). New Zealand politician, born in Derry. He emigrated in 1870, worked on his father’s farm, and became active in farmers’ organisations. Elected to the House of Representatives 1894–1925, he became Leader of the Reform Party 1903–25 and Prime Minister 1912–25. He led New Zealand through World War I and attended the Paris Peace Conference.

Massine, Léonide (Feodorovich) (1895–1979). Russian ballet dancer and choreographer. He was principal dancer (1914–20) of *Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes in Paris and was chief choreographer (from 1915). He created several new ballets including La Boutique Fantasque (music by *Rossini) and Le Sacre du printemps (music by *Stravinsky). He worked with the Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo 1932–41 and with Martha *Graham in New York 1942–47.

Massine, L., My Life in Ballet. 1968.

Massinger, Philip (1583–1639/40). English dramatist, born at Salisbury. He collaborated with other dramatists, notably John *Fletcher and Thomas *Dekker, plays which are probably independent include dramas, often on religious and political themes, which to his audience suggested contemporary parallels. Among them are The Duke of Milan (1623), The Maid of Honour (c.1625) and The Roman Actor (1626). He is better known for his satirical comedies, The City Madam (acted 1632) and A New Way to Pay Old Debts (published 1633). Psychological interest and constructive power are Massinger’s main assets.

Masson, André (1896–1987). French painter, sculptor, stage designer and writer. Severely wounded in World War I, he worked in a variety of styles, Cubist, then Surrealist, Abstract and Neo-Realist.

Massys, Quentin see Matsys, Quentin

Masters, Edgar Lee (1869–1950). American author and poet. His collection of poems, Spoon River Anthology (1915), contains what purport to be confessions of and revelations about those lying in a mid-western cemetery. He also wrote biographies of *Lincoln, Walt *Whitman and Mark *Twain, and the autobiographical Across Spoon River (1936).

Mastroianni, Marcello (1923–1997). Italian film actor. A versatile performer, he appeared in 70 films including White Nights (*Visconti, 1957), La Dolce Vita (*Fellini, 1960), La Notte (*Antonioni, 1961), (*Fellini, 1963), Casanova ’70 (1965) and Pret-a-Porter (*Altman, 1994).

Mata Hari (Margarethe Gertrude Zelle, later MacLeod) (1871–1917). Dutch dancer and courtesan. She lived in Java and Sumatra (hence her Malay stage name, ‘eye of the day’), and danced in Paris from 1905. In World War I, by consorting with officers, she was able to obtain information and allegedly pass it to the Germans. Tried and shot as a spy by the French, MI 5 documents released in 1999 indicate that Mata Hari was guilty only of being a fantasist, who blew kisses at the firing squad.

Wagenaar, S., The Murder of Mata Hari. 1964.

Matanzima, Kaiser Daliwonga (1915–2003). South African politician. Chief of the Xhosa people and a qualified lawyer, he was elected (1963) by his fellow chiefs to head the government of the Transkei, the first of the ostensibly self-governing ‘Bantustan’ areas, reserved for Africans, set up under the apartheid policy, and President 1979–85.

Mather, Increase (1639–1723). American Congregationalist minister. After taking his degree at Harvard, he spent some time preaching in England and Guernsey before returning to America as minister of the Second Church, Boston 1664–1723. He was Acting President of Harvard from 1685, and a largely absentee President 1692–1701. During the Salem witch trials, he urged the judges to be careful, but failed to condemn them. He wrote Causes of Conscience concerning Witchcraft (1693). His son, Cotton Mather (1662–1727), a theologian, was responsible above others for fanning the flames of the Salem witchcraft mania by his many books on the subject of possession by evil spirits.

Murdock, K. B., Increase Mather: The foremost American Puritan. Repr. 1966.

Mathew, Theobald (1790–1856). Irish friar. His work amongst the poor in Cork 1812–38 convinced him that drink aggravated their misery and he led a great temperance crusade that had astonishing success. In 1848 he went to America, where he achieved similar results. On his return to Ireland (1851) he declined a bishopric. Temperance advocates still hold Father Mathew festivals.

Matilda (or Maud) (1102–1167). Queen of England 1141. Daughter of *Henry I, at the age of 10 she married the Holy Roman Emperor *Heinrich V. By her second husband Geoffrey, Count of Anjou (*Plantagenet), she became the mother of the future *Henry II. When *Henry I died (1135) many of the barons, despite oaths to the late king, refused to recognise her as queen, and her cousin *Stephen of Blois seized the throne. Civil war ensued, but though Stephen was captured (1141) Matilda’s arrogance soon alienated support and she eventually gave up her claim in favour of her son, whom *Stephen accepted as his heir.

Matilda of Tuscany (or Matilde di Canossa) (1046–1115). Italian ruler, born in Lucca. She inherited Tuscany, and acquired lands in Lorraine and Bavaria through her two marriages, ruling from her castle at Canossa. In his war against the Emperor *Heinrich IV about Imperial power in church affairs she supported Pope *Gregory VII. He took refuge in Canossa. Widely read, she is said to have donned armour and fought in battle. Her tomb was relocated to St Peter’s, Rome, by *Urban VIII, with a statue by *Bernini.

Matisse, Henri (1869–1954). French painter, born in Picardy. He studied art in Paris, copied pictures in the Louvre and was influenced by the Impressionists, *Cézanne and *Gauguin. In 1905 he became the leader of a revolutionary group of artists, labelled ‘Les Fauves’ (‘wild beasts’). To them colour was end in itself and its use was unconnected with the colour of the subject portrayed. Matisse covered large unbroken areas with colour, disregarding perspective and the distortion its absence produced, but discovering new decorative effects by the vibrancy and luminosity of the colour itself, yet though the effect of his work was to hasten the arrival of abstract art, he was not an abstract painter. Similarly, though his colour patterns often took geometrical shapes he was never a Cubist. In fact as the years went by he reduced the element of violence, and ‘balance, purity and moderation’ became his aims. Just as fruit and flowers supplied him with decorative themes so did women—his Odalisques adorn and delight but convey no sensual message. After a period in which his pictures became smaller and less spontaneous, he was again, in the 1930s, seeking bolder effects. A commission for the *Barnes Foundation (Pennsylvania) allowed him to undertake murals. His last years were mainly devoted to designing and decorating with murals and stained glass a Dominican chapel at Vence near Nice, but even when he was over 80 he showed his versatility in a new way by using decorative collages (paper cutouts) as an art form.

Escholier, R., Matisse: From the Life. 1960; Spurling, H., The Unknown Matisse. 1998.

Matsushita Konosuke (1896–1989). Japanese industrialist, born near Osaka. From a peasant family, he started (1918) a manufacturing firm on a very small scale for the production of electrical appliances. World War II gave a tremendous impetus to his business and he emerged from the war period as a leader in the field of electronic equipment and quickly became the undisputed giant. His mass production of electrical household accessories eased and simplified the traditional domestic duties of Japanese women and his brand name, National, soon became a leader, followed by the brand names Panasonic and JVC.

Matsys (or Massys), Quentin (c.1465–1530). Flemish painter. His early altar pieces followed the tradition of the Van *Eycks, though with almost life-sized figures, but his later religious pictures, e.g. the Magdalen at Antwerp, reveal a softer modelling and a sweetness of expression reminiscent of the work of *Leonardo da Vinci, by which he may have been influenced. He is also known for gently satirical genre pictures and portraits.

Matteotti, Giacomo (1885–1924). Italian politician. A leader of the Socialist party, he was a courageous opponent of Fascism. He was kidnapped and murdered by a gang of Fascists who went virtually unpunished, after which there was no effective opposition to *Mussolini and the last vestiges of political liberty disappeared.

Matthew, St (Mattay in Aramaic: ‘gift of God’; or Levi) (c.5–85 CE). Christian apostle, one of the four evangelists. Son of Alphaeus, presumably a Galilean, nothing certain is known about him except that at the time he was called upon to be a disciple he was a publican (perhaps a customs official) and therefore despised and hated for his profitable association with Roman rule. He was probably identical with Levi, mentioned in the Gospels of *Mark and *Luke in which Matthew’s name does not appear. There is continuing controversy about the priority of the Gospels of Mark and Matthew. The Jerusalem Bible’s editors argue that the Gospel bearing Matthew’s name may have appeared in two versions, first in primitive Aramaic, perhaps as early as 40–50 and known to Mark (augmented by a collection of sayings attributed to Matthew), then a Greek version produced 70–80, which in turn was influenced by Mark. Matthew’s Gospel, possibly written in Antioch, is longer and more systematic than Mark, with a strong emphasis on Jesus’ Messiahship, on teaching and on his fulfilment of Old Testament prophecies. Presumably aimed at a Jewish audience, nevertheless it emphasises Jewish responsibility for Jesus’ death and minimises the Roman role. The Sermon on the Mount only appears in Matthew (v–vii). There are three separate traditions about Matthew’s martyrdom—Ethiopia, Persia and Judaea. The Magdalen Papyrus of Matthew (Oxford) is thought to be the oldest surviving Gospel fragment—perhaps before 200 CE.

Matthias Corvinus (1440–1490). King of Hungary (from 1458). Second son of János *Hunyadi, having successfully continued his father’s struggle against the Turks, he was able to add Moravia and Silesia to his dominions, conquer Carinthia and Styria and capture Vienna, which he made his capital. His vigour and justice as a ruler were matched by his fame as a scholar, a sign of which was the magnificent library he founded. He died without legitimate heirs at the height of his power.

Maudling, Reginald (1917–1979). British Conservative politician. He was called to the bar (1940), served in RAF intelligence, and was an MP 1950–79. A minister from 1955 to 1964 and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1962–64, he contested the Conservative leadership in 1965, losing to *Heath. He became Deputy Leader and was Home Secretary 1970–72.

Maudling, R., Maudling’s Memoirs. 1978.

Maudsley, Henry (1835–1918). English psychiatrist, born in Yorkshire. He settled in London and exercised important influence on the treatment of mental illness, notably through his book The Pathology of Mind (1867). Believing that insanity was a disease of the brain, he stressed the need for treating it as such and not merely controlling the symptoms, he gave special attention to hereditary factors. In the hope of securing systematic research into mental disease and early treatment for sufferers he gave a large sum to the London County Council for a psychiatric hospital to be linked with London University. The Maudsley Hospital opened shortly after his death.

Maugham, W(illiam) Somerset (1874–1965). British author, born in Paris. Trained in medicine at St Thomas’s Hospital, London, he drew on his experience as a physician in the London slums in his first novel, Lisa of Lambeth (1903). But it was as a playwright that he first attained fame and wealth in the years preceding World War I: a succession of plays with a sharp flavour and astringent wit, e.g. Lady Frederick, filled the theatres. After the war the plays became more sophisticated and satirical, e.g. The Circle (1921), Our Betters (1923) and The Letter (1927). During the war he did secret service work, reflected in the spy stories in Ashenden (1928). Meanwhile he had continued writing novels: Of Human Bondage (1915) is discursive and partly autobiographical; the character of Strickland in The Moon and Sixpence (1919) is based on that of *Gauguin; Cakes and Ale (1930) contains thinly veiled portraits (not always kind) of literary friends, e.g. Hugh Walpole. Maugham was, however, at his best as a writer of short stories, material for many of which he found during travels in Malaysia and the East. Though the plots were often melodramatic, his gift for economy of phrase, his scepticism and his narrative skill found their most effective use in this genre. In the story Rain, set in the South Seas, later made into a play and a film, he displays something of a quality often lacking in his work—warmth. Several other stories were filmed with an introduction by himself, e.g. Quartet (1948). Other books include the autobiographical Strictly Personal (1941), A Writer’s Notebook (1949) and Ten Novels and Their Authors (1954). Actively bisexual, he lived in the French Riviera from 1928 (apart from World War II) and received a CH in 1954. He was nominated six times for the Nobel Prize for Literature, and resented not being offered the OM.

Morgan, T., Somerset Maugham. 1981; Hastings, S., The Secret Lives of Somerset Maugham. 2009.

Maupassant, Guy de (1850–1893). French author, born in Normandy. His father was a profligate aristocrat, his mother artistic and sensitive. All these traits were visible in their son. He served briefly in the army during the Franco-Prussian War and then became a civil servant. In the following years he was a friend, protégé and pupil of *Flaubert, who introduced him to *Zola. The immediate success of the well known story Boule de Suif, Maupassant’s contribution to an anthology edited by Zola (1880), decided him to devote his whole time to writing.In the remaining years of his short life he wrote six naturalistic novels, e.g. Une Vie (1883) and Bel Ami (1885), travel books inspired by frequent journeys for his health (which had begun to deteriorate in 1876), and some 300 short stories upon which his fame rests. He writes as an observer not an analyst, letting his characters be judged by their actions, not their thoughts and feelings, and the actions he observes are those of sensual, self-seeking but never spiritual human beings. He views the consequences of these actions with some pity but he neither condemns, condones nor even examines their cause. For this limited end he mastered, with the guidance of Flaubert, a superb technique: his style is taut and his economy of phrase exactly suits the brevity of his tales, his construction is skilful and he uses the trick of the surprise ending effectively. In his last years Maupassant’s illness developed into insanity and he died after 18 months in an institution.

Lanoux, A., Maupassant le ‘Bel-Ami’. 1967.

Maupertuis, Pierre Louis Moreau de (1698–1759). French mathematician and astronomer. He led an expedition to Lapland to measure the length of a degree of the meridian and as a result was able to confirm *Newton’s assertion that the earth is slightly flattened at the poles. He published his conclusions in Sur la Figure de la Terre (1738). He entered (1740) the service of *Friedrich II (‘the Great’) of Prussia and became (1745) President of the Academy at Berlin.

Maupin, Armistead (1944– ). American writer, born in Washington DC. He grew up in North Carolina and after US Navy service became a journalist. In the San Francisco Chronicle from 1983 he wrote Tales of the City, accounts of gay life, which appeared in book form and as a television series.

Mauriac, François (1885–1970). French novelist and dramatist. An ardent Roman Catholic, he was preoccupied with the conflict of Christian morality with human passions and temptations. His novels include Le Baiser au lépreux, Le Désert de l’amour, Thérèse Desqueyroux, Le Næud de vipères written between 1922 and 1932, and La Pharisienne (1941). His most successful plays were Asmodée (1937) and Les Mal-Aimés (written 1939, first performed 1945). Mauriac was elected to the Académie française (1933) and won the Nobel Prize for Literature (1952).

Mauriac, F., Mémoires. 3 vols, 1959–67.

Maurice, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau (1567–1625). Stadtholder of Holland. After the assassination (1584) of his father *William the Silent he continued (with the help for a time of the Earl of *Leicester and an English contingent) the struggle against the Spaniards. As a result of his series of brilliant successes the United Provinces were recognised (1609) by Spain as a free republic. In the following years, Maurice and the Orange party were involved in a quarrel with domestic opponents, but he emerged victorious and renewed the war with Spain (1621).

Maurois, André (pen name of Emile Herzog) (1885–1967). French writer. His first book Les Silences du Colonel Bramble (1918), draws on his experience as a liaison officer with the British army in World War I. His preoccupation with the English is shown in the list of his biographies, which includes *Shelley (Ariel, 1923), *Disraeli, *Byron and *Dickens as well as such French writers as *Voltaire,* Proust and George *Sand (Lélia, 1952). He also wrote novels, essays, and histories of England (1937) and the US (1947). He was elected (1938) to the Académie française. His autobiography, I Remember, I Remember, was published in 1942.

Lemaitre, G., André Maurois. 1968.

Maurras, Charles (1868–1952). French political writer, born in Provence. A classical scholar and poet, he became stone deaf in early life, lost his religious faith but, as a despairing conservative, became convinced that only a union of Church and monarchy could save Europe from anarchy. He became a passionate opponent of *Dreyfus, Jews and foreigners. In 1899 he founded Action française and wrote for the paper of that name 1908–40. Imprisoned several times, his election to the Académie française (1938) was controversial and he was expelled in 1945. He disliked *Hitler and *Mussolini but supported *Pétain. Tried as a collaborator (the evidence being no stronger than the case against Dreyfus had been), he was imprisoned 1945–52, released because of illness and age, and became a Catholic convert on his deathbed.

Mauser, Paul von (1838–1914). German inventor and gunsmith. The Mauser pistol, was named for him and his brother Wilhelm. He also developed an improved needlegun, a breechloading cannon and (in 1897) the first magazine rifle.

Mausolus (d.353/352 BCE). Persian satrap of Caria (Asia Minor) 377–353/352 BCE. He was commemorated by the magnificent memorial (one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) erected by his widow Artemesia at Halicarnassus, which gave rise to the word mausoleum.

Mawson, Sir Douglas (1882–1958). Australian geologist and Antarctic explorer, born in Shipley, Yorkshire. His family emigrated to Australia in 1884 and he graduated from Sydney University. After geological work in the New Hebrides (1903) he joined the staff of Adelaide University (1905). In 1907 he was among the members of *Shackleton’s expedition which reached the South Magnetic Pole. He led the Australasian Antarctic Expedition (AAE) 1911–14 in which much of the coast of Queen Mary Land was explored. After a 600-mile sledge journey he returned ill and alone after losing his two companions, Belgrave Ninnis and Xavier Mertz. He was knighted in 1914, served in Russia during World War I and became professor of geology at Adelaide 1921–52. He led the British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition (BANZARE) 1929–30, 1930–31 when 2,500 km of coast was mapped for the first time. Elected FRS in 1923, he was a foundation Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science (FAA) in 1954. He published The Home of the Blizzard (1930) and for several years appeared on the Australian $100 note.

Mawson, P., Mawson of the Antarctic. 1964; FitzSimons, P., Mawson 2011; Day, D., Flaws in the Ice. In search of Douglas Mawson. 2013.

Maxentius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius) (d.312). Roman Emperor 306–312. Son of *Maximian, he was made Caesar by the Roman praetorian guard, quarrelled with his father and fought with *Constantine. At the Milvian Bridge, near Rome, Constantine defeated Maxentius who was drowned trying to escape.

Maxim, Sir Hiram Stevens (1840–1916). Anglo-American inventor, born in Maine. He settled in England in 1883, became naturalised in 1884 and was knighted in 1901. The best known of his many inventions—he took out over 100 patents—is the Maxim (recoil-operated) machine gun (1884), later lightened and simplified as the ‘Vickers’, which continued to prove its outstanding merits in both world wars. ‘Maximite’, a smokeless powder, was among his other inventions.

Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus) (d.310). Roman Emperor 286–305, 306–308. He was chosen by *Diocletian to be co-Emperor (i.e. Augustus) with himself, with two junior emperors (Caesars) under them. Maximian, in charge of the West, pacified Gaul and drove back the Germanic tribesmen on the Rhine frontiers until in 305, by arrangement with Diocletian, both senior emperors retired in favour of *Constantius (West) and *Galerius (East) with two new Caesars. On the death of Constantius (306), however, his son *Constantine and Maximian’s son *Maxentius, notorious for cruelty and greed, combined to dethrone Severus II, the new Western emperor. Maximian emerged from retirement to help his son, but they soon fell and he went to Gaul to the court of *Constantine, his son-in-law. However, unable to endure a subordinate role, he took advantage of Constantine’s absence on campaign by seizing power. Constantine’s vengeance was swift and Maximian found himself besieged in Marseille. He was handed over by the citizens and committed suicide.

Maximilian I (1459–1519). Holy Roman Emperor 1493–1519. Son of Emperor *Friedrich III, he added greatly to his inheritance by marrying Maria, the heiress of *Charles the Bold of Burgundy, though in fact he found it necessary to relinquish the French provinces while retaining the Netherlands for his son *Felipe. His policy of consolidating the Habsburg dominions by marriage and conquest was on the whole successful, though it involved a number of indecisive wars in France and Italy, but his dream, in accordance with medieval thought, of reviving a universal empire in the west (he even conceived the idea of also becoming pope) inevitably failed. The administrative reforms he achieved were minor, but the enforced acceptance of a committee of princes as a supreme executive would have rendered him impotent had he not succeeded in finding a means to frustrate its efforts. Maximilian had the courage and many of the virtues of a medieval knight, he was a patron and connoisseur of arts and letters, and won wide popularity with a gracious and conciliatory manner. He was succeeded by his grandson *Charles V.

Maximilian (Fernando Maximiliano José María de Habsburgo-Lorena) (1832–1867). Emperor of Mexico 1864–67. Younger brother of the Emperor *Franz Joseph of Austria, he was married to *Carlota, daughter of *Leopold I of the Belgians. This liberal-minded, well-meaning man, whose short experience of administration (1857–59) had been as Governor of the Austrian-controlled Lombardo Venetian territory in Italy, acceded to *Napoléon III’s request to found a new kingdom in Mexico. After defeating the conservatives in the war of 1857–60, the Mexican ‘liberals’ under Benito *Juarez had found themselves unable to meet foreign debts. France being a principal creditor, Napoléon decided to send a French army primarily to collect debts. His forces soon held most of the country and the enthronement of Maximilian was the French Emperor’s solution to the problem of what to do next. While Maximilian was planning freedom for Indians, education and social justice for all, the republican forces were gathering strength, and when the French (on US insistence) departed, Maximilian was helpless. Defeated and betrayed, he was given a pretence of trial and shot. The empress Carlota, who had returned to Europe on a vain quest for help, became insane.

Maxton, James (1885–1946). Scottish socialist politician, born in Glasgow. A teacher (and the son of teachers), a pacifist who opposed both World Wars, he was imprisoned 1916–17 for inciting shipyard workers to strike. He represented the Independent Labour Party (ILP) as MP 1922–46 and became the ILP chair 1926–31; 1934–39. He detested Ramsay *MacDonald and the ILP broke with mainstream Labour in 1932. An outstanding orator, he was a republican and an early advocate of Scottish independence.

McNair, J., James Maxton, the Beloved Rebel. 1955; Brown, G., Maxton. A Biography. 1986.

Maxwell, James Clerk (1831–1879). Scottish physicist, born in Edinburgh. Educated at the Edinburgh Academy and at Edinburgh University and Trinity College, Cambridge, while still a schoolboy of 15 he communicated his first paper to the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He was a professor at Aberdeen 1856–60 and King’s College, London 1860–65, and the first Cavendish professor of experimental physics at Cambridge 1871–79. Maxwell showed (1859), on mechanical principles, that the rings of Saturn could consist only of separate small particles revolving like satellites. Later he worked on the kinetic theory of gases and deduced many of the laws governing their behaviour. His major work, however, was on electricity and magnetism. He evolved the electromagnetic theory of light and showed that there should be electromagnetic waves travelling at the speed of light; these were observed (1887) by *Hertz. Maxwell redetermined the speed of light with great precision and pointed out the fundamental nature of this natural constant. He also evolved many of the theoretical relationships which contributed to the development of electricity. His books include Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (1873) and Matter in Motion (1876). *Einstein regarded Maxwell as the ‘most profound’ physicist since *Newton.

Campbell, L., and Garnett, W., The Life of James Clerk Maxwell. Repr. 1969.

Maxwell, (Ian) Robert (originally Jan Ludvik Hyman Binyamin Hoch) (1923–1991). Czech-Jewish-British publisher born in Czechoslovakia (now in Ukraine). He escaped from Hungary to France in 1939, joined the British Army, became an officer and won a MC. Most of his family died in Auschwitz. He entered scientific publishing in 1951, bought Pergamon Press, served as a Labour MP 1964–70, bought the British Printing Corporation in 1981 and the Daily Mirror in 1984. He launched The European in 1990 and bought the New York Daily News in 1991. He disappeared overboard from his yacht in the Canary Islands (November 1991) and suicide was suspected but never proved. His companies were heavily in debt and he had removed $US1.3 billion from employee pension funds.

Davies, N., The Unknown Maxwell. 1992.

Maxwell Fyfe, David Patrick, 1st Earl of Kilmuir (1900–1967). Scottish lawyer and Conservative politician, born in Edinburgh. He was MP 1935–54, an effective prosecutor at the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal 1945–46, and took a harsh line on capital punishment and homosexual law reform as Home Secretary 1951–54. He became Lord Chancellor 1954–62.

May, Phil(ip William) (1864–1903). English humorous draughtsman. After early struggles he went to Australia (1884) and worked on the Sydney Bulletin. On his return (1892) he began to work for Punch and later, as a regular member of the staff, became one of the best known humorous artists with a great economy of line.

May, Robert McCredie, Baron May of Oxford (1936–2020). Australian theoretical ecologist, born in Sydney. He took a PhD in theoretical physics at Sydney University, taught at Harvard and held chairs at Sydney and Princeton. Professor of Theoretical Ecology at Oxford 1988–95, he was chief scientific adviser to the UK Government 1995–2000 and President of the Royal Society 2000–05. He received the OM in 2002 and the Copley Medal in 2007.

May, Theresa Mary (née Brasier) (1956– ). English Conservative politician, born in Sussex. A vicar’s daughter, she mostly attended government schools, read geography at Oxford, worked in the Bank of England and as a financial consultant, and was elected to a council. MP 1997– , she was a Shadow Minister 1998–2010 and Home Secretary 2010–16. May had been a low key supporter of the UK remaining in the EU, but after the Referendum of June 2016 voted to leave, David *Cameron resigned, May was elected as Conservative Party leader and became Prime Minister 2016–19. Despite her assurances that the House of Commons would run its full term, she called a snap election (June 2017), expecting to be assisted by Jeremy *Corbyn’s perceived weakness, and to strengthen her hand in negotiating terms of ‘Brexit’ from the EU, with a larger majority. She failed spectacularly, and in a hung parliament had to rely on support from the Democratic Unionist Party in Northern Ireland. Her attempts to negotiate a ‘soft Brexit’ failed both with the EU and Conservative hardliners. Boris *Johnson and other Brexiters resigned from her Cabinet and in December 2018 she stared down a leadership challenge (200 votes to 117).

After failing to secure passage of a compromise formula for leaving the EU, she resigned as Conservative Party leader and was succeeded by Johnson who became Prime Minister in July. She was re-elected as MP in December 2019.

Mayakovsky, Vladimir Vladimirovich (1894–1930). Russian futurist poet. He came to prominence as the poet of the 1917 revolution with such works as 150,000,000 (1920), in which President *Wilson personifies capitalism. He also wrote satirical plays, of which The Bed Bug (1921) is the best known. Mayakovsky later fell from official favour and committed suicide. Much of his work is crudely propagandist but it has pathos and sincerity and shows original ideas.

Brown, E. J., Mayakovsky: A Poet in the Revolution. 1973.

Mayer, Julius Robert von (1814–1878). German physicist and physician. After serving as a ship’s doctor, he carried out research on the transfer of heat energy by working horses, which led to the first hypothesis (1842) of the law of the conservation of energy. Credit was given to *Joule and *Helmholtz who independently provided (1847) more detailed proofs. A forgotten figure who spent years in an asylum and was assumed dead, Mayer received belated recognition, including ennoblement and the Copley Medal of the Royal Society (1871).

Mayer, Louis Burt (1885–1957). American film producer, born in Minsk. He merged his production company with Sam *Goldwyn’s in 1924 to form MGM (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer).

Mayer, Sir Robert (1879–1985). British philanthropist, born in Germany. He made a fortune in metal trading and became a notable promoter of music, especially concerts for children. He received a CH on his 100th birthday.

Mayo, Charles Horace (1865–1939). American surgeon. With his father and brother he founded (1889) the Mayo Clinic at Rochester, Minnesota. His researches into goitre cut the US death rate from this disease by 50 per cent.

Clapesattle, H. B., The Doctors Mayo. 2nd ed. 1954.

Mayo, Richard Southwell Bourke, 6th Earl of (1822–1872). Irish politician, born in Dublin. Educated at Trinity College, he was a Conservative MP 1847–67, Chief Secretary for Ireland 1852, 1858–59 and 1866–68, and *Gladstone’s surprising choice as Viceroy of India 1869–72, proving to be an effective reformer, especially in education and irrigation. He was assassinated in the Andaman Islands.

Mayor Zaragoza, Federico (1934– ). Spanish (Catalan) biologist, politician and administrator, born in Barcelona. Rector of the University of Granada 1968–72, he served in the Cortes and the European Parliament, was Minister for Education and Science 1981–82 and Director-General of UNESCO 1987–99. He was a gifted poet and orator in three languages.

Mayr, Ernst (1904–2005). American biologist and taxonomist, born in Germany. Educated in Greifswald and Berlin, he lived in the US from 1932, working at the American Museum of Natural History 1932–53 and was Agassiz professor of zoology at Harvard 1953–75. Regarded as the world’s greatest authority on the classification and naming of species, he wrote extensively on systematic zoology and evolutionary synthesis.

Mazarin, Jules (Giulio Mazarini) (1602–1661). French statesman and cardinal, born in Italy. Educated by the Jesuits in Rome and Spain, he entered the Church and was Papal Nuncio in France 1634–36 and in 1639 assumed French nationality. Meanwhile he had come to the notice of Cardinal *Richelieu, who took him as his assistant and, having secured his cardinalate (1641), recommended him as his successor to *Louis XIII. Mazarin retained his power when the boy-king *Louis XIV came to the throne, largely through the affection of the widowed queen, now regent, *Anne of Austria, to whom Mazarin may have been secretly married. Mazarin brought the Thirty Years’ War to a successful end (1648) with the acquisition for France of Alsace and the bishoprics of Toul, Metz and Verdun, but was immediately involved in the civil wars of the Fronde, a last attempt by the nobles and legalists to avert a centralised autocracy. Again successful he made an advantageous peace with Spain (1659) and prepared France for its great role under Louis XIV. In other respects he was less admirable. He amassed a vast fortune with part of which he provided large dowries to enable his several pretty nieces to marry well. His valuable collection of books and manuscripts was left to the royal library.

Hassall, A., Mazarin. 1973.

Mazeppa, Ivan Stepanovich (c.1645–1709). Cossack leader. After an adventurous early life he was elected hetman (military leader) of the Cossacks (1688), served Peter the Great as soldier and diplomat but later, in the hope of acquiring a semi-independent kingdom in the Ukraine, joined the invading army of *Charles XII of Sweden. After Charles’ defeat at Poltava (1709) Mazeppa took refuge in Turkey.*Byron’s poem Mazeppa relates how, detected in a love affair with a magnate’s wife, the Cossack hero was bound naked to a wild horse which was lashed to madness and galloped across country from Poland to the Ukraine before dropping dead.

Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805–1872). Italian patriot, born in Genoa. Deeply angered by the absorption (1815) of the Genoese republic into the kingdom of Sardinia, he joined the revolutionary elements among the university students and in 1829 became a member of the Carbonari, a secret republican society. He soon abandoned it, however, disliking its elaborate ritual and formed at Marseilles (1832) his own society, ‘Young Italy’, for which he edited a periodical of the same name, his aims being a united, free, republican Italy. After a first ineffective invasion (1834) he lived as an exile in Switzerland and in England (1836–48). His writing and correspondence kept him in touch with revolutionary movements abroad and in England he formed a warm friendship with Thomas *Carlyle and his wife. The year of revolutions, 1848, created the conditions for his return to Italy, where he was greeted as a hero. But by 1849 Austrian power had asserted itself and only the republics of Venice and Rome, whence the Pope had fled, survived. Mazzini became a triumvir of the republic of Rome but after the intervention of French troops had to return to London. When the liberation and unity of Italy were finally achieved (1859–60) it was carried out by statesmen such as *Cavour and men of action such as *Garibaldi. It might never have happened at all had not the ferment been started by Mazzini, the political idealist and persistent propagandist whose hopes in the end were but half fulfilled. He was much admired by Woodrow *Wilson, *Lloyd George and *Gandhi.

Mack Smith, D., Mazzini. 1995.

Mbeki, Thabo (1942– ). South African politician. Son of an African National Congress veteran, he studied in Britain and Russia, went into exile until 1990, becoming the ANC’s international spokesman. He was first deputy president of the Republic 1994–99 and President of the ANC 1997–2007. He succeeded Nelson *Mandela as President of South Africa 1999–2008. His insistence that HIV-AIDS is essentially caused by poverty rather than the sexual transmission of a virus caused concern to health professionals internationally. He insisted that only African pressure against Robert *Mugabe’s regime in Zimbabwe was legitimate and achieved a compromise power-sharing arrangement after the 2008 elections.

Mboya, Tom (1930–1969). Kenyan trade unionist and politician. From 1953 he was Secretary of the Kenya Local Government Workers’ Union (later the Federation of Labour). He was among the first African members to be elected (1957) to the Kenya Legislative Council and became one of the most important members of the Kenya African National Union (KANU), the leading political party before and after independence. From 1962, when he entered the coalition government, his influence increased. Minister of Economic Planning and Development 1964–69, he was assassinated.

Mead, Margaret (1901–1978). American anthropologist and social psychologist. She worked in Samoa and New Guinea and made an intensive (but not always accurate) study of tribal customs and marriage laws. She noted the difficulty that exceptional characters find in primitive societies, closely regulated by custom, in coming to terms with the norm. Her books include Coming of Age in Samoa (1928), Growing up in New Guinea (1930) and Male and Female (1949).

Freeman, D., Margaret Mead and Samoa. 1983.

Meade, George Gordon (1815–1872). American soldier. As an engineer officer he fought in the Mexican War (1848) and was then employed on survey and construction duties until the outbreak of the Civil War. Having distinguished himself as a divisional commander he was given command of the army of the Potomac (1863–65), almost at once winning the great victory over *Lee at Gettysburg, Pa. (July 1863), the turning point of the war.

Meade, James Edward (1907–1995). British economist. Educated at Oxford and Cambridge, he worked in the civil service and taught at both universities and at the London School of Economics. He shared the 1977 Nobel Prize for Economics for his work on the theory of international economic policy.

Meany, (William) George (1894–1980). American trade union official, born in New York. A plumber by trade he made his career in the trade union movement and succeeded William Green as President of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) 1952–55. When the AFL amalgamated with the Congress of Industrial Organisations (CIO), Meany became first President of the combined AFL-CIO 1955–79, retiring the age of 84. He fought against corruption, was strongly anti-Communist and supported the Vietnam War.

Mechnikov, Ilya Ilyich (1845–1916). Russian biologist. After studying in Germany he was professor of zoology at Odessa University 1870–82, worked with *Pasteur in Paris (from 1888) and became Deputy Director of the Pasteur Institute 1904–16. In a study of the digestion processes of invertebrates he discovered phagocytosis (the engulfing of solid particles by amoeboid cells). Later he showed that the white blood corpuscles of vertebrates play a part in defence against disease by engulfing bacteria in the blood stream. He won the Copley Medal in 1906 and shared the 1908 Nobel Prize for Medicine with Paul *Ehrlich (1908) for their work in explaining immunity and developing vaccines.

Medawar, Sir Peter Brian (1915–1987). British biologist, born in Rio de Janeiro, of Lebanese descent. Educated at Oxford where he worked with *Florey, he was professor of zoology at Birmingham 1947–51 and professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at University College, London 1951–62, then worked for the Medical Research Council. He gave the BBC Reith Lectures (1959) on The Future of Man. He shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine (1960) with Sir Macfarlane *Burnet for their studies of ‘acquired immunological tolerance’. He also wrote The Uniqueness of the Individual (1957), The Hope of Progress (1972) and Advice to a Young Scientist (1979). He was knighted in 1965, received the Copley Medal (1969), the CH in 1972 and the OM in 1981. He was seriously disabled by a stroke in 1969. He published several volumes of literary and scientific essays, brilliantly and scathingly written, including Pluto’s Republic (1982) and, with his wife Jean Medawar (née Taylor), the reference work Aristotle to Zoos (1985).

Medawar, P., Memoir of a Thinking Radish. 1986; Medawar, J., A Very Decided Preference. 1990.

Medici. Florentine ruling family. The power of the family was founded upon the huge fortune amassed as a banker by Giovanni de’Medici (1360–1429). His son Cosimo (1389–1464) was exiled as a popular rival by the ruling oligarchy but returned (1434) and, though preserving republican forms succeeded in suppressing faction and was virtual ruler for the rest of his life, he was the generous patron of *Brunelleschi, Gliberti, *Donatello, Filippo *Lippi, Fra Angelico etc. Cosimo was succeeded in power by his son Piero (1416–1469) and his grandson Lorenzo (1449–1492), known as ‘the Magnificent’. The failure of a conspiracy in which his brother Giuliano (1453–1478) was killed, enhanced Lorenzo’s popularity and enabled him to increase his powers. Like his grandfather he patronised artists and beautified the city. After his death the invasion of Italy by *Charles VIII of France in search of a Neapolitan crown led to the temporary exile of the Medici and though they came back (1512), power was mainly exercised from Rome where *Leo X, a grandson of Lorenzo, was Pope. When the Medici were again deposed (1527) a second Medici pope *Clement VII once more brought back the family (1530), but it was a collateral Cosimo (1519–1574) who restored it to greatness. Having been granted Siena by the Emperor, he was created (1569) the first grand-duke of Tuscany by the Pope, starting a line which became extinct on the death of the seventh grand-duke (1737), when the duchy passed to the House of Lorraine (*Catherine de’Medici, *Marie de Medicis).

Brion, M., The Medici: A Great Florentine Family. 1969.

Medina-Sidonia, Alonso Perez de Gúzman, Duque de (1550–1619). Spanish nobleman. Owing to the sudden death of Admiral Santa Cruz, a last-minute decision was taken to give the command of the Armada against England (1588) to Medina Sidonia, a tuna-fish magnate who protested that he had no fighting experience and was a victim of seasickness. He shares blame for the disaster with those who forced him to take a role for which he was completely unsuited.

Medtner, Nikolai Karlovich (1880–1951). Russian composer and pianist. He wrote three piano concertos, 13 sonatas and many songs, and lived in England from 1936. An anti-modernist, he received the unlikely patronage of the Maharajah of Mysore.

Medvedev, Dimitri Anatolievich (1965– ). Russian politician, born in Leningrad. A lawyer, he worked for Anatoli *Sobchak, then transferred his allegiance to Vladimir *Putin. He attempted to reform Gazprom. He was First Deputy Prime Minister 2005–08, President of Russia 2008–12 and Prime Minister 2012–20.

Meegeren, Hans van (1889–1947). Dutch artist. One of the most famous fakers in art history, having failed to find a regular market for pictures under his own name, he started painting in the style of *Vermeer and from 1937 sold six pictures as genuine works of the master, although on even a superficial examination it is hard to see why. His career reached a fantastic climax during World War II when he succeeded in selling them at inflated prices to the German occupation authorities and even to Marshal *Goering. He was tried after the war and sentenced to a year’s imprisonment but died soon afterwards.

Megawati Soekarnoputri (1947– ). Indonesian politician. Daughter of *Soekarno, she led the opposition to *Soeharto. In the June 1999 elections, her Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle outpolled the Government’s Golkar Party, but in October 1999 Abdurrahman *Wahid was elected President, and Megawati became Vice President. In July 2001, following Wahid's impeachment by the People's Consultative Assembly, she became President of Indonesia. In September 2004 she was defeated in Indonesia’s first popular presidential election by Susilo Bambang *Yudhoyono.

Mehta, Zubin (1936– ). Indian conductor, born in Mumbai. A Parsee, he studied music in Vienna, specialising in *Bruckner and *Mahler, and became conductor or music director for major orchestras: Montréal Symphony 1960–67, Los Angeles Philharmonic 1962–78, Israel Philharmonic 1977– , New York Philharmonic 1978–91, and opera houses in Florence and Munich. He devoted himself to improving Israeli-Palestinian relationships.

Mehemet Ali see Muhammad Ali (Pasha al-Mas’ud ibn Agha)

Mehmed V Reşâd (Meḥmed-i ẖâmis) (1844–1918). Sultan of the Ottoman Empire 1909–18 and Caliph of Islam 1909–18. Born in Constantinople/Istanbul, he was kept in seclusion in the Topkapi Palace for decades, and ceded his authority to leaders of the Young Turk movement, *Enver Pasha and *Talaat Pasha. His brother Mehmed VI (Meḥmed-i sâdis Vahideddin) (1861–1926) was the 37th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire 1918–22 and Caliph of Islam 1918–22. He collaborated with the Allies after World War I, tried to suppress the nationalists, and was deposed and exiled by *Kemal *Atatürk and died in San Remo. His feeble-minded brother Abdul Mecid II (1868–1944) was the last caliph 1922–24.

Mehmed Aga (d.1618). Turkish architect. A pupil of *Sinan, he designed the magnificent Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmed Cami) in Istanbul (1609–16).

Mehmet II Fatih (Muhammad II ‘the Conqueror’) (1430–1481). Turkish sultan 1451–81. At the time of his accession the Ottoman Empire already included most of Asia Minor and much of the Balkans, but he conquered (1453) Constantinople, ending the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, a feat that transformed the history of Europe. His forces occupied much of the Balkan peninsula, including Greece, and a war with Venice (1463–79) added to his possessions in the Adriatic and Aegean. He was the effective founder of the Ottoman Empire.

Meighen, Arthur (1874–1960). Canadian Conservative politician. A Manitoba lawyer, he was a member of the House of Commons 1908–21 and 1922–26 and a senator 1932–60. He served as a minister under *Borden 1913–20 and led the Conservatives 1920–26 and 1941. He was Prime Minister 1920–21 and 1926, defeated by Mackenzie *King both times, and advocated protective tariffs against US economic penetration of Canada.

Meiji. Regnal name of Japanese emperor *Mutsuhito.

Meir, Golda (Goldie Mabovitch) (1898–1978). Israeli politician, born in Kiev. She grew up in Milwaukee and emigrated to Palestine in 1921 to work on a collective farm. She had already been involved in Zionism in America and she became active in local political life in 1928, through the Labour movement. She served on the Executive and Secretariat of the Federation of Labour 1929–46. She sat on the War Economic Advisory Council from 1939 and, after the war, became head of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency for Palestine. After independence, her first Cabinet appointment in the Knesset was as Minister of Labour and Social Insurance 1949–56, then Foreign Minister 1956–66 and Prime Minister 1969–74. She worked for support from the US and from the non-aligned countries, particularly in Africa. She was a co-founder of the Israeli Labour Party (1967).

Meir, G., My Life. 1975.

Meissonier, Jean Louis Ernest (1815–1891). French artist. His historical pictures, especially those relating to the Napoléonic campaigns, realised large prices in his lifetime but are now largely forgotten.

Meitner, Lise (1878–1968). Austrian-Jewish-Swedish physicist. Until she emigrated to Denmark (1938) she carried out research in radio-chemistry and nuclear physics at Berlin University and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry. In 1938, with Otto *Hahn and her nephew O. R. *Frisch, she played an important part in the discovery of the nuclear fission process for the liberation of atomic energy, but the Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Hahn alone. She received 48 nominations for the Nobel Prize. She settled in Sweden (1940), became a Swedish citizen (1949) and retired to England in 1960. Element 109 Meitnerium (Mt), craters on the Moon and Venus, and asteroid 6999 Meitner were named for her.

Melanchthon (né Schwartzerdt), Philipp (1497–1560). German Lutheran reformer and scholar, born in Bretten, in the Palatinate. Son of an armourer, he was influenced by his great-uncle Johann *Reuchlin who persuaded him to adopt the Greek translation of his name, ‘black earth’. Educated at Heidelberg and Tübingen, from 1518 he was professor of Greek at Wittenberg University, where he became an early adherent of *Luther, helping him also with his translation of the New Testament from the Greek. He issued the first systematic formulation of the Protestant dogma (1521) and the Augsburg Confession (1530). He was much more tolerant and conciliatory than Luther, and when he succeeded to the leadership he lost the confidence of many Protestants by the concessions he made to the Catholics in his quest for peace.

Melba, Dame Nellie (Helen Porter Armstrong, née Mitchell) (1861–1931). Australian soprano, born in Melbourne. After a brilliant operatic debut in Brussels (1887) she became prima donna at Covent Garden (1888) and sang throughout Europe and America until her retirement (1926). Her greatest successes were in lyric and coloratura roles in the operas of *Verdi and *Puccini. (She sang no *Mozart roles.) She was created DBE in 1918 and promoted GBE in 1927. Pêche Melba, the sweet dish invented in her honour, is evidence of her contemporary reputation.

Radic, T., Melba. 1986; Blainey, A., I am Melba. 2008.

Melbourne, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount (1779–1848). English Whig politician, born in London. Probably the son of Lord Egremont, educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, he was called to the bar (1804) and in 1805 married the eccentric Lady Caroline Ponsonby (Caroline *Lamb), later notorious for her infatuation with *Byron. He was a Member of Parliament 1806–12, 1816–28, then succeeded to the peerage. Originally a supporter of Charles James *Fox, he also admired *Canning and became his Chief Secretary for Ireland 1827–28. Home Secretary 1830–34, his harsh treatment of the Tolpuddle Martyrs in 1834 marred his generally humane record. He reluctantly supported *Grey’s Reform Act (1832) and succeeded him as Prime Minister 1834, until dismissed by *William IV (the last time the Crown so acted). When *Peel lost the ensuing election, Melbourne returned as Prime Minister 1835–41. On Queen *Victoria’s accession, he also acted as her private secretary and tutored her in the art of constitutional government. He resigned after a vote of censure (1841). Stricken with paralysis (1842), he played no further significant role.

Cecil, D., The Young Melbourne. 1939; Cecil, D., Lord M. 1954; Ziegler, P., Melbourne. 1976; Mitchell, L. G., Lord Melbourne. 1997.

Melchett, 1st Baron see Mond, Ludwig

Melchior, Lauritz (Lebrecht Hommel) (1890–1973). Danish-American heroic tenor, born in Copenhagen. He made his operatic debut in Copenhagen 1913 as a baritone, then became a tenor, appearing first in London and Bayreuth in 1924, and New York in 1926. The greatest of all Wagnerian heldentenors, he was a regular at Covent Garden 1924–39 and sang 519 times at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, 1926–50. He made many recordings, appeared in five films and some television programs. He was an expert bridge player.

Méliès, Georges (1861–1938). French film maker, born in Paris. A magician and illusionist, he made 531 films, mostly short, 1896–1913, including L’Affaire Dreyfus (1899, a sympathetic account), and Le voyage dans la lune (1902). He was the subject of The Invention of Hugo Cabret (2008) by Brian Selznick and Martin *Scorsese’s film Hugo (2011).

Mellon, Andrew William (1855–1937). American financier, born in Pittsburgh. He accumulated a huge fortune through a complex of financial and industrial interests, notably the Mellon National Bank of Pittsburgh and the Aluminium Corporation. Turning to politics, he served under presidents *Harding, *Coolidge and *Hoover as Secretary to the Treasury 1921–31 and Ambassador to Great Britain 1931–33. Among the greatest of all American art collectors, a considerable part of his wealth was used to construct and endow the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC.

Cannadine, D., Mellon: An American Life. 2006.

Melville, Herman (1819–1891). American novelist, born in New York. Forced to leave school at the age of 15 by his father’s bankruptcy, he worked as a bank clerk and taught at country schools before working his passage to Europe (1839). In 1841 he joined the whaler Acushnet bound for the Pacific. Because of harsh treatment he deserted the ship and lived for some months among the cannibals of the Marquesas Islands (1842). After being rescued by an Australian whaler, he was delayed in Tahiti by a mutiny and was eventually shipped home in a US frigate (1844). On his return Melville began a series of novels, based on his adventures, e.g. Typee (1846), Omoo (1847) and White Jacket (1850), the first two especially popular for their exuberant descriptions of native life. After his marriage to Elizabeth Shaw (1847) he bought a farm in Massachusetts where among his neighbours was Nathaniel *Hawthorne to whom Melville dedicated his masterpiece, Moby Dick; or, the Whale (1851). Moby Dick is the story of the fatal voyage of the Pequod under Captain Ahab whose obsession it is to track down and kill ‘the great white whale’ which had crippled him in a previous encounter. Although Melville denied that Moby Dick was an allegory, critics have regarded the book as expressing man’s struggle with nature or even with God. Even more puzzling to critics was Pierre (1852), a strange and morbid story about incestuous passion. The harsh welcome it received is said to have induced the melancholia into which Melville sank; however, he continued to write, e.g. The Confidence-Man (1857). Billy Budd, the novel on which Benjamin *Britten’s opera (1951) is based, was left unfinished and not published until 1924. Melville’s style is rhetorical, his vocabulary eccentric, rich and varied, but the note of ‘oddity’ bewildered the critics and for a time repelled the public. He was almost forgotten until revival and reassessment in the 1920s gave him a very exalted position among American writers.

Humphreys, A. R., Melville. 1962; Robertson-Lorant, L., Melville: A Biography. 1996; Parker, H., Herman Melville: A Biography. 1996, 2002; Duberstein, L., The Handsome Sailor. 1998.

Memling (or Memlinc), Hans (c.1440–1494). Flemish painter, born near Frankfurt. Almost certainly a pupil of Rogier van der *Weyden, he lived in Bruges from 1465, became rich and is commemorated there by a museum in the old hospital. His best works include the Donne Triptych (?1468, once at Chatsworth and now at the National Gallery, London),The Man of Sorrows in the Arms of the Virgin (1475, National Gallery, Melbourne), The Betrothal of St Catherine (1479, for an altar at Bruges), Compassion for the Dead Christ, with a Donor (1485?, Rome) and The Legend of St Ursula (1489, Bruges). His portraits show originality and he is said to have introduced the practice of setting a three-quarter bust against a scenic background.

Menander (c.343–291 BCE). Athenian poet. Principal dramatist of the ‘New Comedy’, his innovations included the disappearance of the chorus (except as a ‘turn’ between the acts) and the presentation of humorous situations of everyday life (in contrast to the fantasies of Aristophanes). Here are the slave or servant with a taste for intrigue, the jealous husband, lover, wife or mistress, the long-lost child suddenly restored, the shrew, the cheat all to reappear in the Latin plays of *Plautus and *Terence, and in *Shakespeare, *Molière and many lesser writers. Until large portions of several of Menander’s plays were discovered in the 20th century, it was thought that only fragments of his work had survived.

Sandbach, F. H., Menander: A Commentary. 1973.

Menchù (Tum), Rigoberta (1959– ). Guatemalan human rights worker. A Mayan, whose language was Quiché, she claimed that her parents and brother were tortured and murdered by the army. She went to Mexico, then Europe, and was assisted to write an autobiography I, Rigoberta Menchú (1983) which illustrated the plight of indigenous peoples generally. She was awarded the 1992 Nobel Peace Prize as a gesture of protest against persecution of Indians in Central America. In 1999 she admitted that some experiences in her book had not been personal, but justified publication as having directed international attention to appalling cruelties.

Mencius (Latinised form of Meng-tzu) (c.370–c.290 BCE). Chinese Confucian philosopher, born in Shantung province. Sometimes called ‘second sage’ (‘Ya sheng’), he founded a school devoted to the study of the works of *Confucius. After wandering through China for over 20 years attempting to persuade princes and administrators to rule in a moral rather than opportunist way, he retired to teach and write.

Legge, I. (ed.), The Chinese Classics. Vol. 2., Mencius. 3rd ed. 1960.

Mencken, H(enry) L(ouis) (1880–1956). American author and critic, born in Baltimore. He was on the staff of the Baltimore Sun (1906–41) and his greatest work is the monumental The American Language (4 vols, 1919–48). As editor of the American Mercury (1925–33) he helped to gain public recognition for Theodore *Dreiser and Sinclair *Lewis. He was an outspoken critic who denounced religion, intellectuals, politicians, sentimentalists and foreigners. His diaries confirm his racism and anti-Semitism. Although violently prejudiced, his attacks on complacency and conformity did much to raise the standards of US writing. He also wrote books on *Shaw, *Nietzsche and *Ibsen.

Stenerson, D. C., H. L. Mencken: Iconoclast from Baltimore. 1971; Rodgers, M. E., Mencken. The American Iconoclast. 2005; Hart, D. G., Damning Words. The Life and Religious Times of H.L. Mencken. 2016.

Mendel, Gregor Johann (né Johann Mendel) (1822–1884). Austrian geneticist and botanist, born in Hynčice (now in the Czech Republic). Discoverer of the Mendelian laws of inheritance, he became an Augustinian friar at Brno (Brunn), was ordained in 1847 and adopted the name of Řehoř (Gregor). His scientific studies at Vienna University were encouraged and paid for by the monastery, of which he later became abbot (1869). Many of his experiments on the breeding and hybridisation of plants were carried out in the garden there. He kept (1857–68) systematic records of the pedigrees of many generations of plants, closely examining the effects of heredity on the characteristics of individual plants and discovering the statistical laws governing the transmission from parent to offspring of unit hereditary factors (now called genes). His results were only published (1865 and 1869) in a local journal. His work, dismissed by *Nägeli, was not appreciated until its rediscovery c.1900 by de *Vries. Complicating factors have since been discovered but Mendel’s fundamental principles remain undisturbed by later research.

Stern, C., and Sherwood, E. R. (eds), The Origin of Genetics: A Mendel Source Book. 1967.

Mendeleev, Dmitri Ivanovich (1834–1907). Russian chemist, born in Tobolsk. The youngest of a large family, son of a school principal, he was educated at Heidelberg and St Petersburg, becoming professor of chemistry at St Petersburg University 1867–90. In 1869 he published his first periodic table of the elements, a complete classification of the relation between the properties and the atomic weights of the chemical elements. His classification of the elements in the periodic table enabled him to predict correctly the existence and properties of several elements, later discovered, for which there were gaps in the table. Elected FRS in 1892, he received the Copley Medal in 1905 and, although chosen for the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, was over-ruled by the Swedish Academy. The moon crater Mendeleev and element 101, mendelevium, are named for him. He was an outspoken liberal in politics.

Mendelsohn, Erich (1887–1953). German architect. An exponent of Expressionism, his early work is characterised by an exuberant plasticity which was first realised in his Einstein Tower (Potsdam Observatory). He became a leading architect in Germany, but was forced to leave (1933) on the advent of Nazism. After a short stay in England, he spent some years in practice in Palestine before finally settling in the US. He specialised in factories and department stores but his designs were less purely functional than those of *Gropius.

Whittick, A., Erich Mendelsohn. 2nd ed. 1956.

Mendelssohn(-Bartholdy), (Jakob Ludwig) Felix (1809–1847). German-Jewish composer, conductor and pianist, born in Hamburg. Son of a rich banker and grandson of Moses *Mendelssohn, his family adopted the double name Mendelssohn-Bartholdy on conversion to Christianity. He began to compose when only about 10 years old, and between the ages of 16 and 21 reached the height of his powers. His String Octet Op. 20 (1825), a vivacious work of Mozartian inventiveness, was followed by the overture to A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1826, the incidental music, including the famous Wedding March, dates from 1842). The overture The Hebrides (1829, also known as Fingal’s Cave) was inspired by a visit to Fingal’s Cave on the island of Staffa during a study tour, organised by his father, to Britain (1829)—the first of 10 visits. Travel also inspired Symphony No. 3 (Scottish, 1830–42) and No. 4 (Italian, 1833). Other important works include the two piano concertos (1831, 1837), two piano trios (1839, 1847), the deeply romantic Violin Concerto in E Minor (1838–44) and the oratorio Elijah (1846). Mendelssohn played a central role in the *Bach revival and in Berlin (1829) directed the first performance of the St Matthew Passion since 1750. He conducted the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra from 1835, raising it to new standards, and premiered *Schubert’s Symphony No. 9 (in 1839). He also performed *Beethoven’s piano concertos in London and (with Joseph *Joachim) revived the violin concerto (1844). He was also a gifted organist. He married (1837) Cecile Jeanrenaud and, with his family wealth, escaped the struggles and hardships with which so many artists have had to contend. However, he died early, of an aneurism in the brain, after the death of his much-loved sister Fanny.

Werner, E., Mendelssohn. 1963; Mercer-Taylor, P., The Life of Mendelssohn. 2000; Todd, R. L., Mendelssohn – A Life in Music. 2007.

Mendelssohn, Moses (1729–1786). German-Jewish philosopher. Grandfather of Felix *Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, he was a noted propagandist for the social and legal emancipation of the Jewish people and at the same time tried to break down the prejudiced isolation of the Jews from those who did not share their faith. He was a close friend of the writer and critic *Lessing and collaborated with him on a book on the philosophy of *Pope. He also wrote popular explanations of the sensations and metaphysics. In the dialogue Phaedon (1767) he discusses in Socratic manner the immortality of the soul, in Jerusalem (1783) he defends Judaism as a religion.

Attman, A., Moses Mendelssohn. 1973.

Menderes, Adnan (1899–1961). Turkish politician. He helped to found (1945) the Democratic party, led it in opposition and, when it came to power (1950), became Prime Minister. He brought Turkey into full membership of NATO (1951) and helped to bring about the Baghdad Pact (1955). He was re-elected in 1957, but the extravagance of his social and economic policies and the allegedly corrupt practices of his administration provoked (1960) a successful military revolt. In May 1961 Menderes, found guilty of a number of personal and political offences, was hanged.

Mendès, Catulle (1831–1907). French poet, novelist and playwright, born in Bordeaux. Son of a Jewish banker, he lived in Paris from 1859. As co-founder of Le Parnasse contemporain (1866) he helped to give cohesion to the Parnassian group led by *Leconte de Lisle. He wrote a history of the movement (1884). His own poems owed more to facility of expression than to literary distinction.

Mendès France, Pierre (1907–1982). French Radical Socialist politician. A lawyer by profession, he gained a reputation through his books as a financial analyst before becoming a deputy (1932). He joined the air force in World War II, and eventually reached Algiers, later joining *de Gaulle and becoming Commissioner of Finance in the provisional government 1943–44. He was Minister of National Economy 1944–45 and, as Prime Minister 1954–55 played a leading part in bringing the war in Indo-China to an end. He became a powerful opponent of de Gaulle during the Fifth Republic. His autobiography, Pursuit of Freedom, was published in 1955.

Menelik II (originally Sahle Maryan) (1843–1913). Claiming descent from *Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, he was Negus of Shewa province 1866–89, and although nominally subject to the emperor Yohannes IV, greatly extended his dominions. Having subdued his rivals he was able to succeed when the emperor died. His relations with the Italians, who invaded Eritrea in 1885 and whose interests were extensive throughout the country, were at first friendly but difficulties of the interpretation of the Treaty of Ucciali (1889) led to war and Italy’s calamitous defeat at Adowa (1896). Thus fortified, Menelik did much to modernise the administration and, by skilful bargaining with European powers, increased Ethiopia’s economic strength. The British awarded him a GCB and GCMG. His grandson, Lij *Iyasu, converted to Islam and was deposed (*Haile Selassie).

Marcus, H., The Life and Times of Menelik II of Ethiopia, 1844–1913. 1975.

Menem Akil, Carlos Saúl (1935– ). Argentinian politician. Of Syrian descent, he became active in the Peron Youth Group, graduated in law from Cordoba University and worked for trade unions in the La Rioja province. Governor of La Rioja 1973–76, 1983–89, he was imprisoned and then sent into internal exile by the military regime 1976–81. President of Argentina 1989–99, elected on the Peronista ticket, he amazed his supporters by repudiating his party’s platform and instituted rigorous economic reform. In 1994 the constitution was changed to allow for a second presidential term (reduced to four years), and in 1995 Menem was re-elected, with 50 per cent of the vote, retiring in 1999. In 2001 he was charged with corruption over arms sales and escaped to Chile until 2004. Elected as Senator 2005– , he was sentenced to seven years jail in 2013 for arms smuggling but avoided prison by claiming parliamentary immunity.

Mengelberg, (Josef) Willem (1871–1951). Dutch conductor. As conductor of the Amsterdam Concertgebouw Orchestra 1895–1945 he raised this ensemble to the first rank in Europe. His intensely romantic interpretations of *Bach, *Beethoven, *Tchaikovsky, *Mahler and Richard *Strauss were successfully recorded. He was co-conductor of the New York Philharmonic 1921–29. He collaborated with the Germans during World War II and died in Switzerland as an exile.

Menken, Adah Isaacs (Dolores Adios Fuertes) (1835–1868). American actor and dancer. She created a sensation in London when she appeared (1864) bound and scantily clothed on a horse in a stage version of *Byron’s Mazeppa. She was the ‘Dolores’ of *Swinburne’s poem:

O splendid and sterile Dolores,

Our Lady of Pain.

Menno Simons see Simons, Menno

Menon, V. K. Krishna see Krishna Menon, V. K.

Menotti, Gian Carlo (1911–2007). Italian-American composer, born in Cadegliano. After studying at the Milan Conservatory, he emigrated to the US in 1927 and studied at the Curtis Institute, Philadelphia. He composed and wrote the libretti for a number of short incisive operas, e.g. The Consul (1950), an effective treatment of a modern theme that achieved great success, The Medium (1946), Amahl and the Night Visitors (1951, first performed on television) and The Saint of Bleecker Street (1955). He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1950 and 1955.

Trecoire, R., Gian Carlo Menotti. 1966.

Menshikov, Aleksandr Danilovich, Prince (c.1660–1729). Russian soldier and politician. The son of a groom, he was a guardsman in attendance on *Peter the Great and became his close friend and adviser. He served with distinction against Sweden, and after the victory of Poltava (1709) was made a field marshal. On Peter’s death (1725) Menshikov placed his widow *Catherine I (his own former mistress whom he had introduced to the tsar) on the throne, and, during her brief reign of two years, virtually ruled the kingdom. His last days were spent in exile.

Menuhin, Yehudi, Baron Menuhin (1916–1999). American-British violinist, born in New York. Of Russian-Jewish parentage, he made his debut at seven. His precocious talent was shared by his pianist sister Hephzibah Menuhin (1922–1981). He developed into a brilliant virtuoso and a thoughtful interpreter of the concertos of *Bach, *Beethoven, *Brahms, *Elgar and *Bartók. He toured the world with a triumphant success for many years but lived mainly in England, where he founded (1959) a music festival at Bath. Naturalised British in 1985, he received the OM in 1987, and a peerage in 1993.

Menzies, Sir Robert Gordon (1894–1978). Australian Liberal politician, born in Jeparit, Victoria. Educated at Melbourne University, he became a barrister and KC (1929), served in the Victorian Parliament 1928–34 and was Deputy Premier 1932–34. Member of the House of Representatives 1934–66, he was Attorney-General and Minister for Industry 1934–39 in the United Australia Party–Country Party coalition led by J. A. *Lyons, and Deputy Leader of the UAP 1935–39. He resigned in March 1939 over the government’s withdrawal of support for a national insurance scheme; 18 days later Lyons died suddenly and Earle *Page was sworn in as interim Prime Minister. Menzies defeated W. M. *Hughes to become Leader of the UAP and was Prime Minister 1939–41. Bitter personal differences, compounded by Menzies’ long absence in Britain in the early stages of World War II, forced him out in August 1941. The UAP broke up and he created a new anti-Labor coalition, the Liberal Party, which he led 1944–66. Prime Minister again 1949–66, for a record term, he maintained a strong political commitment to the British connexion and to closer economic and military alliance with the US. His political dominance was assisted by the split in the Labor Party over attitudes towards Communism. A persuasive orator, he was awarded the CH (1951), a KT (1963), AK (1976) and succeeded Winston *Churchill as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports 1965–78.

Hazelhurst, C., Menzies Observed. 1979; Martin, A. W., Robert Menzies: A Life. Vol 1. 1993; Brett, J., Robert Menzies’ Forgotten People. 1992; Bramston, T., Robert Menzies: The Art of Politics. 2019.

Mercator, Gerhardus (Gerhard Kremer) (1512–1594). Flemish geographer and cartographer, born in Rupelmonde (now in Belgium). He graduated from Louvain University where he worked as a map-maker and instrument designer until, as a Protestant, he emigrated to Germany (1552). In his double cordiform projection world map (1538), he first applied the name ‘Americae’ to both continents of the New World. On the edge is printed ‘Climata Australia’, but it is not linked to a specific location. Originally a follower of *Ptolemy, he devised the familiar ‘Mercator projection’ which represents the world, in effect, as a cylinder, not a globe, in which the meridians of longitude remain parallel without converging to a point at each pole. He used this projection for his world chart of 1569 (18 sheets). His maps facilitated sailing by dead reckoning and became useful and popular, since few sailors ventured beyond 50°N or S. He also constructed globes. Two parts of his great atlas (107 maps in all) were published in 1585 and 1589; his son published the third part (1595) after his death.

Mercer, John (1791–1866). English calico printer. He discovered that cotton fibres could be made stronger and more receptive to dyes if treated with a solution of caustic alkali, a process known as ‘mercerising’.

Merck, (Heinrich) Emanuel (1794–1855). German pharmacist. Working in the family business in Darmstadt, in 1827 he isolated alkaloids (common factors in morphine, cocaine, quinine, caffeine, nicotine) and produced them in large volume.

Meredith, George (1828–1909). English novelist and poet, born in Portsmouth. He contributed to periodicals, published much poetry and wrote an oriental fantasy The Shaving of Shagpat (1856) before the appearance of his first novel, The Ordeal of Richard Feverel (1859). He shared rooms with *Swinburne and *Rossetti 1861–62. In 1862 he published his tragic poem Modern Love and became a reader to the publishers Chapman & Hall (until 1894). In 1876 he settled at Flint Cottage, Box Hill, Surrey, his home for the rest of his life. Among his best known novels are Rhoda Fleming (1865), Beauchamp’s Career (1876), The Egoist (1879), The Tragic Comedians (1880), based on the love story of Ferdinand *Lassalle, and Diana of the Crossways (1885), the only one to achieve real popularity. Meredith combined intellectual clarity, a hatred of the commonplace and an impressionistic technique. From this emerged a style so difficult and convoluted that Oscar *Wilde commented ‘As a writer he mastered everything but language’. Meredith was twice married, in 1849 to a daughter of Thomas Love *Peacock, who left him in 1858 and died in 1861, and (1864) to Marie Vulliamy (d.1885), who lived with him at Box Hill. He received the OM in 1905.

Stevenson, L., The Ordeal of George Meredith. 1953.

Merian, Maria Sybilla (1647–1717). German entolomologist and illustrator, born in Frankfurt. She was an acute observer of caterpillars, silkworms, butterflies, moths, beetles and frogs. She understood the process of metamorphosis, producing strikingly accurate (and beautiful) illustrations, which were widely published. She worked in Surinam and lived in Amsterdam. Her admirers included *Peter the Great, Carolus *Linnaeus and David *Attenborough.

Mérimée, Prosper (1803–1870). French novelist and heritage pioneer, born in Paris. He studied law, language and literature, was inspired by his friend *Stendhal, and by the works of *Scott and *Pushkin and first gained attention with the publication of fake translations (actually original compositions). As the first Inspector-General of Historical Monuments 1833–60, he initiated the restoration and conservation of the abbey church at Vézelay, Notre Dame, Saint Denis, Carcassonne and many other decaying sites (*Viollet-le-Duc). In 1843 the Musée de Moyen Age (Cluny Museum) was established as a national institution. He had a great knowledge of archaeology and travelled widely. He was a friend of the future empress *Eugénie and became a member of the Académie française in 1844 and a senator in 1853. He wrote many historical novels, but his best remembered works were Mateo Falcone (1833), a short story, Colomba (1840) and Carmen (1846), used as the basis of *Bizet’s opera. His letters, published posthumously, were a critical appraisal of the Second Empire. He died in Cannes.

Raitt, A. W., Mérimée. 1970.

Merkel, Angela Dorothea (née Kasner) (1954– ). German Christian Democratic politician, born in Hamburg. Her father, a Lutheran pastor, took his family to East Germany when she was an infant; her mother was of Polish descent. She gained a doctorate in quantum chemistry at Leipzig University, married her first husband Ulrich Merkel in 1977, but only became politically active after the fall of the Berlin Wall (1989). She represented Leipzig in the Bundestag 1990– and was Minister for Women and Young People 1991–94 and for the Environment 1994–98. Secretary General of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 1998–2000, she was Leader 2000– . In November 2005, she became Chancellor of Germany, the first woman to hold the office and the first from the former East German Republic. The longest serving European political leader, she lost votes to the far right in the September 2017 election, but in February 2018 formed a coalition with the SPD (Social Democratic Party).

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (1908–1961). French philosopher. He taught at Lyon, the Sorbonne and the Collège de France, and worked with *Sartre in editing Les Temps Modernes (1945–52) and defending Stalinist terror. He wrote The Phenomenology of Perception (1945, English translation 1962).

Merrick, Joseph Carey (1862–1890). English patient. He suffered from neurofibromatosis, a disease that caused grotesque malformation of the skull and he was exhibited in fairs and sideshows as ‘The Elephant Man’ until given sensitive treatment by the surgeon Sir Frederick Treves. In the film The Elephant Man (1980), Merrick’s role was played by John Hurt. An alternative diagnosis was Proteus disease.

Howell, M. and Ford, P., The True History of the Elephant Man. 1980.

Mersenne, Marin (1588–1648). French scientist. Educated by the Jesuits, in 1611 he joined the Minim Order, and lived at the Minim Convent in Paris until his death. Mersenne’s major contribution to European intellectual life lay in his vast correspondence. He acted as a kind of clearing house for all the great contemporary intellects in the fields of philosophy and science. He supported the modern, mechanistic philosophy against the science of the Ancients, and defended the right to pursue scientific knowledge against theological bigots. But he was also violently opposed to what he saw as ‘atheistic’ and ‘materialistic’ currents in the thinking of *Bruno, Campanella, and *Fludd. Mersenne’s own scientific research was largely concerned with the physics of sound. He experimented with pitch and harmonies counting the vibrations of long strings against time: he succeeded in formulating quantified explanations of consonance, resonance and dissonance. He was interested in the effect of music on the human emotions, which he sought to attribute to entirely rational and mechanical forces. Mersenne emphasised that languages were merely combinations of signs invented by men for the sake of convenience in communication. Like many 17th-century scholars he was eager to develop a perfect, universal language, based on scientific principles. Mersenne dedicated himself to scientific explanations. His dying wish was for an autopsy to discover the cause of his own death.

Mesmer, Franz Anton (1734–1815). Austrian physician. The word ‘mesmerism’ is derived from his name. His theories concerning the influence of planets on the human body and the existence of an all-pervasive ‘magnetic fluid’ that affected the nervous system naturally did not commend themselves to the medical profession. It was even less attracted by the healing sessions in Paris in which he appeared dressed in purple silk with an iron rod in his hand. A commission set up by the Académie des Sciences rejected (1784) his magnetic theories and thereafter his popularity waned. He owed his successes partly to the effects of his mumbo jumbo upon the imaginations of his patients, and partly to amelioration produced by hypnotism which he had the power to induce without being able to comprehend it.

Messager, André Charles Prosper (1853–1929). French composer. A pupil of *Saint-Saëns, he first won wide acclaim with a comic opera, La Basoche (1890). He was artistic director 1901–06 of Covent Garden Opera in London. Monsieur Beaucaire (1919) was the best known of his many operettas.

Ferner, H., André Messager. 1948.

Messalina, Valeria (24–48 CE). Roman Empress. Wife of *Claudius, she was only 15 when she married, and as the beautiful young mother of his son Britannicus held Claudius completely enthralled, though notorious in Rome for her lasciviousness, amorality and the murders she instigated. Her downfall and execution was due to her ‘marriage’ in public to her favourite lover, Silius.

Messerschmitt, Willy (1898–1978). German aircraft designer and manufacturer. He produced his first aeroplane in 1916 and, a few years later, founded his own firm for their manufacture. His fighters and fighter bombers, Me. 109, 110, 210 and 410, were among the most successful German aircraft of World War II.

Messiaen, Olivier (Eugène Prosper Charles) (1908–1992). French composer, born in Avignon. Son of a professor of English and a poet, he taught himself the piano, then studied organ with Marcel Dupré and composition with Paul *Dukas. From 1931 he was organist at the Trinité Church, Paris, taught at the Schola Cantorum 1935–39, and was a professor of composition at the Sorbonne 1942–88: Pierre *Boulez, Yannis *Xenakis and Karlheinz *Stockhausen were pupils. After army service, he was a prisoner of war at Görlitz (1940–41). Primarily a melodist, he used innovative tone-colouring influenced by his studies of Greek chants, Hindu ragas, bird songs, plainsong and microtonality. He wrote on musical theory and his philosophy was imbued with his Catholic faith. His major pieces include La Nativité du Seigneur (1935, organ solo), Quatuor pour la fin du temps (1941, piano, clarinet, violin, cello), Visions de l’Amen (1943, two pianos), Vingt Regards sur l’Enfant-Jesus (Twenty contemplations on the infant Jesus; 1944, piano, long, complex and mesmerising), Turangalila-Symphonie (1946–48, a luxuriantly romantic work, probably his most accessible), Chronochromie (1960, ‘The Colour of Time’ for large orchestra), Couleurs de la Cité Celeste (1963) and Et Exspecto Resurrectionem Mortuorum (1964). His second wife, Yvonne Loriod (1924–2010) was a magnificent pianist and teacher who premiered works by her husband and Boulez.

Griffiths, P., Olivier Messiaen. 1985; Hill, P., and Simeone, N., Messiaen. 2005.

Mestrovic, Ivan (1883–1962). Yugoslav sculptor, born in Dalmatia. He studied in Vienna and Paris and between the two world wars became widely known for the vigorous monumental style and emotional intensity he applied to the many war memorials for which he was commissioned. In his own country his best known works include the great Yugoslav national temple at Kossovo and the immense statue of Bishop Gregory outside the walls of Split. He became a US citizen in 1954.

Metaxas, Ioannis (1870–1941). Greek soldier and dictator, born in Ithaca. He trained in Germany, and in the Balkan Wars 1912–13 secured Macedonia and Thrace for Greece. Chief of the General Staff 1913–17, he was close to King *Constantine and opposed involvement in World War I. When *Venizelos seized power in 1917 and Greece joined the Allies, Metaxas was exiled to Corsica. He returned, and in 1922 founded the ultra-royalist Freethinkers Party. After the monarchy was restored, under *George II he became Minister for War and for the Interior 1935–36. Prime Minister and Foreign Minister 1936–41, he ruled as a dictator until his death. He urged neutrality in World War II but his hand was forced when *Mussolini’s forces invaded Greece, and Metaxas organised resistance, which succeeded until the Germans took over.

Methodius, St see Cyril, St

Metsu, Gabriel (1629–1667). Dutch genre painter, born at Leyden. He lived in Amsterdam from about 1650. His early work was religious, but, influenced by *Rembrandt and *Steen, he turned to subjects of domestic or urban life. His cheerful, robust paintings reveal a skilled handling of colour, and the effects of sunlight on dress and furniture.

Metternich(-Winneburg), Clemens Wenzel Lothar, Prince (1773–1859). Austrian statesman, born in Coblenz. Some experience of revolutionary methods gained as a student at Strasbourg University is said to have implanted his hatred of democracy but, as son of a diplomat and as a creator and expositor of Habsburg policy all his life, he could hardly have been otherwise. His diplomatic heritage was enlarged and his social and material standing greatly increased when he married the granddaughter and heiress of the Prince of *Kaunitz-Rietberg. He became Austrian Minister to Saxony 1801–03, and Ambassador to Prussia 1803–05, Russia 1805–06 and France 1806–09. He was Austrian Chancellor and Foreign Minister 1809–48. His task was to provide a breathing space in which Austria could recover from successive defeats at the hands of the French. To achieve this he played a double game with great caution and skill. He negotiated the marriage of the Austrian archduchess Marie Louise with *Napoléon, and when the latter quarrelled with Russia provided him with a small Austrian contingent while secretly informing the tsar that he had nothing more to fear. Thus, though he expected a French victory he was well placed to steer Austria to the winning side after the Moscow retreat of 1812, and as the princely host (his title was conferred in 1814) at the Congress of Vienna, to play a dominating part in the reshaping of Europe after Napoléon’s fall. The final settlement, for which Metternich found allies in *Castlereagh for Britain and *Talleyrand, now acting for the restored monarchy of France, was a cleverly contrived balance of power, with Austria left at the head of a confederation of sovereign German states. Sustained by the ‘Holy Alliance’ of the rulers of Russia, Prussia and Austria, Metternich’s Europe’ survived for some 30 years. He controlled Austria throughout, not so blind to the need for reforms as is often supposed, but so underrating the forces of nationalism that the revolutions of 1848 took him by surprise. He was forced to resign and, after spending 18 months of the intervening period in England, returned to Vienna in 1851 after the revolution had been suppressed.

Palmer, A. W., Metternich. 1972; Siemann, W., Metternich. Strategist and Visionary. 2016/19.

Meyer, Julius Lothar (1830–1895). German chemist. Professor of chemistry 1868–76 at Karlsruhe Polytechnic and then at Tübingen University, in Die modernen Theorien der Chemie (1864) he discussed the relation between the atomic weights and the properties, in particular the atomic volumes, of the chemical elements. In 1870 he put forward a periodic classification of the elements independently of, and a little later than, *Mendeleyev, but he did not see the important consequences of this relationship as clearly.

Meyerbeer, Giacomo (Jakob Liebmann Beer) (1791–1864). German-Jewish composer. Originally a boy pianist, he studied opera in Italy and there composed several works now forgotten. Once settled in Paris he developed a grandiloquent style, to which *Wagner, whom he befriended, owed much. This he successfully applied to such operas as Robert le Diable (1831), Les Huguenots (1836) and L'Africaine (produced 1865). Meyerbeer was immensely self-critical and rewrote many passages time after time. He was known especially for his magnificent stage effects and choral climaxes.

Miaskovsky, Nikolai Yakovlevich (1881–1950). Russian composer. A pupil of *Glière and *Rimsky-Korsakov, he wrote 27 symphonies, other orchestral works, and chamber and piano music.

Michael I (Mihai von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen) (1921–2017). King of Romania 1927–30 and 1940–47. He succeeded his grandfather, *Ferdinand, as king, his father (later *Carol II) having renounced his rights. In 1930, Carol seized power but in 1940 was again forced to abdicate. Michael, king once more, attempted to resist German encroachments in World War II and organised (1944) the coup d’état that took his country out of the war. In 1947, he was forced by Communist pressure to abdicate. A year later he married Princess Anne of Bourbon-Parma. He lived in England and Switzerland, became a test pilot, had his nationality restored in 1997 and was buried in Romania.

Michelangeli, Arturo Benedetti (1920–1995). Italian pianist, born in Brescia. Although he rarely gave concerts or recorded, Michelangeli acquired a legendary reputation for his performances of *Bach, *Beethoven, *Chopin, *Debussy and *Ravel.

Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564). Italian painter, sculptor, artist and poet, born at Caprese, near Florence. Son of an official, Lodovico di Buonarroti Simoni (1444–1531) and Francesca Rucellai (1455–1481), as a boy of 13 he was apprenticed to *Ghirlandaio in Florence. In 1489 he came to the notice of *Lorenzo de’Medici who admitted him to his sculpture school in the Medici Gardens and took him into his house, where he met and was influenced by the poet *Politian and many humanist scholars. The Madonna of the Steps (in low relief) and the Battle of the Centaurs (in high relief and already showing the strength and energy of his maturity) belong to this period. In the confused years following Lorenzo’s death (1492), Michelangelo left Florence for Bologna (1495–96) and in 1496 went to Rome, where he created the Bacchus (now in Florence) and the Pietà (1499) in St Peter’s, showing the crucified Christ lying in the arms of the Virgin (perhaps a portrait of the artist’s mother: she looks younger than her son). In Florence, 1501–04, he executed the colossal (4.34 m) marble statue David (now in the Accademia in Florence), in which the use of distortion and tension create the illusion of a perfect male form. Already contemporaries referred to his terribilità—the quality that inspired awe—although his famous outbursts of rage probably contributed. Michelangelo returned to Rome (1505) commissioned by Pope *Julius II to design and work on his tomb. The scheme was constantly reduced by the pope and his heirs, and Michelangelo completed only after years of intermittent work, the great statue of Moses (c.1513–15) and the figures of four slaves now in St Pietro in Vincoli. Many of his most powerful works were unfinished, including the Slaves in the Louvre and the Accademia. From 1508 to 1512 Michelangelo was again in Rome occupied with one of his greatest tasks, the decoration of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, a huge area of 340 sq. m. He painted 28 Old Testament subjects (Genesis, Prophets, Scenes of Salvation, Ancestors of Jesus) and five Sibyls, more than 300 figures. The outstanding central sections are Creation of Adam, Creation of Eve and The Fall of Man. Technically the work presented immense difficulties, partly of perspective, partly because the painting was awkward to execute. The figures depicted, e.g. those in the Creation of Adam and the nudes surrounding the main panels, illustrate the neo-Platonist theory that the beauty of the human body symbolises divine beauty. This idea, derived from his studies and colloquies with the scholars in Lorenzo’s garden, permeates all Michelangelo’s work. From 1521 he devoted 14 years (with interruptions) to the Medici Chapel in the Church of St Lorenzo, Florence. The wall decorations and the tombs of Lorenzo and Giuliano de’*Medici were complete, or nearly so, as were the reclining figures of Day, Night, Dusk and Dawn. The chapel wall—an architectural experiment much imitated—is solely designed to provide a sculptured setting for the figures. But the project as a whole was left unfinished. Intermittently, until 1559, the library of St Lorenzo at Florence was also constructed to Michelangelo’s designs. Here Manneristic techniques (e.g. pillars set in niches to conceal their function) begin to appear. In 1534 the Medici pope *Clement VII summoned him to Rome to paint a fresco of the Last Judgment for the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. The work, carried out (1536–41) under *Paul III, is one of the most awesome pictures ever painted, with Christ, the stern judge (but essentially an Apollonian figure, in the Greek style), the elect, observant and fearful, and the crowd of struggling nudes (about 300) representing the damned, it provoked controversy from the first, although the astounding quality of execution and the overwhelming power of the message was undeniable. (A major cleaning and restoration of the Sistine Chapel was completed in 1996.) The same mood of tragedy provoked by the sufferings of the world he lived in is visible in his last great paintings, the frescoes in the Pauline Chapel of the Vatican—the Conversion of St Paul and the Crucifixion of St Peter.

Michelangelo devoted his last 20 years mainly to architecture. In reconstructing the Capitol in Rome he designed the first planned square of modern times, he made additions to the Palazzo Farnese, but most important he was chosen (1546) to succeed Antonio da Sangallo (1483–1546) as chief architect of St Peter’s. Here he modified *Bramante’s original plans for transepts and choir and designed the new higher, lantern topped dome which towers over the building. Michelangelo never married and his longest sustained friendship was for the noblewoman and poet Vittoria Colonna (1490–1547), to whom he wrote some of the 100 or so sonnets which place him high among the poets of his time. Among his last sculptures were the Florence Pietà, including a self-portrait (c.1548–55) and the (disputed) Palestrina Pietà (c.1556). In his 80s he devoted himself to solitary religious and mystical contemplation, between moods of ecstasy and despair and conscious of the dark abyss beneath the thin layer of civilisation. Michelangelo was the first great Mannerist artist, imposing his conceptions on nature. Primarily a sculptor, his pictures have been described as sculptures in paint, but just as his works are monumental, so he is a colossus dominating all the fine arts, painting, sculpture and architecture during the Renaissance.

Goldschieder, L. Michelangel: Paintings, Sculpture, Architecture. 1953; Drawings. 1966; Summers, D., Michelangelo and the Language of Art. 1981; Stone, I., The Agony and the Ecstasy. 1987; Bull, G. Michelangelo. 1995; Neret, G., Michelangelo. 2000; Wallace, W. E., Michelangelo The Artist, the Man and his Times. 2011.; Gayford, M., Michelangelo. His Epic Life. 2013; Hirst, M. Michelangelo: The Achievement of Fame. 2013.

Michelet, Jules (1798–1874). French historian. Professor of history at the Collège de France, Paris 1838–51, he conceived his longest work, the Histoire de France (24 volumes, 1833–46, 1854–67), as, in effect, a biography of the nation. However, his greatest achievement was Histoire de la Revolution (7 volumes, 1847–53) in which he defined the Revolution as a combination of ‘Law, Right and Justice’. He saw the Revolution as both ‘the heir and adversary of Christianity’, based on a human community, not divine order. He rejected royalist reaction and Jacobin Terror. He was influenced by the work of *Vico.

Viallaneix, P., Michelet. 1998.

Michelson, Albert Abraham (1852–1931). American physicist, born Prussia (now in Poland). His family emigrated to the US in 1855. Early in his career he was an instructor in physics and chemistry at the US Naval Academy. Later he studied in Europe and on his return held two professorships before he was appointed (1893) chief professor at the Ryerson Physical Laboratory, Chicago. Much of his success was due to his extreme skill in designing optical instruments, e.g. the interferometer with which he carried out, with Edward *Morley, the famous Michelson-Morley experiment to determine the speed and direction of the earth through the ether. The basis of this experiment was to determine, with great accuracy, the velocity of light in two directions at right angles to each other. The two velocities were found to be exactly equal, this surprising result leading *Einstein to the formulation of his theory of relativity. Michelson made many determinations of the speed of light, the most accurate of which were made in 1924 and 1925. In 1907, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics and the Copley Medal, and in the 1920s he used the interferometer to measure the diameter of stars.

Jaffe, B., Michelson and the Speed of Light. 1960.

Michener, James A(lbert) (1907–1997). American writer. His Tales of the South Pacific (1947) won the Pulitzer Prize, became the *Rodgers and *Hammerstein musical South Pacific, and a film (1958). A prolific novelist, he also wrote The Hokusai Sketch-Books (1958) and travel books on Iberia, Poland, Hawaii, Mexico, Alaska, the Caribbean and Texas. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977.

Michurin, Ivan Vladimirovich (1855–1935). Russian horticulturist. He revived *Lamarck’s thesis that even genetically inferior plants can be altered over generations if the environment is improved sufficiently. His views were enthusiastically promoted by his disciple T. D. *Lysenko.

Mickiewicz, Adam (1798–1855). Polish poet, born in Lithuania. The founder of the Romantic movement in Poland, he is regarded as among the greatest of its poets. During a period of exile he met *Pushkin; from 1829 he lived abroad, mostly in Paris. His poems are nearly all devoted to the exaltation of the Polish nation in one or other of its aspects. They include Ballads and Romances (1822), short epics, e.g. Konrad Wallenrod (1825–28), about the medieval struggles with the Teutonic knights, and above all his masterpiece, Pan Tadeusz (1834), an epic in 12 books describing the life of the Polish gentry and their decay, in the years 1811–12. Mickiewicz died at Constantinople, where he was trying to form a Polish legion to fight the Russians in the Crimean War.

Lednicki, W. (ed.), Adam Mickiewicz in World Literature. 1956.

Middleton, Thomas (1570?–1627). English dramatist, born in London. Educated at Oxford, he wrote for the Globe and Swan theatres in London and produced pageants. His comedies include A Mad World, My Masters (1604) and his tragedies Women beware Women (1621) and The Changeling (1622). He probably collaborated with *Shakespeare on Timon of Athens (1605–06) and The Second Maiden’s Tragedy (1611).

Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig (1886–1969). German-American architect, born in Aachen. Trained (like *Gropius and *Le Corbusier) by Peter *Behrens, his architecture is notable for its use of glass walls, subtlety of proportion and refinement of detail. He attracted international attention in 1921 with an all-glass skyscraper. In 1927 he was put in charge of a housing development in Stuttgart where steel construction was first applied to domestic building. His German Pavilion for the Barcelona International Exposition (1929) was a simple, elegant structure, a steel frame with glass and polished marble. Demolished in 1930, it was rebuilt in 1986. He was the last director of the Bauhaus 1930–33, at Dessau. In the US from 1937, the best known of his later works include the Farnsworth house and the IBM Building in Chicago and the Seagram Building in New York. He directed the Illinois Institute of Technology’s school of architecture 1946–58.

Blaser, W., Mies van der Rohe: The Art of Structure. 1965.

Mi Fei (Mi Fu) (1051–1107). Chinese painter, calligrapher, poet and scholar, born in Kiangsu province. A high ranking official, famous for eccentricity and a sharp tongue, he evolved his own distinctive ‘pointillist’ style, known as Mi dien (‘Mi dots’).

Mifune Toshiro (1920–1997). Japanese actor, born in China. The greatest Japanese screen actor, he achieved international recognition in *Kurosawa’s films Rashomon (1950), Seven Samurai (1954) and The Lower Depths (1957). He later appeared in US and British films.

Mihailovich, Draga (1893–1946). Yugoslav soldier. In World War II, after the collapse of Yugoslav resistance of the German attack (1941), Mihailovich organised a resistance movement under the direction of the Yugoslav royal government in London. He was accused by *Tito, the Communist leader, of acting with more vigour against his rival partisans than against the Germans. After the war Mihailovich was charged with collaboration and shot.

Mikhail (Romanov) (1596–1645). Tsar of Russia (1613–45). Grandnephew of *Ivan IV’s wife, Anastasia, he was a member of a noble boyar family, elected as tsar during the ‘time of troubles’, an era of political instability, civil war and the claims of several pretenders (*Dimitri, False). Mikhail’s father, the patriarch Philaret, dominated government until he died in 1633. During his reign the status of the peasantry deteriorated towards serfdom. The Romanov dynasty ruled until 1917.

Mikoyan, Anastas Ivanovich (1895–1978). Russian (Armenian) politician. After fighting in the revolutionary wars he rose quickly in the Communist ranks and from 1926, when he became Stalin’s Commissar of Trade, showed an extraordinary ability to survive all political upheavals. Most of his appointments were connected with internal and external trade, he was a Politburo member 1935–66, first deputy premier 1955–64, and the first non-Russian president of the USSR 1964–65.

Milanković, Milutin (1879–1958). Yugoslavian (Serbian) mathematician and geophysicist. Trained in Vienna as a civil engineer, he was a professor at Budapest University 1919–41, 1945–58. He concluded that the very long-term variability in the Earth’s climate was determined by changes in three cycles: (i) eccentricity in orbit—100,000 years; (ii) axial tilt relative to the sun—41,000 years; and (iii) precession, or changes in orientation, of the Earth’s axis—23,000 years. He published his major work Canon of Insolation and the Ice-Age Problem, in six volumes, in 1941, a bad time for scientific discourse. His work only gained general acceptance in the 1970s. Craters on the moon and Mars and Asteroid 1605 Milanković are named for him.

Miles, Bernard Miles, Baron (1907–1989). English actor and director. A successful character actor (e.g. as Joe Gargery in the film Great Expectations), he founded the Mermaid Theatre in 1950, producing operas, repertory and musicals. He was knighted in 1969 and created a life peer in 1979.

Milford Haven, 1st Marquess of see Mountbatten

Milhaud, Darius (1892–1974). French composer. One of ‘Les Six’, a group of French modernists who were active after World War I, and associated with important literary figures e.g. *Claudel and *Cocteau, he was both prolific and versatile. His works include the ballets Protéc (1913–19), Le Boeuf sur le toit (1919), and Le Création du monde (1923), in which he uses jazz techniques, the operas Bolivar (1943) and Christophe Colombe (1928), the suite Scaramouche (1939) for two pianos, much chamber music and many symphonies, some of them only a few minutes long. Milhaud was professor of music at Mills College, California 1940–47, and then returned to Paris to teach at the Conservatoire. He published Notes sans Musique (1952).

Roy, J., Darius Milhaud. 1969.

Miliband, David Wright (1965– ). English Labour politician, born in London. Of Polish-Jewish descent, he was educated at Oxford and MIT. MP 2001–13, he served as Secretary of State for the Environment 2006–07 and Foreign Secretary 2007–10. He became President and CEO of the International Rescue Committee in New York City 2013– . In 2013 he became President and CEO of the International Rescue Committee in New York City. His brother Ed(ward Samuel) Miliband (1969– ), an economist, was Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change 2008–10. After a close contest between the two brothers for Labour’s leadership, after Gordon *Brown resigned, Ed Miliband was elected (September 2010) and became Leader of the Opposition. Heavily defeated in the May 2015 election, he resigned as Labour leader.

Mill, James (1773–1836). Scottish philosopher and political scientist. Son of a shoemaker, intended for the ministry he studied Greek and philosophy at Edinburgh University, but went to London (1802) and became a close friend of Jeremy *Bentham, who became a major influence. For some time he was editor of the Literary Journal and contributed articles to various other periodicals. In 1806 he began work on his History of British India, and its publication (1817–18) secured him a post at the London offices of the East India Company. He continued to write articles on political and economic subjects. His Elements of Political Economy (1821–22) was written primarily to educate his son John Stuart *Mill. He also wrote Analysis of the Human Mind (1829).

Mill, John Stuart (1806–1873). British philosopher and economist, born in London. Rigorously educated by his father James *Mill, he began to learn Greek at the age of three, showed prodigious gifts, experiencing an abnormal (but not unhappy) childhood. He joined his father in the London office of the East India Company, working there 1823–58. *Bentham was a major influence, but Mill modified Utilitarianism’s goal of ‘the greatest happiness for the greatest number’ by adding idealism, ethics and the need for long-term satisfaction. In philosophy he was an advocate of Induction (*Bacon’s scientific method) and was influenced by *Locke’s Empiricism. He wrote A System of Logic (2 vols, 1843). His theory of Induction, arguing from the particular to the general, is now regarded as simplistic and overconfident. His Principles of Political Economy (1848) followed the general approach of *Ricardo, but cautioned against harsh imposition of abstract reasoning. In On Liberty (1859), his greatest work, he warned against the danger of tyranny by majority, forcing conformity on minorities, emphasising the need to recognise and protect individual differences. He was also influenced and softened by his wife Harriet Taylor (née Hardy), the one romance in his life: he knew her from 1830, they married in 1851 and she died in 1858. As MP for Westminster 1865–68, he advocated votes for women, proportional representation, and sympathised with trade unions and farm cooperatives. He died in Avignon and his Autobiography (1873) was published posthumously. His ideas and analytical method influenced the Fabian Society (founded in 1884).

Britton, K. W., John Stuart Mill: His Life and Philosophy. 2nd ed. 1969; Reeves, R., John Stuart Mill: Victorian Firebrand. 2008.

Millais, Sir John Everett, 1st Baronet (1829–1896). British painter, born in Southampton. From a Jersey family, he exhibited at the Royal Academy at the age of 17. In 1848 he joined with his friends Holman *Hunt and *Rossetti in the foundation of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His first picture in the Brotherhood’s detailed manner, Christ in the House of his Parents (1850), caused controversy but such pictures as Ophelia, The Blind Girl and Autumn Leaves show the Pre-Raphaelites’ preoccupation with colour, detail and design combined with the artist’s own poetic vision. With the end (c.1859) of his Pre-Raphaelite period Millais lapsed into conventional sentimentality with such pictures as The Boyhood of Raleigh and the notorious Bubbles, a portrait of his grandson (Admiral Sir William James), which was bought as an advertisement for Pears’ Soap, one of the earliest examples of a picture by a famous artist being used for such a purpose. He married (1854) *Ruskin’s former wife, Euphemia (Effie) Gray. After *Leighton’s sudden death in January 1896, Millais was elected President of the Royal Academy, then died himself in August.

Fleming, G. H., John Everett Millais: A Biography. 1998.

Millay, Edna St Vincent (Mrs E. J. Boissevain) (1892–1950). American poet and playwright, born in Maine. Educated at Vassar, her verses, often in sonnet form, are intensely lyrical and derive in spirit and technique from the Elizabethans. In 1923, although actively bisexual, she married E. J. Boissevain who supported her literary and social activism, and won the Pulitzer Prize for poetry. She also wrote short stories and plays, e.g. The Murder of Lidice (1942), and translated *Baudelaire’s Flowers of Evil.

Miller, Arthur (1915–2005). American author. He wrote a number of powerful plays, some of which were filmed. They include All My Sons (1947), Death of a Salesman (which won the 1949 Pulitzer Prize), The Crucible (1953), based on the Salem witch trials, with uncomfortable parallels to McCarthyism (*McCarthy), filmed by a French company as Les Sorcieres de Salem, and A View from the Bridge (1955). He also wrote the novel Focus (1945). He married (1956) the film actor Marilyn *Monroe and following her death wrote After the Fall.

Miller, A., Timebends. 1987.

Miller, Glenn (1904–1944). American dance-band leader, trombonist and composer. He formed his own band in 1938 and became world famous for a sweet orchestral sound, mainly saxophones, which was unique. He was made leader of the US Air Force Band in Europe during World War II and disappeared on a flight from England to France. His posthumous popularity increased. His style and sound have been widely imitated and reproduced.

Miller, Henry (1891–1980). American writer, born in New York. He lived in Paris (1930–39) and later settled in California. His works are largely a passionate indictment of modern, especially American, civilisation, and an equally passionate affirmation of what is called the Bohemian life. His novels (largely works of heightened personal reminiscence) include Tropic of Cancer (1934) and Tropic of Capricorn (1938). Other works include The Colossus of Maroussi (1941), describing travels in Greece, and The Air-Conditioned Nightmare (1945). The early novels, first published in Paris, were banned as obscene in the US and Britain until 1961.

Gordon, W. A., The Mind and Art of Henry Miller. 1968.

Miller (né Meunier), Jacques Francis Albert Pierre (1931– ). Australian medical scientist, born in Nice. In Australia from 1941, he worked at the Hall Institute in Melbourne. In 1961, he discovered the function of the thymus, the last human organ to be explained, and in 1967 he distinguished between T-lymphocytes (originating in the thymus) and B-lymphocytes (from bone marrow). He received the Copley Medal (2001), the (Australian) Prime Minister’s Science Prize (2003), the Japan Prize (2018), and the Lasker Award (2019).

Miller, Joaquin (né Cincinnatus Heine Miller) (1837–1913). American poet, born in Indiana. His adventurous life among the Indians is reflected in his Songs of the Sierras (1871).

Marberry, M., Splendid Poseur. 1953.

Miller, Sir Jonathan Wolfe (1934–2019). English director and physician. Educated at Cambridge and London, he appeared with Alan *Bennett, Peter Cook and Dudley Moore in the review Beyond the Fringe 1961–64. He was an outstanding director of plays and operas, while also teaching and pursuing research in neurophysiology. He wrote books on psychology and physiology and presented many television programs.

Miller, J(oseph) Irwin (1909–2004). American industrialist, born in Columbus, Indiana. Educated at Yale and Balliol College, Oxford, he worked for the Cummins Diesel Engine Co. Inc in Columbus, Indiana, from 1934 and was Chief Executive 1944–77, making it an exemplary employer of women and African-Americans, commissioned outstanding architecture, and promoted the arts, environment and civic improvement. He undertook many commissions for the US Government—on housing, urban affairs, trade, health, money and credit. A strong supporter of *Johnson’s civil rights legislation and a gifted linguist, he played a *Stradivarius violin and promoted ecumenism in the World Council of Churches 1961–68. Several political scientists considered him the best qualified person to be President of the US, but he rejected all attempts to enter politics.

Miller, Stanley Lloyd (1930–2007). American chemist. Educated at Chicago, he was a student of *Urey and became a professor at the University of California. He found that by creating a ‘primordial’ atmosphere of hydrogen, ammonia and methane, mixing this with distilled water, and exposing the combination to repeated electrical discharges, simple amino acids could be produced, suggesting a likely explanation for the development of life forms on Earth (A. I. *Oparin).

Millerand, (Etienne) Alexandre (1859–1943). French politician. A lawyer, he entered (1885) the Chamber of Deputies as a member of the extreme left and tried to unify the Socialist groups. From 1899 he held several ministerial offices including the Ministry of War at the beginning of World War I. After the war he reorganised the administration of Alsace and Lorraine, regained from the Germans. Elected President in 1920, he was forced to resign (1924) after the ‘left’ victory in the parliamentary elections, but became a senator 1925–40.

Millet, Jean François (1814–1875). French painter. The son of a Normandy peasant, he idealised the life of the labourer in such pictures as The Angelus and The Man With a Hoe, painted with a deep religious sense but with a sentimentality which has alienated later generations. He lived for many years (from 1849) at Barbizon, a small town near Fontainebleau which gave its name to the ‘school’ of landscape painters gathered there. He was a profound influence on van *Gogh.

Milligan, Spike (Terence Alan) see Goons, The

Millikan, Robert Andrews (1868–1953). American physicist. In a brilliant academic career he was professor of physics at the University of Chicago 1910–21 and then became Director of the Norman Bridge Laboratory, Pasadena, and Chairman of the California Institute of Technology 1921–46. He carried out much research into atomic structure and cosmic rays, but is best known for his accurate determinations (1909) of the charge on the electron from measurements of the charge picked up by oil drops exposed to X-rays. He won the Nobel Prize for Physics (1923).

Millin, Sarah Gertrude (née Leibson) (1889–1968). South African writer, born in Lithuania. She wrote 17 novels, including The Dark River (1919), God’s Stepchildren (1924) and The Herr Witchdoctor (1941) and biographies of *Rhodes (1933) and *Smuts (1936). She became an increasingly anxious supporter of Apartheid.

Milne, A(lan) A(lexander) (1882–1956). British author, born in Scotland. He was assistant editor of Punch (1906–14) and later wrote successful comedies, e.g. Wurzel Flummery (1917), Mr Pim Passes By (1919), and The Dover Road (1922), but he is best known as the author of children’s books written originally for his son Christopher Robin: When We Were Very Young (1924), Winnie the Pooh (1926), Now We Are Six (1927) and The House at Pooh Corner (1928). He dramatised Kenneth *Grahame’s Wind in the Willows as Toad of Toad Hall.

Thwaite, A., A.A. Milne. 1990.

Milner, Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount (1854–1923). British administrator and politician, born in Germany. Educated at Tübingen, London and Oxford, he became a journalist, edited Arnold *Toynbee’s work The Industrial Revolution and helped to found Toynbee Hall. Undersecretary of Finance in Egypt 1890–92, he returned as Chairman of the Board of Inland Revenue 1892–97. As High Commissioner for South Africa 1897–1905 and Governor of Cape Colony 1897–1901, he worked closely with *Rhodes and pushed *Kruger towards war (1899). With *Kitchener he negotiated the Treaty of Vereeniging which ended the Boer War (1902) and was created Viscount. He governed Transvaal and the Orange Free State until 1905, introduced Chinese indentured labour and with his ‘Kindergarten’ of young Oxford-trained advisers (including Lionel Curtis, Leo *Amery, John *Buchan, and Philip Kerr) attempted to set up representative institutions. He became the ideologist of a British Commonwealth which was to be an organic ‘race-empire’ with a prescribed constitution. In the House of Lords he led the ‘die-hard’ opposition to *Asquith and *Lloyd George (1909–11) and covertly supported a coup in Ulster against Home Rule proposals (1913). He served in *Lloyd George’s Cabinet 1916–21, pushed for a unified command in France under *Foch and campaigned for Imperial Preference.

Milnes, Richard Monckton, 1st Baron Houghton (1809–1885). English politician and literary patron, born in London. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, he travelled in Europe extensively, and was MP 1837–63 for Pontefract (where he lived the life of a cultural dilettante at Fryston Hall), first as a Tory, then a Whig, sponsoring such liberal causes as slave emancipation and women’s rights. Although an unsuccessful suitor of Florence *Nightingale, he actively promoted her causes. He was also a major collector of pornography. Through his support his friend *Tennyson became Poet Laureate, and he early perceived *Swinburne’s genius. He wrote poetry and travel books which recorded such adventures as his penetration of an eastern harem. *Disraeli depicted him in Tancred as Mr Vavasour. His son became Marquess of *Crewe.

Pope-Hennessy, J., The Years of Promise; The Flight of Youth. 1949.

Milosevic, Slobodan (1941–2006). Serbian politician. After a career in student politics, he became a Communist Party administrator and bureaucrat in Belgrade, involved in the gas industry and banking, and rose to be head of the Serbian CP. After the breakup of the former Yugoslavia, he became President of Serbia 1989–97, then won the ceremonial post of President of Yugoslavia 1997–2000, expecting to exercise power through subordinates. He bore major responsibility for the continued bloodshed in fighting against Croatia and within Bosnia-Herzegovina. The expulsion and killing (‘ethnic cleansing’) of Albanians from Kosovo (April–June 1999) led to NATO bombing and missile attacks on Serbia and NATO occupation of Kosovo under UN direction. However, Milosevic retained power, exploiting intense Serbian national feeling until defeated in elections held in October 2000. He reluctantly conceded defeat after huge public demonstrations throughout Serbia, and was sent to the Netherlands for trial before an international tribunal, but he died suddenly before the trial concluded.

Milosz, Czeslaw (1911–2004). Polish poet, novelist and essayist, born in Lithuania. He fought in the Resistance but left Poland in 1951, becoming a US resident in 1960 and a professor of Slavic literature at Berkeley 1960–78. He won the 1980 Nobel Prize for Literature.

Milstein, César (1927–2002). Argentinian-Jewish-British molecular biologist, born in Argentina. He worked in Cambridge on monoclonal antibodies and received the Nobel Prize for Medicine (1984), the Copley Medal (1989) and a CH (1995).

Milstein, Nathan Mironovich (1903–1992). Russian-Jewish-American violinist, born in Odessa. He studied with Leopold Auer and Eugène *Ysaÿe, and is ranked with *Heifetz and *Oistrakh as one of the greatest modern violinists, and a superb interpreter of *Bach.

Miltiades (d.c.488 BCE). Athenian general. Famous for his great victory over the Persians at Marathon (490), it was through his persuasion that the outnumbered Athenian army left the doubtful protection of the city walls and met the enemy near their landing place. By strengthening his flanks at the expense of his centre he achieved an encircling movement, from which few of the enemy escaped. According to legend, news of the victory was taken to Athens (about 240 km) by the runner *Pheidippides, a feat commemorated by the Marathon race at the Olympic Games.

Milton, John (1608–1674). English poet, born in London. Son of a scrivener (i.e. a legal draftsman), he was a precocious scholar at St Paul’s School, London, and spent seven years at at Christ’s College, Cambridge, graduating MA in 1632. He then spent six years at his father’s country house at Horton, Buckinghamshire, and in this Anglican and Puritan household studied in preparation for his poetic vocation. There and at Cambridge he wrote many of his earliest works, e.g. the Hymn on the Morning of Christ’s Nativity (1629), Il Penseroso and L’Allegro (both 1632), the masque Comus (1634), and the great pastoral elegy Lycidias (1637), written in memory of his friend Edward King, drowned in the Irish Sea. Milton travelled (1638–39) in Italy, where he met *Galileo in prison. After returning to England he virtually gave up writing poetry for 20 years (except sonnets, e.g. On the late Massacre in Piedmont), and devoted himself to parliamentary causes, writing pamphlets against episcopacy, e.g. The Reason of Church Government (1642). He married (1642) Mary Powell, who left him after a few months and did not return until 1645. During her absence Milton wrote The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, which advocated the dissolution of unhappy marriages. Two other famous pamphlets are Tractate on Education and Areopagitica (both published 1644), the latter championing the liberty of the Press. A pamphlet defending the execution of *Charles I was published in 1649. As Secretary for Foreign Tongues to the State Council 1649–59, he became an official propagandist for *Cromwell. He suffered from glaucoma (or retinitus pigmentosa) from 1644 and became totally blind in 1654, continuing to work with the assistance of his daughter and several amanuenses, including Andrew *Marvell. After his first wife died (1652), he married Catherine Woodcock in 1656, her death two years later prompting the famous sonnet On His Deceased Wife. On the fall of the Commonwealth in 1659, the blind poet was briefly imprisoned. After *Charles II’s restoration he went into hiding but was soon pardoned and in 1662 he married Elizabeth Minshull, who survived him.

Paradise Lost (published 1667), his great epic in blank verse, tells the story of Satan’s rebellion against God, of the subsequent scenes in Eden and of the fall of Man. In 1671 the 12 books of Paradise Lost were followed by the four of Paradise Regained, which recounts Christ’s victory over Satan after the temptation in the wilderness. It is an allegory on a much less ambitious scale, less highly coloured in style and language but with a distinctive subtlety of its own. Samson Agonistes (1671), constructed like a Greek tragedy, gives the biblical theme a pathos and inspirational power transcending the original. Milton’s later prose works, e.g. the tract Of True Religion (1673), are of less interest. Because of the majesty and sublimity of his language Milton has generally been placed next to *Shakespeare, but he has never moved the hearts of the masses. Some critics have even contended that he was a bad influence, especially on 18th-century poets, who imitated his solemn and sonorous verse without matching the grandeur and intensity of his thought.

Tillyard, E. M. W., Milton. Rev. ed. 1966; Wilson, A. N., The Life of John Milton. 1983; Lewalksi, B. K., The Life of John Milton. 2002; Campbell, G., and Corns, T., John Milton: Life, Work and Thought. 2008; Beer, A., Milton: Poet, Pamphleteer and Patriot. 2008; Hawkes, D., John Milton: A Hero of Our Time. 2009.

Mindszenty (né Behm), József (1892–1975). Hungarian prelate, born in Csehimindszent. Strongly opposed to the Hungarian Arrow Cross, imprisoned (1944) by the Nazis, he was Archbishop of Esztergom 1945–73, Primate of Hungary and a cardinal in 1946. An ardent upholder of the Church’s rights and of the national cause, he was imprisoned by the Communists (1949). During the revolt of 1956 he was released but, when the Russians restored Communist power, he was forced to take refuge in the US embassy and lived there for 15 years. Pope *Paul VI retired him in 1973, against his will. His Memoirs were published in 1975.

Ming. Chinese dynasty which ruled 1368–1644, the last native imperial family, and the only one from the south, founded by *Chu Yuan-chang.

Minto, 1st Earl of, Gilbert Elliot (1751–1814). British soldier and administrator. He took part in the impeachment of Warren *Hastings and was Governor-General of Bengal 1806–13. He captured Mauritius and Batavia during the Napoléonic Wars. His great-grandson, Gilbert John Murray Kynynmond Elliott, 4th Earl of Minto (1845–1914), had an adventurous early career as soldier and war correspondent in many parts of the world. (He also rode in the Grand National five times.) In 1891 he inherited the earldom and was Governor-General of Canada 1898–1904 in the Klondike gold rush period. As Viceroy of India 1905–10, he initiated the Minto-*Morley reforms which increased the numbers and powers of the central and provincial executive and legislative councils and introduced more Indians at all government levels. He also banned the export of opium.

Mintoff, Dom(enico or Duminku) (1916–2012). Maltese politician. A Rhodes Scholar, he studied in Oxford, becoming an architect and civil engineer, practising in Britain 1941–43. Elected to the Government Council in 1945 and the Legislative Assembly in 1947, he was Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Public Works and Reconstruction 1947–55 and Prime Minister 1955–58. After a party split, he refounded the Malta Labour Party and led it 1949–84. Bitterly opposed by the Catholic hierarchy, he left government to work for Maltese autonomy after his proposal for full integration with the UK failed.

Malta became fully independent in 1964 and a republic in 1974. Mintoff, again Prime Minister 1971–84, was criticised for corruption and an authoritarian streak.

Minton, Thomas (1765–1836). English potter. After working for Josiah *Spode he started his own factory (1796), produced earthenware and bone china, and became well known for his decorated vases and ‘Parian’ figures and groups. He was also a noted engraver.

Mirabeau, Honoré-Gabriel Victor Riqueti, Comte de (1749–1791). French politician and orator, born in Bignon. His father Victor Riqueti, Marquis de Mirabeau (1715–1789), soldier, agronomist and political economist, was associated with the Physiocrats. Wild and dissipated as a young man, he was imprisoned and exiled by his father for debt and sexual offences. He lived as a hired propagandist, by journalism and pamphleteering, including the famous On Despotism (1772). He interviewed *Friedrich II (‘the Great’) in Potsdam and wrote The Prussian Monarchy (largely plagiarised, 1787). When *Louis XVI summoned the Estates-General in 1789, Mirabeau was elected by the third estate for Aix and, by his virtuosity as an orator, soon became dominant. He proposed converting the Estates-General to the National Assembly. The phase that followed the fall of the Bastille and the transference of the royal family (October 1789) from Versailles to Paris saw Mirabeau at the height of his power. On the one hand he led the Assembly in its debate on a new constitution, on the other he was acting as secret adviser to Louis XVI and accepting bribes for his help in preserving as much as he could of the royal prerogative. That he would have performed in the same way without bribes (for, despite the violence of his oratory, he was a cautious and moderate constitutionalist) is likely but irrelevant to the moral issue. Unfortunately neither Louis nor *Marie Antoinette (whom Mirabeau met only once) could overcome their aversion to his reputed character, and they withheld the trust that would have enabled Mirabeau to act with confidence on their behalf. After his sudden death at 42 there was no one to protect them from their own weakness and folly.

Miranda, Francisco de (1750–1816). Spanish American soldier, born in Venezuela. He served in the Spanish army against the British in Florida. Suspected of disloyalty to the Spanish crown he spent many years in the US and Europe (and fought for a time as a general in the French Revolutionary armies), trying to enlist support for freeing Venezuela from Spanish rule. He returned to London (1798) and finally gained British and American support for an expedition that sailed (1806) from New York. The result was a fiasco, but when a junta seized power in Venezuela (1810), he again left England to lend support. Eventually he became Commander-in-Chief of the Venezuelan forces but was forced to capitulate (1812). He died in prison.

Miró, Joan (1893–1983). Spanish (Catalan) artist, born in Barcelona. Son of a goldsmith, after some years as a clerk, he suffered a breakdown, then devoted himself to art, working as painter, sculptor, lithographer, engraver, ceramicist, costume designer and in stained glass. He worked with the French Dadaists for a time, later joined André Breton’s Surrealist group and designed settings and costumes for *Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. His familiar style, internationally recognised from the 1940s, had a variety of influences ranging from Paleolithic cave art, *Bosch, van *Gogh, *Klee, the Fauves and Cubists, and the experiences of dreams and hallucinations (some induced by hunger). It was an art of hieroglyphs and symbols painted with strokes and spots in primary colours, red, blue, yellow, usually against a green or black background. He preferred to work on a large scale as in his The Wall of the Moon and The Wall of the Sun, in ceramic tiles, for the UNESCO building, Paris (1957) and a mural at Barcelona airport (1969). After 1945 he divided his time between Majorca, Barcelona and Paris.

Penrose, R., Miró. 1970, rev. 1985; Dupin, J., Miró. 1993.

Mirren, Dame Helen Lydia (originally Mironoff) (1945– ). English actor, born in Chiswick. Of Russian-English parentage, she joined the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1966 and played many roles by *Shakespeare, *Chekhov, *Strindberg and *O’Neill. From 1967 she acted in more than 75 films, including the title role in Elizabeth I (2005) and as *Elizabeth II in The Queen (2006, Academy Award) and in The Tempest (2010), as Prospera. At the National Theatre she was a memorable Phèdre (2009). Her performance as Elizabeth II in The Audience (2013) was also acclaimed.

Mirrlees, Sir James Alexander (1936–2018). Scottish economist. Educated at Edinburgh and Cambridge universities, he taught at MIT, Oxford, Cambridge, Yale, Berkeley, Melbourne and Hong Kong. He shared the 1996 Nobel Prize for Economics with William Vickrey for their independent work on ‘the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information’, essentially how to ensure that the rich pay taxes when they can exploit ways to avoid it.

Mises, Ludwig von (1881–1973). Austro-American economist and social philosopher. A pioneer (with F. A. von *Hayek) of the neo-classical revival in economics, he lived in the US from 1940 and was a powerful critic of government intervention in the economy.

Mishima Yukio (1925–1970). Japanese novelist, born in Tokyo. The son of a civil servant, he was rejected for war service, studied law and worked in the finance ministry. He devoted himself to writing after the success of his autobiographical Confessions of a Mask (1948). His novels include The Temple of the Golden Pavilion (1959) and The Sea of Fertility (1970). He also directed and starred in the film Yukoku (1966). Obsessed with the disappearance of the bushido tradition, he formed a small private army, attempted a coup and died by hara-kiri in the traditional manner.

Mistinguett (Jeanne-Marie Bourgeois) (1875–1956). French dancer, singer and comedian. One of the great stars of the Paris music-halls, she appeared in revue from about 1899 and in the 1920s her partnership with Maurice *Chevalier at the Folies Bergère and elsewhere made her world famous.

Mistral, Frederi (Frédéric) (1830–1914). French poet, born near Avignon. He lived in Provence, and the Provençal language was both the object of his study and the instrument of his creative work. The rural epic Miréio (1859) was the most popular of his books but with Nerto (1883), a novel in verse about Avignon in the years of papal residence, he achieved almost equal success in another field. In his longer works he showed narrative skill and a great sense of character, while his lyrics are often exquisite. After 14 nominations, he received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1904.

Mitchell, Margaret (Munnerlyn) (1900–1949). American novelist, born in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1936 she published Gone with the Wind, which won her the Pulitzer Prize (1937) and sold 28 million copies. The film (1939), with Clark *Gable, Vivien *Leigh and Leslie *Howard, produced by David O. *Selznick was even more successful.

Edwards, A., The Road to Tara. 1983.

Mitchell, Sir Thomas Livingstone (1792–1855). Scottish soldier, explorer and collector, born in Grangemouth. He served in the Peninsular War as a surveyor, arrived in Sydney in 1827 and became Surveyor-General of New South Wales 1828–55, leading four major expeditions to explore the interior, in 1831, 1835, 1836 and 1845–46.

Mitchell, William Lendrum (1879–1936). American soldier and airman. After World War I, in which he rose to be chief of air operations, he carried out a vigorous campaign against official failure to realise the importance of air power. When he attacked a superior for ‘almost treasonable incompetence’, he was court-martialled and had to resign. In one of his many books on air warfare he predicted the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Nine years after his death he was vindicated by Congress, posthumously promoted to the rank of Major General and awarded the Medal of Honor.

Mitchell, R., My Brother Bill, the Life of General ‘Billy’ Mitchell. 1953.

Mitford, Nancy Freeman- (1904–1973). English novelist and biographer. Eldest of six daughters of David Bertram Ogilvy Freeman-Mitford, 2nd Baron Redesdale (1878–1958), she was educated at home. Her romantic comedies of upper class manners were widely popular and her historical biographies well regarded. In 1956 she edited Noblesse Oblige, a catalogue of class mannerisms which defined behaviour as ‘U’ (Upper class) or ‘Non-U’. Her best known novels are probably The Pursuit of Love (1945) and Love in a Cold Climate (1949). Her biographies include The Sun King (a study of *Louis XIV, 1966). Her sisters were celebrated in their own right: Diana (1910–2003) married Oswald *Mosley, Unity (1914–1948) had an unrequited passion for *Hitler, Jessica (1917–96), an investigative journalist in the US, was firmly identified with radical causes and Deborah Vivien (later Cavendish) (1920–2014) became Duchess of Devonshire and wrote extensively.

Hastings, S., Nancy Mitford. 1985.

Mithradates VI (‘the Great’) (c.132–63 BCE). King of Pontus (c.120–63). Sixth ruler of a Hellenised state in Anatolia, bordering on the Black Sea, he succeeded his father and in 115 deposed his mother who had ruled as regent. He added Crimea and Colchis to his kingdom, but when he occupied Bithynia and Cappadocia he clashed with Rome and in 92 he was forced by *Sulla to withdraw and pay a large indemnity. When Rome became involved in civil war, Mithradates felt it safe to refuse to pay and so provoked the First Mithradatic War (89–84). He began it by overrunning Asia Minor and sending troops to Greece to raise that country against Rome. Sulla, victorious in the political struggle at home, went to Greece where he defeated Mithradates at Chaeronea and Orchomenos. Having crossed to Asia Minor he found that the Roman army sent by his opponents was already victorious, and was thus able to impose a settlement by which Mithradates renounced his conquests. The Second Mithradatic War (83–81), a minor affair provoked by an irresponsible act of aggression by the Roman legate left in command, made Mithradates angry and suspicious and he began to make preparations for a renewal of the struggle by forming alliances with Egypt, Cyprus and Roman malcontents. To anticipate him, Rome declared war (74). Mithradates won an early naval victory, but the Roman commander *Lucullus forced him to the defensive, and he took refuge with his son-in-law Tigranes of Armenia. A mutiny among the Roman troops allowed him to return to Pontus (67), but *Pompey completely defeated him. According to legend, Mithradates, from his youth, took increasing quantities of poison to render himself immune from murder: at his end, in the Crimea, he ordered a soldier to kill him.

Mitropoulos, Dimitri (1896–1960). Greek-American conductor, born in Athens. Also a composer and pianist, he studied with *Busoni and *Kleiber, conducted the Minneapolis Symphony 1937–47 and the New York Philharmonic 1949–59. Leonard *Bernstein was a disciple. He died of a heart attack conducting *Mahler’s Symphony No. 3.

Mitscherlich, Eilhardt (1794–1863). German chemist. A pioneer of crystallography, he recognised isomorphism, dimorphism, and stated (1819) the law of isomorphism which bears his name, i.e. that substances that crystallise in the same crystal form have similar chemical compositions. This law was of great value during the early 19th century in fixing the formulae of newly discovered compounds. Professor of chemistry at Berlin University 1822–63, elected FRS (1828), he synthesised and named benzene (1834) and recognised catalytic action.

Mitterrand, François Maurice Marie (1916–1996). French Socialist politician, born in Jarnac, Charente. Educated at the University of Paris, after a conservative youth and military service, he worked with the Vichy regime but also joined the Resistance. He was a deputy 1946–58, 1962–81 and a senator 1959–62, serving as a minister in 11 governments under the Fourth Republic. He contested the French presidency in 1965 and 1974, losing to Charles *de Gaulle and Valery *Giscard d’Estaing. He organised a coalition of all socialist parties (other than the Communists) and became first secretary of the unified French Socialist Party 1971–81. He served two terms as President of the French Republic 1981–95, defeating Giscard in 1981 and Jacques *Chirac in 1988. His foreign policies were essentially Gaullist and domestically his bold interventionist policies, especially in industry, were constrained by the impact of recession. He promoted the creation of great monuments in Paris, notably La Grande Arche (at La Defense), extensions to the Louvre (and I. M. *Pei’s glass pyramid), the Opera Bastille, and the science centre at La Villette. The longest serving French head of state since *Napoléon III, he died 15 years after prostate cancer was diagnosed. The huge Bibliothèque National at Tolbiac was named for him (1996). He became an honorary British GCB and received the Royal Victorian Chain.

Péan, P., Une jeunesse française: François Mitterrand 1934–37. 1994; Lacouture, J. Mitterrand. 2 vols, 1998; Short, P., Mitterrand: A Study in Ambiguity. 2013.

Miyazawa Kiichi (1919–2007). Japanese politician. He worked in the Finance Ministry 1942–52, served in the House of Councillors 1953–65 and the House of Representatives 1967–2003, holding many ministries, including Foreign Affairs 1974–76 and Finance 1986–88. He was Prime Minister 1991–93, leading the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) to heavy defeat and loss of office after 38 years.

Mizoguchi Kenji (1898–1956). Japanese film maker. From 1922 he directed 87 films, very few seen in the West, the greatest probably being Ugetsu Monogatari (The Story of Ugetsu, 1953), Sansho Dayu (1953) and The Street of Shame (1957), eloquent and often beautiful expositions of universal values.

Mobutu Sese Seko (originally Joseph-Desiré Mobutu) (1930–1997). Congolese soldier and dictator. Employed in the Belgian Congo Force Publique 1949–56, he became a member of Mouvement National Congolaise, and was a delegate to the Brussels conferences on independence, 1959–60. Following independence he became Secretary of State for National Defence in the Cabinet of Patrice *Lumumba in 1960, and he was also Commander-in-Chief of the army 1960–65. In 1965, he displaced President Kasa-Vubu and Prime Minister Kimba in a bloodless coup and was President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (which he re-named Zaire in 1971) 1965–97. He established authoritarian rule, torturing and executing opponents and amassing great wealth, while shrewdly negotiating political alliances with foreign governments. He became a marshal in 1982 and was overthrown and exiled in May 1997, then died of cancer in Morocco.

Moctezuma II (or Xocoyotzin, the Spaniards called him Montezuma) (c.1468–1520). Mexican (Aztec) Emperor 1502–20. Son of the emperor Axayacatl (d.1481), he succeeded his uncle Ahuitzotl at the height of the Aztec empire, extending to Nicaragua, with a population of perhaps 8 million (estimates vary wildly, from 4 to 30 million). Originally trained for the priesthood, and deeply superstitious, he was not warlike by nature and when the Spanish conquistador *Cortés arrived in 1519 may have believed he was a reincarnation of the god Quetzalcoatl. He offered Cortés propitiatory gifts of gold and silver. These only whetted the Spanish appetite for plunder and when repeated embassies and an ambush also failed to stop Cortés he decided to give him a ceremonial welcome at Tenochlitlan, his lake-encompassed capital. Cortés managed to seize him as a hostage but, on returning from a temporary absence, he found that his men in sudden panic had started a massacre (the Noche Triste) and were now besieged with Moctezuma. The Spanish explained that while Moctezuma was trying to appeal to his own people from the walls, he was struck by many stones and died four days later. The Aztecs believed he had been strangled (or put to the sword).

Thomas, H., The Conquest of Mexico. 1993.

Modi, Narendra Damodardas (1950– ). Indian politician. Chief Minister of Gujerat 2001–14, he led the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) to an overwhelming majority in the elections of May 2014, smashing the Congress Party and its allies, and became Prime Minister of India 2014– .

Modiano, (Jean) Patrick (1945– ). French novelist. He wrote the screenplay for Lacombe, Lucien (1974). Sometimes described as the ‘Marcel Proust of our time’, he won the 2014 Nobel Prize in Literature ‘for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation’ [of France by the Germans 1940–45]. Since winning the prize, 22 of his novels have been published in English.

Modigliani, Amadeo (1884–1920). Italian artist, born in Livorno. After an artistic education based on study of the old masters, he went to Paris (1906) and met several of the ‘Fauves’ group. He lived in great poverty and died of tuberculosis, complicated by drink. His portraits and melancholy nudes, which now command high prices, show the influence of *Cézanne and primitive African sculptors, but the melody of line produced by subtle linear distortion expresses his own individual genius. La Belle Romaine sold at auction for $US68.9 million in 2010, and Reclining Nude (No. 2) for $US140 million in 2015.

Werner, A., Modigliani. 1967.

Modigliani, Franco (1918–2003). Italian-American economist. In the US from 1940, he taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and won the 1985 Nobel Prize for Economics.

Mohammed see Muhammad

Mohammed II (‘the Conqueror’) see Mehmet II Fatih

Mohammed V (Sidi Mohammed ben Yussuf) (1910–1961). King of Morocco 1956–61. He succeeded as sultan under French protection (1927) but in 1953 he put himself at the head of the nationalist movement until deposed and exiled by the French. Restored in 1955, when Morocco gained independence (1956) he became its first king, abandoning (1957) the title sultan. He was succeeded by his son *Hassan II.

Mohammed VI (1861–1926). Last sultan of Turkey 1918–22. The defeat of Turkey in World War I left him a helpless pawn in the hands of the Allies and he was unable to contend with the nationalist rising under Mustafa Kemal (*Atatürk). He was deposed and retired to the Italian Riviera, where he died.

Mohammed Ali see Mehemet Ali

Mohammed Reza (1919–1980). Shahanshah of Iran 1941–79. He succeeded his father *Reza Shah, forced to abdicate by the Allies in World War II. He made efforts to modernise his country, to reform economic inequalities, but he scorned western liberalism. From the 1970s onwards he was under increasing pressure from an Islamic fundamentalist revolution (*Khomeini). In January 1979 he left Iran with his family and stayed in Morocco, Mexico, the US and Panama. The religious leaders demanded his return to Iran to answer charges of corruption. In early 1980, he left Panama for Egypt where he died.

Kapuscinski, R., Shah of Shahs. 1982.

Moi, Daniel Toroitich arap (1924–2020). Kenyan politician. He became a teacher, entered the Legislative Assembly in 1957 and the House of Representatives in 1961, serving as Minister for Education 1961–62, Local Government 1962–64 and Home Affairs 1964–67. Vice President of Kenya 1967–78, he succeeded Jomo *Kenyatta as President 1978–2002, winning re-election in a reasonably free election in 1992, despite accusations of corruption. A further re-election (1997) was bitterly contested.

Moiseiwitsch, Benno (1890–1963). British-Ukrainian-Jewish pianist, born in Odessa. He studied at the Odessa Academy of Music, won the Anton Rubinstein Prize at nine, and became a pupil of *Leschetizky in Vienna. He first appeared in Britain in 1908, settled there, toured extensively and was admired by *Rachmaninoff.

Moissan, Ferdinand Frédéric Henry (1852–1907). French chemist. He was best known for his success in isolating the elusive element fluorine (1886), and for his development of the electric arc furnace, with which he studied high-temperature reactions, preparing new compounds, e.g. the metal carbides and nitrides. He became (1889) a professor of chemistry in Paris and won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1906).

Molière (Jean Baptiste Poquelin) (1622–1673). French playwright and actor, born in Paris. Son of the king’s upholsterer, he received his education at a Jesuit college in Paris but more serious studies were abandoned when he formed a theatrical company (1643), adopting the stage-name, Molière. After touring the provinces for many years his company returned to Paris (1658) and gained the patronage of the king’s brother and eventually (1665) of *Louis XIV himself. He was thus able to provide court entertainments, though, in fact, most of his greatest plays were performed at his own theatre at the Palais Royal. These plays, in most of which he played the leading part, range from slapstick farce to philosophical satires and many of them reveal the extent of his debt to *Plautus, *Terence and *Lope de Vega. Molière’s motto was ‘No truth without comedy and no comedy without truth’, and in his works he poked fun at hypocrites, quacks, extremists and all those ‘enslaved by a ruling passion’. He achieved his first big success with Les Précieuses ridicules (1659), followed by a series of masterpieces, e.g. L’École des femmes (1662), Tartuffe (1665), an attack on religious hypocrisy which was banned for four years, Le Misanthrope (1666), Le Bourgeois gentilhommne (1671) and Les Femmes savantes (1672). His last play was Le Malade imaginaire (1673). While acting in it he suffered a haemorrhage and died later the same night. After his death his company joined with another to form the Comédie Française, where the traditions of the original performances are observed.

Bray, R., Molière, homme de theatre. Rev. ed. 1963; Scott, V., Molière. A Theatrical Life. 2000.

Mollet, Guy (1905–1975). French politician. A teacher and an active Socialist, he joined the army in World War II, was a prisoner of war 1940–42 and later joined the Resistance movement. He entered (1945) the Constituent Assembly and became (1946) Secretary-General of the Socialist Party. After a number of ministerial appointments he was Prime Minister 1956–57 and so directed French participation in the Suez attacks (November 1956). He supported *de Gaulle’s return to power (1958) and served in his ministry until 1959.

Mollison, Amy and James see Johnson, Amy

Molnár, Ferenc (1878–1952). Hungarian playwright. He settled in the US in 1910, was a war correspondent in World War I, and both before and after wrote popular and successful comedies, e.g. The Guardsman (1910), Liliom (1924), The Glass Slipper (1924) and The Good Fairy (1937).

Molotov (originally Skryabin), Vyacheslav Mikhailovich (1890–1986). Russian Communist politician, born in Vyatka province. From a middle-class family, he joined the Bolsheviks in 1906 and later adopted the name Molotov (‘hammer’). He was a candidate member of the Politburo 1921–25, Deputy General-Secretary of the Communist Party 1921–22, and a full Politburo member 1926–57, working closely with *Stalin. Premier 1930–41, he displaced *Litvinov as Foreign Minister when, in 1939, Stalin made the volte-face which led to the Nazi-Soviet pact and retained office until 1949. He took an extremely rigid line towards the US and UK during World War II and the Cold War. He was Deputy Premier 1941–57 and again Foreign Minister 1953–57. After Stalin’s death (1953) he was, with *Beria and *Malenkov, one of the ruling triumvirate, but the struggle for power that brought *Khrushchev to the front ended Molotov’s long ascendancy. He was Ambassador to Mongolia 1957–60, then to the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna 1960–62. In 1964 the CPSU expelled him.

Moltke, Helmuth Karl Bernhard, Graf [Count] von (1800–1891). German field marshal, born in the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Originally in the Danish army, he entered the Prussian service (1822) and was appointed (1832) to the general staff. He remodelled the Turkish army (1835–39), and became Chief of the Prussian General Staff (1858), reorganised the army and planned the successful lightning campaigns against Denmark (1864), Austria (1866) and France (1870–71). He was one of the first generals to base his strategy on the use of railways for the rapid assembly and movement of troops. With the formation of the German empire (1871) he became Chief of the Imperial General Staff 1871–88. He made the only voice recordings known of anyone born in the 18th century. His nephew Helmuth Johann Ludwig von Moltke (1848–1916), a friend of *Wilhelm II, became a theosophist and was plagued by self-doubt. Nevertheless, he became Chief of the General Staff 1906–14, retiring after a stroke. His grandnephew, Helmuth James, Graf von Moltke (1907–1945), a jurist, worked for the Abwehr, founded the Kreisau Circle, a resistance group, and was hanged. He opposed attempts to assassinate *Hitler believing that would make him a martyr, and planned thoughtfully about a post-Nazi democratic Germany.

Kessel, E., Moltke. 1957.

Momigliano, Arnaldo Dante (1908–1987). Italian historian, born in Piedmont. A refugee from *Mussolini, he lived in England from 1938 and was professor of ancient history at University College, London 1951–75. A polymath, he published historiography, classical studies and biographies.

Mommsen, (Christian Matthias) Theodor (1817–1903). German historian. He reached the climax of a successful academic career when he went to Berlin University (1858) as professor of ancient history, a post he retained for the rest of his life. The History of Rome (3 volumes, 1854–56), for which he is famous, ends with the fall of the Republic and reveals the author’s hero worship of Julius *Caesar. A supplementary volume on the imperial provinces appeared in 1885. In addition Mommsen wrote specialised works on Roman coinage, chronology, constitutional law and the provinces. His great Corpus of Latin inscriptions was a remarkable editorial feat. He was a liberal in the Reichstag 1881–84 and received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1902, when other nominees included *Ibsen, *Tolstoy, *Zola and *Meredith.

Wickert, L., Theodor Mommsen. 1959.

Monash, Sir John (1865–1931). Australian general and engineer. Of German-Jewish parentage, he became an eminent civil engineer, lawyer and citizen soldier. In World War I he fought at Gallipoli and later, after commanding the 3rd Australian Division in France, became (1918) Commander-in-Chief of the Australian Corps. *Montgomery named Monash as ‘the best general of the Western front’ and suggested that he should have replaced *Haig in command. However, he was the victim of prejudice by the official Australian war historian C. E. W. *Bean and only received promotion to full general in 1930, long after he had retired. He became Chairman of the Victorian State Electricity Commission 1920–31 and Vice Chancellor of Melbourne University 1923–31. Monash University, established in Melbourne in 1959, was named for him. There was a serious (but unsuccessful) campaign for Monash to be posthumously promoted to Field Marshal.

Serle, A. G., John Monash. 1982; Fischer, T. A., Maestro John Monash. 2014; Kieza, G., Monash: The soldier who shaped a nation. 2015.

Monboddo, Lord. James Burnett (1714–1799). Scottish judge, pioneer anthropologist and comparative linguist. Educated in Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Groningen, he was a judge of the Court of Session 1767–99, a leading but eccentric figure in the Scottish Enlightenment, an enemy of David *Hume, a rival of Lord *Kames, but sympathetic to Robert *Burns. In Of the Origin and Progress of Languages (6 volumes, 1773–92), he anticipated evolutionary theory in the development and complexity of language. His work was read closely by Erasmus and Charles *Darwin.

Monck (or Monk), George, 1st Duke of Albemarle (1608–1670). English soldier and politician, born in Devon. He gained military experience fighting in the Netherlands in the Thirty Years War. In the English Civil War he served first with the Royalists, was captured and held in the Tower of London 1644–46, then gained *Cromwell’s confidence. As a commander he distinguished himself at Dunbar and (at sea) with *Blake. In 1654 Cromwell appointed him Governor of Scotland where he successfully restored order. Cromwell’s death gave him the opportunity to exercise judgment in political matters. On New Year’s Day 1660 he entered England with 6000 men, reached London unopposed, reinstated the Long Parliament and secured a new election. He worked skilfully to reconcile the army to the growing public desire for a restoration of the monarchy. *Charles II, from whom he had obtained pledges of constitutional rule before inviting him to return, created him KG (May 1660) and made him a duke when he landed on Dover Beach (July 1660). Monck became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1660–62 and First Lord of the Treasury 1667–70.

Mond, Ludwig (1839–1909). German-British chemist. A pupil of *Bunsen at Heidelberg, he invented processes for recovering sulphur from alkali waste, and ammonia from nitrogenous substances. He settled in England (1867) and formed (1873), with (Sir) John Brunner, the firm of Brunner, Mond & Co. (later merged with Imperial Chemicals) to produce soda from common salt by the Solvay process. One of Mond’s most valuable discoveries was the carbonyl process for extracting nickel from its ores. His son, Alfred Moritz Mond, 1st Baron Melchett (1868–1930), like his father a strong Zionist, was an MP 1906–22, 1924–28 (Liberal until 1926, then Conservative) and Minister for Health 1921–22.

Mondale, Walter Frederick (1928– ). American politician and lawyer, born in Minnesota. A protégé of Hubert *Humphrey, he was State Attorney-General 1960–64, US Senator from Minnesota 1964–77 and Vice President under Jimmy *Carter 1977–81. In 1984 he became the Democratic nominee for president, losing heavily to Ronald *Reagan. He was Ambassador to Japan 1993–96.

Mondrian, Piet (1872–1944). Dutch painter. His earliest work was in landscape in the Dutch Romantic and Impressionist tradition. In Paris (1912–14) he was influenced by the ‘Fauves’. He went back to Holland (1914) and began his search for a formal purity without ‘content’ or reference and by 1922 his paintings had become geometric, rectilinear, in primary colours against a grey or ochre background. With Theo van Doesburg (1883–1931), Mondrian founded (1917) the magazine De Stijl, a name also given to the ‘school’ of painting that followed his lead. He called his work ‘Neo-plasticism’ and in the US (to which he emigrated in 1944 after living in Paris and London), it was held to be the purest, least literary expression of the age of technology. Some modification of the earlier stark severity was admitted in his last works.

Elgar, F., Mondrian. 1968.

Monet, (Oscar) Claude (1840–1926). French Impressionist painter, born in Paris. He grew up in Le Havre and acquired an early love for the Seine with its reflections of trees, buildings, boats and its scenic effects. He studied painting with *Boudin. When, in 1862, he settled in Paris, he met *Cézanne, *Renoir, *Sisley and others who were later to become the Impressionists, a name mockingly bestowed by a critic of Monet’s picture Impression, Soleil levant, shown at an exhibition organised by Monet, Berthe *Morisot and Sisley in 1874. The group’s greatest innovation was to take painting out of the studio into the open air. With Renoir, at first at Argenteuil on the Seine, Monet tried to achieve greater naturalism by exact analysis of tone and colour and to render the play of light on the surface of objects, using a flickering touch and paint applied in small bright dabs in a high key and with a lack of outline. His pictures were mostly landscapes, many with water or snow. Influences included *Turner and *Hokusai. He would paint the same objects, e.g. haystacks or cathedrals, at different times of the day to get different light effects, but in his later works the light patterns began to be used mainly for their aesthetic effect rather than as a means to describe form. He worked in England, the Netherlands and Norway. From 1883 he lived at Giverny where he created a great garden and painted irises, roses and the Japanese bridge there.

Seitz, W. C., Claude Monet. 1960.

Monge, Gaspard (1746–1818). French scientist. His early work was concerned with improving teaching methods in military engineering. He made systematic advances in descriptive geometry, and modern engineering drawing owes much to him. While continuing his military studies (he was much concerned with logistic problems of moving materials for use in fortifications), he developed interests in fields of applied and pure mathematics. He developed new techniques for applying the calculus to curves and faces in three dimensions. After his election to the Academy in 1780, Monge spent more time in Paris, and his interests moved towards physics and chemistry. He aided *Lavoisier in the analysis and synthesis of water, and carried out experiments on the composition of iron, steel, and carbon dioxide. In the Revolutionary period, Monge played increasingly prominent roles in public life. He became Minister for the Navy in 1792, and then, in 1795, director of the newly founded École Polytechnique. He was closely involved in establishing the metric system of weights and measures. Monge’s substantial publications, including his Géometrie descriptive (1795) and Traité élémentaire de statique (1810) became key teaching texts.

Mongkut see Rama IV

Moniz, Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas (1874–1955). Portuguese neurologist. He held chairs at Coimbra and Lisbon, served as a deputy 1903–17 and Foreign Minister 1918. He shared the 1949 Nobel Prize for Medicine with Walter Hess for their development of prefrontal leucotomy (a technique now completely discredited.)

Monmouth, James Scott, Duke of (1649–1685). English rebel, born in Holland. Son of *Charles II of Great Britain and his mistress Lucy Walters, he went to England after the Restoration and was created (1663) Duke of Monmouth. On marrying Anne, Countess of Buccleuch, he adopted her surname, Scott, and was made Duke of Buccleuch. Spoilt by his father and the adulation of the people, he was a ready tool of *Shaftesbury and those who put him forward as a candidate for succession to the throne to the exclusion of the Duke of York (*James II). It was even said that proofs of his legitimacy were contained in a mysterious black box. The discovery of the extremist Rye House plot to hasten Monmouth’s accession by assassinating King Charles forced him to flee to Holland (1683), but on James II’s accession (1685) he landed at Lyme Regis and claimed the throne. His little army, mostly peasants, was quickly defeated at Sedgemoor, and Monmouth was captured and executed.

Chevenix-Trench, C., The Western Rising. 1969.

Monnet, Jean (1888–1979). French bureaucrat. Pioneer of European unity and recognised as a founder of the European Community, he was the first deputy secretary-general of the League of Nations 1919–23. After World War II he originated the French Modernisation Plan and, later, the Schuman Plan for organising European resources. This led to the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community of which he became President 1952–55. Chairman of an action committee for a United States of Europe, he was awarded the Charlemagne Prize in 1953, the Schuman Prize (1966) and the title ‘Honorary Citizen of Europe’ (1976).

Monnet, J., Mémoires. 1976.

Monod, Jacques Lucien (1910–1976). French biochemist. Educated at the University of Paris and the California Institute of Technology, he was a colonel in the Resistance during World War II and worked at the Pasteur Institute 1945–76. He shared the 1965 Nobel Prize for Medicine with André Lwoff and François Jacob for work on the regulatory action of genes. Monod was a brilliant controversialist and debater, an excellent writer on the philosophy of science (Chance and Necessity, 1970) and a gifted cellist.

Judson, H. F., The Eighth Day of Creation. 1979.

Monroe, James (1758–1831). 5th President of the US 1817–25. Born in Westmoreland County, Virginia to a prominent family, his education was cut short by the War of Independence in which he served with distinction. He entered Virginian politics (1782) and opposed the ratification of the US Constitution on the grounds that it would lead to excessive federal control of the individual states. Elected to the US Senate 1790–94 as a strong supporter of his friend *Jefferson, then Secretary of State, he was appointed Minister to France 1794–96. He served as Governor of Virginia 1799–1802 and 1811. When Jefferson became President he sent Monroe to Europe on a series of diplomatic missions (from 1803), on the first of which he helped to negotiate the purchase from *Napoléon of a vast area of the Mississippi basin (the Louisiana Purchase). He was Minister to the United Kingdom 1803–08. Secretary of State 1811–17, he was Madison’s natural successor as president. In 1816, as the Democratic-Republican candidate, he defeated the New York Federalist Rufus King (1755–1827). In 1820, the Federalists having collapsed, he was re-elected without opposition. He is best remembered for his promulgation of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), a declaration of US opposition to further European colonisation of the Americas and European interference with independent governments. He was the last of the ‘Founding Fathers’ to serve as President, one of three to die on Independence Day (like John *Adams and *Jefferson), and the last to wear a powdered wig.

Cresson, W. P., James Monroe. 1946; Cunningham, N. E., The Presidency of James Monroe. 1996.

Monroe, Marilyn (Norma Jeane Mortenson, later Baker) (1926–1962). American film actor, born in Los Angeles. After a tough childhood with an unstable mother, she became a model, and, in 1948, gained her first bit part in a film. Her blonde beauty and voluptuous body soon made her an international sex symbol and she achieved enormous popular success in a series of comedies, e.g. Seven Year Itch (1955), The Prince and the Showgirl (1957, with Laurence *Olivier), Some Like it Hot (1959) and The Misfits (1961, with Clark *Gable). She married the baseball star Joe *DiMaggio (1954) and the playwright Arthur *Miller (1956). She combined sensuality, humour and a certain mysterious quality. She had unfulfilled cultural and political ambitions, took up acting classes seriously and had close, if discreet, connections with John and Robert *Kennedy. She died of a drug overdose.

Mailer, N., Marilyn. 1974; Steinem, G., Marilyn. 1986.

Monsarrat, Nicholas (John Turney) (1910–1979). British author. He began writing novels in 1934, but it was his wartime experience in the Royal Navy that inspired his instantly successful The Cruel Sea (1951). He later wrote other popular sea novels. His autobiography in two volumes, Life is a Four Letter Word, was published 1966 and 1970.

Montagnier, Luc Antoine (1932– ). French virologist. Director of Research at the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) 1974–98, and a professor at the Pasteur Institute 1985–2000, he was the leading French researcher on HIV-AIDS. In 1983 he identified the AIDS virus but proved unable to grow it in cells. He became involved in a bitter controversy with the American researcher Robert *Gallo who claimed to have isolated the virus independently. He shared the 2008 Nobel Prize for Medicine but became deeply controversial with his unverified claims that autism could be cured by antibiotics and by endorsing homeopathy.

Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley (1689–1762). English letter writer. Daughter of Evelyn Pierrepoint, later 1st Duke of Kingston, she accompanied her husband, Edward Wortley Montagu, on a diplomatic mission (1716–18) to Constantinople, whence she introduced the practice of vaccination into England. She had acquired considerable education and this, combined with her own lively intelligence, enabled her, on her return, to become the centre of a fashionable group of artists, writers and wits. From 1739 she lived mainly in Italy. Her letters, covering the years 1709–62, are her real claim to fame. In them she gives vivid descriptions of places, people and events, revealing herself as a woman of much worldly wisdom, of warm and compassionate affection and an engaging wit, spiced with malice.

Halsband, R. (ed.), Complete Letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. 1965–67.

Montaigne, Michel Eyquem, Seigneur de (1533–1592). French essayist, born at the Chateau de Montaigne, near St Emilion, in Périgord. His father had been Mayor of Bordeaux and his mother was a Huguenot of Jewish origin. After his father’s death (1568), and that of his elder brothers, he inherited the family estate.He served as a ‘counsellor’ of the Bordeaux parlement and eventually became Mayor 1581–85. From 1571 he devoted most of his time to travel and to the writing of the famous Essais, a term he originated.

He worked for decades in his library in a tower on his estate at St Michel de Montaigne, in Périgord, essentially writing about himself, pursuing the question: ‘Que sçay-je?’ (Old French spelling, ‘Que sais-je?’ in modern: ‘What do I know?’) The words were inscribed on his heraldic emblem. Montaigne’s starting point is his own experience and he writes on familiar subjects − his house, his tower, his library, his garden, his body, his mind, his travels, occasionally even his family − extracting from them a sense of the universal, but also the infinite and inexplicable, examining the unpredictable ways his mind worked, then projecting his thoughts into speculation about the universe, discussing in a detached, sceptical fashion philosophical, religious and moral questions with a tolerant awareness of the fallibility of reason. His Essays broke a long taboo against people writing at length about themselves, and it is the first great autobiographical work since St *Augustine’s Confessions, but broader, more open and speculative.

Books I and II appeared in 1580, Book III was included in an enlarged edition (1588), and a further edition was published (1595) after his death. He suffered agonies from kidney stones after 1578, and this influenced his meditations on illness, death and life’s brevity. His essays were first translated into English by John Florio (1603). Montaigne influenced many writers, including *Shakespeare, *Bacon, *Burton, *Emerson, *Stendhal, *Tolstoy and *Proust.

Frame, D. M., Montaigne. 1965; Scholar, R., Montaigne and the Art of Free-Thinking. 2010; Bakewell, S., How to Live: Or A Life of Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at an Answer. 2011; Frampton, S., When I am playing with my cat, how do I know she is not playing with me? 2011; Green, F., Montaigne and the Life of Freedom. 2013; Desan, P., Montaigne. A Life. 2014/17.

Montefeltro, Federico Ubaldi da, Duke of Urbino (c.1420–1482). Italian nobleman, born in Gubbio. The last of the great condottieri, he ruled as Duke of Urbino 1444–82 and, because he often held the balance of power in northern Italy, was able to increase his duchy three-fold. The pupil of *Vittorino da Feltre, he owned the finest library in Italy after the Vatican, patronised humanist scholars, never lost a battle, was considered the greatest soldier of his era, became an honorary Knight of the Garter and the subject of a memorable double portrait (with his wife Battista Sforza) by *Piero della Francesca. His son Guidobaldo da Montefeltro (1472–1508) was the model for *Castiglione’s The Courtier.

Montefiore, Sir Moses Haim, 1st Baronet (1784–1885). Anglo-Jewish philanthropist, born in Livorno (Leghorn). He settled in England (1805), made a fortune on the London Stock Exchange and retired (1824) to devote his energies to philanthropic work to help Jews. He also negotiated agreements with Russia, Turkey and Egypt by which persecution in Poland, Syria and elsewhere was mitigated. He was knighted in 1837 and created a baronet in 1846.

Montespan, Françoise Athenaise Rochechouart, Marquise de (1641–1707). French mistress of *Louis XIV. She was of high birth, gay, sophisticated and witty, in contrast to the shyly devoted Louise de la Vallière who finally left the court in 1674 having watched for some years her rival’s gradual ascent. Madame de Montespan bore the king seven children, but her increasing haughtiness and bouts of jealousy (not unjustified) had already shaken her position when, in 1680, her name was mentioned with those of many others during secret investigations into charges of poisoning and witchcraft. Her share (if it existed) in the matter was hushed up, but though she remained at court the liaison was ended. Her successor was her children’s governess, Madame de *Maintenon.

Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de la Brède et de (1689–1755). French political philosopher, born in Bordeaux. Charles de la Brède studied law and in 1716 became President of the parlement of Bordeaux in succession to his uncle, whose wealth he inherited on condition that he also assume his name, de Montesquieu. For a time he was interested in science but abandoned it for letters and, with the publication of his Letters persanes (1721), he became famous. The book purports to contain the letters of two Persians visiting Paris, to each other and to their friends at home. Witty and frivolous comment is mingled with serious observations on the social and political institutions and the various influences (climate, religion etc.) on the people. In 1726 he gave up his official position at Bordeaux and settled in Paris with interludes of travel. He visited England (1729–31) and studied its constitutional procedures. In his next major work, Considérations sur les causes de la Grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (1734) he tried to explain the greatness and the decline of the Roman Empire by giving full weight to economic, cultural, climatic and racial factors the first time that historic processes had been submitted to such a scientific examination. The monumental De l’Esprit des lois (2 volumes, 1748) occupied him for 20 years and summarised his life’s work. By the ‘spirit’ of the laws he meant the social and natural (e.g. climatic) conditions which have brought laws and constitutions into being. The English system of constitutional government is analysed in detail and the functions of legislature and executive assessed and presented for admiration and imitation (although he exaggerated the separation of powers). France’s rulers failed to heed the book’s message in time to avert revolution but its influence was profound in shaping the intellectual background to political life there and elsewhere. He coined the terms ‘separation of powers’, ‘checks and balances’ and ‘Byzantine Empire’.

Shackleton, R., Montesquieu: A Critical Biography. 1961.

Montessori, Maria (1870–1952). Italian educationist. She worked as a doctor in a Rome asylum teaching mentally handicapped children and applied this experience to the education of all pupils. From 1911 she lectured throughout the world on the ‘Montessori method’, which emphasised that young children learn best through spontaneous activity and under minimal constraint.

Standing, E. M., Maria Montessori, her Life and Work. 1957.

Monteux, Pierre (Benjamin) (1875–1964). French conductor, born in Paris. A gifted violist, he soon developed conducting skills and worked for *Diaghilev’s Ballet Russes in Paris (1911–14), giving premieres of *Debussy’s Jeux, *Stravinsky’s Petrushka and The Rite of Spring, and *Ravel’s *Daphnis and Chloe. He directed the French repertoire at the New York Met 1917–19, was conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 1919–24, joint-conductor of the Concertgebouw Orchestra, Amsterdam, 1924–34, founder of the Orchestre de Paris 1929–38, conductor of the San Francisco Symphony 1936–52 and the London Symphony Orchestra 1961–64. He was an outstanding teacher.

Monteverdi, Claudio Giovanni Antonio (1567–1643). Italian composer, born at Cremona. Little is known of his early years but he won fame by his nine books of madrigals, the first of which appeared in 1587 and the second in 1590, the year he joined as a player of the viol the service of Vincenzo Gonzaga of Mantua, with whom he stayed until the duke’s death (1612). In 1613 he became choirmaster of St Mark’s, Venice, then the most important musical post in Italy. In 1632 he was ordained. His first opera, La Favola d’Orfeo (The Legend of Orpheus), was produced at Mantua for the carnival of 1607. In this work, the first opera of importance, Monteverdi consolidated the experiments of the earliest opera composers, the far less accomplished Jacopo Peri and Giulio Caccini. He was the first composer to employ an orchestra and in his moving vocal music revealed the psychological possibilities of the operatic medium. Of the many other operas and ballets of this period the best is Arianna (1608). The operas of his Venetian period were destroyed during the sack of Mantua (1630), but two later works, The Return of Ulysses (1640) and The Coronation of Poppaea (1642) remain. As the pioneer of opera (he also introduced opera techniques into Church music) and composer alike, he is among the greatest figures in musical history, not only of the Baroque.

Arnold, D., Monteverdi. 1975; Whenham, J. and Wistreich, R. (eds), The Cambridge Companion to Monteverdi. 2007; Fabbri, P., Monteverdi. 2007.

Montez, Lola (Eliza James, née Gilbert) (1818–1861). Irish-American dancer and adventuress, born in Limerick. Claiming Spanish ancestry on her mother’s side, after a disastrous early marriage she became a dancer, making her London debut in 1843. She toured Europe and her lovers included *Dumas père and *Liszt. In 1846 she reached Munich where the eccentric Bavarian king *Ludwig I became enthralled and created her Countess of Lansfeld. His obsession and her role in government contributed to his forced abdication in the revolution of 1848. She moved to New York in 1851 and toured Australia 1855–56.

Montezuma II see Moctezuma II

Montfort, Simon de, 6th Earl of Leicester (c.1208–1265). Anglo-French nobleman, born in Montfort-l’Amaury, in Yvelines, west of Paris. His father, Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester (c.1175–1218), French nobleman and soldier, fought in the Fourth Crusade, led the campaign to exterminate the Albigensians (Cathars), captured Carcassone and became ruler of Toulouse, where he was killed in a siege. He had succeeded to the earldom of Leicester in 1204 through his mother, sister of Robert de Beaumont, the 4th Earl.

The younger Simon married Eleanor, the sister of *Henry III in 1238, was invested with the earldom of Leicester in 1239, went on Crusade in 1240, became the king’s capable Vicegerent in Gascony in 1248 and engaged in missions in France, Rome, Scotland and Wales. However, aggrieved that he had not received sufficient recognition from Henry, he led a baronial revolt in which his fellow nobles insisted on sharing power in government. By the Provisions of Oxford (1258) and of Westminster (1259) it was held that the king should govern through a council of 15 magnates, but de Montfort’s contention that the barons themselves should be subject to the council caused a split in their ranks which enabled the king and his son *Edward to repudiate the Provisions. Civil war followed, decided by de Montfort’s victory at Lewes (1264) which left him in command of the country with Henry and Edward prisoners in his hands. To regularise proceedings he summoned (1265) a ‘parliament’ (parlement or session of the magnates). The difference from earlier sessions was that to strengthen his position, since many hostile barons did not respond to the summons, he summoned also knights of the shire (i.e. the country gentry). By adding a more representative element (likely to give him support), the association of de Montfort’s name with the first English parliament (in the modern sense) can somewhat dubiously be justified. In the same year Prince Edward escaped from surveillance, rallied the royalist supporters and gained the decisive victory of Evesham, where de Montfort was killed.

Labarge, M. W., Simon de Montfort. 1962; Ambler, S. T., The Song of Simon de Montfort. England’s First Revolutionary and the Death of Chivalry. 2019.

Montgolfier, (Jacques) Etienne (1745–1799) and Joseph Michel (1740–1810). French inventors of a man-carrying balloon. The brothers, papermakers by profession, experimented first by filling paper bags with hot air, and later used a bag of silk with an open bottom under which paper was burnt to heat the air to lift the balloon. After an experiment with animals (September 1783) and captive flights, the first free manned ascent was made on 21 November when a balloon 15.7 m (48 ft) in diameter and 24.6 m (75 ft) high travelled for nine kilometres (nearly six miles) across Paris at a height of 100 m (328 ft.)

Gillispie, C. C., The Montgolfier Brothers and the Invention of Aviation. 1983.

Montgomery of Alamein, Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount (1887–1976). British field marshal, born in London. Son of a bishop, he grew up in Tasmania, joined the Royal Warwickshire Regiment (1908) and fought on the western front throughout World War I. At the beginning of World War II he led the 3rd Division in France, his corps commander being the future Lord *Alanbrooke. After Dunkirk he served in England and was G.O.C. Southeastern Command when (August 1942) he was sent to Egypt to take over the 8th Army, which had already checked *Rommel on the Alamein position guarding Alexandria. After defeating a strong German attack (31 August) he planned, and the 8th Army achieved, a decisive breakthrough (October). The chase continued westwards across Africa: the 8th Army joined the American and British forces in Tunisia where early in 1943 the last German forces surrendered. Montgomery remained with the 8th Army for the invasions of Sicily and Italy but at the end of 1943 left to prepare for the liberation of France. He commanded all US, British and Canadian troops in the Normandy landings of June 1944 and later the 21st Army Group forming the left wing. Once the break out had been achieved the advance to the Dutch frontier was amazingly fast. After the German surrender (April 1945), Montgomery commanded the British Military Zone. Created viscount and given a KG in 1946, he became Chief of the Imperial General Staff 1946–48 and Deputy Commander, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers in Europe 1951–58. His Memoirs (1958) made sharp criticisms of his former Commander-in-Chief *Eisenhower, for overruling his 1944 plan for a swift thrust on a narrow front direct to the Ruhr in favour of a slower and more systematic advance along the whole front. One of Montgomery’s most striking assets was his supreme self-confidence which he managed to transmit to his men.

Chalfont, A., Montgomery of Alamein. 1976.

Montgomery, L(ucy) M(aud) (1874–1942). Canadian author. She wrote an enormously successful series of eight novels beginning with Anne of Green Gables (1908), ending with Rilla of Ingleside (1921), short stories, poetry and an autobiography.

Montherlant, Henry Millon de (1896–1972). French novelist, poet and playwright. An aristocrat by birth, he was wounded in World War I, was a bullfighter in Spain for a time and lived in the Sahara (1925–32). His forceful and cynical novels, e.g. Les Bestiaires (1925), Les Célibataires (1934) and Les Jeunes Filles (1939), reveal his contempt for bourgeois values. After World War II he wrote successful plays, including Le Maître de Santiago (1947). Elected to the Académie française in 1960, he committed suicide, fearing the onset of blindness.

Cruickshank, J., Montherlant. 1964

Montpensier, Anne Marie Louise d’Orléans, Duchesse de (1627–1693). French princess. For her heroic conduct in support of *Condé during the French civil war called the Fronde, she became known as ‘la Grande Mademoiselle’.

Montreuil, Pierre de see Pierre de Montreuil

Montrose, James Graham, 1st Marquess of (1612–1650). Scottish leader. After returning from continental travels he joined the anti-royalists and helped to draw up the National Covenant, but, disgusted by the extremism of the Covenanters, he abandoned their party and was appointed (1644) Lieutenant General in Scotland by *Charles I. With an army mainly of Highlanders, he achieved an astonishing series of victories that made him virtually master of the country. In 1645, however, he was surprised at Philiphaugh and forced (1646) to take refuge in Holland. In 1650, determined to avenge Charles’ death, he invaded the north of Scotland from the Orkneys, but he found no support, was defeated at Invercarron, betrayed and hanged at Edinburgh. He was a chivalrous, romantic leader and gifted poet.

Wedgwood, C. V., Montrose. 1952.

Moody, Dwight Lyman (1837–1899). American evangelist. After being a Boston salesman, he went to Chicago (1856) and began the missionary work for which he became famous. With the singer and hymn writer Ira David Sankey (1840–1904), he made remarkably successful revivalist tours of the US and Great Britain.

Pollock, J. C., Moody without Sankey. 1964.

Moody, Helen see Wills Moody, Helen

Moon, Sun Myung (1920–2012). Korean religious leader, born in Sangsan. He founded the Unification Movement in Seoul in 1954 and migrated to the US in 1970. He supported *Nixon, *Reagan and both **Bushes, and ‘The Moonies’ became an influential pressure group within the religious right.

Moore, George (1852–1933). Irish writer. Life in Ireland, where his father was a landlord and racehorse owner, had little appeal to Moore as a youth. He went to London, joined a bohemian set and when aged 18, he inherited the family estate, went to Paris and studied art, with no great success. He returned to Ireland (1879) with an enthusiasm for the French Impressionists and the novelist *Zola, who became his model for a series of realistic novels culminating in Esther Waters (1894), in which the humiliations and hardships that follow surrender to passion are, as in his other novels, the prevailing theme. Meanwhile Moore’s life was spent between Ireland and London, where he finally settled (1911). A new phase of his literary life, an autobiographical one, began in 1888 with the publication of Confessions of a Young Man followed at intervals by portrayals of himself in later years, all written in an easy conversational style quite unlike that of his other works. In his final group of books the aesthete in George Moore predominates, the style, smooth and flowing, is everything, and human warmth is almost lacking. He uses this style for the reconstruction of old stories and legends, e.g. The Brook Kerith (1916), Héloise and Abelard (1921) and Aphrodide in Aulis (1930).

Moore, George Edward (1873–1958). English philosopher, born in London. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, he was a contemporary of *Russell on whom he had a significant (but unreciprocated) influence. Part of the ‘Bloomsbury set’ in London, he lectured at Cambridge from 1911, was professor of philosophy 1925–39 and editor of Mind 1921–47. Moore, who distinguished between knowing and analysing, asserted that what is commonly understood (appreciated by common sense) to be the meaning of a term was frequently at variance with the results achieved by those who analysed its meaning. He therefore used analysis not for demonstrating meaning but as a tool for discovering the component parts of a concept and its relationship to other concepts. Much of his work was in the field of ethics, and his principal books were Principia Ethica (1903) and Philosophical Studies (1922). He received the OM in 1951.

Moore, Henry Spencer (1898–1986). British sculptor and graphic artist, born in Castleford, Yorkshire. Son of a coal miner, he was educated at Castleford Grammar School, served in France 1917–19 and, after studying at Leeds School of Art and the Royal College of Art, won a travelling scholarship (1925). His style verged on the abstract but he was concerned with the aesthetic problems of the human figure, a major aim being the relation of sculpture to natural environment. Thus the anatomy of his ‘reclining figures’ was so disposed as to reflect natural landscape forms. Early influences were African, Mexican and Polynesian sculptures but any borrowings were adapted to suit his own aims. Moore showed a deep understanding of the nature of his material, the importance of the grain in his wood sculptures providing a striking example. His drawings of Londoners sheltering in the Underground during World War II were widely reproduced and he became a prolific and powerful lithographer and engraver. His sculptures won first prize at the Biennales at Venice 1948, São Paulo 1953–54 and Tokyo 1959. His Atom Piece (1964–65) was used as a model for Nuclear Energy (1964–66) at the University of Chicago. Generally regarded as the most important sculptor since *Rodin (and possibly since *Michelangelo), Moore’s works were prominently displayed in public places in Britain, the US, Canada, Germany, Italy, Israel, Japan and Australia. He was awarded the CH in 1955 and the OM in 1963.

Moore, H., and Hedgecoe, J., Henry Moore. 1986.

Moore, Sir John (1761–1809). British general. After serving in many parts of the world, including Corsica, St Lucia in the West Indies, the Helder campaign in Holland, and in Egypt, he won new fame at Shorncliffe Camp, Kent, where he proved himself (1803) one of the most remarkable trainers of troops in British army history. The rapidly moving light infantry regiments were his creation and his new drill system was a major factor in later British successes. In 1808 he was given command in the Peninsula and despite Spanish defeats, concealed his whereabouts from *Napoléon and made a diversionary movement which delayed and disconcerted *Soult while allowing time for the Spaniards to raise new armies. So much achieved, he retreated rapidly to the coast at Corunna, and his troops had already begun to embark when Soult attacked, but was soon repulsed with heavy losses. However, Moore was killed and his burial on the ramparts of Corunna was the subject of a famous poem by Charles Wolfe, ‘Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note …’

Oman, C., Sir John Moore. 1953.

Moore, Marianne Craig (1887–1972). American poet. She contributed to the imagist poetry magazine Egoist and edited the Dial 1925–29. Her urbane and precise poetry first appeared in book form in Poems (1921), later followed by e.g. Observations (1924).

Hadas, P. W., Moore: Poet of Affection. 1977.

Moore, Mike (Michael Kenneth) (1949– ). New Zealand Labour politician. A former social worker and printer, he was MP 1972–75, 1978–99, Minister for Overseas Trade 1984–90, for Foreign Affairs 1990 and Prime Minister Sept–Oct 1990. He served as Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) 1999–2002 and Ambassador to the United States 2010–15.

Moore, Thomas (1779–1825). Irish poet. He published several collections of graceful songs and verses, notably Irish Melodies (10 parts, 1808–34), for some of which he also wrote the tunes: among the most familiar of the lyrics are ’Tis the Last Rose of Summer, The Minstrel Boy and The Harp that Once through Tara’s Halls. He gained a European reputation with Lalla Rookh (1817), a series of oriental verse tales linked by a prose narrative. From the time of his marriage (1811) to Bessy Dyke, an actor, he lived mostly at Sloperton Cottage, Wiltshire.

Moravia, Alberto (Alberto Pincherle) (1907–1990). Italian novelist. His books deal with the frustrations of love in the modern world, they include The Woman of Rome (1947) and The Empty Canvas (1960).

Moravia, A., Man as an End. 1966.

Moray, James Stewart, 1st Earl of (1531–1570). Scots nobleman. Illegitimate son of *James V of Scotland and half-brother of *Mary Queen of Scots, he was a Protestant and in the early part of her reign gave Mary prudent advice about her dealings with the Reformed Church and other matters. Alienated by her follies, he turned against her but returned from France to act as regent after her abdication (1568). When she escaped he defeated her forces at Langside and subsequently maintained order, not without creating enemies among rival factions until his assassination.

More, Hannah (1745–1833). English writer, born near Bristol. Her sister kept a boarding school at which she was educated. After publishing a pastoral play (1773) she went to London (1774) where she became a friend of *Garrick, *Burke, *Reynolds, Horace *Walpole and Dr *Johnson and was prominent at the gatherings of intellectual women known as ‘Blue Stockings’ (she wrote a poem called Bas Bleu). Percy, the first of two tragedies, was produced successfully (1777) by Garrick but after his death her writings were nearly all concerned with religious and humanitarian subjects, her tracts being so successful that they led to the formation of the Religious Tract Society. Her novel Coelebs in Search of a Wife (1809) was popular at the time.

More, Henry (1614–1687). English philosopher. He cultivated interests in science, philosophy and theology, and was deeply concerned with their interconnexion. He became Doctor of Divinity in 1660, and a fellow of the Royal Society in 1664. In science, his early inclinations were towards the approach of *Descartes. He approved and helped to popularise the ‘New Philosophy’. Descartes’ attempted demonstration of the reality of the world of the spirit, of the existence of God, and of the separate existence of an immaterial mind from the body all underpinned More’s attack upon the materialistic philosophy of *Hobbes, in his Antidote against Atheisme (1652). Later More worried, however, that Descartes’ philosophy itself was too materialistic, and he helped develop a new approach to natural philosophy, known as Cambridge Platonism. This emphasised the reality of a wide range of spiritual and nonmaterial forces that helped to sustain nature. Witches and magical manifestations were evidence of this. He held that science and piety were compatible.

Lichtenstein, A., Henry More. 1962.

More, St [Sir] Thomas (1478–1535). English scholar, writer and lawyer, born in London. Son of Sir John More, a lawyer and judge, he was educated in London and at Oxford where he met *Colet and *Erasmus. He practised law with great success and in 1504 entered parliament. In the same year he married Jane Colt, and made a home at the ‘Old Barge’ in London, where he lived for 20 years, becoming under-sheriff (1510). In 1515 he accompanied a trading mission to Flanders. Antwerp provided him with a setting for the introductory scene of Utopia (1516), the meeting with Raphael Hythlodaye, who had discovered the island of Utopia, the ideally tolerant state, where possessions are shared and an education is available for men and women alike. The book, written in Latin, at once became popular and was widely translated (into English in 1551). Earlier More had written Praise of Folly (1510) and his History of Richard III (1513), the main authority for the story of the princes in the Tower. So brilliant a man could not escape the notice of *Henry VIII. More was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520), he became a privy counsellor and was given a number of offices of growing importance until, after *Wolsey’s downfall (1529), he unwillingly became Lord Chancellor. Meanwhile he was living in his new house built (1524) at Chelsea. His daughter Margaret and her husband, William *Roper, his future biographer, were living under the same roof; his other daughters married (1525). There are several accounts of a happy, devoted highly intellectual family group with many friends coming and going, of discussions both serious and gay and something of the atmosphere of a school.

Henry turned confidently to More to arrange for the dissolution of his marriage with *Catherine of Aragon, but More justly feared this would lead to a schism within the Church and offended the king by resigning his chancellorship (1532). In 1534 the Act of Supremacy was passed, by which Henry was declared Head of the Church in England. Though an intellectual and, to some extent a humanist, who recognised the need for some Church reforms, he was also a zealot, and could not tolerate apostasy and the denial of papal supremacy. He was arrested and after a year’s imprisonment was convicted of treason and executed. Canonised by *Pius XI in 1935, he was named by *John Paul II as patron saint of politicians in 2000.

Reynolds, E. E., The Field is Won: The Life and Death of St Thomas More. 1968; Ackroyd, P., The Life of Thomas More. 1998.

Moreau, (Jean) Victor Marie (1761–1813). French marshal, born in Morlaix. After becoming a divisional general under Dumouriez in Belgium (1794), he succeeded Pichegru on the Rhine (1796) and drove the Austrians back to the Danube. In 1798 he was given the command in Italy and saved the French army from destruction. After Jourdan’s defeat at Novi he brought the army safely home to France. He supported *Napoléon Bonaparte’s coup of 18 Brumaire (9 November 1799) and in 1800 gained a succession of victories over the Austrians, culminating in the decisive triumph of Hohenlinden. With Bonaparte’s jealousy rapidly mounting, Moreau was given no further opportunities. Instead he was accused of connivance with plotters against Napoléon’s life (1804) and a two-year sentence of imprisonment was commuted to banishment. He lived near Trenton, New Jersey 1805–13 until after Napoléon’s retreat from Russia he set out (1813) to join the Allied armies. He died of wounds while with the Russian army at Dresden. The most brilliant Revolutionary general, if he had political ambitions he might have forestalled Napoléon.

Morgagni, Giovanni Battista (1682–1771). Italian anatomist. In 1711 he obtained a chair of medicine at Padua, where he stayed for the rest of his life. Morgagni devoted himself to the study of the mechanisms of the body. His investigations of the glands of the trachea, of the male urethra and of the female genitals broke new ground. Above all, he pioneered the study of morbid anatomy. He undertook 640 postmortems, and was careful to relate the diseased organs he dissected to the patient’s own life history and symptoms. Morgagni regarded each organ of the body as a complex of minute mechanisms, and the life of the whole was an index of its balanced functioning. His pioneering work in morbid anatomy was made specially valuable to later clinicians on account of his highly detailed case notes which he published in his De sedibus et causis morborurn per anatomen indagatis (1761).

Morgan, Charles Langbridge (1894–1958). English novelist and playwright. He was trained as a naval officer, served in World War I, became drama critic for The Times 1926–39 and worked for naval intelligence 1939–45. His polished and thoughtful novels include The Fountain (1932), Sparkenbrooke (1936) and The River Line (1937), later successfully dramatised. Among his other plays are The Flashing Stream (1938) and The Burning Glass (1953). His literary essays were collected as Reflections in a Mirror.

Morgan, Sir Henry (c.1635–1688). Welsh buccaneer. He was the most famous of the piratical adventurers who, like their Elizabethan prototypes, carried on a private and profitable war against the Spanish Empire in the West Indies and South America. Among his most daring exploits was his march (1681) across the isthmus of Panama to capture and plunder the city of that name. For the buccaneers this opened the way to the Pacific, which was to become one of their richest hunting grounds. In later life Morgan made peace with authority, he was knighted by *Charles II and was Deputy Governor of Jamaica 1674–83.

Forbes, R. T., Henry Morgan, Pirate. 1946.

Morgan, John Pierpont (1837–1913). American financier. Son of Junius Spencer Morgan, who had built up a reputation and a fortune in international finance, J. P. Morgan expanded his financial interests into the industrial field, at first in partnerships with others and later through his own firm, J. P. Morgan & Co. (founded 1895). He had meanwhile taken over the London interests of George Peabody, whose firm eventually became (1910) Morgan, Grenfell & Co. Much of Morgan’s money was made by great industrial mergers especially of railway and shipping companies, for which the financial crisis of 1873 provided many opportunities. Even the US Government, faced with a run on gold (1895), turned to Morgan for help. His most spectacular achievement took place when he formed (1900) the United States Corporation. Although in 1912 his affairs were carefully scrutinised as a result of antitrust legislation, no charge could be brought against him. Like so many American millionaires he was a great collector, most of his pictures and works of art were eventually presented to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. His library, containing many rare books and MSS, was endowed and made available to the public by his son, John Pierpont Morgan, Jr (1867–1943), who played an important role in World War I, acting as purchasing agent in the US in the financing of the Allied war effort for the British and French governments.

Morgan, Lewis Henry (1818–1881). American anthropologist. He lived among the Iroquois Indians for many years and wrote some important studies on kinship and the development of primitive societies. The classificatory system he deduced is contained in his Systems of Consanguinity in the Human Family (1869).

Morgan, Thomas Hunt (1866–1945). American geneticist and embryologist, born in Kentucky. One of the founders of modern genetics, he was educated in Kentucky and Johns Hopkins, and taught at Bryn Mawr and Columbia. His academic career culminated in his becoming professor of biology at the California Institute of Technology from 1928. Morgan experimented on breeding mice and rats, and then fruit flies (drosophila), tracing patterns of variation over many generations of breeding, and demonstrating that particular characteristics (e.g. eye colour) were inherited through the transmission of genetic material. He termed the particles that conveyed the messages for these characteristics in the chromosome, ‘genes’. Morgan’s work proved that heredity could be treated rigorously. His laboratory became the training ground for a generation of Mendelian geneticists Bridges, *Muller, Dobzhansky and *Monod. Morgan attempted to summarise his work in his 1934 volume, Embryology and Genetics, which argued that because inherited characteristics were genetically coded, they produced the quite sharp variations needed by Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. Thus modern genetics has come to lend support to Darwin. He received the 1933 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

Dunn, L. C., Short History of Genetics. 1965.

Morgenstern, Oskar (1902–1977). American economist, born in Germany. With John von *Neumann he wrote the enormously influential Theory of Games and Economic Behaviour (1944).

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr (1891–1967). American administrator. The son of a banker and diplomat, also Henry Morgenthau (1856–1946), he became a gentleman farmer and friend of Franklin D. *Roosevelt. He was Secretary of the US Treasury for a record term 1934–45. In 1943 he proposed that Germany be converted to an agricultural economy, and took a leading role at the Bretton Woods Conference (1944) which set up the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.

Morison, Stanley (1889–1967). British typographer. He was typographical adviser to Cambridge University Press 1923–44 and 1947–59 and to the Monotype Corporation. He designed Times New Roman typeface which was introduced in 1932. He wrote extensively on typography and calligraphy, edited The Times Literary Supplement 1945–47 and the History of the Times 1935–52.

Barker, N., Stanley Morison. 1972.

Morisot, Berthe (1841–1895). French artist. Granddaughter of *Fragonard, she was assisted by *Monet (whose brother she married), becoming one of the first and most important Impressionist painters. She was also a lithographer and etcher.

Stuckey, C. F. & Scott W. P. Berthe Morisot. 1987.

Morland, George (1763–1804). English painter. His paintings, influenced by Dutch genre pictures, present homely subjects, e.g. Interior of a Stable and The Alehouse Door (both in the National Gallery, London). Popular, too, were his drawings for engravings on moral subjects, e.g. The Effects of Extravagance and Idleness. Drink and dissipation accelerated his death.

Morley, Edward Williams (1838–1923). American chemist and physicist. He became (1869) a professor at the Western Reserve College, Hudson, with which he remained when it moved to Cleveland and became a university; he retired in 1906. He joined *Michelson in carrying out the Michelson-Morley experiment (1881). He is also known for his accurate determination (1895) of the ratio of combination by weight of hydrogen and oxygen (1: 7.9395), which allowed the atomic weight of oxygen to be accurately fixed on the hydrogen scale.

Morley, John, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn (1839–1923). English Liberal politician and writer, born in Blackburn. Educated at Oxford, influenced by *Mill and *Huxley, he became an agnostic and Positivist, working as a journalist. He wrote biographies of *Rousseau (1873), *Burke (1879), *Cobden (1881), *Walpole (1889) and *Cromwell (1900). As editor of the Fortnightly Review (1867–82) he promoted rationalist and anti-imperialist policies that influenced the left of the Liberal Party. A Liberal MP 1883–95, 1896–1908, *Gladstone made him Chief Secretary for Ireland 1886, 1892–95, responsible for Home Rule, unachieved until 1921. An original member of the Order of Merit (1902), he was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Literature 11 times over a decade. He wrote The Life of Gladstone (3 vols, 1903) and served as Secretary of State for India 1905–10 and Lord President of the Council 1910–14. A pacifist, he resigned in protest at the outbreak of World War I.

Morley, Thomas (c.1557–1607/8). English composer. A pupil of William *Byrd, he was organist of St Paul’s, London (from 1592), and a member of the Chapel Royal. One of the greatest of English madrigal composers, he set a number of *Shakespeare’s songs (e.g. It was a lover and his lass) for voice and lute, composed Church music and works for viols and for virginals, and wrote the textbook A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practical Musick.

Morny, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph de Morny, Duc de (1811–1865). French politician and businessman, born in Switzerland. Grandson of *Talleyrand and son of Hortense Beauharnais (wife of Louis *Bonaparte), he was an illegitimate half-brother of *Napoléon III. A shrewd and unscrupulous manipulator, he organised the coup d’état of December 1851, became President of the Corps Legislatif 1854–65 and was a liberalising influence during the Second Empire.

Moro, Aldo (1916–1978). Italian politician. A Christian Democrat, he served as Prime Minister 1963–68, 1974–76 and Foreign Minister 1970–72. In 1978 he was kidnapped and murdered by the Red Brigade.

Moroni, Giovanni Battista (c.1525–1578). Italian painter. He may have had some link with *Titian, but worked in his home town of Bergamo, outside the artistic mainstream. However, his portraits are powerful, with acute psychological insight, and he is well represented in major European and American collections.

Morris, Gouverneur (1752–1816). American politician. Of partly Huguenot descent, he became prominent in New York politics and was a conservative at the Federal Constitutional Convention (1787), where he argued for a strong central government and became principal draftsman of the US Constitution (although *Madison and *Franklin contributed more substance). He was Minister to France 1792–94 at the time of the revolutionary ‘Terror’, of which his Diary gives a graphic firsthand account. He spent some years in travel before returning to the US. A senator from New York 1800–03, he retired to view the increasing egalitarianism of the times with aristocratic disdain.

Morris, William (1834–1896). English artist, writer, craftsman and socialist, born in London. Son of a prosperous city bill-broker, as a boy he lived in a large house on the borders of Epping Forest. As a pupil at Marlborough he already showed his architectural interests and at Oxford became friends with *Burne-Jones and later *Rossetti and the other Pre-Raphaelites: *Ruskin’s books guided his architectural taste at this time. After graduating he trained as an architect, first in Oxford and then in London, where he shared rooms with Burne-Jones. His marriage (1859) to the lovely Jane Burden (1839–1914) (immortalised by her lover Rossetti), and the building for them of the famous Red House by Philip Webb, provided the incentive to found (1861) the firm of Morris, Marshall & Faulkner (later Morris & Co.) for the manufacture of carpets, wallpaper, furniture etc. This enterprise, of which his friends Ford Madox *Brown, Rossetti, Burne-Jones and Webb were all original members, enabled Morris to express his hatred of industrial civilisation and love of the medieval past, reflected also in his poetic works The Defence of Guinevere (1858) and The Earthly Paradise (1868–70). The Morris designs are now being restored to favour but it has been argued that the vogue for ‘handicrafts’ that they heralded delayed the evolution of good industrial design.

Morris’s wish to revive the dignity and joy of work led him to a romantic form of socialism. He joined (1883) *Hyndman’s Social Democratic Federation and founded (1884) The Socialist League. In The Dream of John Bull (1888) and News from Nowhere (1891) he presented his vision of a more human and joyful society. The last years of his life were occupied in the writing of prose romances partly inspired by his study of Icelandic sagas, and in founding the Kelmscott Press which, by reviving and improving the old standards of book binding and type design, had an important influence on the history of printing.

Henderson, P. P., William Morris, His Life and Friends. 1967; MacCarthy, F., William Morris: A Life for our Time. 1994.

Morris, William Richard, 1st Viscount Nuffield (1877–1963). English motor manufacturer and philanthropist. Originally owner of a bicycle shop in Oxford, he started (1912), in an improvised works at Cowley just outside the city, to build motor cycles and then the first Morris Oxford and Morris Cowley cars. World War I intervened, but his 1925 output on 53,000 cars achieved a European record. He gave financial support to *Mosley’s ‘New Party’ in 1931. A series of mergers (with Wolseley, Riley etc.), culminating with amalgamation (1952) with the Austin Motor Company, led to the formation of the vast British Motor Corporation under Nuffield’s presidency. He was equally well known as a philanthropist, especially for the foundation of Nuffield College, Oxford (1937), and the Nuffield Foundation (1943), a charitable trust endowed with stock in Morris Motors Ltd valued at £10 million. Morris, who received a peerage (1934), became a viscount (1938) and a CH (1958), was an unassuming man who led an unpublicised and unostentatious life. Morris Motors was taken over by the British Motor Corporation in 1952 but the brand name survived until 1984.

Andrews, P. W. and Brunner, E., Life of Lord Nuffield. 1955.

Morrison, Herbert Stanley, Baron Morrison of Lambeth (1888–1965). British Labour politician, born in South London. Son of a policeman, he worked as an errand boy, shop assistant and for a newspaper. He led the Labour group in the London County Council 1933–40, gaining a great reputation as an organiser. He was an MP 1923–24, 1929–31 and 1935–59. Minister of Transport 1929–31 in Ramsay *MacDonald’s second government, during World War II he was a very successful Home Secretary 1940–45 in Churchill’s coalition. In *Attlee’s Labour Government he was Deputy Prime Minister and Lord President of the Council 1945–51, and Foreign Secretary 1951. When Attlee retired as party leader in 1955, *Gaitskell beat Morrison for the succession.

Donoughue, B., and Jones, G. W., Herbert Morrison. 1973.

Morrison, Scott John (1968– ). Australian Liberal politician, born in Sydney. Educated at the University of NSW, he worked in the tourism industry in New Zealand and Australia as a manager and marketer, then became a Liberal Party official and Federal MP 2007– . As Minister for Immigration and Border Protection 2013–14, he imposed a harsh regime against refugees attempting to arrive by boat. Minister for Social Security 2014–15 and Treasurer 2015–18, he became Prime Minister 2018– , beneficiary of a right-wing attempted coup to replace Malcolm *Turnbull with Peter *Dutton, creating an opportunity for Morrison to come through the middle. He was an active Pentecostalist.

Morrison, Toni (Chloe Ardelia Wofford) (1931–2019). American novelist, born in Ohio. Educated at Howard and Cornell Universities, she lectured at Princeton 1987–2006. Her novels include The Bluest Eye (1970), Song of Solomon (1977), Tar Baby (1981) and Jazz (1992). She received the Pulitzer Prize in 1988 for Beloved, the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1993 and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2012.

Morse, (Samuel) Finley (Breese) (1791–1872). American inventor, born near Boston. Educated at Yale, he studied art in England and became a successful portrait painter and pioneer photographer in the US. From 1832 he experimented with means of transmitting messages using either electricity or a system of flashing lights, adopting (without acknowledgement) the work of Joseph *Henry. He devised the ‘Morse Code’ and patented (1840) an electric telegraph. In 1844 he sent a telegraphic message from Washington DC to Baltimore. He was politically active, deeply anti-Catholic and a strong supporter of slavery.

Morsi, Mohamed (1951–2019). Egyptian politician and engineer. He gained a PhD in materials science at the University of Southern California, then became active in the Muslim Brotherhood and was a founder of the Freedom and Justice Party (2011). Described as a moderate, he expressed scepticism about al-Qaida links to the World Trade Centre attacks in 2001. After *Mubarak’s fall, he was elected as President of Egypt in June 2012. In July 2013, after days of huge public demonstrations, there was an army coup, Morsi was deposed and arrested and a process of ‘national reconciliation’ was begun, aimed at restoring Egypt to being secular and pluralist. He was held for trial on charges of incitement to murder and espionage, and a death sentence was passed in May 2015.

Mortimer, Roger de, 1st Earl of March (1287–1330). English nobleman. He played a conspicuous part in the struggle for power in the reign of *Edward II. He allied himself with Queen *Isabella, whose lover he became, in the conspiracy by which her husband was deposed (1327) in favour of her son, the boy-king *Edward III, and soon murdered, presumably on Mortimer’s orders. Three years later the hatred inspired by Mortimer’s rule encouraged Edward to have him seized and hanged at Tyburn without trial. Another Roger Mortimer (1374–1398), his descendant, became heir presumptive to *Richard II and (through the marriage of his daughter, Anne) the source of the Yorkist claim to the throne.

Morton, James Douglas, 4th Earl of (c.1516–1581). Scottish nobleman. A Protestant, he was (from 1557) at the centre of the plots and intrigues against *Mary Queen of Scots. He took part in *Rizzio’s murder and was almost certainly privy to that of *Darnley. It was he who discovered the ‘casket letter’ which, if genuine, implicated Mary. After the death of *Moray he was twice Regent of Scotland, 1572–78 and 1578–80, for *James VI and attempted to restore tranquillity to a land torn by religious dissension and war. A party of the nobles plotted to secure his dismissal. He seized Stirling Castle and the young king, but a further plot resulted in his execution for the murder of Darnley.

Morton, John (1423–1500). English ecclesiastic and lawyer. After various turns of fortune during the Wars of the Roses he became *Henry VII’s most trusted adviser: he was Archbishop of Canterbury 1486–1500, Lord Chancellor 1487–1500, and became a cardinal (1493). It is said (though the story is probably apocryphal) that he assisted the king’s extortions by impaling potential victims on the horns of a dilemma known as Morton’s Fork, but he certainly used his visits to nobles to assess their wealth: if they had a costly retinue, he concluded they were rich and able to pay heavy taxes; if modest, that they were avaricious and equally able to pay.

Morton, William Thomas Green (1819–1868). American dentist. Famous for introducing ether as an anaesthetic, he used it (1846) at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, in the first successful major operation using general anaesthesia.

Keys, T. E., The History of Surgical Anaesthesia. 1945.

Mosaddegh (or Mussadiq), Mohammad (1876–1967). Iranian politician, born in Tehran. His father was a high official, his mother from a princely clan. He studied law in France and Switzerland, served briefly as Finance Minister 1921–22 and Foreign Minister 1923 and in 1944 founded the National Front, proposing democratic reform and nationalisation of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). Appointed as Prime Minister 1951–53, he nationalised the oil industry, introduced land reforms and weakened the power of the Shah. Britain imposed a virtual boycott, paralysing the AIOC and there were strikes in protest against economic hardship. The CIA and MI6 organised a successful coup, led by General Fazlollah Zahedi, in August 1953. Mosaddegh was tried and imprisoned until 1956, then kept under house arrest until he died.

Moseley, Henry Gwynne Jeffreys (1887–1915). English physicist. Educated at Eton and Oxford, he worked with Ernest *Rutherford in Manchester as a research assistant 1910–13, studied the X-ray spectra of many elements and discovered (1913) that the frequency of the characteristic line in each spectrum increases in regular sequence from one element to the next in the periodic table. He thus showed the fundamental importance of the atomic number of an element, which defines the element and is directly related to its atomic structure. He was killed at Gallipoli.

Moses (Moshe, probably from the Egyptian mos, ‘child’) (c.14th–13th centuries BCE). Hebrew leader and law-giver, born in Egypt. According to the Pentateuch, he was a Levite, hidden in bullrushes to avoid slaughter by the Egyptians, found and brought up by Pharaoh’s daughter, an account paralleling birth legends in mythology. After killing an Egyptian overseer, he took refuge with the Midianites and married Zipporah. After many years he received in a vision an order from Jehovah to lead the Jewish people from their captivity in Egypt to Palestine. The 10 plagues that afflicted Egypt are reputed to have been among the reasons why Pharaoh allowed them to depart. Moses and his brother Aaron led them to Mount Sinai where the ‘Ten Commandments’ were received. Moses led his people for many years in the wilderness but died at the age of 120 on Mount Nebo (Sinai) in sight of the ‘Promised Land’ of Palestine, which he never reached. The Pentateuch took its present form about 600 years after his time and he was almost certainly a composite figure.

Freud, S., Moses and Monotheism 1939.

Moses, Grandma (Anna Mary Robertson) (1860–1961). American painter. A farmer’s wife, she took up painting at the age of 77 and won fame for her gay and spontaneous pictures of rural scenes.

Mosley, Sir Oswald Ernald, 6th Baronet (1896–1980). British politician. His first wife, Lady Cynthia Blanche Mosley (1898–1933), daughter of Lord *Curzon, was a Labour MP 1929–31. He became a Conservative MP (1918) but joined the Labour Party (1924) and was a member of Ramsay MacDonald’s Government 1929–30, resigning because of its failure to cope with unemployment. He formed the New Party (1931) and founded (1932) the British Union of Fascists. The violence of his followers was a feature of prewar politics. In World War II he was detained under defence regulations. In 1948 he started a new Union movement. His second wife was Diana *Mitford.

Mosley, N., Rules of the Game: Sir Oswald and Lady Cynthia Mosley, 1896–1933. 1982; Beyond the Pale: Sir Oswald Mosley 1933–1980. 1983.

Mostel, Zero (Samuel Joel) (1915–1977). American actor, born in Brooklyn. A masterful mime, skilled in drama and comedy, he starred in Ulysses in Nighttown (1958), *Ionesco’s Rhinoceros (1961, stage and film) and created the role of Tevye in Fiddler on the Roof (1964). He starred in the film The Producers (1968).

Motley, John Lothrop (1814–1877). American historian. He wrote the classic The Rise of the Dutch Republic (1856) and served as US Minister to Austria 1861–67 and Great Britain 1869–70.

Moulin, Jean (1899–1943). French administrator and Resistance leader. Prefect of Chartres 1936–40, he became the courageous leader of the Underground, supported *de Gaulle’s leadership of the Free French and encouraged him to embrace more progressive policies. He died in German custody and is much commemorated in France.

Mountbatten, Louis Alexander (né Ludwig Alexander von Battenberg), 1st Marquess of Milford Haven (1854–1921). English admiral and (former) German prince, born in Graz, Austria. A member of the ducal family of Hesse, he moved to England as a child, joined the Royal Navy in 1868 and in 1884 married his cousin, Princess Victoria of Hesse, a granddaughter of Queen *Victoria. An extremely skilful sailor, despite his royal connections, he was a great promoter of technological improvements in the fleet. Promoted to First Sea Lord of the Admiralty 1912–14, he was forced out after World War I began, due to strong anti-German feeling. In 1917 he abandoned his princely title, adopted the anglicised surname of Mountbatten and was created a marquess. He was the father of Queen Louise of Sweden, Earl *Mountbatten of Burma and Princess Alice of Greece, mother of Prince Philip, Duke of *Edinburgh.

Mountbatten of Burma, 1st Earl of, Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten (1900–1979). British Admiral of the Fleet and administrator, born in Windsor. Son of Louis *Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven and great-grandson of Queen *Victoria, he joined the Royal Navy in 1913 and became the ADC (and close friend) of his cousin, Edward, Prince of Wales (*Edward VIII). In 1922 Lord Louis Mountbatten married Edwina (Cynthia Annette) Ashley, later Countess Mountbatten (1901–1960), an heiress, and they became glamorous figures in London society. His exploits as captain of the destroyer HMS Kelly (1939–41) were celebrated in Noel *Coward’s film In Which We Serve (1942). As Chief of Combined Operations 1942–43, he organised several successful commando raids (and one disaster in Dieppe). Techniques and equipment devised under his direction (including ‘Pluto’ and the ‘Mulberry’ harbours) proved essential in the Normandy invasion (1944). As Supreme Commander, Allied Forces, South East Asia 1943–46, he had a genius for publicity, mostly remaining at his headquarters at Kandy, Ceylon, while the defence of India and expulsion of the Japanese from Burma were left to *Auchinleck and *Slim respectively. Created a viscount and a KG in 1946, he was appointed as the last viceroy of India March–August 1947 by Clement *Attlee. The original date set for transfer of power and partition into India and Pakistan was June 1948, but Mountbatten insisted on speeding up the process which took place on 15 August 1947. Boundary lines were drawn to benefit India, and Mountbatten was skilful in evading responsibility for almost 1,000,000 deaths in the ensuing conflict. He became first Governor-General of the new dominion of India 1947–48, working closely with *Nehru, with whom his wife had an intimate relationship. Promoted earl in 1947, in the same year his nephew, Philip, Duke of *Edinburgh, married the future *Elizabeth II. He returned to naval duties in 1948 and became Commander in Charge of NATO Naval Forces in the Mediterranean 1953–54, First Sea Lord of the Admiralty 1955–59 and Chief of the UK Defence Staff 1959–65. Promoted Admiral of the Fleet in 1956, he received the OM in 1965 and was elected FRS in 1966. Countess Mountbatten devoted herself to the St John’s Ambulance and overseas aid; she died suddenly in North Borneo. He was actively involved in 179 organisations, featured in an autobiographical television series and had a major influence on Prince *Charles. He was killed by an IRA bomb while on a boating holiday in Ireland. Handsome, imaginative, but superficial and distrusted by his contemporaries (*Alanbrooke, *Montgomery, *Templer, *Ismay), Mountbatten’s reputation has declined since his death.

Ziegler, P., Mountbatten. 1985.

Mowat, Farley (McGill) (1921–2014). Canadian author. After war service and polar exploration, he devoted himself to travel and writing about threats to species and natural environments. His books include Never Cry Wolf (1963), A Whale for the Killing (1972), And No Birds Sang (1979) and Sea of Slaughter (1984).

Mo Yan (‘Don’t speak’: personal name Guan Moye) (1955– ) Chinese novelist, born in Shandong province. During the Cultural Revolution he left school at 12 to work in the fields. He served in the PLA, began to read widely and was influenced by *Lu Xun and translations of *Faulkner and *Garcia Marques. Red Sorghum (1987) was filmed by *Zhang Yimou. Other novels include Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out (2006), Sandalwood Death (2013), and Pow! (2013). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2012 for his work which ‘with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary’. Mo Yan was criticised by Salman *Rushdie and others for failing to protest against the treatment of dissidents in China. (*Gao Xingjian).

Moynihan, Daniel Patrick (‘Pat’) (1927–2003). American politician, sociologist and diplomat, born in Oklahoma. Highly idiosyncratic, he worked with the *Kennedys, Ralph *Nader, Richard *Nixon and the *Clintons. He was Ambassador to India 1973–75, to the United Nations 1975–76 and a US Senator (Democrat) from New York 1977–2001. He observed: ‘Everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.’

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (Johann Chrysostom) (1756–1791). Austrian composer, born in Salzburg. He was the son of the distinguished violinist and composer Leopold Mozart (1719–1787), director of the Archbishop of Salzburg’s orchestra. The most precocious genius in the history of music, Mozart began to play the harpsichord at the age of three, composed an Andante and Allegro and gave his first public performance when he was five (by which time he had mastered the violin), and at the age of six played at the court of the empress *Maria Theresa. By 1763 he was an accomplished alto singer and organist and amazed the French Court with his skill. In 1764 he visited London, played for *George III, met J. C. *Bach and was the subject of a report to the Royal Society. He composed his first symphony (1764–65) and a motet, God is our Refuge, in 1765. In 1768 he composed a one-act opera Bastien und Bastienne and made his debut as a conductor with his Missa Solemnis. He toured Italy at 13, was made a Knight of the Golden Spur by Pope Clement XIV and gave a series of extraordinary concerts at which he demonstrated his astounding improvisatory skills. In 1782 he married Constanze Weber (1763–1842). The couple had six children of whom only two survived infancy Karl (d.1858) and Franz (d.1844). Soon after his marriage Mozart met *Haydn who helped him greatly, especially with the string quartets, and remained a loyal friend. He wrote to Leopold ‘Your son is the greatest composer known to me either in person or by name.’ After a series of successful concerts in Prague (1787), Mozart was appointed as Imperial and Royal Chamber Composer (Kammermusicus) by *Joseph II, a sinecure which paid 800 florins. His income in the 1780s varied between 2000 and 6000 florins (about the same as Haydn, who was thought to be affluent) but he lived well, moved in expensive circles, did not budget properly and borrowed when he could. It has been estimated that income in his last years averaged the equivalent of $US175,000. He taught, gave as many concerts as the market would support and arranged dance music and salon pieces. He declined two lucrative offers from J. P. *Salomon to work in London (1790). He died in December 1791 at his lodgings in the Rauhensteingasse (now demolished), probably from acute rheumatic fever complicated by broncho-pneumonia, a more likely cause than chronic renal (kidney) failure. His death certificate gave the cause as ‘heated miliary fever’ (essentially a symptom rather than a disease). His last work, appropriately, was the Requiem, left incomplete. He was buried in an unmarked communal grave in the St Marx cemetery, Vienna, in conformity with the burial laws of Joseph II.

Mozart’s works were catalogued in chronological order by Ludwig von *Köchel: the Requiem (1791) is K. 626. However, some lost works have since been found and the total number of compositions exceeds 670, about 400 surviving in Mozart’s autograph. There are 41 numbered symphonies, the most performed being Nos. 28, 31 (‘Paris’), 35 (‘Haffner’), 36 (‘Linz’), 38 (‘Prague’), 39, 40 and 41 (‘Jupiter’); the last three were composed in six weeks (1788). Nine more juvenile symphonic works or fragments must be added. Mozart’s 27 piano concertos (and concertos for two and three pianos) are of extraordinary quality especially Nos. 9, 12, 15, 19, 20, 21, 23, 25 and 27. The 6 violin concertos, elegant salon pieces, are ressentially divertimentos. He wrote a superb clarinet concerto (K. 622: 1791), four concertos for horn, concertos for flute, flute and harp, oboe and bassoon, and a Sinfonia Concertante for violin and viola (K. 364: 1779). The Serenade in B flat (Gran’ Partita) (K. 361: 1781–82) for 13 wind instruments, conceived on a huge scale, is a virtuoso work of unprecedented vitality. He wrote 17 Masses, of which 14 survive: the ‘Great’ Mass in C Minor (1782) and the Requiem have an astonishing power. The Requiem left incomplete, begins with a gut-wrenching introduction of 29 notes, barely 50 seconds long. Cellos and basses open, followed by the mournful sound of a bassoon, soon joined by the lowest register (chalumeau) of a clarinet, and ending with four notes, fortissimo, from three trombones. Those 29 notes, not one wasted, demonstrate exceptional economy and power.

His chamber works include 23 string quartets (the most important being six dedicated to Haydn, written 1782–85), 6 string quintets (K. 515 in C major and K. 516 in G Minor, both 1787, among his masterpieces), the serenade for strings Eine kleine Nachtsmusik (K. 525: 1787), the String Trio (K. 563: 1788), seven piano trios, and the Clarinet Quintet (K. 581: 1789), the greatest in the repertoire. His 14 piano sonatas, notably transparent, are deceptively simple: as Artur *Schnabel commented, ‘Too easy for amateurs: too hard for professionals’. He wrote about 30 songs.

Mozart wrote 22 dramatic works, some incomplete. 13 more or less complete operas survive. Le nozze di Figaro (The Marriage of Figaro, 1786, based on a comedy by Caron de *Beaumarchais), Don Giovanni (1787) and Così fan tutte (‘Thus do they all …’, 1790) have incomparable Italian librettos by Lorenzo da *Ponte which contributes to rich characterisation. Mozart wrote the greatest scenes in the whole operatic repertoire, including the familiar trio from Così fan tutte (‘Soave sia il vento …’), the last scene of Don Giovanni, and from The Marriage of Figaro the exhilarating sextet (‘Riconosci in quest’ amplesso’) in the third act. In Figaro’s sublime finale, the theme of reconciliation is compressed to a bare five lines. Psychologically and politically complex, the music and libretti reflect the social turbulence of his time.

Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute, 1791) is set to a German text by Emanuel *Schikenader, a Viennese promoter: the work has many beautiful arias, but the characters lack depth and the story is more pantomime (deliberately) than drama. Mozart’s last opera was La clemenza di Tito (1791).

Bernard *Shaw argued that Mozart’s ‘voice’ was unique. After listening to only a few bars, even in an unfamiliar work, it is clear that the music can only be his. Characters in his operas have an individual sound. In The Marriage of Figaro, the Countess, Susannah and Cherubino sing in exactly the same register, as do the Count, Figaro and Dr Bartolo, and yet even with closed eyes audiences are never in doubt about who the character is. The Mozart operas are far more than elegant and witty costume dramas—with elements of violence and exploitation included with Don Giovanni. At the deepest level they raise central and disturbing questions about identity: ‘Who am I?’ and, the orchestra (especially the violas) sometimes tells a different story to what is being enacted on stage.

Peter *Shaffer’s play Amadeus (1979), later a successful film (1984), generated interest and controversy, emphasising the contrast between the sublimity of Mozart’s music and some childish and scatalogical elements in his behaviour. By the bicentennial of his death (1991) all of Mozart’s music was available on CD.

Hildesheimer, W., Mozart. 1982; Robbins Landon, H. C., Mozart: the Golden Years. 1989; Robbins Landon, H. C., The Mozart Compendium 1990; Morris, J. M., On Mozart. 1995; Solomon, M., Mozart: A Life. 1995; Gutman, R. W., Mozart. A Cultural Biography. 1999.

Mravinsky, Yeygenyi Aleksandrovich (1903–1988). Russian conductor. Chief conductor of the Kirov Ballet, Leningrad 1932–38 and of the Leningrad Philharmonic 1938–88, he kept out of politics, rarely toured but made memorable recordings of *Beethoven, *Tchaikovsky and *Shostakovich.

Mu’āwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān (602–680). Fifth caliph of Islam 661–80, founder of the *Umayyad dynasty. Born in Mecca, in the Quraysh tribe, he deposed *Ali’s son Hasan and ruled from Damascus.

Mubarak, (Muhammad) Hosni (El-Sayad) (1928–2020). Egyptian officer and politician. He joined the air force in 1950, and as Commander-in-Chief 1972–75 took a central role in the 1973 war with Israel. Vice President of Egypt 1975–81, after *Sadat’s assassination, he succeeded as President 1981–2011. He maintained good relations with Israel and was heavily subsidised by the US as a reliable opponent of Islamic fundamentalism. His government became increasingly authoritarian and in February 2011, during the ‘Arab Spring’, after 18 days of huge demonstrations, he was forced to resign. Convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment (2012), a retrial was ordered in 2013. The murder conviction was overturned but he and his sons were convicted of corruption and embezzlement. He was released in 2017.

Mueller, Baron Sir Ferdinand Jakob Heinrich von (1825–1896). German-Australian botanist. In Australia from 1847, he was an indefatigable explorer and botanical taxonomist, Government Botanist in Victoria 1853–96 and director of the Melbourne Botanic Gardens 1857–73. He discovered many new species, published exhaustively and received many awards, including FRS, KCMG and a barony from Württemberg.

Mugabe, Robert Gabriel (1925–2019). Zimbabwean politician, born in Kutama. A Shona, educated by the Jesuits, after training at Fort Hare, he went to Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) to teach and from there to Ghana in 1958. Later, he became Secretary-General of the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) and was Secretary-General 1963–74, and President from 1974. After 10 years in prison (1964–74), when he gained four more degrees by correspondence, he left Rhodesia for Mozambique and ZANU became guerrilla-based. After four years of armed conflict with the regime led by Ian *Smith, pressure from the UK and (surprisingly) South Africa led to the Lancaster House negotiations in London (1979), aimed at securing a transition from armed conflict to democracy. ZANU won 57 of 80 seats reserved for Africans in the February 1980 elections. Christopher Soames, interim Governor of Southern Rhodesia, commissioned Mugabe to form a government. Rhodesia was immediately renamed Zimbabwe. Mugabe was the first Prime Minister of independent Zimbabwe 1980–87 and President 1987–2017. Mugabe and his ZANU-PF (i.e. Patriotic Front) regime became increasingly corrupt, dependent on army and police support, and agriculture collapsed. In 2006, WHO reported that Zimbabwe had the world’s shortest life expectancy. The presidential election of 2008 in which Mugabe defeated Morgan *Tsvangirai was generally regarded as fraudulent. Mugabe had been awarded an honorary GCB in 1994, but the honour was ‘annulled’ in 2008. Tsvangirai became Prime Minister in 2009, in an attempt to negotiate a unity government, but had little power. Mugabe was re-elected for a seventh term in August 2013, claiming 61 per cent of the vote on a disputed roll. In November 2017, after Mugabe sacked Emmerson Mnangagwa as Vice President, intending to appoint his own wife Grace, the army intervened, placed him under house arrest and negotiated his resignation in a bloodless action.

Norman, A., Mugabe: Teacher, Revolutionary, Tyrant. 2008.

Muggeridge, (Thomas) Malcolm (1903–1990). English journalist. Educated at Selwyn College, Cambridge, he taught in India and Egypt, then became a journalist for the Manchester Guardian, working in Cairo and Moscow. He served in army intelligence during World War II and was editor of Punch 1953–57. Best known as a witty and controversial television performer, he made an influential film about Mother *Teresa, became increasingly preoccupied with religion and joined the Catholic Church in 1982. His books include The Thirties (1940), Tread Softly for you Tread on my Jokes (1966), Something Beautiful for God (1971), Paul (1972) and Chronicles of Wasted Time (an autobiography, Vol. 1 1972, Vol. 2 1973).

Muhammad (or Mohammad, Arab = praised) (Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abdu'llah ibn 'Abdu'l-Muttalib ibn Hashim) (c.570–632). Arab religious teacher, founder of Islam, born in Mecca. A member of the Quraysh clan which ruled Mecca, he was orphaned early and later adopted by an uncle, Abu Talib. When about 25, he was engaged by Khadijah (c.555–619), a wealthy woman, to accompany one of her caravans and he later married her. Despite the disparity in age the marriage was happy. Muhammad had two sons and four daughters by her, one of whom, *Fatimah, married his cousin *Ali—a union from which all the direct descendants of the prophet sprang.

From 610, when he was 40, Muhammad had a series of visions in which the archangel Gabriel dictated the text of what became known as the Qu’ran (Koran). Muhammad could not read or write but dictated the text from memory, either to *Ali (as Shi’ites believe) or to *Abu-Bakr (the favoured scribe of the Sunnis). The faith Muhammad preached was strict monotheism: while he accepted that Jews and Christians also worship the same god he felt that they had strayed from the strict monotheistic path. He denounced idols, proclaimed a single God, Allah, and promised true believers physical resurrection in Heaven. He preached complete submission to the will of God (this is the meaning of ‘Islam’) and the equality of all men (but perhaps not women) of every race. Christians and Jews he classed not as pagans but as Ahl al Kitab (people of the book), towards whom he extended toleration. At first only his wife believed in him and in the first 10 years he made fewer than a hundred converts, but this was enough to alarm the citizens of Mecca who had a vested interest in preserving the image of their city as a religious centre of all Arabs with the Kaaba and its many idols. To escape their animosity Muhammad and his followers moved unobtrusively (622) to Yathrib (renamed Medina, ‘city of the prophet’), about 330 kilometres to the north which offered them security. This was the hegira (flight) from which the Muslim era dates (AH). In Medina he had greater success in winning adherents than in Mecca and he became the revered law-giver and ruler of the city. His followers organised attacks on caravans from Mecca and his fame spread and attracted support. In 623 the Muslims won a signal victory over the Meccans at Badr and in 630 Muhammad marched on Mecca, which surrendered. The Kaaba was cleared of its idols and became the shrine of Islam. Muhammad was recognised as a prophet and the new faith spread rapidly throughout Arabia. He returned to Medina, where he died. After his first wife’s death (probably in 619), Muhammad took several wives, of whom his favourite was A’ishah (Ayesha), her father, Abu-Bakr, became Muhammad’s successor, as first caliph of Islam.

Muhammad was a unique combination of religious and secular leader, ruling central Arabia with a population of about two million. He has been described as the Islamic equivalent of a combination of *Jesus, St *Paul, the four evangelists and *Constantine, but no claim of divinity was made by or for him.

There is little about Muhammad’s life to explain those undoubted qualities that inspired such devotion among his followers, an inspiration which founded a great new world religion and carried the hitherto backward peoples of Arabia to the conquest of an empire which, at its peak, was greater in extent than that of the Romans. It also led to a flowering of arts and sciences that shone all the more brightly against the background of the Dark Ages in Europe.

Watt, W. M., Mohammed: Prophet and Statesman. 1961; Anderson, K., Muhammad: A Life of the Prophet. 1991; Muhammad: A Prophet for Our Time. 2006; Hazelton, I., The First Muslim. The Story of Muhammad. 2013.

Muhammed Ali (Pasha al-Mas’ud ibn Agha) (1769–1849). Albanian-Egyptian commander, born in Kavala, then in Macedonia, now in Greece. Of Albanian descent, orphaned early, he was brought up in the household of an officer of janissaries, with whom he gained some military experience. After fighting with Turkish troops in Egypt against the French army of occupation, he remained there in command of Albanian troops and emerged from a confused struggle for power as Wāli (or Viceroy) 1805–48, at first confronted by the Mamluk beys, descendants of the Mamluk sultans who, though conquered by the Turks in 1517, still retained semi-independence. By organising their treacherous massacre (1811), Muhammad Ali became supreme and, though nominally under Turkish suzerainty, built up Egypt into a virtually independent state. Immediately after the massacre he invaded Arabia where an extremist Islamic sect, the Wahabis (*Ibn Sa’ud), had seized the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. The war was ended (1818) by Mehemet’s son *Ibrahim, and the Wahabi prince Abdullah was sent to Constantinople for execution.

Muhammad Ali now proceeded to create some aspects of a modern state, deriving revenues from monopolies for the sale of agricultural produce and from new industries that he established. He was thus able to raise new armies with which he conquered the Sudan (1820–30) and aided the Turks against the Greek independence movement (1824–27). The Turks were, however, made restive by the increasing power of their overgrown subject and when Ibrahim conquered Syria they enlisted British aid to make him withdraw—a major setback for Muhammad Ali who was, however, compensated by having his office made hereditary and was thus enabled to found the khedival dynasty. In 1848 Muhammad Ali became insane; Ibrahim, who succeeded, died in the same year. His dynasty ruled Egypt, at least in name, until *Farouk’s abdication in 1952.

Muir, Edwin (1887–1959). Scottish poet, born in Orkney. After working as a clerk in Glasgow, he became involved in left wing politics. He married Willa Anderson (1919) and went to Prague, where, with his wife, he translated the works of *Kafka and began to publish his own poetry. He worked for the British Council 1942–50, then became warden of Newbattle Abbey College. His Collected Poems appeared in 1952. His prose works include a study of John *Knox and his Autobiography (1954).

Muir, John (1838–1914). American conservationist, born in Scotland. He lived in the Sierra Nevada from 1868, devoted himself to nature, travelled extensively in the west and Alaska and campaigned for forest conservation, national parks and the preservation of wilderness. The Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks were proclaimed in 1890 and he won the support of presidents *Cleveland and Theodore *Roosevelt. He was Founder-President of the Sierra Club and a prolific writer.

Mujibur Rahman, Sheikh (1920–1975). Bangladeshi politician. A lawyer, he was Secretary of the Awami League 1950–71 and campaigned for the succession of East Pakistan (Bengal). In 1970 the League won 151 of 153 Bengali seats. In March 1971 Mujibur proclaimed an independent Republic of Bangladesh with Indian support, while China backed Pakistan. Pakistan was defeated in open war (December 1971), Mujibur became Prime Minister 1972–75, and in 1975 ‘President for Life’. With the Bangladesh economy facing collapse, he established a one-party state, provoked violent opposition from the army and was soon assassinated.

Muldoon, Sir Robert David (1921–1992). New Zealand politician. Trained as a cost accountant, he entered parliament as member for Tamaki, for the National Party, in 1960. He was parliamentary Undersecretary to the Minister of Finance 1964–66, and Minister of Finance 1967–72. He became Leader of the Opposition in 1974 and Prime Minister 1975–84.

Muller, Hermann Joseph (1890–1967). American geneticist. Educated at Columbia University, and a student of T. H. *Morgan, he worked on the genetics of the fruit fly. In 1926 he produced an experimental induction of mutations by the use of X-rays and received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1946 for this work. He taught at the University of Texas 1920–32, in the USSR 1933–37 (leaving over a dispute with *Lysenko), Edinburgh 1937–40, Boston 1941–45 and Indiana 1945–67. He was among the first scientists to warn of the dangers of X-rays and nuclear fallout.

Müller, Johannes Peter (1801–1858). German physiologist. In 1833 he took the chair of physiology at Berlin University. His early researches were chiefly in two fields, embryology and the nervous system as it relates to vision. He experimented to determine whether the foetus breathes in the womb. He tried to establish the relations between the kidneys and the genitals. In optics, he investigated the capacity of the eye to respond not just to external but also to internal stimuli (whether organic malfunction, or simply the play of imagination). Müller’s physiological work was summarised in his Handbuch der Physiologie (1830–40). He argued that life was animated by some kind of life-force not reducible to the body, and that there was a soul separable from the body—ideas rejected by the next generation of German physiologists.

Müller, Paul Hermann (1899–1965). Swiss chemist. He synthesised (1939) DDT (dichloro diphenyl trichlorethane) and discovered its great power as an insecticide. He won the Nobel Prize for Medicine (1948). Despite its effectiveness in combatting malaria, DDT had damaging environmental impacts and its use was generally phased out in the 1970s.

Mullis, Kary B(anks) (1944– ). American biochemist. He won his PhD at Berkeley, worked for the Cetus corporation 1979–86 and developed the technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enabling the amplification and replication of fragments of DNA. He won the 1993 Japan Prize and shared the 1993 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Michael Smith, but was subject to peer criticism for his scepticism about HIV-AIDS, which he doubted was spread by virus.

Mulroney, (Martin) Brian (1939– ). Canadian lawyer and politician, born in Québec. Son of an electrician, he graduated in law from Université Laval, became a labour lawyer and gained a national reputation as President of the Iron Ore Co. 1976–83. Elected as Leader of the Progressive Conservative Party 1983, he was the first from Québec for 90 years and the first recruited directly from industry. He became Prime Minister in September 1984, negotiated a free trade agreement with the US and Mexico, lost popularity and retired in July 1993.

Multatuli (pen name of Eduard Douwes Dekker) (1820–1887). Dutch novelist. He worked in Java in the colonial service 1838–57 and his novel, Max Havelaar (1860), an exposure of imperialism, is regarded as a masterpiece. It was made into a powerful film by Fons Rademakers in 1976.

Mumford, Lewis (1895–1990). American town planner and social philosopher. His lectures and books are mainly concerned with the growth or creation of a social environment best suited to meet all the needs of a city’s population: shelter, work, leisure, religion, culture the whole complicated organisation of modern urban living. His works include Technics and Civilisation (1934), The Culture of the Cities (1938), The City in History (1961), The Myth of the Machine (1967) and The Pentagon of Power (1970). He had a major impact on the environment movement and was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1964) and an honorary KBE (1975).

Mumford, L., The Letters of Lewis Mumford and Frederick J. Osborne: A Transatlantic Dialogue, 1938–70. 1972.

Munch, Charles (1891–1968). French-German (Alsatian) conductor and violinist, born in Strasbourg. Related to *Schweitzer and *Sartre, he became a violinist, was conscripted into the German army and became concertmaster of the Gewandhaus Orchestra, Leipzig, 1926–33. He first conducted in Paris (1932), and directed the Boston Symphony Orchestra 1949–62 and the Orchestre de Paris 1967–68.

Munch, Edvard (1863–1944). Norwegian painter, born in Löten. The misfortunes and miseries that surrounded him as he grew up seem to have embittered his attitude to life and left him with a feeling of the malignancy of fate. Having been much influenced in Paris by the work of van *Gogh and *Gauguin, and by the ideas of *Ibsen and *Strindberg he held an exhibition in Berlin (1892) which caused an immediate scandal but paved the way for the German Expressionist movement. His most famous work, The Scream (Skrik, in Norwegian), full of angst, dates from 1893. He painted sets for Ibsen and Strindberg. In later work he depicted emotional states by colour and form alone thus the ‘Threat’ in the picture of that name is conveyed by the black treetops. From 1899 to 1908 he worked mainly in Paris, thereafter mainly in Norway. A nervous breakdown (1908) was followed by a happier period during which he painted murals at Oslo University (1909–15) and found solace in the serene Norwegian landscape. He did much, too, to revitalise the woodcut and other graphic arts.

Benesch, O., Edvard Munch. 1960.

Münchausen, Hieronymus Karl Friedrich, Baron von (1720–1797). Hanoverian soldier. The real bearer of this name seems to have fought in the Russian army against the Turks and to have become notorious for his exaggerated accounts of his own exploits. His name was attached, therefore, to a collection of apocryphal and fantastic tales, published in English as Baron Münchausen’s Narrative of his Marvellous Travels and Campaigns in Russia (1785), by Rudolf Erich Raspe (1737–1794), a German friend who had fled to England to escape prosecution for theft.

Munnings, Sir Alfred James (1878–1959). English painter. Trained as a lithographer and poster artist, he was blinded in one eye in 1898, became a war artist with the Canadians and a popular painter of horses (and some people). President of the Royal Academy 1944–49, he wrote three lively volumes of autobiography (1950–52), but was best known for his vigorous public attacks on modern art.

Munro, Alice Ann (née Laidlaw) (1931– ). Canadian short story writer, born in Ontario. Ironic, ambiguous, preoccupied with time and transitions, much of her work has a regional emphasis, set in Huron County, Ontario. In 2009 she won the Man Booker Prize and received the 2013 Nobel Prize for Literature as a ‘master of the modern short story’. Her writing has been compared with *Chekhov’s for its sharp, compressed observation.

Munro, Hector Hugo see Saki

Munro Ferguson, Ronald Craufurd, 1st Viscount Novar of Raith (1860–1934). Scottish politician and landowner. MP 1884–85, 1886–1914, he was a ‘Liberal Imperialist’ and protégé of Lord *Rosebery. Governor-General of Australia 1914–20, the ablest of his time, he wanted to be an activist and had a tense, but generally supportive, relationship with W. M. *Hughes. He became Secretary of State for Scotland 1922–24 and received a KT.

Munrow, David John (1942–1976). English musician and historian, born in Birmingham. Educated in Cambridge, he was a virtuoso on the recorder, a leader in reviving interest in medieval and Renaissance music, toured extensively and made radio and television programs. He hanged himself.

Munthe, Axel (Martin Fredrik) (1857–1949). Swedish physician and author. After a successful professional career, in 1887 he retired to the Villa San Michele on the Italian island of Capri, but also practised in Rome and became a physician to the Swedish royal family. In Capri he wrote The Story of San Michele (1929). Largely through his influence, a sanctuary for migrating birds was established on the island.

Munthe, G. and Vexkull, G., The Story of Axel Munthe. 1953.

Münzer, Thomas (c.1490–1525). German Anabaptist leader. He toured Germany preaching his communistic doctrines and eventually settled at Mühlhausen (1525): there he set up a communist theocracy which, despite *Luther’s denunciations, won the support of large numbers of the peasantry. The movement was crushed by *Philip of Hesse and Münzer was captured and executed.

Murasaki Shikibu (usually called Lady Murasaki = ‘purple’) (978?–1026?). Japanese novelist. A member of the Fujiwara clan, she was a court lady in Kyoto to the Empress Akiko during the Heian period. She wrote the long romance Genji Monogatari (Tale of Genji), generally regarded as the world’s oldest surviving novel, a subtle and complex picture of aristocratic life built around the life of Prince Genji Hiraku. First translated (1925–33) by Arthur *Waley, more recently (2001) by Royall Tyler, Genji Monogatari has often been compared with In Search of Lost Time by Marcel *Proust.

Murat, Joachim (1767–1815). French marshal, later King of Naples 1808–15. Son of an innkeeper, he rose to prominence during the Revolutionary Wars, being noted for his courage and brilliance as a cavalry leader. He served in Italy and Egypt with *Napoléon, whose sister Caroline he married (1800). His fighting career continued, Austerlitz being one of the many battlefields where he won renown. He was made a marshal of France (1804) and was appointed (1808) to succeed Joseph *Bonaparte as King of Naples, where he proved himself capable and popular. He accompanied Napoléon to Moscow (1812) and commanded the retreating armies after the emperor had returned to France. He then resumed his kingship and after Napoléon’s escape from Elba made a vain attempt to raise Italy on his behalf. After taking refuge in Corsica he landed at Pizzo, in Calabria, where he was captured and shot.

Murayama Tomiichi (1924– ). Japanese politician. He served as a Socialist, later Social Democrat, MP in the Diet 1972–2000 and, never having held any office, was an unexpected choice as Prime Minister in a coalition government with the Liberal Democratic Party (June 1994), serving until 1996. He made a formal apology for Japanese atrocities committed in World War II, which earned him the scorn of the Right.

Murchison, Sir Roderick Impey, 1st Baronet (1792–1871). Scottish ‘gentleman’ geologist. After years as a soldier, encouraged by Humphry *Davy, he spent a generation surveying strata according to clear interpretative principles. He believed in a near universal order of deposition, indicated by fossils rather than purely lithological features. Fossils themselves would show a clear progression in complexity from ‘azoic’ items (i.e. pre-life) to invertebrates, and only up to vertebrate forms, man being created last. This progression was aligned to the earth’s cooling. The great triumph of these principles, and his own field-working, was to unravel the ‘Silurian System’ (i.e. those strata beneath the Old Red Sandstone) which he named (1835). For Murchison the Silurian contained remains of the earliest life (though no fossils of vertebrates or land plants were to be expected). Controversy over the younger end of the Silurian led to him proposing, with Adam *Sedgwick, a new geological era, which they named Devonian (1840). He explored the Alps, Scandinavia, Finland and the Urals and named the Permian geological period (1841), from a site in Russia (1841). He anticipated (1845) the discovery of gold in Australia after examining rock samples. Awarded the Copley Medal (1849), he became a dogmatic opponent of Darwinian evolution, supporting successive creations instead of transmutation. A Moon crater, rivers and towns in Canada, Australia and New Zealand, and sites in Uganda, Greenland and Antarctica were named for him.

Murcutt, Glenn Marcus (1936– ). Australian architect, born in London. His parents were Australian, he practised in Sydney and won an international reputation for his sensitivity to the environment and emphasis on sustainability in domestic architecture. He won the Pritzker Prize in 2002, and gold medals from the UK and US.

Murdoch, Dame (Jean) Iris (1919–1999). Anglo-Irish writer and philosopher, born in Dublin. Educated at Oxford, she was a civil servant in the treasury (1942–44), an administrator with UNRRA in Europe (1944–46) and a fellow and tutor in philosophy at St Anne’s College, Oxford (1948). She turned from writing philosophy and a study of J. P. *Sartre (1953) to a series of novels notable for wit and black humour, starting with Under the Net (1954), including The Bell (1958), An Unofficial Rose (1962), The Nice and the Good (1967) and The Sacred and Profane Love Machine (1974). She won the Booker Prize (1978) for The Sea, the Sea. Murdoch’s characters are complex, often caught in a prism of irreconcilable conflicts, in which the search for truth and self-knowledge appears from time to time as inevitable, painful, selfish or irrelevant, and guilt punishes those it is intended to protect. She also wrote plays, The Servants and the Snow (1970) and The Three Arrows (1972), and a study of *Plato, The Fire and the Sun. In 1956 she married John Oliver Bayley (1925–2015), professor of English literature at Oxford and a critic. She suffered from Alzheimer’s disease from 1995.

Bayley, J. O., Iris. 1998.

Murdoch, (Keith) Rupert (1931– ). Australian-American media proprietor and executive. His father Sir Keith Arthur Murdoch (1885–1952), a journalist, exposed the incompetence of military leadership at the Gallipoli landings (1915), became in 1928 chief executive of the Herald and Weekly Times, Melbourne and proprietor of the Adelaide News. Rupert Murdoch was Chief Executive of the News Ltd Group and associated companies. His papers included The Times, Sun and News of the World (London), the New York Post, Chicago Sun, The Australian, the Mirror-Telegraph (Sydney) and the Herald-Sun (Melbourne). He exerted a powerful political influence in Britain, the US and Australia. He also owned the Ansett airline in Australia, bought a half share in 20th Century Fox and became a US citizen in 1985. He also ran SKY television and a satellite transmitting information and entertainment to Asia. Murdoch’s British papers came under hostile scrutiny after a series of phone hacking scandals (2011–12). His mother, Dame Elisabeth Joy Murdoch, née Greene (1909–2012) was a philanthropist, gardener and supporter of the arts.

Shawcross, W., Murdoch 1992.

Murdoch, William (1754–1839). Scottish inventor. He joined the Birmingham engineering firm of *Boulton and *Watt (1777), helped Watt with the development of his steam engine and invented a practical slide-valve (1799). His experiments with the production of gas from coal enabled the factory to be lit up with gas to celebrate the Treaty of Amiens (1802), a development that led to the widespread adoption of gas for internal and external lighting.

Murger, Henri (1822–1861). French novelist. His life in Paris among poverty-stricken artists provided the background for his famous Scènes de la vie de Bohème, which appeared serially (1847–49), was dramatised (1849) and was published in book form (1851). It inspired *Puccini’s opera La Bohème. His later novels are of small account.

Murillo, Bartolomé Estebán (1617–1662). Spanish painter, born in Seville. He lived in his birthplace and was a friend of *Velázquez (who soon left). He was primarily a painter of religious subjects but his style, which at first displayed a rather hard naturalism, gradually became warmer and more charming and eventually over-sweet, tender and glamourised. He is best known for his representations of the Virgin, among the most famous being the Immaculate Conception (now in the Louvre). Perhaps even more appealing to modern taste are his realistic genre pictures of young fruit-sellers and beggar-boys.

Murnane, Gerald (1939– ). Australian novelist and poet, born in Coburg. Trained for the priesthood, he became a lecturer, lived in the country, rarely left Victoria, saw only a few films, never flew or swam, typed with one finger, worked part-time as a bartender and was obsessed with horse-racing. His novels were essay-like, but strongly lit, meditations and observations, much admired by John *Coetzee, with echoes of *Borges, *Proust and *Beckett. They include The Plains (1982), Precious Bane (1985), and Border Districts (2018). The poetry collection Green Shadows appeared in 2019.

Murphy, Lionel Keith (1922–1986). Australian Labor politician, lawyer and judge, born in Sydney. With degrees in law and science, he became a barrister and QC, then a Senator 1962–75. He revitalised the Senate, making it more powerful, and as *Whitlam’s Attorney-General 1972–75 initiated sweeping law reforms, including no-fault divorce. His appointment as a High Court Justice 1975–86 was controversial. Accused of intervening in a prosecution to help a friend, he was convicted of conspiracy, then acquitted in a retrial, just before his death from cancer.

Murray, (George) Gilbert (Aimé) (1866–1957). British-Australian classical scholar, born in Sydney. Son of a prominent New South Wales politician, he was educated at Oxford, became Professor of Greek at Glasgow 1889–99, and as Regius Professor of Greek at Oxford 1908–36 he became well known for his translations of the Greek dramatists, especially *Euripides, *Socrates and *Aeschylus, used in many notable productions. He interpreted the spirit of ancient Greece to the modern world by a series of books, including his last great work Hellenism and the Ancient World (1953). He was a keen Liberal (but a failed parliamentary candidate) and chair of the Executive of the League of Nations Union 1923–28. He was a member of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (CICI) from 1922 and its chair 1928–39. CICI was a precursor of UNESCO. Murray received the OM in 1941.

Murray, Sir James Augustus Henry (1837–1915). British lexicographer and editor, born in Denholm, Roxburgh. Educated at secondary schools, he became a teacher in Roxburgh 1854–64 and London 1870–85, worked in a bank and graduated BA from London (1873). President of the London Philological Society 1878–80, 1882–84, he was appointed as editor of The Oxford English Dictionary (A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles) 1879–1915, planning and outlining the whole project. The first volume appeared in 1884. In 1885 he moved to Oxford and personally edited letters A–D, H–K, O, P and T. He also wrote on Scots language and literature. A man of vast erudition, although elected FBA in 1902 and knighted in 1908, he was grieved not to have been offered the OM, and Oxford was slow to grant him a doctorate.

Murray, K. M. E., Caught in the Web of Words. 1977.

Murray, John (1745–1793). British publisher, born in Edinburgh. Changing his name from MacMurray to Murray, he bought a small publishing business in London which continued to expand under his dynastic successors in the 19th and 20th centuries. John Murray II (1778–1843) founded the Quarterly Review and established links with *Scott and other famous authors, including *Byron, whose unpublished Memoirs he burned (1824) after the poet’s death. *Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859) was published by John Murray III (1808–1892).

Murray, Les(lie Allan) (1938–2019). Australian poet, critic and editor. He worked as a public servant, translator and book editor, was a powerful polemicist and won international awards for his poetry. His collections include The Boys Who Stole the Funeral (a verse novel, 1980) and Subhuman Redneck Poems (1996).

Murray, Philip (1886–1952). American trade union leader, born in Scotland. He was President 1940–52 of the Congress of Industrial Organisations (CIO), one of the two great trade union confederations that amalgamated with the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1955.

Murrow, Edward R(oscoe) (1908–1965). American journalist and broadcaster. He worked as a CBS war correspondent, then ran wide-ranging and compassionate interview programs on television, including Person to Person and Small World. George Clooney’s film Good Night, and Good Luck (2005) celebrated his achievement.

Murry, John Middleton (1889–1957). English writer and critic. As editor of various journals, including The Athenaeum (1919–21), and The Adelphi (1923–30) he had considerable influence on English intellectual life in the 1920s. He was a friend of D. H. *Lawrence and married (1918) Katherine *Mansfield, whose biography he wrote (1932). His books include studies of *Blake, *Keats, *Shakespeare and *Dostoevsky.

Murry, K. M., Beloved Quixote. 1986.

Musa I (c.1280–1337). Mansa (‘King of Kings’) of Mali 1312–37. The 10th Mansa, he succeeded a distant kinsman. He accumulated vast wealth, estimated at about $US400 billion (in current values), by exporting gold and salt and is claimed to have been the richest person in history.

Musharraf, Pervez (1943– ). Pakistani soldier and politician, born in New Delhi. He was Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1998–2001, and in 1999 after public demonstrations against corruption he led a coup, took charge of the government and (after stage-managed elections) was President of Pakistan 2001–08. He worked closely with the US Government but became increasingly authoritarian and, following mass demonstrations, went into exile in London.

Musil, Robert, Edler von (1880–1942). Austrian novelist, born at Klagenfurt. He trained to be a soldier (his Young Törless,1906, gives an unforgettable picture of the military academy), then qualified as an engineer and took a PhD in Berlin (1908) for a study of the philosophy of Ernst *Mach. He worked as a librarian in Vienna so that he could devote himself to writing, served with the Austrian army during World War I, then spent some years in Berlin and acquired a modest reputation as a freelance writer. He returned to Vienna in 1933 and moved from there to Switzerland in 1938. He died in Geneva. His masterwork was The Man Without Qualities (Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften), a colossal work begun in 1920 and left incomplete at his death, worthy of ranking with *Joyce and *Proust. The central character Ulrich (a self-portrait), a man of scientific training unable to commit himself passionately to any aspect of life, is given the post of secretary (in 1913) of a committee charged with commemorating Franz Josef’s 70th anniversary as emperor by making 1918 ‘the Austrian year’. The novel was first published in English in 1953–60 in three volumes translated by Eithne Wilkins and Ernst Kaiser. A new translation by Sophie Wilkins appeared in 1995, with 635 pages of Posthumous Papers translated by Burton Pike.

Musk, Elon Reeve (1971– ). Canadian-American engineer and entrepreneur, born in South Africa. He dropped out of Stanford, but created PayPal, which he sold to eBay, then set up Space X, a commercial space exploration company, and *Tesla Motors, which produced electric cars with radically improved battery capacity.

Vance, A., Elon Musk. 2019.

Muskie, Ed(mund Sixtus) (1914–1996). American Democratic politician. Son of a Polish immigrant (the family name was Marciszewski) and educated at Cornell, he served in the navy during World War II, was Governor of Maine 1953–59 and a US senator 1959–80. He ran for Vice President in 1968 with Hubert *Humphrey, sought the presidential nomination in 1972 and served as Jimmy *Carter’s Secretary of State 1980–81.

Mussadiq, Mohammed see Mosaddegh, Mohammad

Musset, Alfred de (1810–1857). French poet and dramatist, born in Paris. He dabbled in law and medicine and published, at the age of 18, a translation of *De Quincey’s Confessions of an English Opium Eater. As an aristocratic dandy he frequented the literary circle of Victor *Hugo, who praised his poems, Contes d’Espagne et d’Italie (1830). The influence of Hugo’s Romanticism is evident in La Nuit venitienne (1830), Musset’s first play: its failure decided him to write plays for reading only. The hero who agreeably combined charm with debauchery, and the flirtatious but tender heroine were popular at this period and A quoi révent les jeunes filles (1831) was a typical and revealing title. In 1833, the year in which appeared the witty and emotional prose plays André del Sarto and Les Caprices de Marianne, began his stormy love affair with George *Sand, described after its breakup in his series of poems, Les Nuits (1835–37). The autobiographical Confession d’un Enfant du siècle (1836) also reflects the pessimism induced by his sufferings. The play On ne badine pas avec l’amour ends tragically but Le Chandelier (1836) shows something of the old sparkle. Un Caprice (1837), had such success that his later plays were frequently played at the Comédie Française. Musset was elected to the Académie française in 1852.

Mussolini, Benito (Amilcare Andrea) (1883–1945). Italian dictator, born at Predappio, near Forli. He early absorbed the socialist and revolutionary views of his blacksmith father. He started his career as a teacher (1901) but a year later went to Switzerland, where he lived as a revolutionary exile until 1904. In 1908 he served his first prison sentence for revolutionary activity and then took to journalism. Having joined a socialist paper at Trento (then in Austria) he became fired with nationalist zeal for recovering the lost provinces. Another term of imprisonment brought him increased prestige in his own party and secured him the editorship of the national socialist newspaper, Avanti (1912). World War I caused him to split with the socialists, who favoured neutrality. Mussolini saw that only by joining the Allies could Italy regain from Austria the unredeemed provinces, and in November 1914 he was editing his own paper Popolo d’Italia, a powerful voice in favour of intervention. When Italy entered the war (May 1915), he joined the army, but after being wounded (February 1917) he returned to his paper. After the war, with the Socialist Party closed to him and Communism threatening disruption, he founded (1919) the first Fascio di Combattimento, nominally to serve the cause of the neglected ex-servicemen. This proved the starting point of ‘Fascism’. Mussolini took over the nationalist theme and the theatrical equipment (black shirts, banners etc.) from *d’Annunzio and was quick to realise that by turning his gangs against the communists he would win government toleration and much outside support. In 1921 Mussolini, already called Il Duce (‘the leader’) by his followers, was elected to the Chamber of Deputies and in October 1922 he organised the celebrated ‘march on Rome’. (Most Fascisti arrived by train.) There was no resistance because the Prime Minister, Luigi Facta, failed to secure King *Vittorio Emanuele III’s approval to declare martial law. The armed forces, whose cause Mussolini had so consistently espoused, stood inactively by, and the ordinary citizen, weary of the anarchy of faction, favoured strong rule. The king decided to put a constitutional gloss on the accomplished fact by making Mussolini Prime Minister. He held that office 1922–43 and his dictatorship was virtually unchallenged until the end. The economics of Fascism were based on the syndicalism of Georges *Sorel, its political institutions were merely a background to Il Duce’s personal rule. With his overbearing personality and bombastic oratory Mussolini deceived the Italians, deceived Europe and even deceived himself. He was made an honorary GCB by the UK. In spite of the completion of grandiose public works and road building, in terms of real wages the Italians were worse off after 10 years of his rule than before. Even such military successes as he achieved, the conquest of Ethiopia, the overrunning of Albania and support for Franco in Spain, involved quarrelling with all his natural allies and becoming entirely dependent on Nazi Germany. World War II revealed his weakness: though he delayed entry into the war (June 1940) until it seemed that Germany’s victory was certain, Italy’s war record was calamitous. Italian forces were everywhere defeated until German backing was received: Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia were lost. Mussolini was a puppet in *Hitler’s hands. When (July 1943), after the Allied landings in Sicily, the Fascist grand council turned against him, he was swept aside without a struggle. He was dramatically rescued from captivity by German paratroops and, already a pathetic figure without will or purpose, briefly headed a puppet government at Saló in northern Italy. When the Allied victory was achieved he tried, with his mistress Clara Petacci, to reach safety in Switzerland, but both were caught and summarily executed in Milan. In 1957 he was reburied in Predappio, his birthplace, and the mausoleum has become a place of pilgrimage.

Of his five children by his wife Rachele, Edda, the elder of the two girls, married Count *Ciano, Mussolini’s Foreign Secretary 1936–43. His son Romulo (1921–1998) was a jazz pianist and his granddaughter Alessandra (1962– ), formerly an actor and model, was a member of the European Parliament 2004–08 and the Italian Chamber of Deputies 2008– .

Mack Smith, D., Mussolini. 1982.

Mussorgsky, Modest Petrovich (1839–1881). Russian composer, born in Karevo. From an impoverished minor noble family in the Ukraine, he was a gifted pianist from childhood, served in the army as an alcoholic officer until 1858, then became a public servant in St Petersburg. He spent the rest of a chaotic and rambling life between the capital and the countryside, where his sympathetic study of the peasants introduced him to the folk idioms that appear in his music. Frenzied spells of composing alternated with drinking bouts, by which his health and character were gradually destroyed. Befriended by *Cui and *Balakirev, he was (with *Rimsky-Korsakov and *Borodin) one of ‘The Five’ who promoted a distinctive national style, in contrast to *Tchaikovsky’s romantic cosmopolitanism. His outstanding operatic masterpiece Boris Godunov, based on *Pushkin’s drama, was completed in 1869 and first performed in 1874. The opera broke sharply with musical convention and was soon withdrawn. Rimsky-Korsakov cut and reorchestrated Boris and this 1896 version was staged internationally. However, much of its stark realism and rich characterisation was lost. The complete original score was not published until 1975. Other operatic fragments include The Marriage, Khovanshchina and Sorochintsky Fair. His piano suite Pictures at an Exhibition (1874), often performed in *Ravel’s orchestration, has been frequently recorded. He wrote about 60 songs, including The Song of the Flea (*Goethe, 1879) and the song cycles The Nursery (his own poems, 1873) and Songs and Dances of Death (Arseni Golenischchev-Kutuzov, 1877). His music had a significant influence on *Debussy and Ravel.

Calvocoressi, M. D., Mussorgsky. rev. 1974.

Mustafa Kemal see Atatürk, Kemal

Mutesa II, Sir Edward (1924–1969). Kabaka of Buganda and first president of Uganda. He inherited (1939) the sovereignty of Buganda (which formed part of the protectorate of Uganda). In 1953 the British withdrew recognition because of his demand for Buganda’s independence from Uganda, and he was deported. He returned (1955) under a new constitution, when Uganda achieved independence he became (1963) its first president. In 1966 he was ousted in a coup led by Milton *Obote, he escaped to Britain and died there.

Muti, Riccardo (1941– ). Italian conductor, born in Naples. He became chief conductor of the Philharmonia Orchestra 1973–82, the Philadelphia Orchestra 1980–92, and La Scala Opera, Milan, 1986–2005, resigning after increasing friction with the orchestra. He became an Hon. KBE in 2000. He was director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra 2010– .

Mutsohito (regnal name Meiji i.e. ‘enlightened’) (1852–1912). Emperor of Japan 1867–1912. Son of the emperor Otahito (1821–1867, regnal name Komei), born in Kyoto, he succeeded at the age of 15. The term ‘Meiji Restoration’ refers to the period that began with the abdication of the last hereditary shogun of the *Tokugawa clan, Keiki (1837–1913) in January 1868, the transfer of his powers to the emperor and the imperial court’s move from Kyoto to Tokyo. Mutsohito’s advisers, mostly young and able samurai (including *Iwakura, *Kido, Okubo, *Saigo, Arisugawa, *Ito, *Yamagata), investigated reforms in Europe and the US and, within a few years, primary schools were developed on American lines and a variation of the Code Napoléon and some elements of the British parliamentary system were adopted. Feudal land tenure and the samurai class were abolished. Railways and the telegraph, the Gregorian calendar and western dress were quickly accepted. Mutsuhito’s reign was marked by suppression of the Satsuma revolt (1877), successful wars against China (1894–95), Russia (1904–05) and the annexation of Korea. Intelligent and sympathetic to reform, he took little direct part in administration. He was an amateur painter and poet, and modelled his uniform, hair and bearing on Napoléon III. He was succeeded by *Yoshihito, and *Hirohito was his grandson.

Muybridge, Eadweard (originally Edward John Muggeridge) (1830–1904). English photographer, in the US 1865–1900. His studies of ‘animal locomotion’ led to recognition of the phenomenon of persistence of vision. His ‘Zoöpraxiscope’ which showed human and animal movement was a direct forerunner of the cinema. In 1874 he was acquitted of murdering his wife’s lover.

Myer, Sidney (né Simcha Myer Baevski) (1878–1934). Jewish-Australian merchant and philanthropist, born in Belarus. He migrated to Victoria in 1899, became a draper in Bendigo, then established the Myer Emporium in Melbourne (1914) which became Australia’s largest retailer. The Myer family were major philanthropists, supporting universities, medical research and the arts over three generations. His son Kenneth Baillieu Myer (1921–1992) was President of the Howard Florey Institute 1971–92, declined the Governor-Generalship in 1974, but became Chair of the National Library of Australia 1974–82 and the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) 1983–86. He died in a plane crash in Alaska.

Ebury, S., The Many Lives of Kenneth Myer. 2008.

Myers, F(rederick) W(illiam) H(enry) (1843–1901). English writer. Once known as a literary critic (e.g. *Wordsworth and *Virgil), he is remembered as a pioneer in applying the methods of science to the investigation of apparently supernatural phenomena. A founder member of the Society for Physical Research, he wrote Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death (1903).

Myrdal, (Karl) Gunnar (1898–1987). Swedish economist. One of the first economists to write on population pressure and world poverty, he was Minister for Commerce 1945–47, held chairs in Sweden and the US, wrote many books including The Asian Drama (3 vols, 1968) and The Challenge of World Poverty (1970), and shared the 1974 Nobel Prize for Economics with Friedrich von *Hayek (whose views were markedly different). His wife Alva Myrdal, née Reimer (1902–1986), worked for UNESCO and the ILO, conducted research into ‘futures’ scenarios and disarmament, and became Minister for Disarmament 1967–73. She was awarded the 1982 Nobel Prize for Peace.

Mytens, Daniel (c.1590–c.1642). Dutch artist. He possibly studied under *Rubens before going to England, where he was settled 1618. He worked for *James I, and under *Charles I he held a court appointment. His portraits are mostly of members of the nobility, e.g. Charles I and the 1st Duke of Hamilton (both in the National Gallery, London), in a natural, informal style.


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