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Dictionary of World Biography

T

Taaffe, Eduard von, Graf [Count] (1833–1895). Austrian administrator. Of Irish descent, he was a lifelong friend of the Emperor *Franz Josef and became Prime Minister of Austria 1868–70, 1879–93. He proposed concessions to the Czechs in return for support against the Hungarians.

Tacitus, Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius (c.55–120). Roman historian. Born in the reign of *Nero, he became proconsul of Asia under *Trajan and thus lived through seven of the reigns which he described. Of his undisputed works Agricola was a eulogistic account of his father-in-law, especially interesting for its account of Britain; Germania was a first-hand account of the country and its people; The Histories (14 books, of which No. 14 and part of 5 survive) relate the events of his lifetime from the death of Nero (68) to that of Domitian (96). Even better were the Annals (16 books, with most of 1–6 and all of 11–16 extant), which cover the earlier period from the death of *Augustus (14 CE). Tacitus was a shrewd psychologist but where his prejudices were involved (e.g. against *Tiberius) he becomes unreliable and unfair. He aims to be an exact recorder of events, which, however, he sometimes misinterprets. In striking contrast with the rotundity of *Cicero’s period is Tacitus’s terse, epigrammatic style which adds dramatic intensity to the episodes he describes.

Syme, R., Tacitus. 1958.

Taft, William Howard (1857–1930). 27th President of the US 1909–13. Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, son of Alphonso Taft (1810–1881), briefly Secretary of War 1876 and US Attorney-General 1876–77 under President *Grant, he studied law at Yale and in Cincinnati. He was a judge of the Ohio Supreme Court 1887–90, US Solicitor-General 1890–92 and a judge of the Court of Appeal 1892–1900. Following the defeat of Spain by the US and the acquisition of the Philippines, he was president 1900–01 of the commission sent to the islands and the first Governor-General 1901–04. His friend Theodore *Roosevelt appointed him Secretary of War 1904–08 and secured for him the Republican nomination for president in 1908, which he won overwhelmingly on the first ballot. He defeated William Jennings *Bryan comfortably and in his inaugural address (1909) declared that henceforce the status of American Negroes would become the responsibility of the states, in effect renouncing the principles for which *Lincoln fought the Civil War. His conservatism and lack of initiative alienated Roosevelt who sought the 1912 nomination himself. After Taft’s renomination (significant but with many abstentions), Roosevelt then ran as a third party Progressive candidate, splitting the Republican vote and ensuring victory for the Democratic nominee, Woodrow *Wilson. Professor of constitutional law at Yale 1913–21, he was appointed by President *Harding as Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court 1921–30, becoming the only person to have headed two branches of the US Government. He is also remembered for his huge bulk (about 170kg as president).

His son, Robert Alphonso Taft (1889–1953) was a US senator from Ohio 1939–53. As conservative as his father, he sponsored the controversial Taft-Hartley Labor Act (1947) to curtail union power. He first sought the Republican nomination for president in 1944 and 1948: in 1952 he lost narrowly to *Eisenhower. The most effective conservative of his era, in 1957 he was voted by a US Senate committee as one of the five greatest senators ever. His son, Robert Alphonso Taft, Jr (1917–1993), a lawyer, was a US Congressman 1962–84; 1966–68 and Senator 1971–76.

Taglioni. Italian ballet family. Filippo Taglioni (1777–1871) choreographed about 40 ballets. His best known, La sylphide, to music by Jean Schneitzhoeffer, was premiered in Paris in 1832 and toured extensively as the prototype modern romantic ballet. His daughter Marie Taglioni (1804–1884), born in Stockholm, made her reputation in La sylphide, and created the popular ethereal style, with wispy costume, dancing on points, and elevation. She later taught in London and died in the south of France. Her brother and niece were also famous dancers.

Tagore, (Sir) Rabindranath (1861–1941). Indian writer, born in Calcutta. He came from a well known Bengali family belonging to an unorthodox Brahmin community, which allowed a liberal attitude to religion and life. He studied in England, and founded (1901) at Bolpur in Bengal a school for the reconciliation of western and eastern educational thought. Later at nearby Santiniketan, he established an institution to guide the rehabilitation of village life and a seat of international culture. In his worldwide lecture tours on Indian philosophy and religion in Europe, America and the Far East he continued to stress the international theme. He first became known as a poet outside India by Gitanjali, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature (1913). Translations of several other volumes of his poems and of his other works followed. He also wrote many plays, novels and essays. In the natural beauties of earth and sky, the love of children and his mystical experiences (upon which rather than on theology his religion was based) he found the inspiration for his poems, into the original Indian versions of which he introduced much metrical experiment. He was no extreme nationalist but after the Amritsar massacre (1919) he renounced the knighthood received in 1915.

Bose, A., Rabindranath Tagore. 1958.

Taine, Hippolyte Adolphe (1828–1893). French historian and critic. He established the principle of applying scientific method to the analysis of history and literature. He first gained recognition with a study of *La Fontaine in 1853. His most famous work, still unfinished at his death, was Origines de la France contemporaine. He was made professor of aesthetics at the École des Beaux Arts in 1864. His studies of history reveal a pessimistic view of society and its development.

Takemitsu Töru (1930–1996). Japanese composer. Influenced by *Debussy, *Stravinsky, *Messiaen, *Cage and *Boulez, his music had a striking individuality while attempting to merge elements of Western and Eastern traditions. He was a prolific composer of orchestral, chamber and piano works.

Takeshita Noburu (1924–2000). Japanese Liberal Democratic politician. A Diet member 1958–2000, and originally a member of the *Tanaka faction he was Finance Minister 1982–87, Prime Minister 1987–89. He was a powerful influence behind the scene, regarded as corrupt but skilful at avoiding prosecution.

Talaat Pasha (Talât Paşa), Mehmed (1874–1921). Turkish politician, born near Edirne. A leader of the ‘Young Turks’ movement, he was Minister for Finance 1914–17 and Grand Vizier (i.e. Prime Minister) of the Ottoman Empire 1917–18. He and *Enver Pasha bear primary responsibility for the Armenian genocide from 1915 in which between 0.8 and 1.5 million were killed. He was assassinated in Berlin by an Armenian, with the tactic approval of British, German, Turkish and Russian intelligence.

Kieser, H.-L., Talaat Pasha. Father of Modern Turkey. Architect of Genocide. 2018.

Talbot, (William) Henry Fox (1800–1877). English experimenter. Educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge, he was elected FRS in 1831 and became a Whig MP 1833–34. Assisted by Sir William *Herschel, he worked on techniques to fix the images produced by a camera obscura, and his first photograph using a negative of paper impregnated with silver chloride dates from 1833 and is essentially the photographic technique still in use. (*Niepce and *Daguerre produced single images on metal plates which required long exposure and could not be reproduced.) In 1841 he succeeded in making positive prints and published the first book of photographs, The Pencil of Nature (in parts, 1844–46). By 1850 he had laid the foundations of modern photography by overcoming the need for long exposures. He also carried out useful investigations on spectra and showed how to distinguish certain elements by their spectral lines. He was also one of the first to decipher the Assyrian Cuneiform scripts from Nineveh.

Gernsheim, H. and A., The History of Photography. 1969.

Talleyrand (Périgord), Charles Maurice de, Prince of Benevento (1754–1838). French diplomat and politician, born in Paris. From a noble family in economic decline, he suffered from a congenital limp that prevented an army career and led him to enter the Church. Combining a dissolute life with theological studies, he became Bishop of Autun in 1788. During the Revolution he was President of the Constituent Assembly (1790), supported the Civil Constitution of the Clergy and resigned his bishopric. He lived in Philadelphia 1794–95. When the Directory came to power, his friend *Barras made him Foreign Minister, a position he held 1797–1807, under Directory, Consulate and Empire, and again 1815–16 under *Louis XVIII. He used his keen and subtle intelligence to consolidate by diplomacy the victories won in the field. Among the treaties he negotiated were those of Luneville (1801) with Austria, of Amiens (1802) with Great Britain and of Tilsit (1807) with Russia. Soon after Tilsit he resigned as Foreign Minister, apparently in disagreement with *Napoléon’s policies in Spain and Portugal. He remained, however, at the centre of events and accompanied Napoléon to the Congress of Erfurt (1808). Here, convinced that the policies of his master and the interests of France were increasingly divergent, and being by no means neglectful of personal advantage, he entered into secret relations with Tsar *Aleksandr I and the Austrian statesman, *Metternich. Thereafter he played a double game. After Napoléon’s fall (1814) he headed the French provisional government, and at the Congress of Vienna defended French interests with consummate skill. His last important post was that of Ambassador 1830–35 to Great Britain under *Louis Philippe. In the negotiations about the future of the Netherlands his views in favour of creating a neutral, independent Belgium prevailed. He was almost certainly the father of the painter *Delacroix and grandfather of the politician *Morny.

Bernard, J. F., Talleyrand 1973; Orieux, J., Talleyrand. 1974.

Tallien, Jean Lambert (1769–1820). French Revolutionary politician. He first became prominent as a printer of Jacobin broadsheets. As a member of the Committee of Public Safety he was sent to Bordeaux (1793) to institute the ‘Terror’. There he met his future wife, whom he saved from the guillotine. Later she became known as ‘Notre Dame de Thermidor’ because of the prominent part she played with her husband during the rising of 9 Thermidor (28 July) which resulted in *Robespierre’s downfall. Tallien’s importance soon declined and he died forgotten.

Tallis, Thomas (c.1505–1585). English composer. Little is known of his early life but he was organist at Waltham Abbey from 1538 until its dissolution (1540). At Canterbury Cathedral 1540–43, then at the Chapel Royal 1543–85, he became joint organist 1575–85 with his pupil and business partner William *Byrd. Despite their Anglican appointments, both remained Roman Catholics. Tallis and Byrd collaborated in obtaining (1575) a monopoly for printing and selling music and music paper and in publishing in that year a volume of motets, of which they were joint composers. Tallis’ huge output consists almost entirely of liturgical music, including the Lamentations for five voices and the motet Spem in Alium Nunquam Habui (‘I have never put my hope in any other…’), written about 1570 for eight choirs of five voices, a 12-minute work of extraordinary complexity, gripping drama, tension and serene beauty. Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis (1910) was composed by Ralph *Vaughan Williams.

Doe, P., Tallis. 1968.

Tamayo, Rufino (1899–1991). Mexican Expressionist painter. Influenced by pre-Columbian and popular arts forms, as well as *Picasso and *Braque, he lived in the US and was recognised as one of the most important modern Mexican artists.

Tamerlane (or Tamburlaine) see Timur the Lame

Tammany (fl. 1685). American Indian chief. He is said to have welcomed and negotiated with William *Penn. Tammany Hall, founded (1789) as the Tammany Society of Columbian Order, a patriotic political club, was named after him. Later, as the headquarters of the Democratic Party organisation in New York City, it won a bad reputation for the methods of corruption and intimidation by which it was alleged to secure votes.

Tan Malaka (1894–1949). Indonesian Communist leader. A Sumatran, he was a co-founder of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) in 1920 and asked the Comintern to endorse the Pan Islam movement. After 1922 he spent many years in exile under a variety of names. His career parallels *Ho Chi Minh’s. He returned to Indonesia in 1942 and worked with the Japanese. In 1948 Moscow denounced him as a Titoist. He founded the Murba (Proletarian) movement, began guerrilla warfare against Soekarno and the Dutch and was shot by the army.

Tanaka Kakuei (1918–1993). Japanese politician. Educated at a technical college, he began his own construction business at 19, became a member of the Diet 1947 and Secretary-General of the Liberal Democratic Party 1965–66 and 1968–71. As Prime Minister 1972–74 he initiated closer links with China and promoted proposals for remodelling the Japanese archipelago. Accused of taking bribes from the Lockheed Corporation, he resigned as Prime Minister and faced a lengthy trial from 1976. Convicted in 1983, he was sentenced to four years jail, fined $US2.1 million, and then released on appeal.

Taney, Roger Brooke (1777–1864). American jurist, born in Maryland. Andrew *Jackson appointed him Attorney-General 1831–33, Secretary of the Treasury 1833–34 (the first presidential nomination ever rejected by the Senate) and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 1836–64, being confirmed over the objections of *Clay, *Calhoun and *Webster. He was the first Catholic appointed to the Cabinet or to the US Supreme Court. Taney broadly supported increasing Federal power at the expense of the states. However, he is best remembered for his decision in the Dred Scott case (1857) that, under the US Constitution, African-Americans ‘had no rights that the white man was bound to respect; and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit. He was bought and sold and treated as an ordinary article of merchandise and traffic, whenever profit could be made by it’. As a result, African-Americans had no right to sue in the courts and Congress could not exclude slavery from the territories. Taney had been an opponent of slavery as a young man, then became its defender. However, he remained loyal to the Union during the Civil War.

Taneyev, Sergei Ivanovich (1856–1915). Russian composer and pianist. A pupil of Nikolai *Rubinstein and close friend of *Tchaikovsky, he taught *Rachmaninoff, *Scriabin, *Medtner and *Glière at the Moscow Conservatorium. He was a pioneer in studying early composers, including *Josquin, *Lassus and *Ockeghem, and wrote a textbook on counterpoint. His most performed works are the two String Quintets (cello, 1901; viola, 1904) and Piano Quintet (1911). Sofya Tolstoy became infatuated with him.

Tang. Chinese dynasty which ruled 618–907, marked by a golden age in the arts and a liberated role for women. The Tangs claimed descent from *Lao Zi.

Tange Kenzo (1913–2005). Japanese architect. Educated at Tokyo University, where he became professor of architecture 1946–74, he designed buildings for the Tokyo Olympics 1964, Expo ’70 at Osaka, the Hiroshima Peace Centre and major projects in Italy, Yugoslavia, Algeria, France and the US.

Tapies Puig, Antoni (1923–2012). Spanish artist, born in Barcelona. He studied law and was self-trained as an artist, holding his first one-man exhibition in 1948. He turned from Surrealism to abstraction, working in mixed media, combining glue, paper, cloth, cardboard, plaster and wood, and won an international reputation. In 2010, King *Juan Carlos created him a marquess.

Tarantino, Quentin (1963– ). American screenwriter and director, born in Tennessee. His films include Reservoir Dogs (1992), Pulp Fiction (1994), Inglourious Basterds (2009) and Django Unchained (2012).

Tardieu, André Pierre Gabriel Amédeé (1876–1945). French politician. A journalist who wrote mostly on foreign affairs, he became a deputy in 1914, fought in World War I and assisted *Clémenceau in the peace treaty negotiations. As founder and leader of the Republican Centre Party, almost continuously in ministerial office 1926–32, he was Prime Minister 1929, 1930 and 1932.

Tarkington, Booth (1869–1946). American popular novelist. He is mainly remembered for the novels of life in the Middle West which were dramatised into successful plays or films. e.g. Monsieur Beaucaire (1901) and The Magnificent Ambersons (1918) which won the Pulitzer Prize and was later filmed by Orson *Welles.

Tarquinius Superbus, Lucius (c.564–505 BCE). King of Rome 534–510 BCE. Seventh and last of the semi-legendary kings of Rome, his reign and that of his father Lucius Tarquinius Priscus (616–578) represented a period of Etruscan domination, interrupted possibly by the intervening reign of Servius Tullius (who may, however, also have been Etruscan). Tradition assigns the cause of Tarquinius’s expulsion from Rome to the anger caused by the rape of the beautiful Lucretia (Lucrece) by his son Sextus, but it was more probably due to the tyranny of his rule which was remembered so vividly that ‘king’ became a hated word and the title was never adopted even by the all-powerful rulers of later days. An attempt by Lars Porsena (commemorated in the legend of Horatius) to restore Etruscan supremacy failed.

Tartini, Giuseppe (1692–1770). Italian composer and violinist. The greatest violinist of his time, and the first to play with a *Stradivarius, he founded his own school (1726) in Padua. The best known of his surviving compositions, mainly for violin, is the Sonata in G Minor (‘The Devil’s Trill’: c.1740), inspired, he said, by music played to him by the devil in a dream. He wrote on acoustics and is known as the discoverer of ‘resultant tones’.

Tasman, Abel Janszoon (c.1603–1659). Dutch navigator. Sent on several voyages of exploration by van *Diemen, Governor of the Dutch East Indies, he discovered Tasmania (1642), which he named Van Diemen’s Land, and New Zealand, Tonga and Fiji (1643). On another voyage (1644) he entered the Gulf of Carpentaria (previously discovered) and went on to explore the northwest coast of Australia.

Tassigny, Jean de Lattre de see Lattre de Tassigny, Jean de

Tasso, Torquato (1544–1595). Italian poet, born at Sorrento. Son of Bernardo Tasso (1493–1569), author of Amadigi di Gaula and Floridante, he studied at Padua, where he wrote his epic Rinaldo. In 1565 he went to Ferrara where he served first Cardinal d’Este and then (from 1571) his brother Duke Alfonso II. In 1573 he published a pastoral play, Aminta, the sensuous atmosphere of which was repeated in his great epic of the 1st Crusade, La Gerusalemme liberata (1575). In the following year, partly because of objections to his epic by the Inquisition, he showed signs of persecution mania. For a scene of violence (1577) in the presence of the Duchess he was briefly imprisoned. Given a refuge in a Franciscan monastery he fled to his sister but in 1579 was back in Ferrara. After renewed outbursts of frenzy he was again imprisoned, this time for seven years. The legend repeated by *Goethe and *Byron that the sentence resulted from his love for the Duke’s sister has no basis in fact. Released in 1586, he was received by the Gonzagas in Mantua but soon began a wandering life, working intermittently on Gerusalemme conquistata, a revision of his earlier epic, from which many of the loveliest passages were removed. Among his other works were his ‘discourses’ on poetry, his letters and an unsuccessful tragedy, Torrismondo.

Brand, C. P., Torquato Tasso. 1965.

Tate, Sir Henry, 1st Baronet (1819–1899). English merchant and manufacturer, born in Lancashire. As a young man employed in a sugar refinery in Liverpool he patented a device for compressing and cutting sugar into cubes. The profits from this enabled him to set up his own company, Henry Tate and Sons. In 1897 he established the Tate Gallery, to which he gave his own collection of paintings and £80,000.

Tate, Nahum (1652–1715). Anglo-Irish poet. He wrote the libretto for *Purcell’s opera Dido and Aeneas (1685), a metrical version of the Psalms (1696) and, almost certainly, the hymn While Shepherds Watched Their Flocks By Night (1702). His version of King Lear (1681) practically ousted *Shakespeare’s original until 1840. Poet Laureate from 1692, he also wrote Panacea, or a Poem on Tea (1700).

Tauber, Richard (Ernst Seiffert) (1891–1948). Austrian tenor, born in Linz. He sang in opera and, increasingly from 1925, in light opera (e.g. Lilac Time) and films. He was also a noted exponent of *Schubert’s songs. He composed several songs and the musical comedy Old Chelsea. In 1940 he was naturalised as a British subject.

Tavener, Sir John Kenneth (1944–2013). English composer. He taught at Trinity College, London, divided his time between Britain and Greece, became a Russian Orthodox convert in 1977 and wrote works for the Russian and Greek liturgy. He disclaimed his earlier works. Later compositions include The Protecting Veil (cello concerto, 1989), which was frequently performed, The Repentant Thief (clarinet and orchestra, 1991), Song for Athene (1993), The Veil of the Temple (2003).

Taverner, John (1495–1545). English composer. He composed his best music before 1530, while choirmaster at Cardinal College (Christ Church), Oxford. His Masses (notably Gloria tibi, Trinitas and O Western Wynde) show him to have been a strongly gifted precursor of English polyphonic masters of the later 16th century. He played a fanatical and active part in the suppression of the monasteries instituted by *Henry VIII. The greatest choral composer of his time, six of his great Masses have now been recorded.

Tawney, Richard Henry (1880–1962). English economic historian, born in Calcutta (now Kolkata). Educated at Rugby and Oxford, he was a Sergeant in World War I and a social worker at Toynbee Hall in the East End of London. A lecturer at the London School of Economics 1917–31, and a Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford (1918), he became President 1928–44 of the Workers’ Educational Association. A Christian and a non-Marxist socialist, his studies of English economic history (particularly of the 16th and 17th centuries) include The Acquisitive Society (1926), Religion and the Rise of Capitalism (1926), Equality (1931) and Business and Politics under James I (1958). He was professor of economic history at the London School of Economics 1931–49.

Taylor, A(lan) J(ohn) P(ercevale) (1906–1990). English historian, born in Lancashire. Educated at Oxford, he lectured at Manchester 1930–38 and Oxford, where he was a Fellow of Magdalen 1938–76. Taylor was a controversial figure, devastating in debate and with mastery of sources, incisive in style, witty and argumentative in manner, determinedly paradoxical in approach. His involvement in television lecturing and popular journalism aroused deep professional prejudice despite the strength of his published work, e.g. The Habsburg Monarchy (1941), The Struggle for Mastery in Europe (1954), Bismarck (1955), The Origins of the Second World War (1961), and English History 1914–45 (1965).

Burk, K., Troublemaker. 2000.

Taylor, Dame Elizabeth (1932–2011). English film actor in the US. Famous as a child star (National Velvet, 1944), she was a celebrated beauty who appeared in many vapid romances, later gaining a reputation as a dramatic actor, e.g. in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958), Butterfield 8 (1960) and Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966), winning an Academy Award for the last two. She married the film director Mike Todd, the singer Eddie Fisher, Richard *Burton (twice), a US senator and three others.

Taylor, Frederick Winslow (1856–1915). American industrial engineer. He wrote Principles of Scientific Management (1911) which applied technocratic modes to industrial practice, setting scientific standards, such as time-study and cost-benefit, to measure efficiency. Opponents of ‘Taylorism’ thought that his methods increased alienation and dehumanisation in the workplace.

Taylor, Jeremy (1613–1667). English author and clergyman. He attracted attention as a preacher, became chaplain to *Laud and *Charles I and (1638) rector of Uppingham, Rutland. In the Civil War he was a chaplain with the royalist forces, was taken prisoner in Wales, became chaplain to the Earl of Carbery (1645–57) and Bishop of Down in Northern Ireland (1661–67). His theological works, of which The Liberty of Prophesying (1646), Holy Living (1650) and Holy Dying (1651) were the most influential, were written in a style combining simplicity and splendour. They reveal him as a moderate and tolerant Churchman ready to limit matters of faith to what is found in the Bible and the Apostles’ Creed, leaving a large area in which a Christian was entitled to think for himself. Such teaching, which provided a basis of belief for later evangelical Churchmen, was supplemented by Ductor Dubitantium (1660), a vast work on moral theology aimed at formulating distinctions between good and evil.

Taylor, Zachary (1784–1850). 12th President of the US 1849–50. Born in Virginia, son of a planter who then settled in Kentucky, he joined the army in 1808, lived in Louisiana from 1825 and gained a national reputation in the frontier fighting in the second Seminole war, earning the nickname ‘Old Rough and Ready’. Sent to Texas by President *Polk (1845) to defend the frontier against Mexican attack, he was present when an exchange of shots led to the Mexican War (1846–47). His victory at Buena Vista (1847) was the decisive and culminating episode. Despite having had no political experience (and having never voted), he defeated Winfield *Scott and Henry *Clay to win the Whig nomination for President in 1848, and won election over Lewis *Cass and Martin *Van Buren. Although a slave owner himself, he took the commonsense view that California (acquired from Mexico) should, if it chose, enter the Union as a free state. He died of an unspecified stomach complaint and was succeeded by Millard *Fillmore.

Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilyich (1840–1893). Russian composer, born at Kamsko-Votkinsk in the Urals. As a boy he was hypersensitive and abnormally dependent on his mother; her death when he was 14 affected him for the rest of his life. After being trained for the law, for which he was unfitted, at 21 he began to study music under Anton *Rubinstein at the St Petersburg Conservatoire. In 1865 he became professor of harmony at the Moscow Conservatoire, founded the previous year by Rubinstein’s brother Nikolai. In his early works, e.g. the Symphony No. 1 (Winter Dreams, 1868) and the fantasy-overture Romeo and Juliet (1870, revised 1880), he was influenced by the ideals of the nationalist group of Russian composers led by *Balakirev. The strongly Russian flavour of *Tchaikovsky’s early music (often based on folksong) was now gradually superseded by a cosmopolitan idiom in which his preference for the French over the German masters became apparent. He met *Berlioz, Johann *Strauss, *Brahms, *Saint-Saëns and *Mahler. Partly to squash speculation about his homosexuality, he married (1877) a former pupil Antonina Milyukova, despite their complete incompatibility. He left her after a fortnight but the episode caused insomnia, hallucinations and a deterioration of his mental stability. He toured from 1877, partly for his health, journeys largely financed by a rich widow Nadezhda von Meck (1831–1894) who settled a generous annuity on him. They corresponded from 1876 to 1891 but never spoke: on two accidental meetings they passed in embarrassed silence. He conducted in Paris, London, Hamburg, Leipzig, Dresden, Berlin and Prague, took holidays in Italy. He lived at Klin, near Moscow, from 1885 and visited the US in 1891, giving concerts in New York, Baltimore and Philadelphia.

He composed eight symphonies, including the unnumbered Manfred (1885) and the incomplete No. 7 (1892). The most performed are Symphony No. 4 (1877), No. 5 (1888) and No. 6 (Patetitčeskaja, ‘passionate’ in Russian, mistranslated in the West as Pathétique: 1893), his last, and most emotionally intense, work. His major ballets Swan Lake (1876), Sleeping Beauty (1889) and Nutcracker (1891–92) remain in the repertoire of every company. His Piano Concerto No. 1 in B Flat (1875) has challenged every virtuoso and contains some of his most effective keyboard writing. The Variations on a Rococo theme for cello (1876) and the Violin Concerto in D (1878) are masterpieces. He wrote the Serenade for Strings (1880), a powerful Piano Trio (1882) and the Souvenir de Florence (string sextet, also arranged for string orchestra, 1890), many superb songs and less successful piano solos.

His emotionalism and rhetoric, which both attracts and repels, is demonstrated in the fantasy overture Romeo and Juliet (1869), the symphonic fantasy Francesca da Rimini (1876), the 1812 Overture (1880) and Hamlet (1888). Of his 10 operas only Evgeny Onegin (1878) and The Queen of Spades (1890), both based on *Pushkin, are performed outside Russia. He died, supposedly of cholera, but possibly by suicide, in St Petersburg and was buried there.

Weinstock, H., Tchaikovsky. 1943; Brown, D., Tchaikovsky: A Biographical and Critical Study. 4 vols, 1978–93; Poznansky, A., Tchaikovsky. 1993.

Tcherepnin, Nikolai Nikolaievich (1873–1945). Russian conductor and composer. After studying under *Rimsky-Korsakov he was attached to the Mariinsky Theatre, St Petersburg, then working with *Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, and later with Anna *Pavlova. Principal of the Tiflis (Tbilisi) Conservatorium 1918–21, he moved to Paris. He wrote music for Diaghilev until 1914 and in 1918 became principal of the Tiflis conservatoire. He wrote two operas, but was best known for his ballet music which showed a mixture of traditional Russian and modern French influences.

Tecumseh (1768?–1813). American Shawnee Indian chief. Helped by his brother ‘the Prophet’, he enforced order and discipline, and, above all, forbade all intercourse with the white settlers or any cession of land without consent of the Indian peoples as a whole. He fought on the British side with the rank of brigadier-general in the War of 1812, among the causes of which were alleged British intrigues with the Indians on the US–Canadian frontier. Near this frontier Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of the Thames (Ontario).

Tucker, G., Tecumseh: Vision of Glory. 1956.

Tedder, Arthur William Tedder, 1st Baron (1890–1967). British airman, born in Stirlingshire. Educated at Cambridge, he joined the colonial service, transferring to the army (1914), then the RFC (1916), becoming a pilot. Director-General of research and development at the Air Ministry 1938–40, he became RAF Commander-in-Chief in the Middle East 1941–43, Allied Air Commander in the Mediterranean 1943, and Deputy Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe 1943–45, under *Eisenhower. He greatly disliked *Montgomery. Promoted Marshal of the RAF in 1945 and created a baron in 1946, he was Chief of the Air Staff 1946–49 and Chancellor of Cambridge University 1950–67.

Owen, R., Tedder. 1965; Tedder, A. W., With Prejudice. 1966.

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre (1881–1955). French geologist, palaeontologist, Jesuit priest and philosopher. He was closely involved in the ‘discovery’ of Piltdown man (1912–13) which may have been intended as a scientific joke rather than a serious hoax. After serving in World War I as a stretcher bearer, he became professor of geology at the Institute Catholique, Paris, in 1918. He lived in China 1923–46, made palaeontological expeditions into Central Asia and worked on the Peking man excavations (1929). In his writings he tried to reconcile Christian theology with science and developed the concept of ‘cosmic evolution’, leading to the ultimate ‘Omega point’ and the second coming of Christ. He lived in France 1946–51 and the US from 1951 and died in New York. Forbidden to publish during his lifetime, he achieved great posthumous fame with his The Phenomenon of Man (1938–40, published 1959) but his reputation has declined as rapidly (and mysteriously) as it rose in the 1960s.

Cunot, C., Life of Teilhard de Chardin. 1965.

Te Kanawa, Dame Kiri (1944– ). New Zealand soprano. Part Maori, she studied in Auckland and made her London debut in 1970, followed by New York (1974) and Milan (1978). Especially successful in *Mozart, *Verdi and *Strauss operas, she made many recordings and several films. She received a CH in 2018.

Telemann, Georg Philipp (1681–1767). German composer, born in Magdeburg. Self-taught, he abandoned the study of law to become Director of the Leipzig Opera (1702) and later the Hamburg Opera (1732–38). He declined the post of Kantor at the Thomaskirche, Leipzig, in favour of his lesser known colleague J. S. *Bach. Telemann was almost certainly the most prolific composer of all time, writing 40 operas, more than 600 orchestral suites, 44 passions, 12 complete sets of services, over 1000 cantatas and many chamber works and concertos. Bach and *Händel admired his music and Händel, especially, borrowed heavily from it. His works have sometimes been dismissed as tuneful, ornamental and lacking in dynamic tension, however, with renewed interest in his music, the admiration of his contemporaries appears well-founded.

Telford, Thomas (1757–1834). Scottish engineer, born in Dumfriesshire. Son of an Eskdale shepherd, he worked for several years as journeyman mason, using all his spare time for engineering study. After superintending dockyard construction at Portsmouth (from 1784) he was appointed surveyor of public works in Shropshire and built his first bridges in 1792. His Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal (1795–1805), 18 kilometres long, in north-eastern Wales, became a World Heritage site in 2009. Other great achievements in a career during which he built some 1,200 bridges and 1,000 miles of roads, were the London–Holyhead road (including the Menai Straits suspension bridge, 1826) and the Caledonian Canal (1803–17). Elected FRS in 1827, he was first President of the Institution of Civil Engineers.

Rolt, L. T. C., Thomas Telford. 1958.

Teller, Edward (1908–2003). Hungarian American physicist, born in Budapest. Educated at the Karlsruhe Technical Institute and the universities of Munich and Leipzig, he was professor of physics at George Washington University 1935–41, Columbia 1941–42, Chicago 1946–52 and California 1953–71. He worked on the atomic bomb during World War II and later, as assistant director of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (1949–52), he made important contributions to physics by his work on, e.g., the structure of matter, cosmic rays and magnetohydro-dynamics. Known as the ‘father of the hydrogen bomb’, first tested in 1952, he was a hardliner in the Cold War and an opponent of Robert *Oppenheimer.

Jungk, R., Brighter than a Thousand Suns. 1958.

Temple (Black), Shirley (1928–2014). American actor, businesswoman and diplomat, born in Santa Monica, California. A prodigy, she appeared at 3½ in her first film, The Red-Haired Alibi (1932). In 1934 she made 10 more (including Little Miss Marker and Bright Eyes), winning a special Academy Award. Her skilled acting, singing and dancing, accompanied by curls and dimples, made her an international phenomenon. By 1938 she was Hollywood’s No. 1 box office attraction, spinning off Shirley Temple dolls, dresses and colouring books. By 1940 her juvenile career was in decline, but she made occasional films and television programs until 1960. She became active in Republican politics and was Ambassador to Ghana 1974–76 and Czechoslovakia 1989–92.

Windeger, R., Shirley Temple. 1976.

Temple, William (1881–1944). English Anglican prelate. His career closely followed that of his father Frederick Temple (1821–1902), headmaster of Rugby 1858–69 whose views were suspected as radical and unorthodox. He became Bishop of Exeter 1869–85, of London 1885–96 and Archbishop of Canterbury 1896–1902. William Temple was headmaster of Repton 1910–14 and became Bishop of Manchester 1921–29, Archbishop of York 1929–42 and of Canterbury 1942–44. Deeply influenced by the ideas of Charles *Kingsley on Christian Socialism, he worked to link Christian thought with social and economic reconstruction. He was President of the Workers’ Educational Association 1908–24 and became, 1943–44, first President of the World Council of Churches.

Iremonger, F. A., William Temple. 1948.

Temple, Sir William, 1st Baronet (1628–1699). English diplomat and essayist, born in London. Educated at Cambridge, he negotiated the marriage of *William of Orange and *Mary (Stuart) and tried to persuade *Charles II to accept the idea of Cabinet government. Jonathan *Swift was his secretary at Moor Park, Surrey. He married Dorothy *Osborne, promoted the English landscape garden movement and wrote eloquent essays.

Templer, Sir Gerald Walter Robert (1898–1979). Son of a general, he served in France, Italy and Germany during World War II. As High Commissioner in Malaya 1952–55 he defeated the insurgency by the Malaysian Races Liberation Army. Chief of the Imperial General Staff 1955–59, he founded the National Army Museum, London, in 1960 and received a KG in 1963. He is the only field marshal known to have been wounded in action by a grand piano.

Templewood, Samuel John Gurney Hoare, 1st Viscount see Hoare, Samuel John Gurney, 1st Viscount Templewood

Tendulkar, Sachin Ramesh (1973– ). Indian cricketer, born in Mumbai. He made his test debut in 1989, retiring in 2013 after playing in 200 test matches. By 2012 he had scored 100 centuries, for an aggregate of 34,000 runs, and was often ranked as second only to Don *Bradman. He was appointed to the Rajya Sabha, India’s upper house, 2012– .

Teniers, David (1610–1690). Flemish painter. Like his father, David Teniers the Elder (1582–1649), by whom he was trained, and under the influence of Adriaen *Brouwer, he painted mostly genre pictures tavern scenes with soldiers gambling or brawling, a village festival, alchemists, witches etc. He worked in Antwerp and later Brussels, was court painter to Archduke Leopold, and compiled an illustrated record of his collection of pictures.

Tenniel, Sir John (1820–1914). English draughtsman. He joined the staff of Punch in 1851 and in 1901 retired after 50 years as the leading political cartoonist. He became even better known as the illustrator of Lewis *Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. He was knighted in 1893.

Tennyson, Alfred, 1st Baron Tennyson (1809–1892). English poet, born at Somersby, Lincolnshire. Son of a clergyman, his family had a history of manic depression, obsessions and/or fits of rage. At Trinity College, Cambridge, he met Arthur *Hallam, who became his greatest friend and whose sudden death (1833) evoked his famous elegy In Memoriam (published anonymously in 1850). Some of his juvenilia had already appeared in print and a volume published in the same year as Hallam’s death contained his first successes such as Oenone, The Lotus-eaters and A Dream of Fair Women. A further collection (1842), including Morte d'Arthur (the genesis of Idylls of the King), Locksley Hall, Ulysses and such famous lyrics as Break, Break, Break, confirmed his reputation. A state pension of £200 (1842) per annum relieved immediate financial anxiety but it was not until 1850, when he succeeded *Wordsworth as Poet Laureate, that he felt free to marry Emily Sellwood, to whom he had been engaged for 17 years. By now his poetry became a source of wealth. As Laureate he had to write poems to commemorate great events (e.g. Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington and The Charge of the Light Brigade). Maud (1855) was read or recited in every drawing room; of Enoch Arden (1864) 60,000 copies were at once sold. (Richard *Strauss set it in 1897 as a melodrama for narrator and piano.) In 1854 Tennyson began to live at Farringford, his house at Freshwater in the Isle of Wight, and he began to build his second home near Haslemere in 1868. Meanwhile, he had found inspiration in the legends of King Arthur and his Idylls of the King were appearing in steady sequence (1855–89). Of his verse plays the genius of *Irving managed to make something of Becket (1879), but the others, e.g. Queen Mary (1876) and Harold (1877), were among his least successful works. He received a peerage in 1884.

Tennyson was so prolific and the demand from his public so great that much that is trite and second-rate appears in his Collected Works; his skills, his complete mastery of versification and the lilting music of his lines, turned opinion against him when a later age equated roughness with sincerity. He was capable of deep emotion, as In Memoriam and many other poems show. His approach was not primarily intellectual but he brought to the problems and discoveries of his day a philosophic outlook and a somewhat scientific mind. In 1890 he declaimed some poems on wax cylinders, now available on CD and YouTube. His son Hallam Tennyson, 2nd Baron Tennyson (1852–1928) was Governor-General of Australia 1903–04.

Tennyson, C., Alfred Tennyson. Repr. 1968; Thorn, M., Tennyson. 1992; Levi, P., Tennyson. 1992.

Tenzing Norgay (1914–1986). Nepalese mountaineer. He first climbed as a porter with an expedition to Everest in 1935. In 1952 he reached 8600 m. and in 1953, in John *Hunt’s expedition, he and Edmund *Hillary reached the summit (8848 m.) He became President of the Sherpa Association.

Ullman, J. R., Man of Everest. 1955.

Terborch (or Terburg), Gerard (1617–1681). Dutch painter. He spent much of his time as a young painter in travel. One of his finest pictures (now in the National Gallery, London) portrays the delegates to the peace congress of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years’ War (1648). By 1650 he was back in Holland and perfected a type of genre picture, nearly always of small size, depicting scenes in which one or more figures, usually ladies, are reading, writing, playing music etc. in rooms appropriate to the elegance of their attire. Soft and delicate colour harmonies characterise his work.

Terence (Publius Terentius Afer) (c.190–160 BCE). Roman comic playwright, born in Carthage. Taken to Rome as a slave, he was educated and freed by his master. He achieved great success with Andria (166), the first of six plays, all extant. His others were Hecyra (The Mother-in-law, 165), Heauton Timorumenos (The Self-punisher, 163), Eunuchus (161) on which the first English comedy, Ralph Roister Doister was based, Phormio (161), Adelphi (The Brothers, 160). All were based on Greek originals, Hecyra and Phormio on plays by Apollodorus, the rest derived from *Menander. The stock situations and characters of ancient comedy were later again revived by *Shakespeare and *Molière. Terence was famed for use of polite colloquial speech.

Beare, W., The Roman Stage. 3rd ed. 1965.

Teresa of Ávila, St (also known as St Teresa of Jesus: Teresa Sánchez de Cepada y Ahumada) (1515–1582). Spanish nun. She entered a Carmelite convent in Avila (c.1526) and had lived there over 20 years, much troubled by ill health, before she left to found, after considerable opposition, a convent governed by the original, stricter rule. St Joseph’s Convent at Avila was the first of 15 established during her lifetime for ‘discalced’ or barefooted Carmelites (a separate order from 1580), for men as well as women. Despite this immense practical activity her books are among the most famous examples of mystical literature. The Life (1562–65) is a spiritual autobiography, The Way of Perfection (1565) provides guidance for her nuns, The Foundation (from 1576) tells of her work in establishing the new convents, and The Interior Castle (1577), perhaps her most illuminating work, is an account, written with all the conviction of her rich experience, of a contemplative life. Minor works too and letters, vivid, witty and wise, help to reveal one of the most attractive personalities of religious history. She was canonised only 40 years after her death. St Teresa in Ecstasy (in Rome) was one of *Bernini’s greatest sculptures. General *Franco kept her mummified hand on his desk.

Teresa of Calcutta, St (formerly known as Mother Teresa: Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu) (1910–1997). Albanian Roman Catholic missionary, born in Üsküp (now Skopje), then in the Ottoman Empire. She joined the order of Sisters of Loreto in 1929. As principal of St Mary’s High School, Calcutta, she founded the Missionaries of Charity in 1950 and, through this organisation, founded 50 orphanages and refuges for the destitute in India, notably the Pure Heart Home for Dying Destitutes. She was awarded the Pope John XXIII Peace Prize in 1971, the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1979, and the OM in 1983. The Order was established in other countries. In 2003 she was beatified by Pope *John Paul II, and was canonised by Pope *Francis in 2016.

Muggeridge, M., Something Beautiful for God. 1971; Egan, E., Such a Vision of the Street. 1986.

Teresa of Lisieux see Therese of Lisieux, St

Terfel, Sir Bryn (Bryn Terfel Jones) (1965– ). Welsh bass-baritone. In 1992 he made his debut at Covent Garden, Salzburg and Vienna, and was soon recognised as a *Mozart specialist as Figaro and Don Giovanni. Later roles included Wotan in *Wagner’s Ring in New York and *Verdi’s Falstaff. He also recorded popular songs.

Terry, Dame Ellen (1847–1928). English actor. She achieved immense success as a Shakespearian actor and was *Irving’s leading lady 1878–1902. She married three times, first and disastrously to the painter G. F. *Watts (1864). The theatrical designer E. G. *Craig was her son by Edward Godwin, an architect. She had a long ‘paper courtship’ with G. B. *Shaw. Other members of her family won fame on the stage: her brother, Fred Terry (1863–1933), who created the part of Sir Percy Blakeney in The Scarlet Pimpernel, her granddaughter Phyllis Neilson-Terry and her grandnephew John *Gielgud.

Manvell, R., Ellen Terry. 1968.

Tertullian (Quintus Septimus Florens Tertullianus) (c.155–c.225). Latin theological writer, born in Carthage. A convert, he became a presbyter of Carthage, but little is known of his life. Of his 31 surviving works one of the greatest was Apologeticus (197), written to defend Christianity against charges that it was immoral, useless and dangerous to the state; it warns Roman officials that the blood of martyrs provides the seeds of growth. A second series deals with practical subjects: attendances at theatres and games, idolatry and extravagance in dress etc. are condemned; chastity and fasting are among the virtues praised. In his theological works he claims that true doctrine is handed down through apostolic succession and cannot be assailed by argument. He further stresses the ascendancy of faith over reason by such paradoxical assertions as his saying that a subject of belief ‘is certain because it is impossible’.

Barnes, T. D., Tertullian. 1971.

Tesla, Nikola (1856–1943). Serb-American electrical engineer, born in Smiljan, Croatia. Son of an Orthodox priest, he was educated at Graz and Prague and migrated to the US in 1884. He worked briefly with Thomas *Edison and, from 1885, with George *Westinghouse. Edison was deeply committed to the use of direct current (DC); Westinghouse and Tesla saw greater efficiency and economy with alternating current (AC). In 1888 Tesla invented the first AC electric motor, substantially in the form still in current use, and this was the most important single development in the Electric Revolution. He sold his patents to Westinghouse and set up his own laboratories. In 1891 he invented the Tesla coil, an air-core transformer used to produce high voltage in radio (and later television) equipment. He improved the transmission of AC over long distances and was the first to demonstrate that the earth is an electrical conductor. Tesla did not patent most of his inventions and died in poverty, bitterly disappointed not to have received a Nobel Prize. Elon *Musk’s luxury electric car (2010), minor planet 2244 Tesla, a moon crater and a rock band were named for him.

Hunt, I., and Draper, W. W., Lightning in his Hand: The Life Story of Nikola Tesla. 1964; Munson, R., Tesla. Inventor of the Modern. 2014.

Tetrazzini, Luisa (1871–1940). Italian singer, born in Florence. She made a great name for herself as a coloratura soprano, mainly in Italian opera, and commanded huge audiences in virtuoso recitals throughout the world.

Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811–1863). English novelist, born in Calcutta. Soon after the death of his father, an official in the East India Company, he went to England (1817) where he was subsequently looked after by his mother (later portrayed as Helen Pendennis) and his stepfather (afterwards transformed into Colonel Newcome). From Charterhouse (‘Grey Friars’) he went to Cambridge, where prospects of wealth encouraged idleness, travel (after failure to get a degree) and a half-hearted study of art and law. The disappearance of most of the money through the failure of a Calcutta agency (1833) forced him into activity. Unable to sell his pictures, he took to journalism in 1836, the year when he married Isabella Shawe. In his first period of writing appeared The Yellow-plush Papers (1840) in which Thackeray, in the guise of a footman called Yellow-plush, dilated with good-humoured satire upon the social follies and foibles of his time. Fraser’s Magazine, The Times and Punch were among the periodicals that accepted his work. In 1840 his wife showed signs of insanity. After trying to cope with an increasingly impossible situation he was forced to part from her and place her under control. She lived for another 50 years but never recovered. The effect upon his work was to soften its asperity and introduce a new note of pathos. The Great Hoggarty Diamond (1841) and the Punch series (1846–47) later published as The Book of Snobs are among the numerous writings that preceded the publication of his best novels. The first, Vanity Fair (published as was then the custom in monthly parts, 1848–50), tells of the manoeuvres of the clever adventuress Becky Sharp, in the days of Waterloo. Henry Esmond (1852) is the story of a disputed inheritance in Ireland with a background of *Marlborough’s war and Jacobite intrigue. Its sequel, The Virginians (1857–59), continues the hero’s story in America; Pendennis (1848–50) returns to Thackeray’s own time with several autobiographical passages. The Newcomes (1853–55), in that it purported to be written by Pendennis is aligned with the earlier book. The later novels show a marked decline. The best known of his miscellaneous writings include the delightful children’s story, The Rose and the Ring (1854), and two series of lectures collected as The English Humorists of the Eighteenth Century (1853) and The Four Georges (1860). In 1860 he fulfilled an ambition by becoming editor of the Cornhill magazine. As a novelist, Thackeray had the same taste for melodramatic plots as *Dickens but his stories are more tightly constructed; while his characters move within a narrow range, his humour is more astringent than that of Dickens and his compassion less evident. This was partly due to the unhappiness of his domestic life, which, as the years passed, made him increasingly sensitive to personal slights.

Carey, J., Thackeray: Prodigal Genius. 1977.

Thalberg, Irving Grant (1899–1936). American film production executive. After a sickly childhood, he developed secretarial skills and became head of production at Universal Studios and, from 1924, at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM). Known as ‘the boy wonder’, he was the subject of F. Scott *Fitzgerald’s novel The Last Tycoon, and married the Canadian-born actor Norma Shearer (1902–1983).

Thales (c.640–c.550 BCE). Greek philosopher, born in Miletus, Asia Minor (now Turkey). Regarded as one of the ‘seven wise men’ of Greece, he was held to be the first of the philosophers because he sought to explain the universe rationally rather than by mythology. The tradition recorded by *Aristotle that Thales believed that all things are made of water is probably based on an attempt by him to give a rational explanation of an ancient myth. It seems likely that he was a merchant and that in his travels in Babylonia and Egypt he acquired the mathematical knowledge that enabled him, e.g. to predict the solar eclipse of 585 BCE.

Thant, U (1909–1974). Burmese diplomat. After working as a school teacher 1928–47, he entered the public service in Burma and became the trusted adviser of Prime Minister U *Nu. In 1957 he became Burma’s permanent representative at the United Nations, and on the death (1961) of Dag *Hammarskjöld was made Acting Secretary-General of the organisation, then Secretary-General 1962–71.

Tharp, Twyla (1941– ). American dancer and choreographer, born in Indiana. She worked in New York with her own modern dance troupe, performed extensively in film television and in her own ballets, often based on popular music e.g. Hair, and *Sinatra songs.

Thatcher, Margaret Hilda (née Roberts), Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven (1925–2013). British Conservative politician, born in Grantham, Lincolnshire. Her father, a strict Methodist, owned two grocery stores and was a local councillor and mayor. Educated at Kesteven and Grantham Girls’ School, at Somerville College, Oxford University, she studied chemistry under Dorothy *Hodgkin, and worked as an industrial chemist 1947–51. She was active in Conservative student politics at Oxford, and became deeply influenced by the economist Friedrich von *Hayek. In 1951 she married Denis Thatcher (1915–2003), a former oil industry executive, and became the mother of twins (1953). She studied law at Lincoln’s Inn and was called to the bar in 1953. Conservative MP for Finchley 1959–92, and Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Pensions and National Insurance 1961–64, she was appointed Secretary of State for Education in Edward *Heath’s Cabinet 1970–74. In February 1975 she was elected leader of the Conservative party (defeating Heath). In the general election of May 1979, she defeated James *Callaghan’s Labour Government to became Britain’s Prime Minister 1979–90, the first women to hold the office.

Her election destroyed the Keynesian consensus dominating British economic policy since the 1940s and her enthusiastic adoption of von Hayek’s paradigm was a turning point in political economy in the West, soon followed in the United States by *Reagan, in New Zealand, by Roger *Douglas and in Australia, in modified form, under Bob *Hawke. (Coincidentally, in 1979 dramatic changes were initiated by Pope *John Paul II, *Deng Xiaoping in China and the Ayatollah *Khomeini in Iran.) Like Khomeini, she had a conviction of infallibility, scepticism about ‘progress’, commitment to absolutes and an invoking of the Manichean contest between Good and Evil. Paradoxically, she showed no interest in gender-related issues.

Mrs Thatcher urged a commitment to ‘Victorian values’, of self-help, rejecting the ‘nanny state’ (a coinage by Iain *Macleod) as intrusive and all encompassing, inhibiting personal choices about education and health, insisting that lower taxes would stimulate economic activity and job creation. She was deeply hostile to trade unions and seemed indifferent to high unemployment. She began a major program of ‘privatisation’, selling off public assets: schools and hospitals, even prisons, to be run as trading enterprises. She ‘outsourced’ policy advice to consulting firms, bypassing public servants. She promised to eliminate ‘feather bedding’ and phase out tariffs. She promoted ‘deregulation’, arguing that market forces would require higher ethical standards. (The banking crisis of 2008 challenged that assumption.) The changes occurred with little public debate: as the acronym TINA put it, ‘There is no alternative.’ She described her supporters as ‘dries’ and her opponents as ‘wets’. She often resorted to populism in her campaigning and was strongly supported by the *Murdoch press.

War with Argentina over the Falkland Islands (April–June 1982) was the most controversial act of her first term, but the economy began to recover and she won a second term with a large majority in June 1983. In October 1984 she survived an assassination attempt when the IRA bombed a Brighton hotel during a Conservative Party Conference. In June 1987 she became the first British Prime Minister since *Palmerston to win a third consecutive election.

She had a major role in persuading President Reagan to collaborate with *Gorbachev. British politics moved sharply to the Right in the era she dominated and Tony *Blair’s New Labour was distinctly Thatcherite.

She remarked, notoriously, in 1987: ‘There is no such thing as society. There are individual men and women, and there are families.’ Personal enrichment displaced the setting of social goals, and all values could be measured. Often called ‘The Iron Lady’, she alienated many colleagues with her imperious style, increasing opposition to closer involvement with the European Community and the rigidity of her commitment to neo-classical economics, leading to significant regional unemployment. Increasing preoccupation with the immediate and material had a crowding-out effect on community values and the concept of ‘the public good’. She was forced out by colleagues in November 1990 and replaced by John *Major, after serving 11 years 6 months and 25 days, the longest single term since Lord *Liverpool. She received the OM in 1990, the US Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1991, a peerage in 1992 and became LG in 1995. Her husband received a baronetcy in 1990. She wrote two volumes of memoirs, The Downing Street Years (1993) and The Path to Power (1995). She suffered debilitating strokes after 2002 and had a ceremonial funeral at St Paul’s Cathedral.

Young, H., One of Us. 1989; Campbell, J., The Iron Lady: Margaret Thatcher. 2 vols, 2003; Harris, R., Not for Turning. 2013; Moore, C., Margaret Thatcher: the Authorized Biography. Vol. 1, 2013, Vol. 2, 2015, Vol. 3, 2019.

Theaetetus (417–369 BCE). Greek mathematician. He studied under Theodorus of Cyrene and at the Academy with *Plato. None of his writings has survived, though we have adequate accounts of them from other sources. Plato wrote a dialogue about him (the Theaetetus) and he is the principal character in The Sophist. One of Theaetetus’s main contributions to mathematics was the development of a proper classification of irrationals (irrationals in mathematics had only recently been discovered). *Euclid also notes that he was the first mathematician to write upon the five regular solids. It is possible that he discovered the octahedron and the dodecahedron, though it is much more likely that these figures were earlier known to the Pythagoreans. Theaetetus undoubtedly set out the theory of the construction of the solids probably in much the form used by Euclid in book 13 of The Elements. Scholars have debated how far Euclid simply reported Theaetetus’s work in several of the books of The Elements (e.g. Book 10). There is no way of knowing. Euclid attributed some of his theorems to Theaetetus.

Themistocles (c.523–c.458 BCE). Athenian soldier and statesman. During the Persian Wars he recognised the importance of a navy for Athens, having secured the banishment of his rival *Aristides, he made use of the opening of a new seam in the silver mines at Laurium to raise the total number of ships from 70 to 200. When the Persians forced the pass of Thermopylae, the ‘gateway’ to Athens on the north, he persuaded the citizens to take refuge with the ships and himself directed the strategy by which the Persian fleet was destroyed at the Battle of Salamis (480). In the next year the Persians were forced to withdraw. Arrogance soon cost Themistocles his popularity and his anti-Spartan policy threatened Greek unity. Banished from Athens, he went first to Argos and then, after accusations of intrigue with the enemy, to Persian territory, where he was generously received.

Theobald (or Tebaldus) of Bec (c.1090–1161). Anglo-Norman cleric, born in Bec, Normandy. A Benedictine, he was Abbot of Bec, then chosen by King *Stephen to be Archbishop of Canterbury 1139–61, becoming the patron of Thomas *Becket, who succeeded him.

Theocritus (fl. c.280 BCE). Greek poet, born at Syracuse. He visited Cos and then Egypt where he attracted the notice of *Ptolemy II Philadelphus. He perfected the type of poem that came to be known as an ‘idyll’, a short sketch or scene in dramatic form usually taken from country or village (but sometimes from town) life. His poems were much imitated by later ‘pastoral’ poets and one provided a model for *Milton’s Lycidas.

Theodora (c.500–548). Byzantine Empress 527–48. Probably born in Cyprus (or Syria?), daughter of the bear trainer at the hippodrome in Constantinople, she was an actor and courtesan before becoming the mistress of *Justinian I and, in 523, his wife. She proved a valued adviser and her courage helped to save the throne during the faction fights of 532. There is an outstanding mosaic of her in St Vitale Cathedral, Ravenna.

Browning, R., Justinian and Theodora. 1971.

Theodorakis, Mikis (1925– ). Greek composer, playwright and political activist, born in Chios. He worked in the Resistance during World War II, was deported for his political activity during the civil war 1947–52 and studied with *Messiaen in Paris. He was extraordinarily prolific in a variety of forms, including seven symphonies, a Requiem, chamber music, the ballet Antigone (written for Margot *Fonteyn), songs, choruses, an opera and 22 film scores, including Zorba the Greek, also a ballet. He was a member of the Greek Parliament 1964–67, 1981–86, 1989–93, imprisoned 1964–67, left the CP in 1986 and was Minister without Portfolio 1990–92.

Theodore (1816–1868). Emperor of Ethiopia 1855–68. Originally a brigand named Kassa, he fought his way to supremacy and showed considerable talents as a ruler though prone to unpredictable violence. Taking the absence of a reply to a letter sent by him to Queen *Victoria as a slight, he seized the British Consul and other Europeans. Eventually a British force was sent under Sir Robert *Napier. When Theodore’s stronghold of Magdala was taken, he shot himself.

Theodore (Theodor, Baron von Neuhoff) (1694–1756). German adventurer, self-styled ‘king’ of Corsica. The son of a Westphalian nobleman, he led a life of adventure and political intrigue. In 1736 he landed in Corsica with instructions he had received from the Austrian Government in 1729 to investigate the causes of a rebellion there. On his arrival he was crowned King and proceeded to issue coins and acquire revenue by selling knighthoods in his ‘Order of Deliverance’. This not proving enough, he left to seek foreign aid, but after two attempts to return had failed he settled in London, where he was imprisoned for debt and died in Soho.

Theodore, Edward Granville (1884–1950). Australian Labor politician and director, born in Port Adelaide. The son of a Romanian (Teodorescu) father and an Anglo-Irish mother, he left school at 12, worked in mines, then became a union organiser in Queensland and state president of the Australian Workers’ Union (AWU) 1913–16. Queensland State MP 1909–25, he was Treasurer 1915–19 and a reforming Premier 1919–25. A Federal MP 1927–31, in the *Scullin Government he was Treasurer 1929–30; 1931–32, stepping down at a critical time to answer allegations of bribery about mining leases in Queensland. This damaged Labor’s campaign to meet the impact of Depression, as Theodore was the strongest figure in the Government, with the clearest economic strategy, paralleling the ideas of *Keynes. Theodore’s reinstatement as Treasurer in January 1931 provided Joseph *Lyons with a reason to defect from the ALP. Jack *Lang hated him. He became a director of mining and publishing companies and during World War II directed the Allied Works Council 1942–44.

Fitzgerald, R., Red Ted. The Life of E. G. Theodore. 1994.

Theodoric (known as ‘the Great’) (c.454–526). King of Italy 493–526. Son of the ruler of the Ostrogoths, he was educated in Constantinople and in 488 was urged by the emperor Zeno to lead his people to regain Italy from the German mercenary *Odovacar who had made himself king. Theodoric succeeded, after four years of confused fighting, only by inspiring the treacherous murder of his opponent. Setting up his court at Ravenna and proffering only the most nominal allegiance to Zeno, he consolidated and enlarged his kingdom and entered into friendly relations with the Franks and other peoples of Europe. He showed unusual religious tolerance and, though he had to take large areas of land to provide settlements for his 200,000 Ostrogoths, he ruled with prudence, making use of many of the old Roman institutions and paying special attention to the preservation of the splendour and dignity of Rome.

Theodosius I (known as ‘the Great’) (c.346–395). Roman Emperor 379–95. Born in Spain, son of the Count Theodosius who had protected Britain from raids from Scotland, he was summoned by *Gratian to be his co-emperor. In this role he restored law and order in the Balkans by providing the barbarians with land in return for their service in the Roman army. On the death of Gratian he maintained Valentinian II in power in Italy until his somewhat mysterious death (492). Despite his ability, Theodosius, who had been baptised (480) and condemned any who rejected the decisions of the Council of Nicaea, could be fiercely cruel. Having pardoned rioters in Antioch, he punished a similar outbreak in Thessalonica by a massacre (390) in which 7000 perished, an act for which St *Ambrose insisted that he make public atonement in Milan Cathedral. He was succeeded by his sons Honorius and *Arcadius.

Theophrastus (368/373–c.287 BCE). Greek naturalist and philosopher. Taught by *Plato and *Aristotle, he inherited the latter’s library and manuscripts and carried on his school at Athens. Most of the 224 books he is said to have written are lost, including the series on zoology, but books on plants, stones and fire are among the survivors, which also include the Characters, a book on moral types which may not be wholly his work.

Thérèse of Lisieux, St (known as ‘the Little Flower’ or St Thérèse of the Infant Jesus) (Marie-Françoise-Thérèse Martin) (1873–1897). French nun. Daughter of a watchmaker, at the age of 15 she entered the Carmelite convent of Lisieux, where she spent the rest of her short life and died of tuberculosis, complicated by her self-inflicted privations. L’Histoire d’une âme (1898), an account of her experiences, quickly established her cult throughout France. She was canonised in 1925, made patron saint of France in 1944 and in 1997 became the youngest Doctor of the Church.

Theroux, Paul Edward (1941– ). American novelist, essayist and travel writer. Educated at the University of Massachusetts, he taught in Italy, Malawi, Uganda and Singapore. His novels include Saint Jack (1973), Picture Palace (1978), The Mosquito Coast (1981), Doctor Slaughter (1984), My Secret History (1989) and Chicago Loop (1990). His acidly witty (and controversial) travel books are The Great Railway Bazaar (1975), The Old Patagonian Express (1979), Riding the Iron Rooster (China: 1988) and The Happy Isles of Oceania (1992).

Thiers, (Marie Joseph Louis) Adolphe (1797–1877). French politician and historian, born at Marseilles. He went to Paris (1821) and became known by his Histoire de la Révolution (1823–27) which revealed his opposition to *Charles X’s regime. He supported the revolution that brought *Louis Philippe to the throne (1830), was elected a deputy and became Minister of the Interior (1832) and Prime Minister (1836). The king’s refusal to intervene in the civil war in Spain soon forced his resignation. He returned in 1840 but his government fell when Great Britain and her allies thwarted his attempt to sustain the seizure of Syria from the Turks by *Mehemet Ali, the Egyptian viceroy. For the rest of Louis Philippe’s reign he vigorously opposed *Guizot’s right-wing government, while writing his Histoire du Consulate de l’Empire (1845–62). He supported Louis Napoléon in the first stages of the revolution of 1848 but turned against him when he made himself Emperor as *Napoléon III (1851). He was expelled from the country and spent the next 12 years on his literary work. A deputy again 1863–70, he was the only major politician to oppose the Franco-Prussian war and, on France’s defeat, negotiated peace with *Bismarck. Pending any decision to revive the monarchy he was elected (February 1871) ‘Chief of the Executive Power’ and suppressed the Paris Commune brutally. In August 1871, he was elected first president of the Third French Republic, resigning in 1873 in conflict with the ultra-conservative legislature.

Bury, J. P. T. and Tombs, R. P., Thiers 1797–1877. 1986.

Thistlewood, Arthur (1770–1820). English conspirator. Having lived in America and France, where he imbibed revolutionary doctrines, he enlisted others to join him (1820) in an attempt to murder the members of the British Cabinet, while at dinner. The plan was betrayed and the plotters were arrested at a house in Cato Street (after which the conspiracy was named). Thistlewood and four others were hanged, five more were transported.

Thomas, St (‘twin’, T’oma in Aramaic, Didymus in Greek) (d.c.75 CE). Christian apostle, his personal name may have been Judas. From his reluctance to accept the fact of the resurrection without tangible evidence, originated the phrase ‘Doubting Thomas’. Tradition relates that he became a missionary in India. The ‘Christians of St Thomas of Malabar’ claim to have been founded by him and a shrine (rebuilt in 1547 by the Portuguese) near Madras is said to indicate his place of martyrdom. He is Portugal’s patron saint.

Thomas Aquinas, St see Aquinas, St Thomas

Thomas (of Canterbury), St see Becket, St Thomas

Thomas à Kempis (Thomas Hammerken) (1380–1471). German Augustinian monk and mystic, born at Kempen near Cologne. He seems to have spent his whole life at the monastery of Zwolle (now in the Netherlands) and there wrote in Latin The Imitation of Christ, which was published posthumously (1486) and, in its many translations, has proved probably the most popular of all devotional works. Its four books relate in simple and sincere language the progress of the Christian soul to perfection, its gradual dissociation from the human world and its eventual union with God. Its authorship has also been attributed to Jean Charlier de Gerson, a French theologian.

Thomas, Albert (1878–1932). French Socialist politician. He was the foundation Director 1920–32 of the International Labour Organization (ILO) set up under the auspices of the League of Nations by the Versailles Peace Treaty of 1919.

Thomas, Dylan (1914–1953). Welsh poet, born in Swansea. He moved to London in 1932 and published Eighteen Poems in 1934, followed by Twenty-five Poems (1936) and The Map of Love (1939), the last containing prose as well as poetry. The Collected Poems appeared in 1952. His poetry, rich in vivid and highly original imagery, technically ingenious, frequently obscure, has been highly praised as part of a 20th-century neo-romanticism. He achieved immense posthumous success with his radio play Under Milk Wood (1954), a brilliant evocation of a day in an imaginary Welsh village. It later proved successful on stage and screen. He also wrote the autobiographical sketches Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog (1940), and an unfinished novel, Adventures in the Skin Trade (published 1955). His death, hastened by excessive drinking, occurred in New York during a lecture tour. His wife, Caitlin Thomas (1914–1994), wrote an autobiography of great poignancy, Leftover Life to Kill (1957).

Fitzgibbon, C., The Life of Dylan Thomas. 1965.

Thomas, Norman Mattoon (1884–1968). American socialist, born in Marion, Ohio. Educated at Princeton, he became a Presbyterian minister 1911–31, joined the Socialist Party in 1918 and ran for President of the US in every election from 1928 to 1948. His highest vote, 882,000, was in 1932. Despite overwhelming defeats at the polls, he had the satisfaction of seeing his program adopted by Democrats and Republicans.

Thomas, R(onald) S(tuart) (1913–2000). Welsh poet, born in Cardiff. He was an Anglican priest in Wales, living remotely but writing poems of great simplicity and intensity, e.g. ‘A Marriage’, ‘Via Negativa’ and ‘The Bright Field’.

Thompson, Sir Benjamin see Rumford, Count von

Thompson, Dame Emma (1959– ). English actor. She won Oscars for best actress in Howard’s End (1992) and best screenplay in Sense and Sensibility (1996). She married Kenneth *Branagh in 1989 and left him in 1995.

Thompson, Francis (1859–1907). English poet, born at Preston, Lancashire. Having abandoned his medical studies he went to London, where he lived in direst poverty and misery relieved by opium until rescued by Wilfred and Alice Meynell, who sent him to hospital and subsequently watched over him through years of ill health. Of his works, which were preponderantly religious, The Hound of Heaven, contained in a collection of poems published in 1893, is best known. It tells how the poet in his flight from God is pursued and overtaken. Its style is reminiscent of 17th-century poets, e.g. *Crashaw.

Thomson, James (1700–1748). Scottish poet. Intended for the ministry, he went to London to seek his literary fortune and achieved recognition by The Seasons (1730), originally published separately, beginning with Winter (1726), in Miltonic blank verse. His Alfred, a Masque (1740) contained the song Rule, Britannia. Thomson used the forms of the classical age to which he belonged but some of his rapturous descriptions of nature in The Seasons presaged Romanticism.

Thomson, James (1834–1882). British poet, born in Scotland. Brought up in poverty, he tried various careers, including that of an army instructor from which he was dismissed in 1862. He went to London where he lived a lonely life, made worse by the use of stimulants and drugs to relieve illness and melancholy. Friendship with Charles *Bradlaugh enabled him to contribute to the National Reformer, for which he wrote his most famous poem, The City of Dreadful Night (1874), in which London is pictured as a city of despair. He attached the initials B. V. (Bysshe Vanolis) to his name.

Thomson, Sir Joseph John (1856–1940). English physicist, born in Manchester. Educated at Owens College and Trinity College, Cambridge, he became Cavendish professor of experimental physics at Cambridge 1884–1918 and Master of Trinity 1918–40. He discovered (1897) the electron and deduced that cathode rays consist of these sub-atomic particles. This work laid the foundations of modern atomic physics. He invented (1911) positive-ray analysis and showed that the naturally occurring elements are mixtures of isotopes. He won the Nobel Prize for Physics (1906), received the OM (1912) and the Copley Medal (1914) and became President of the Royal Society 1915–20. Eight of his students became Nobel Laureates.

His son, Sir George Paget Thomson (1892–1975), won the Nobel Prize for Physics (1937) for discovering the diffraction of electrons by transmission through crystals jointly with the American physicist C. J. *Davisson who had made the same discovery by a different method. He was professor of physics at Aberdeen 1922–30 and at Imperial College, London 1930–52, and knighted in 1943.

Thomson, G. P., J. J. Thomson and the Cavendish Laboratory in his Day. 1964.

Thomson, Virgil (1896–1989). American composer and critic. His works, notable for their economy and simplicity of style, include symphonies, sacred choral music and two operas with libretti by Gertrude *Stein.

Thomson of Fleet, Roy Herbert Thomson, 1st Baron (1894–1976). Canadian newspaper proprietor. After small beginnings as a seller of radio equipment, he acquired radio stations and newspapers in Canada, breaking into the British market with the purchase of the Scotsman (1953). His greatest single acquisition was the *Kemsley Newspaper groups (1959) which included the Sunday Times. He became a British citizen in 1963 and was given a peerage in 1964. The Thomson Corporation bought The Times, London in 1966, selling it to Rupert *Murdoch in 1981.

Thoreau, Henry David (1817–1862). American poet, essayist and mystic, born in Concord, Massachusetts. His birthplace became the centre of his life: he returned there after graduating at Harvard, where he added a love of the classics, especially of *Homer, to that of the English poets whom he already knew. His first book, A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers (1849), intertwines philosophy and observation. From Concord he went into a two-year retreat in a cabin which he constructed at Walden Pond. The record of that experience, contained in his most famous book, Walden (1854), remains an American classic. It tells a story interesting in itself and is important as a study of nature, but its greatest significance is derived from the revelation of his own idealistic faith. Nor was his faith a matter of theory only, he preferred prison to paying a poll tax to sustain the Mexican War. Essays such as Civil Disobedience (1849) provided texts for *Gandhi and many other fighters for liberty. Much of his later life was spent in travel and nature study in Canada and the area round Cape Cod. He returned to Concord to die.

Harding, W., The Days of Henry Thoreau. 1965.

Thorndike, Dame (Agnes) Sybil (1882–1976). English actor. Her first successes were with Annie Horniman’s repertory company in Manchester and in 1908 she married the actor (Sir) Lewis Casson. At the Old Vic, London (1914–18), working with Lilian *Baylis, she was effective in *Shakespeare and as Hecuba in *Euripides’ The Trojan Women. *Shaw wrote St Joan (1924) for her and she played the title role 244 times in its first London season. She received a DBE in 1931. She appeared in 15 films, toured widely and continued to play in old age, making a hit in a revival of Arsenic and Old Lace (1966).

Trewin, J. C., Sybil Thorndike. 1955.

Thornhill, Sir James (1675–1734). English painter. He is best known for the decorative murals he painted for *Wren’s hall at Greenwich, for the dome of St Paul’s Cathedral and for great baroque houses such as Blenheim. His portraits included one of the criminal Jack Sheppard. Knighted in 1720, he was appointed history painter to the king in 1728. *Hogarth became his son-in-law (1729) and they collaborated in a conversation piece of the House of Commons (1730).

Thorpe, (John) Jeremy (1929–2014). English Liberal politician, born in London. Educated in the US, Eton and Oxford, he became a barrister and television journalist. Liberal MP 1959–79, he became Leader of the Liberal Party 1967–76, which won 6 million votes in the election of February 1974. In 1979 he was tried (with three others) with conspiracy to murder Norman Scott, who had been blackmailing Thorpe about his homosexuality. All four were acquitted but Thorpe’s career was destroyed.

Thorvaldsen, Bertel (1768/70–1844). Danish sculptor. He spent most of his life in Rome and came to be recognised as the chief exponent of neo-classicism after *Canova. Modern taste has rebelled against the smooth perfection of his style but his contemporary success was immense. Among his patrons was *Napoléon, who commissioned a frieze of *Alexander’s campaigns. He left all his unsold works, religious and classical, to his country and they are collected with casts of many other of his important works, in the Thorvaldsen Museum, Copenhagen.

Thrale (Piozzi), Hester Lynch (née Salusbury) (1741–1821). English writer, born in North Wales. She had learning, vivacity and charm, but was unsuitably married to a wealthy Southwark brewer. At her country house at Streatham she entertained a lively, intellectual circle including Samuel *Johnson. The house became his second home. He was outraged when, three years after her husband’s death (1781), she announced her impending marriage to Gabriel Piozzi and later lived happily with him in Wales. She published a book of anecdotes about Dr Johnson (1786) and his correspondence with her (1788).

McCarthy, W., Hester Thrale Piozzi. 1986.

Throckmorton, Francis (1554–1584). English conspirator. He became entangled in plots to restore Roman Catholicism in England and to bring *Mary Queen of Scots to the English throne. Caught in the act of writing in cipher to Mary, he was tortured and executed. He came from a family long distinguished in public affairs: his uncle, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton (1515–1571), served Queen *Elizabeth well as Ambassador in France and Scotland. Elizabeth Throckmorton, daughter of Sir Nicholas, was lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth but was disgraced for marrying Sir Walter *Raleigh.

Thucydides (c.470–400 BCE). Athenian historian. Naval commander in the Peloponnesian War, for his failure to capture Amphipolis (424) he was forced to live in exile for 20 years. He then wrote his famous unfinished history of the war which carries the story as far as 411. The first book is introductory and discloses his own methods of impartial record. The remainder contain in chronological sequence narratives of the summer campaigns alternating with accounts of diplomacy in the winter months. An exception to this method is the interpolation of speeches said to have been made by the characters concerned but in reality expressing the author’s summing up of the situations. Lucid, impartial and often writing with restrained passion, Thucydides created the greatest historical work to survive from the ancient world.

Romilly, J. de, Thucydides and Athenian Imperialism. 1963.

Thunberg, Greta (2003– ). Swedish environmental activist. She achieved international recognition for her passionate advocacy of more action to combat global greenhouse gas emissions, but was subject to extraordinary personal attacks, ranging from abusive to condescending.

Thurber, James Grover (1894–1961). American humorist, born in Columbus, Ohio. He worked on the New Yorker for many years and won fame with his essays, stories and drawings, the last especially noted for the originality of their anarchic humour. Among his favourite subjects were dogs, dominating women and the pathetic little men whom they owned. Sometimes his cartoons accompanied his text, sometimes they stood alone. His publications include My Life and Hard Times (1933), Men, Women and Dogs (1943) and a later work, The Years with Ross (1959); Harold *Ross being editor of the New Yorker. Thurber suffered from deteriorating sight, the result of an accident as a boy.

Kinney, H., James Thurber. 1995.

Thurmond, J(ames) Strom (1902–2003). American politician, born in South Carolina. A lawyer, he became Governor of South Carolina 1947–51 and ran for president in 1948 as candidate of the Dixiecrat (States’ Rights) Party, winning four states. A US senator 1954–56; 1956–2003, he joined the Republicans in 1964 and, in December 2002, became the first centenarian to serve in the Congress.

Thutmose III (Thothmes) (d.c.1450 BCE). Egyptian pharaoh 1504–1450 BCE. Until 1482 he shared power with his stepmother *Hatshepsut then proved to be probably Egypt’s greatest ruler. He led 17 campaigns into Asia, conquered Syria and Mesopotamia, extended Egyptian trade, built temples and erected many obelisks. He raised Egypt to its greatest power and was a skilled horseman and archer.

Tiberius (Tiberius Claudius Nero) (42 BCE–37 CE). Roman Emperor 14–37 CE. Son of a high priest and magistrate Tiberius Claudius Nero and *Livia Drusilla, later wife of *Augustus, he was adopted by his step-father, whom he succeeded. As early as 15 BCE he had shown his abilities as a soldier on the Alpine frontiers and later he achieved further successes in Germany, his troops by 9 BCE having reached the Elbe. To further Augustus’s dynastic scheme he was now forced to divorce his wife Agrippina, whom he loved, and marry the Emperor’s widowed daughter, Julia. Partly in anger, partly to conceal Julia’s notorious profligacy, Tiberius withdrew to Rhodes. This act cost him the favour of the Emperor by whom it was misunderstood. However, the sudden death of his two grandsons left Augustus no choice: Tiberius was recalled, adopted (4 CE) and acknowledged, as his colleague and heir. During the first eight years of his reign he showed his old efficiency, though he also appeared pedantic, austere and suspicious. From 23, however, he fell more and more under the influence of the ambitious and unscrupulous *Sejanus, prefect of the imperial guards. In 26 Tiberius retired to the island of Capri whence stories of unspeakable and improbable orgies (he was nearing 70) drifted back to Rome, where Sejanus, now in undisputed control, exercised a corrupt tyranny. In 31 Tiberius roused himself to organise with his usual skill the downfall of Sejanus but in his last years he was embittered and disillusioned. Outside Rome and in the provinces his reign was remembered as one of prosperity and enlightened rule. The ministry and crucifixion of *Jesus Christ occurred during his reign.

Tibullus, Albius (c.60–19 BCE). Roman poet. A friend of *Horace, his love poems and those descriptive of the countryside are tender and charming.

Tichborne Claimant, the, see Orton, Arthur

Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista (1696–1770). Italian decorative painter, born in Venice. The finest exponent of the late baroque or rococo styles in Italy, his pictures were often contrived to enhance architectural effects by being allowed to ‘escape’ from their frames or the spaces where they were assigned. From 1733 to 1750 he flooded the palaces and churches of northern Italy with examples of his work, sometimes aided by assistants (including his sons), who, however, had no hand in the oil sketches from which pictures were worked up. Outstanding is the festive and theatrical Banquet of Cleopatra (1743–44) in the National Gallery of Victoria. In 1750 he was commissioned to decorate *Neumann’s architectural masterpiece, the Warzburg Residenz in Germany, for which he produced some of his greatest work. His last years (from 1762) were spent in Spain, decorating palaces in Madrid and Aranjuez, where the light and airy atmosphere of earlier work is carried to the point where his pictures seem to dissolve in light.

Morassi, A., G. B. Tiepolo: His Life and Work. 1955.

Tiffany, Louis Comfort (1848–1933). American glass designer. Son of Charles Lewis Tiffany (1812–1902), a jeweller who established Tiffany & Co. in 1853, he invented ‘favrile’ (iridescent) glass and developed an ornate art nouveau style for lampshades, jewellery and decorative windows, combining glass and metals.

Tiglath-Pileser III (d.727 BCE). King of Assyria 745–727 BCE. Like his namesake Tiglath Pileser I (1114–1076 BCE), whose conquests, however, proved ephemeral, he overcame Babylon and became its king in 729. He occupied Syria, Phoenicia and Palestine. He was an able strategist, preferring blockade to invasion, an efficient administrator and a formidable archivist.

Tilden, Bill (William Tatum) (1893–1953). American lawn tennis player. Distinguished by his great size, he was the leading amateur player of the early 1920s. He led the US Davis Cup team to seven straight victories (1920–26). After an intervening period of French domination (Jean *Borotra) he again won (1930), at the age of 37, the singles title at Wimbledon. In the following year he turned professional. His career was destroyed by disclosure of his homosexuality.

Tilden, Samuel Jones (1814–1880). American politician. Having made a fortune as a railway lawyer, he resumed an early interest in politics at a time when the Democratic Party, to which he belonged, was recovering after the Civil War. As Governor of New York 1875–76 he made a successful stand against corruption and was a Democratic candidate in the disputed presidential election of 1876. It was held that the majority of one held by his Republican opponent, Rutherford *Hayes, in the Electoral College resulted from fraudulent returns by the Negro-controlled states of South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana. A special commission (with a Republican majority) declared in favour of Hayes. Tilden accepted the ‘Compromise of 1877’, hoping that this would heal Civil War wounds.

Tillerson, Rex Wayne (1952– ). American engineer, business executive and government official, born in Texas. Educated in Texas, he worked in the Middle East for ExxonMobil and became its President and CEO 2006–16. He joined the *Trump Administration as Secretary of State 2017–18, but his views on climate change, free markets, international co-operation and negotiations with Iran and North Korea were disregarded. He was dismissed by Trump in March 2018.

Tillett, Ben(jamin) (1860–1943). English trade union leader and Labour politician. Having organised the Dockers Union (1887) he remained its General Secretary until it amalgamated (1922) with the Transport and General Workers Union; he was closely associated with the famous strike of 1889. He was Labour MP for North Salford 1917–24 and 1929–31.

Tillich, Paul Johannes (1886–1965). American theologian, born in Germany. He left Germany in 1933 and taught at the Union Theological Seminary in New York 1933–54, Harvard 1954–62 and Chicago 1962–65.

Tilly, Johann Tserclaes, Count of (1559–1632). Flemish soldier, born in the castle of Tilly in Brabant. He had fought for Spain and against the Turks before entering the service of Maximilian, Duke of Bavaria (1610). On the outbreak of the Thirty Years’ War (1618) he commanded the armies of the Catholic League. He gained early successes at Prague and in the Palatinate and forced Denmark to come to terms by his victory at Lutter (1629). He succeeded *Wallenstein (1631) as Commander-in-Chief of the imperial armies and those of the League, but in 1632 was routed by *Gustaf II Adolf at Breitenfeld and in a second defeat was mortally wounded.

Timoshenko, Simeon Konstantinovich (1895–1970). Russian (Ukrainian) marshal. He was Commissar for Defence 1940–41 until *Stalin took the job and made him Commander-in-Chief in the Ukraine 1942. He was blamed for failing to halt German advances and shunted to the sidelines.

Timothy (Timotheus), St (d.c.97). Christian Bishop. Son of a Greek father and Jewish mother, he accompanied *Paul in his missions and became first Bishop of Ephesus. The Epistles to Timothy in the New Testament, with that supposed to be addressed to Titus, are called the ‘pastoral Epistles’. On grounds of style and content, modern critics have rejected Pauline authorship, but the personal details suggest that they have a basis in letters written by St Paul, though probably enlarged and adapted for his own purposes by a later editor.

Timur (Timur Lenk, Timurlane: called ‘the Lame’) (1336–1405). Turko-Mongol conqueror, born near Samarkand. Said to have been descended from *Genghis Khan in the female line, despite being crippled from birth he took advantage of a period of Muslim anarchy to establish his rule in Samarkand by 1369, and assumed the title of Great Khan. For the rest of his life he followed a career of conquest with extreme brutality in war but with firm, just rule over conquered territory and with an appreciation of the arts. By 1385 he was master of all central Asia: his armies had conquered Persia, Georgia and Armenia, had defeated the Tartars and marched as far north as Moscow. He invaded India (1398), sacked Delhi and founded a sultanate which later grew into the Moghul empire. After overrunning Syria he smashed the Turkish army at Ankara (1402). He died while preparing to invade China. Among English plays inspired by his career are *Marlowe’s Tamburlaine the Great (1590) and Nicholas *Rowe’s Tamerlane (1702).

Tinbergen, Jan (1903–1994). Dutch economist. He served on the staff of the Central Bureau of Statistics at The Hague, 1929–36 and 1938–45 and between 1936 and 1938 he was engaged in research on commerce for the League of Nations. He was director of the Central Planning Bureau at The Hague 1945–55, and professor of development planning, first at Rotterdam and then Leyden universities until 1975. He shared the first Nobel Prize for Economic Science in 1969 with Ragnar *Frisch for their work in developing econometrics. His brother, Nikolaas Tinbergen (1907–1988), an experimental zoologist, taught at Oxford from 1949 and was professor in animal behaviour 1966–74. He wrote The Study of Instinct (1951) and Animal Behaviour (1965) and shared the 1973 Nobel Prize for Medicine with Karl von *Frisch and Konrad *Lorenz for their pioneering work in ethology.

Tinbergen, J., Developing Planning. 1968.

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti) (1518–1594). Italian painter, born in Venice. Son of a dyer (hence the name by which he is known), except for short visits he seems to have spent all his life in Venice. Here with his wife and children he lived happily, respected for his piety and increasingly renowned for his work. His fellow Venetian, *Titian, in whose studio he worked for a time, and *Michelangelo, were the strongest influences on him but mainly he was self-taught. In his earlier works, many of them mythological, he continued the ideals of the High Renaissance but as the Counter Reformation proceeded and he became more and more absorbed by religious themes he gradually became the most robust exponent of the style loosely called ‘Mannerism’. In his St Mark series (1548) the thunderous atmosphere, the glowing and insubstantial architecture, the perspective effects produced by design and lighting, exemplify the vigour and inventiveness of Tintoretto’s grand operatic manner. His greatest undertaking was the decoration of the Scuola de San Rocco in Venice. In the Doge’s Palace he executed an enormous Paradise, in which the milling, over-crowded figures are manipulated with the control of a master choreographer. His portraits of the celebrities of his day are much less spectacular and rely upon characterisation more than upon the splendour of the garments. His last pictures at San Giorgio Maggiore, especially The Last Supper (1591–94), show the final culmination of his colour techniques.

Tirole, Jean (1953– ). French economist. He taught at Toulouse University, winning the Nobel Prize for Economics in 2014 for his work on market power and regulation, and on taming powerful firms.

Tippett, Sir Michael Kemp (1905–1998). English composer. A late developer, in striking contrast to *Britten, he studied at the Royal College of Music and was musical director of Morley College, London (1940–52). He was jailed as a conscientious objector in 1943. The Elizabethan composers and *Purcell as well as later influences, e.g. *Stravinsky, *Hindemith and jazz, all contributed to his highly individual idiom, notable for springy rhythms and for ‘long-breathed’ melodies that are woven into an elaborate contrapuntal texture. His works include four symphonies, a Concerto for Double String Orchestra (1939), a Piano Concerto (1956), string quartets, operas to his own libretti The Midsummer Marriage (1954) and King Priam (1962) the oratorio A Child of our Time (1944), and the cantata The Vision of St Augustine (1966). In the Concerto for Orchestra (1963) he constructs the movements out of consecutive sections each associated with a certain group of instruments. He was knighted in 1966, given the CH in 1979 and the OM in 1983.

Kemp, I. (ed.), Michael Tippett. 1965.

Tipu Sultan (Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu) (1750–1799). Indian ruler. Son of *Haidar Ali, from whose French officers he acquired his military skill, he became Sultan of Mysore on his father’s death (1782). The peace (1783) between Great Britain and France, to which he as France’s ally adhered, gave him time to consolidate his rule, but in 1789, moved by an almost obsessional hatred of Britain, he invaded the protected territory Travancore and, as a result of the retaliatory war by Britain, lost half his territory (1792) and had to pay a huge indemnity. As he continued to intrigue, however, the war was renewed (1799), he was quickly driven back into his capital Seringapatam, and was killed when the city was stormed after two months’ siege. Tippoo was fanatical and cruel, but as a ruler showed great industry and (e.g. by a new currency and calendar reform) interest in his country’s welfare.

Tirpitz, Alfred, Graf von (1849–1930). German admiral. He commanded the East Asia fleet, based on Tsingtao 1896–97, before his appointment as Secretary of State for the Imperial Navy (1897), becoming the driving force behind the successful campaign for a greater German navy. He was dismissed (March 1916) because his demand for ruthless submarine warfare, adopted later, was considered premature. He thus missed the Battle of Jutland. He founded the Fatherland Party and was elected to the Reichstag 1924–28.

Steinberg, J., Yesterday’s Deterrent. 1965.

Tiselius, Arne Wilhelm Kaurin (1902–1971). Swedish chemist. Appointed professor of biochemistry at Uppsala (1938), he became known for his application of electrophoresis to the analysis of proteins, especially serum proteins. He also adapted chromatographic techniques to the analysis of colourless substances. From its foundation (1946) he was President of Sweden’s State Council for Research in Natural Sciences. He won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1948).

Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) (c.1488–1576). Italian (Venetian) painter, born in Pieve di Cadore. Apprenticed to a mosaicist at nine, he entered the studio of Giovanni *Bellini and later studied with *Giorgione, who influenced his early work. However, an independent style is already apparent in the first of his famous works, Sacred and Profane Love (c.1515) a work, despite its allegorical subject, of human realism. From this time his technique steadily developed. Experiments are made with figures in action, pyramidal shapes and diagonals become the compositional bases of several of his works, and significance is given to the main figures by use of light and shade. From 1516 to 1530 the series of great religious pictures, including the Assumption of the Virgin (1516–18) and the Madonna with Members of the Pesaro Family (1519–26), are matched by equally great mythological paintings for Alfonso d’Este, Duke of Ferrara, e.g. Bacchus and Ariadne (1521, now in the National Gallery, London). By then the richness of his palette, with its bright reds, blues, greens and golden browns, sometimes used in contrast, sometimes to build up an almost sculptural effect, had established him as one of the boldest colourists so far known. In such works and in his portraits he is said to have ‘liberated’ colour, a further sign of freedom being the broad brush strokes with which it was applied. For much of the decade that followed (1530–40) he worked for the emperor, *Charles V, portraits of whom and the members of the court, kept him busily occupied. One of the best of the emperor himself (now in the Prado, Madrid) shows him full length with a dog. Portraits of Pope *Paul III and other members of the Farnese family reveal a growing power to probe the character of his subjects. From 1556, when Charles V abdicated, Titian’s principal patron was his son, *Philip II of Spain, for whom he painted a series of ‘poesies’ Diana and Actaeon, The Rape of Europa, Perseus and Andromeda etc.—similar in subject to the earlier mythological pictures but painted with much softer, almost iridescent colours. Titian continued to paint to the end of his life, his last work being an unfinished Pietà intended for his own tomb. Titian’s painting is warmly emotional and sensual. He was no intellectual and attempted no superhuman scale of effect. His painting techniques were developed by *Rembrandt, *Rubens and *Velázquez, with whose greatness his can be compared. He died very rich and has been called ‘the first artist tycoon’.

Hope, C., Titian. 1980; Hale, S., Titian. 2013.

Tito, Josip Broz (1892–1980). Yugoslav politician and marshal, born in Kumrovec, Croatia. Son of a locksmith, he was conscripted into the Austro-Hungarian army in World War I, was taken prisoner and remained in Russia to serve in the Red Army during the Civil War. Back in Yugoslavia he helped to form the Communist Party and took the name ‘Tito’. Imprisoned (1928–34), he became active in the interests of his party in Paris and Central Europe, recruiting for the Spanish Civil War. Secretary-General of the Party from 1937, he returned to Yugoslavia in 1939 and in 1941, after the Germans had overrun the country, became a leader of partisans whose task was to harry the occupying forces.

This brought him into conflict with a rival resistance leader, General *Mihailovich, who was acting in the royalist interest. Eventually the Allies decided to give Tito, the more active of the two, full support. This enabled him, after the German defeat, to execute Mihailovich, to exclude King *Peter and to establish a Communist state. He was Prime Minister 1945–53 and President 1953–80. In 1948 Yugoslavia was expelled from the Cominform for adopting nationalistic policies (i.e. for rejecting Russian dictatorship). Eventually relations became less strained and in the following years Tito maintained an independent Communism at home, opened trading relations with the west, and kept a clever balance between the rival groups or powers who dominated Europe.

Auty, P., Tito. 1970.

Titus (Titus Flavius Vespasianus) (39–81 CE). Roman Emperor 79–81. Elder son of the emperor *Vespasian, he was a brilliant soldier and, after his father’s elevation, quickly brought the Jewish rebellion to an end by the capture of Jerusalem. He became virtual co-ruler with Vespasian and on his succession not only delighted the Roman populace by his magnificent displays but won esteem by firm, just rule and by his discouragement of flatterers and informers. His popularity was threatened only by his passion for the Jewish Berenice (the Bernice of Acts xxv), whom he had brought to Rome but soon dismissed. He completed the Colosseum and did much to help the survivors of the tragic eruption of Vesuvius (79).

Tizard, Sir Henry Thomas (1885–1959). British scientist. After playing an important part in aeronautical research in and after World War I, he was Rector of the Imperial College of Science and Technology 1929–42 and President of Magdalen College, Oxford 1942–46. He chaired the Air Defence Committee 1935–40, became the great advocate of radar and clashed with Churchill’s adviser, Lord *Cherwell. He opposed saturation bombing of German cities and became Chairman of the Advisory Council on Scientific Policy 1947–52.

Tobin, James (1918–2002). American economist. A Keynesian, he was Professor of Economics at Yale 1957–88, won the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1981 and proposed the ‘Tobin tax’ on global financial transactions.

Tocqueville, Alexis de (1805–1859). French political writer, born in Paris. He came of an aristocratic family, studied law, and in 1831 visited the US with Gustave de Beaumont to investigate the penal system and wrote the extraordinarily vivid Du Système pénitentiare aux Etats-Unis (1833), with a long appendix on the Australian system. Writing and an incursion into French politics occupied the rest of his life. He became a deputy 1839–48, Foreign Minister June–October 1849 and in 1851 was imprisoned for opposing the coup d’état of Louis Napoléon (*Napoléon III). In his two well known books La Démocratie en Amérique (1835–39) and L’Ancien Régime et la Révolution (1856, 1859), he concluded that by abolishing aristocracies (with their inborn protection of the rights and privileges of the different social classes), the peoples both of France and America had sacrificed liberty for equality, that demands for economic equality must necessarily follow those for social equality and that the final result must be authoritarian, centralised rule. His arguments were given point by the rule of *Napoléon I and Napoléon III in his own epoch, and his foresight justified by the centralising tendencies of modern democratic governments.

Brogan, H., Tocqueville. 1973.

Todd, Alexander Robertus, Baron Todd (1907–1997). British chemist, born in Glasgow. As professor of chemistry at Manchester 1938–44 and then professor of organic chemistry at Cambridge 1944–71, he made a notable contribution in the fields of vitamins and drugs, and particularly in the elucidation of nucleotide structure. He chaired the Advisory Council on Scientific Structure 1952–64, won the 1957 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, and received a life peerage (1962), the Copley Medal (1970) and the OM (1977). He was President of the Royal Society 1975–80.

Todd, Sir (Reginald Stephen) Garfield (1908–2002). Zimbabwean (Rhodesian) politician, born in New Zealand. A missionary and teacher, as Premier of Southern Rhodesia 1953–58 he introduced reforms to education and labour laws that challenged white minority rule and he was displaced. Originally sympathetic to *Mugabe, he denounced him as corrupt.

Todleben, Eduard Ivanovich (1818–1884). Russian soldier. He developed a genius for military engineering and won international fame for his defence of Sebastopol (1854–55) during the Crimean War. In the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) he was put in charge of the siege of Plevna, which he eventually captured.

Todt, Fritz (1891–1942). German engineer. He shared with *Hitler a taste for the grandiose, and undertook much of the constructional work under the Nazi regime (e.g. the autobahns) and the Siegfried line. During World War II, squads of the Todt organisation were most effective in keeping communications open and in bringing factories back into production after bombing attacks. Minister for Armaments and Munitions 1940–42, he died in a plane crash and was succeeded by Albert *Speer.

Toer, Pramoedya Ananta see Pramoedya Ananta Toer

Togliatti, Palmiro (1893–1964). Italian Communist leader. While a student at Turin University he made a study of socialism. In 1926 he became Secretary of the Italian Communist Party (a post he retained until his death) and in that year went into exile and lived abroad, mostly in Moscow, for 18 years (from 1935 as secretary of the Comintern). He returned to Italy (1944) after *Mussolini’s fall, and joined Badoglio’s Cabinet. He built up the Italian Communist Party to be the second largest party in the country and the largest Communist Party in Western Europe. To secure support he compromised on Communist doctrine to the extent of recognising Roman Catholicism as the state religion and the Lateran Treaty by which the Vatican City became an independent state.

Togo Heihachiro, Count (1847–1934). Japanese admiral. In command of the fleet during the Russo-Japanese War 1904–05, he succeeded in bottling up the Russian Pacific fleet in Port Arthur and then (May 1905) in annihilating (in the Tsushima Straits) a relieving fleet sent from Europe. He received the British OM in 1906.

Tóibín, Colm (1955– ). Irish novelist, essayist, travel writer and editor, born in Wexford. Educated at University College, Dublin, he held chairs in New York and Manchester and spent much time in Spain. His books include Homage to Barcelona (1990), The Sign of the Cross (1994), The Master (2004) and The Testament of Mary (2012).

Tōjō Hideki (1884–1948). Japanese general and politician. Of Samurai descent and son of a general, educated in Europe, he became head of the secret police and Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army in Manchuria 1937–40. He was Minister for War 1940–44 and Prime Minister from October 1941 until July 1944, resigning after US forces occupied Saipan, an air base within striking distance of Tokyo. Identified in wartime propaganda as the main Japanese war criminal, he was tried by an international war crimes tribunal and hanged in Tokyo with six others.

Tokugawa. Japanese dynasty. The family controlled the shogunate (hereditary military government) from *Ieyasu in 1603 to 1868, when the last shogun Keiki (1837–1913) resigned his powers to the emperor in the ‘Meiji Restoration’.

Tolbukhin, Fyodor Ivanovich (1885–1949). Russian soldier. In World War II, having made his name as a general at Stalingrad, he became commander of the army that swept through the Ukraine (1943), reconquered the Crimea, Romania and Bulgaria (1944) and finally (1945) Budapest and Vienna. He became a marshal in October 1944.

Tolkien, J(ohn) R(onald) R(euel) (1892–1973). English writer and philologist, born in Bloemfontein. He was professor of Anglo-Saxon 1925–45 and of English language and literature 1945–59 at Oxford University. His academic work on early and medieval English texts was highly regarded, but he achieved popular success in fiction. His interest in language and mythology enabled him to create a world with its own cultures, languages and beliefs. The Hobbit appeared in 1937 and the more sophisticated The Lord of the Rings in 1954–55. It speedily attracted a cult following which persisted, especially after the success of Peter *Jackson’s The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Two Towers (2002) and The Return of the King (2003).

Toller, Ernst (1893–1939). German-Jewish playwright and poet. He was imprisoned for taking part in the Communist rising in Germany after World War I. His plays, e.g. Man and the Masses (1921) and The Machine Wreckers (1923), reflect his revolutionary opinions. He also wrote poetry and autobiographical works. He lived in exile after *Hitler’s rise to power, and committed suicide in New York.

Tolstoy, Aleksei Nikolaievich (1882–1945). Russian writer. A distant cousin of Lev *Tolstoy, he went abroad after the Revolution but returned (1922) and soon became well known for science fiction like that of H. G. *Wells. His The Road to Calvary (1945), describing events before and during the Revolution, won a *Stalin Prize. His patriotic play about Ivan the Terrible was a great success during World War II. His best work was an unfinished historical novel, Peter I.

Tolstoy, Lev (Leo) Nikolaievich, Graf [Count] (1828–1910). Russian novelist and moral philosopher, born in Yasnaya Polyana. Brought up on his mother’s family estate of Yasnaya Polyana (‘Bright Glade’), in Tula province, 190 km south of Moscow, after the early loss of both parents he was privately educated until he went to Kazan University (1844–47) to study law and languages. A life of ease and mild dissipation followed, but in 1851 he joined the army and from 1853 took part in the Crimean War. This inspired The Sebastopol Stories (1865) which, together with the autobiographical sequence Childhood (1852) and its two sequels, established him as a writer. Life in St Petersburg did not attract him, and he travelled over much of Europe. From 1862 he settled down with his young wife, Sofya Andreyevna Behrs (1844–1919), became the father of 13 children, and applied himself to the management of his estates, establishing peasant schools on the pattern of those he had seen abroad, attending to the problems arising from the emancipation of serfs and filling the role of a humane and forward-looking landlord. To this happy period belong his two most famous novels.

War and Peace (1865–69) gives an epic account of Russia's conflict with *Napoléon between 1805 and 1813. It pulsates with life, driven by inexhaustible energy, proclaiming human complexity, with characters full of contradictions. About 580 individuals appear, 167 of them historic figures, including *Napoléon, Tsar *Aleksandr I and Marshal *Kutúzov. But despite the complexity, the story is easy to follow.

The outstanding characters are Count Pierre (Pyótr) Bezúkhov, Prince Andréi Bolkónsky and Countess Natásha Rostóva. Pierre inherits wealth, but is tormented by contradictions and injustice and devotes himself, tirelessly but not always successfully, to making sense of his world. He is an observer rather than an activist, often indecisive, plagued by self-doubt. Prince Andréi, born into a military dynasty, is thoughtful and philosophical, drawn into active service against his better judgment. There have been tragedies in his personal life. The beautiful Natásha, romantic and impulsive, breaks hearts and vacillates. War and Peace is the longest of the great Russian novels, running to 560,000 words. The work went through endless revision, and Countess Tolstoy copied the complete manuscript seven times. He made 33 attempts to write a novel on the life of *Peter the Great, but gave up in frustration.

Tolstoy’s genius for reaching the heart of women (although not in real life) is shown in the other great novel, Anna Karenina (1874–76). Anna Karénina, married to a workaholic bureaucrat, Count Aleksei Karénin, and mother of Sergei, falls in love with Count Aleksei Kirillovich Vrónsky, a cavalry officer, dashing, handsome, shallow and rich, and goes to live with him. Anna and Vrónsky have a deeply asymmetrical relationship: she is shunned by society, loses access to her son, gives birth to a daughter Anna, while Vrónsky gives up nothing—he continues to socialise, gamble, drink, flirt and he leaves her alone with the child. The most powerful writing in Anna Karenina is based on the triangle of Anna > Aleksei (Karénin) > Aleksei² (Vrónsky) and the tensions arising from family, duty, divorce, custody, desire.

The novel ends with the inevitability of a Greek tragedy. Anna, maddened, confused and despairing, after the collapse of her relationship with Vrónsky, is driven to the Moscow railway station and on the way experiences an astonishing stream of consciousness in which she absorbs sharply etched images of the world she is about to leave. Once at the station, in revenge against Vrónsky and to annihilate herself, she hurls herself under a train.

Tolstoy had always been troubled by inner conflict. His eager acceptance of life and his zestful response to the demands of natural instincts conflicted (as is apparent in his books) with his reactions as moralist and reformer. About 1877 the conflict became acute and he emerged from the struggle as a kind of solitary prophet, revered even by his opponents.

There is a striking parallel between Tolstoy and *Wagner. As artists, each was a genius, with staggering achievements. But in every other area they were cranks. Tolstoy was reactionary and violent as a young man, then became increasingly eccentric in his judgments, finally repudiating all artistic expression, whether in music or literature.

Vladimir *Nabokov wrote: ‘Most people approach Tolstoy with mixed feelings. They love the artist in him and are intensely bored by the preacher … [But] Tolstoy is homogeneous, is one, and the struggle which … went on between the man who gloated over the beauty of black earth, white flesh, blue snow, green fields, purple thunderclouds, and the man who maintained that fiction is sinful and art immoral – this struggle was still confined within the one man.’

His teachings, set out in What I Believe (1883) and What Then Must We Do? (1886), amounted to Christianity stripped of theology and he called himself a ‘Christian anarchist’. The Gospel in Brief (1896) was an attempt to reconcile the four synoptic Gospels. He denounced all authority and all violence, even in resisting evil. (*Gandhi corresponded with him from South Africa about this, and set up a Tolstoyan commune and school.) Albert *Schweitzer’s concept of ‘reverence for life’ was deeply influenced by Tolstoy. The philosopher Ludwig *Wittgenstein was another Tolstoyan. To reconcile his life with his teachings, Tolstoy became a vegetarian, refused to exploit the services of others and tried (1895) to renounce all property rights in his estate and book royalties. The family quarrels that ensued were of such intensity that they embittered his last years. He was excommunicated by the Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1901.

Tolstoy would have been the obvious choice to receive the first Nobel Prize for Literature in 1901, but he was not nominated, presumably for failing to meet the requirement in Alfred *Nobel’s will to have produced ‘the most distinguished work of an idealistic tendency’. Instead, the award went to the French Parnassian poet René *Sully Prudhomme. However, Tolstoy was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1901, 1902, 1909, and for Literature in 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906.

Tolstoy’s late novels were The Death of Ivan Ilyích (1886) and Resurrection (1899). His short stories include What Men Live By and What Shall It Profit a Man? (1885), and How Much Land Does a Man Need? (1886). Father Sergius (1890), The Kreutzer Sonata (1899) and Hadji Murad (1896–1904, published posthumously in 1912) are novellas. However, his reputation as a novelist, perhaps the greatest in all literature, rests on his famous two works.

Tolstoy had a cranky, totally dismissive, attitude towards *Shakespeare, accusing him of arousing ‘irresistible repulsion and tedium’. He had an irrational hatred of King Lear because in his last years, when he tried to renounce his wealth, rank and possessions, he was living Lear’s life. George *Orwell wrote an important essay, ‘Lear, Tolstoy and the Fool’. Tolstoy became increasingly critical of his two masterpieces, and dismissive of all high art forms.

In his last decades, Tolstoy became an international celebrity. He appeared in many newsreels. His estate at Yasnaya Polyana and house in Moscow attracted pilgrims from all over the world and he conducted a large correspondence with disciples. His death, in 1910, at the stationmaster’s cottage at Astapovo, after he had run away from home, was recorded by the world’s newsreel photographers but he refused to see his wife.

Steiner, G., Tolstoy or Dostoevsky 1959, rev. 1967; Troyat, H., Tolstoy. 1965; Parini, J., The Last Station. 1990; Wilson, A. N., Tolstoy: A Biography. 2001; Bartlett, R., Tolstoy. A Russian Life. 2010.

Tombaugh, Clyde William (1906–1997). American astronomer. Essentially self-taught, he worked at the Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff. Arizona (1929–43). In February 1930 he identified the ‘planet X’ which Percival *Lowell had hypothesised from 1905. This ninth planet of the solar system was named Pluto. Tombaugh took his first degree in 1936 and became a professor in New Mexico 1955–73. In 2006 Pluto was reclassified by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) as a ‘dwarf planet’.

Tomlinson, Ray(mond Samuel) (1941–2016). American computer programmer. Recognised as the implementer of email (electronic mail). The first system operated from 1971, first on the ARPANET system, then it became universal with the Internet.

Tompion, Thomas (1639–1713). English clockmaker. Both his father and grandfather were blacksmiths, which may have set his mind to working in metals but cannot account for the extraordinary skill and artistry he brought to his craft. The first clocks for Greenwich Observatory were built by him (1676). For *William III he made a clock that would strike the hours and quarters for a year without rewinding. Survivors of the 650 clocks made by him now fetch very high prices. In addition he made about 5500 watches, including some of the earliest to be fitted with balance springs.

Tone, (Theobald) Wolfe (1763–1798). Irish politician. Having become convinced that only independence would bring about Roman Catholic emancipation and overcome the many injustices of British rule, he formed the Society of United Irishmen (1791) and in 1795 left the country to seek help in America and France. He accompanied the French invasion fleet (1796) and after its failure returned to Ireland with a small squadron to aid the rebellion of 1798. Defeated and captured by the British, he killed himself in prison while awaiting execution. His journals show him to have been a man of good nature, gaiety and wit.

Tooke, John Horne (1736–1812). English politician. His father’s name was Horne, and he added the name Tooke (1782) at the request of a rich friend of that name. He became a clergyman as a young man but spent his life in political agitation, at first on behalf of John *Wilkes, but after a quarrel he formed (1771) the Constitutional Society to agitate for parliamentary and economic reform. In 1777 he was imprisoned for raising money for American troops ‘murdered’ at Lexington (in the War of American Independence). He filled the time by writing The Diversions of Purley (published 1786 and 1805), which, amid much philological, metaphysical and political comment, pointed to the need for studying Anglo-Saxon and Gothic. His attitude when the French War opened caused him to be tried for treason (1794), but he was acquitted. After two failures to enter parliament he was elected for Old Sarum in 1801, but unseated, as a clergyman.

Torquemada, Tomás de (1420–1498). Spanish inquisitor. A Dominican friar, having become confessor to Queen *Isabella easily persuaded her and King *Ferdinand I (jealous of the rich Moors and Jews of Castile) to ask the pope for the Inquisition to be established in Spain. In 1483 he became the first inquisitor-general, and centralised and organised a campaign of torture hitherto unparalleled. He was largely instrumental in the expulsion of the Jews (1492).

Torricelli, Evangelista (1608–1647). Italian physicist and mathematician. He succeeded (1642) his former teacher *Galileo as professor of mathematics at the Florentine Academy. He demonstrated (1643) the first man-made vacuum (soon known as the Torricellian vacuum) in experiments with a long glass tube inserted in a trough of mercury. This also proved that the weight of the atmosphere was equivalent to a column of 760 mm, and became the principle of the mercury barometer. He also discovered the law (now known as Torricelli’s Law) governing the flow of liquids through small holes.

Torrigiano, Pietro (1472–1528). Florentine sculptor. He had to leave Florence after breaking *Michelangelo’s nose in a fight. He worked in the Netherlands (1509–10) and then went to England, where he did some of his best work, notably the tombs of Margaret Beaufort, *Henry VII, and his wife, Elizabeth of York, in Westminster Abbey.

Toscanini, Arturo (1867–1957). Italian conductor, born in Parma. Trained as a cellist, he made his debut as a substitute conductor in Rio de Janeiro in 1886 and quickly rose to prominence. He premiered *Puccini’s La Bohème in Turin (1896). He was Chief Conductor at La Scala, Milan 1898–1903, 1906–08 and 1921–24, at the Metropolitan Opera, New York 1908–15, and of the New York Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra (1928–36). As a protest against fascism in Italy and Germany he left Europe in 1937 for the US, where he created and conducted the NBC Symphony Orchestra until his retirement (1954). His repertoire revealed a remarkable catholicity of taste and included not only the German and Italian classics, but composers as different as *Debussy, *Elgar and *Sibelius. This, combined with an astonishing musical memory, deep insight into a composer’s meaning, scrupulous (sometimes rigid) fidelity to the score and the driving energy of his interpretations, made him an outstanding (if controversial) conductor. He never performed the music of Gustav *Mahler, his great rival as a conductor.

Sachs, H., Toscanini. 1981.

Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri (Marie Raymond) de (1864–1901). French painter and lithographer, born at Albi. Descended from an ancient family of southwest France, a fall from a horse broke his thighbones, and he was crippled. Left only 1.55 metres (61 inches) tall, he felt cut off from his family, sought refuge in art and went to Paris in 1882. There, in the cafés and cabarets of Montmartre (e.g. the Moulin Rouge) he found the subjects for his pictures and drawings—dancers, singers and prostitutes—as well as circus and racecourse scenes. He shared the gay, grotesque, dissipated life of those he painted and developed a sympathetic insight into their character. The main influences on his style were Japanese woodcuts and the work of *Degas. In the last decade of his life he mastered lithography and his work in that field had an important influence on the development of poster art.

Joyaut, M., Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Repr. 1968.

Tourneur, Cyril (c.1575–1626). English dramatist. His fame rests on two plays, The Revenger’s Tragedy (printed 1607) and The Atheist’s Tragedy (printed 1611). The greater is the first, a dark, tightly woven intrigue of blood in which the Machiavellian protagonist becomes as corrupt as his opponents. It was very influential on the contemporary theatre.

Tourville, Anne Hilarion de Colentin, Comte de (1642–1701). French sailor. Having made a name for himself against the Turks and the Algerian pirates, he fought the combined Dutch and Spanish fleets (1677), but his great triumph came (1690) when, commanding the French fleet that was aiding the exiled *James II against *William III, he won a dramatic victory over the Dutch and English near Beachy Head. For a time he commanded the Channel and anchored in Torbay. However, he suffered complete defeat when convoying the invasion fleet intended to bring back James II, with the loss of 16 men-of-war in one of the longest naval battles of history (19–24 May 1692). Despite this he was made a marshal of France.

Toussaint l’Ouverture, Pierre Dominique (c.1746–1803). Haitian leader. Born a slave, he managed to acquire enough education to read French works on *Caesar’s and *Alexander’s campaigns. The military and diplomatic lessons thus learned he was able to put to good account in the Negro rebellion of 1791 from which he emerged as the most important man in the island. When France, then in the throes of revolution, abolished slavery in her colony (1794) he returned there, held the Spanish and British at bay and made himself Governor-General for Life under a new constitution (1801). He would have liked to come to terms with France but *Napoléon Bonaparte, now in control, sent a force against him. Toussaint surrendered (1802) and was taken to France, where he died in prison partly from the hardships inflicted on him. He was a remarkable man, a firm, just and usually humane ruler, though often sharp-tongued and a natural intriguer.

James, C. L. R., The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution. 2nd ed. 1963.

Tovey, Sir Donald Francis (1875–1940). English musician and musicologist. Reid professor of music at Edinburgh University 1914–40, he was acclaimed for his Essays in Musical Analysis (6 volumes 1935–37). Also a pianist, he composed concertos for cello and piano, chamber music and an opera, The Bride of Dionysus (1929). He was knighted in 1935.

Grierson, M., Donald Francis Tovey. 1952.

Townes, Charles Hard (1915–2015). American physicist. He won his PhD at the California Institute of Technology, then worked at the Bell Telephone Labs, and held chairs in physics at Columbia 1948–61, MIT 1961–67 and CalTech 1967–86. In 1953 he built the first ‘maser’ (microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) and by 1958 he had worked out the theoretical basis of an ‘optical maser’, using highly concentrated visible light; this was the ‘laser’ (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation’). In 1964 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with A. M. *Prokhorov and N. G. Basov for work in quantum mechanics. Masers and lasers became indispensable scientific, medical and industrial tools.

Townshend, Charles, 2nd Viscount (known as ‘Turnip Townshend’) (1674–1738). English diplomat, politician and agriculturist. He became, on *George I’s accession, Secretary of State in the Whig ministry which crushed the Jacobite rebellion of 1715. In 1717 he was briefly Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, but soon was back in office in London, and in 1721 was again Secretary of State, sharing power with his brother-in-law Robert *Walpole. His interventionist foreign policy alarmed Walpole because a close alliance with France would divide Europe into two potentially hostile leagues. Forced to resign (1730), Townshend spent his retirement studying and improving agricultural methods on his Norfolk estates. His introduction of the Norfolk four-course crop rotation—wheat, turnips (or other roots), barley, and grass or clove—gained him his nickname.

Townshend, Charles (1725–1767). English politician. Grandson of ‘Turnip’ *Townshend, educated at Cambridge and Leyden, he was a Whig MP 1747–67 and an epileptic. One of the most brilliant and wayward of 18th-century parliamentarians, he was a thorn in the flesh of any ministry he opposed and equally dangerous to any ministry he joined. In most of the Pitt-Newcastle combinations during the Seven Years’ War, he joined and left *Bute, and assailed *Grenville over the question of John *Wilkes. His greatest capacity for harm was seen when he became Chancellor of the Exchequer (1766) in the ministry dominated by *Pitt (by then Earl of Chatham), who was, however, so ill that he could only sporadically exercise authority. Thus able to ignore the known wishes of his leader, Townshend, in his anxiety for revenue, introduced a bill to tax all tea, glass, paper and several other products entering American ports. This measure precipitated the events that led to the American War of Independence.

Toynbee, Arnold (1852–1883). English economic historian. His great and influential work, The Industrial Revolution in England (edited by Alfred *Milner and published posthumously in 1884), was originally composed as a course of lectures at Oxford. Its title popularised the term ‘industrial revolution’ to describe the social and economic changes that transformed British life in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He gave vigorous support to adult education and did much social work: Toynbee Hall in Whitechapel, London, was built in his memory.

His nephew, Arnold Joseph Toynbee (1889–1975), was a historian, the range and scope of whose work exceeded even *Gibbon. Educated at Winchester and Balliol College, Oxford, he worked in the Foreign Office during both World Wars, taught at London University as professor of Byzantine and Modern Greek language, literature and history 1919–25 and research professor of international history 1925–55. His A Study of History (12 volumes, 1934–61) analyses the growth and decay of past civilisations and contends that their survival depends on their response to internal and external challenges. He supports his arguments by a mass of illustrative material, fascinating in itself and indicative of his astonishing industry and receptivity of mind. He was awarded a CH in 1956. Critics complained that he selects examples that support his argument but neglects those that appear to counter his main thesis, and his reputation diminished after his death.

Toyoda Sakichi (1867–1930). Japanese inventor and industrialist. In 1897 he invented an automatic power loom and the Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, set up in 1926, became the centre of a diversified industrial empire. His son Toyoda Kiichiro (1894–1952) established the Toyota Motor Corporation at Koromo (now Toyota City) and the first model Toyota car was produced in 1937. By 1955 Toyota was the world’s third largest producer and by 1990 had plants in 22 countries.

Tracy, Spencer (1900–1967). American actor. Originally intended for the priesthood, he became a stage actor, starting in tough guy roles, and made the first of 72 films in 1930. He won two Academy Awards (1937, 1938), received seven more nominations and co-starred in eight films with Katharine *Hepburn, his lover for many years.

Traherne, Thomas (1637?–1674). English religious poet. Educated at Oxford, after some years as a country rector he spent the rest of his life as chaplain to Sir Orlando Bridgeman, Lord Keeper of the Seal. Most of his work appeared after his death and two books of poems were found and printed in 1903 and 1906. Centuries of Meditations, written in musical prose, was printed in 1906 and Poems of Felicity in 1910. His Thanksgiving for the Body showed that he had not the mystic’s usual fear of the senses.

Margoliouth, H. M. (ed.), Complete Works of Thomas Traherne. 1958.

Train, George Francis (1829–1904). American eccentric, born in Boston. He pioneered prefabricated buildings in Victoria during the Gold Rush (1853), began the first horse-drawn tram system in Liverpool (1860), was co-founder of the Credit Mobilier scheme in the US (1863), making and losing millions of dollars. He travelled round the world in 80 days (1870–71), claiming to have been the original of Jules *Verne’s Phileas Fogg, ran for president (1872), went to jail 15 times and was certified insane.

Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Traianus) (c.53–117). Roman Emperor 98–117. Born in Italica (near Seville), he was a distinguished soldier, consul under *Domitian and eventually adopted as heir by the emperor *Nerva. As Emperor he overcame Dacia (central Romania) in two campaigns (101–02 and 105–06) and colonised it with Romans, but his Parthian conquests (113–17) proved ephemeral. His exploits are carved on the column that bears his name in Rome. He was a wise and moderate ruler, as is shown by his fair-minded letter to *Pliny about the treatment of Christians. He arranged the succession of his kinsman *Hadrian.

Trastámara. Spanish dynasty (*Isabella)

Traven, B. (Benick Traven Torsvan) (c.1890–1969). American novelist, born probably in Chicago. Of Swedish or German descent, he kept his identity a close secret, lived in Germany, using a variety of names, including Otto Feige and Ret Marut, and moved to Mexico in 1924. He was an anarchist, deeply opposed to capitalism and imperialism. His novels, published in German, included The Death Ship (1926, translated 1934) and The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1927, 1934).

Travers, Ben (1886–1980). English playwright. He was a prolific writer of ‘the Aldwych farces’, most having long runs in London, using the actors Ralph Lynn, Robertson Hare and Tom Walls. A Cuckoo in the Nest was first produced in 1925, Rookery Nook in 1926, Thark in 1927 and Plunder in 1928. There were 24 films based on his plays: the last, The Bed Before Yesterday (1975), was a major success.

Tree, Sir Herbert Beerbohm (1853–1917). English actor-manager. The half-brother of Sir Max *Beerbohm, he was lessee-manager of the Haymarket Theatre (1887–97), where he achieved one of his greatest successes, Trilby (1897). Profits enabled him to build Her Majesty’s Theatre where, for 20 years, he provided lavish productions of *Shakespeare and other plays (Carol *Reed).

Treitschke, Heinrich von (1834–1896). German historian, born in Saxony. He completed his education in the liberal atmosphere of Leipzig and Bonn Universities, but in the Austro-Prussian War (1866) he completely identified himself with Prussia. When a series of academic appointments had brought him (1874) to Berlin he shared *Bismarck’s vision of a united, nationalistic Germany under Prussian leadership. This bias permeates his great History of Germany in the Nineteenth Century (1879–94). Despite prolonged and accurate research, its literary brilliance, and its excellent chapters on the cultural and social achievements of the lesser states, the book provided an armoury of justification for the Prussian militarists who were planning for World War I. He wrote several other volumes of historical and political essays. His usefulness as a member of the Reichstag (1871–84) was much hampered by deafness.

Trenchard, Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount (1873–1956). British airman. A colonel in the Royal Scots Fusiliers, he had fought in South Africa before taking up flying and joining the RFC. In World War I he commanded the British air forces in France and his persistent advocacy brought into being the Independent Air Force and the beginning of strategic bombing. He was Chief of the Air Staff 1918, 1919–29 and became (1927) the first Marshal of the RAF. The RAF was largely the creation of his strategic insight and organisational planning. He was Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, London 1931–35 and received the OM in 1951.

Boyle, A., Trenchard. 1962.

Trevelyan, Sir George Otto, 2nd Baronet (1838–1928). British politician and historian. His father was an Indian civil servant, his mother, Harriet, a sister of *Macaulay. He was a Liberal MP 1865–86 and 1887–97 and a minister. He is better known as a writer, especially for The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay (1876), The Early History of Charles James Fox (1880) and The American Revolution (1899–1914). He was awarded the OM in 1911.

His son, George Macaulay Trevelyan (1876–1962), was Regius professor of history at Cambridge 1927–40 and master of Trinity College 1940–51. His works include a remarkable trilogy on the life of Garibaldi (1907–11), England under Queen Anne (1930), and English Social History (1944), which achieved a great popular success. They read well and were highly praised in their time as literature and history, but his judgments were both cautious and conventional and he left no followers. In 1930 he received the OM. The Trevelyans were the only father and son so honoured until the Duke of *Edinburgh and Prince *Charles.

Cannadine, D., G.M. Trevelyan. 1992.

Trevithick, Richard (1771–1833). English engineer, born in Cornwall. Largely self-educated, he worked as a mining engineer and invented (1798) a pumping engine driven by water pressure. More important was the high pressure steam engine (patented in 1802) which he applied to both road and rail transport. For the latter, to win a bet, he used the Penydaren tramway on which he gave several demonstrations. The engine was also used for a dredging machine when he was working on a tunnel under the Thames (1806). He went to Peru (1816) where his engine was introduced in the silver mines and for a time served as a military engineer under *Bolívar. When he returned after 11 years’ absence he was almost forgotten, and when he died while working at Dartford he had to be buried at the expense of his fellow workers.

Trevor-Roper, Hugh Redwald, Baron Dacre (1914–2003). English historian. He studied at Christ Church, Oxford, and taught at the University 1936–80. During World War II he served in military intelligence, which commissioned him to investigate the circumstances of *Hitler’s death, published in 1947 as The Last Days of Hitler. He wrote comparatively little but his books covered a very wide range and were highly praised, e.g. Archbishop Laud 1573–1645 (1940), The Gentry 1540–1640 (1953), The Rise of Christian Europe (1964) and The Jesuits in Japan (1968) and A Hidden Life; The Enigma of Sir Edmund Backhouse (1976). He was best known as a critic and a devastating analyst of other historians’ deficiencies. He became Regius professor of modern history at Oxford 1957–80 and Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge 1980–87. He married a daughter of the 1st Earl *Haig. As a consultant to Rupert *Murdoch, he gave initial credibility to diaries attributed to Hitler (1983), then repudiated them.

Sisman, A., Hugh Trevor-Roper. 2010.

Trimble, (William) David, Baron Trimble (1944– ). Northern Ireland politician. A lawyer, he was an Ulster Unionist MP 1990–2007 and, as leader 1995–2005, was a moderate supporter of the 1998 Peace Plan. He became First Minister of Northern Ireland 1998–2002 and shared the 1998 Nobel Peace Prize with John *Hume.

Trocmé, André (1901–1971). French clergyman. Pastor of the Reformed Church in Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, he organised a network that saved 5000 Jews by smuggling them into Switzerland, and was recognised by Israel as ‘Righteous among the Nations’.

Trollope, Anthony (1815–1882). English novelist, born in London. Son of the writer Fanny *Trollope, he had an unhappy childhood because of the harshness and extravagance of his irresponsible father, a failed barrister. Educated at Harrow and Winchester, after a short time in Belgium he became a clerk in the GPO, London (1834); but after a breakdown he was sent as a deputy postal surveyor to Ireland, where hunting, marriage and steady promotion made a new man of him and he began to write. (He is also credited with the invention of the red pillar box.) In 1859 he returned to England and settled at Waltham Abbey which he left (1871) for Montagu Square, London. With a happy domestic life, with his novels and with official journeys (e.g. to Australia, South Africa and America) to provide subjects for travel books, he was content. The more important of his novels fall within two series. The ‘Barsetshire’ series, which comprises chronologically The Warden (1855), Barchester Towers (1857), Doctor Thorne (1858), Framley Parsonage (1861), The Small House at Allington (1864) and The Last Chronicle of Barset (1867), is mainly concerned with clerical intrigue in the cathedral town of Barchester and reveals to the full his great gift of characterisation (e.g. Mrs Proudie, the Bishop’s vulgar but masterful wife). For the second series, which is political, Trollope gained some firsthand experience when he stood unsuccessfully as parliamentary candidate for Beverley (1868). The books are concerned with the fortunes of Plantagenet Palliser (Duke of Omnium) and his wife Glencora, and once again the interplay of character and motive is enthralling. The best known of this sequence are Phineas Finn (1869), Phineas Redux (1874) and The Prime Minister (1876). Trollope's other novels include The Claverings (1867) and The Eustace Diamonds (1873).

His autobiography (1883) revealed the almost cold-blooded persistence with which he wrote his daily quota of 2500 words before breakfast; he admitted the strength of the money motive and recorded that by 1879 he made £68,939 17s. 5d from his books. Such methods and motives suggest lack of spontaneity and it is true that his style is at times pedestrian but the characters are so vividly brought to life that interest is sustained. After a period of neglect, Trollope won new popularity, especially after successful television series based on his novels. In March 1993 he was reinterred in Westminster Abbey. He was the most prolific of all major English novelists (even more so than Samuel *Richardson) with 47 to his credit.

Sadleir, M., Trollope: A Commentary. Rev. 1945; Glendinning, V., Trollope 1992.

Trollope, Fanny (née Milton) (1780–1863). English writer. Her Domestic Manners of the Americans (1832) caused great offence in the US but sold well in Britain. She had extraordinary energy, lived in Florence from 1843 and published more books than her son Anthony *Trollope.

Tromp, Maarten Harpertszoon (1598–1653). Dutch sailor. His father was captain of the frigate Olifantstromp (hence the name), killed in an action against pirates, and the young Tromp was a slave in Morocco for two years. He joined the Dutch navy, was captured again and became a slave in Tunis. On his release, he was steadily promoted and in 1639 defeated a Spanish fleet off Flanders. In the Anglo-Dutch War 1652–53, there was an evenly matched struggle with *Cromwell’s soldier-admirals *Blake and *Monck for command of the narrow seas. From encounter to encounter (over a score in all), fortune veered. In May 1652, Blake, with only 15 ships, had the best of a fight with 40 ships under Tromp, but only six months later it was a triumphant Tromp who, according to legend, sailed down the Channel with a broom at his masthead to show that the English had been swept from the seas. Yet, in February 1653, a three-day battle in which Tromp showed his usual courage in defence of a large convoy, cost the Dutch nine warships and 30 out of 200 merchantmen. In the last desperate encounter fought off the Dutch coast at Scheveningen, against the English under Monck, Tromp lost 30 warships and was killed.

Trotsky, Leon (Lev Davidovich Bronstein) (1879–1940). Russian revolutionary politician, born in Yanovka, Ukraine. From a middle-class Jewish family, he was expelled from Odessa University and joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (1896). Exiled to Siberia 1898–1902, he escaped and lived in London 1902–05, where he took part in the 1903 RSDLP congress. When it split, Trotsky joined the Mensheviks (minority faction). In 1905 he returned to Russia to become President of the first Soviet in St Petersburg but was again arrested, once more sent to Siberia and repeated his successful escape. At the outbreak of World War I he went to Paris but, expelled (1916) for pacifist and revolutionary propaganda, eventually reached New York. After the Revolution of March 1917, he returned to Russia and, after being arrested by the provisional government, joined the Bolsheviks and with *Lenin organised the November revolution which brought them to power. As Commissar for Foreign Affairs November 1917–March 1918, he negotiated the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany and as Commissar for War 1918–25 virtually created the Red Army, directing it with strategic brilliance in the Civil War. His policy of ‘permanent revolution’, based on the contention that Bolshevism could not survive in Russia unless revolutions were stirred up in the west, was not, however, accepted by the majority of the party. When Lenin died (1924), he lost a power struggle against *Stalin, partly because his brilliance as writer and orator made him suspect, and being Jewish was a negative factor. But he also exhibited an uncharacteristic passivity. Trotsky headed various opposition factions but was expelled from the party (1927) and was ordered to leave Russia (1929). From Turkey he travelled widely and at the same time built up dissident Communist groups, some of which long survived his death. In the official Communist Party, ‘Trotskyite’ became a term of abuse applied to anyone whose loyalty to party decisions was in doubt. In 1937 Trotsky settled in Mexico. In August 1940 he was murdered with an ice axe by Ramon Mercader, alias Jacques Mornand, alias Frank Jacson (1914–1960?), a Spaniard whose mother was the mistress of a NKVD general. Released from jail in 1960, Mercader flew to Prague and disappeared. Trotsky was a brilliant and prolific writer whose works include The History of the Russian Revolution (3 volumes, 1932–34) and The Revolution Betrayed (1937).

Deutscher, I., The Prophet Armed: Trotsky 1879–1921. 1954; Deutscher, I., The Prophet Unarmed: Trotsky 1921–29. 1959; Deutscher, I., The Prophet Outcast: Trotsky 1929–40. 1963; Howe, I. (ed.), The Basic Writings of Trotsky. 1963.

Trudeau, Edward Livingston (1848–1915). American physician. As a sufferer from pulmonary tuberculosis he benefited from the air of the Adirondacks and established the Trudeau Sanatorium there (1884). He was the first in the US to isolate and study the tubercle bacillus.

Trudeau, Pierre Elliott (1919–2000). Canadian politician and lawyer, born in Montréal. From a rich business family, he won a law degree at Montréal University, and after brief army service undertook further study at Harvard, L’institut d’Études Politiques in Paris and the London School of Economics. Called to the bar in 1943, he was associate professor of law at the University of Montréal (1961) and became a member of the House of Commons 1965–84. Parliamentary Secretary to the Prime Minister 1966–67 and Attorney-General 1967–68, he was elected Leader of the Liberal Party in 1968 and held office as Prime Minister 1968–79 and again 1980–84. One of his main preoccupations was to satisfy the aspirations of French-speaking Canada without destroying the federal system. He became a QC (1969), was appointed CH (1984) and CC (1985), and wrote extensively, including Memoirs (1993). His son, Justin Pierre James Trudeau (1971– ), born in Ottawa and won degrees from McGill and the University of British Columbia, was a teacher and acted on television. Elected to the House of Commons 2008– , he became Leader of the Liberal Party 2013– and was Prime Minister 2015– , when the Liberals won an absolute majority, defeating Stephen *Harper, despite having fallen to third position in 2011.

Trudeau, P. E., Federalism and the French Canadians. 1968.

Truffaut, François (1932–1984). French film director. Critic and publisher of Cahiers du Cinma from 1954, he worked as an assistant director to Roberto *Rossellini in 1956 and directed his own films from 1957. His study of childhood, Les Quatre-cent Coups, won first prize at the Cannes Film Festival in 1959. He was thereafter recognised as the leader of the French ‘New Wave’ of realist cinema, which deliberately dispensed with accepted formulae in the structure of film stories.

Crisp, C. G., François Truffaut. 1972; Truffaut, F., Les films de ma Vie. 1975.

Trujillo Molina, Rafael Leonidas (1891–1961). Dominican dictator. He graduated from the military academy in 1921and by 1928 he had risen to be Chief of Staff. He was President of Dominica, 1930–38 and 1942–52, but he remained in total control ruling through nominees (1938–42), and in 1952 was succeeded by his brother Hector Trujillo. His rule was bloody, especially the Parsley Massacre of October 1937 in which more than 25,000 ethnic Haitians were slaughtered. While enriching his own family he pursued a conciliatory policy towards the US, and provided a firm administration that brought social and economic benefits. He created national parks and suppressed illegal logging. Within six months of his assassination the last of the Trujillo clan had left the country. From 1936 to 1961 Santo Domingo, the capital, was known as Ciudad Trujillo.

Truman, Harry S. (1884–1972). 33rd President of the US 1945–53. The initial ‘S’ represents the names of his grandfathers but has no other significance. Born on the family farm at Lamar, Missouri, despite bad eyesight which prevented his entry into West Point Military Academy, he served as an officer in World War I. In 1922 he was a partner in a Kansas City haberdashery which failed in a recession. He insisted on paying all creditors in full, which took 12 years. He studied law but did not qualify, and entered politics as a Democrat. He presided 1926–34 over an administrative court in Jackson County for controlling expenditure on construction. As US Senator 1935–45 he became well known through his chairmanship 1941–44 of the Committee for Investigation of the Defence Program. He replaced Henry *Wallace on the Democratic ticket, was elected as Vice President (November 1944) and succeeded to the presidency on Franklin *Roosevelt’s death (April 1945). Acting on advice by Henry L. *Stimson, he took responsibility for dropping atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, news of which came when he was attending the Potsdam Conference (July–August 1945) with *Stalin and *Churchill (later, *Attlee) to plan the division of Germany. In March 1947 the ‘Truman Doctrine’ offered political and military aid to nations resisting Communist influence. With George *Kennan and Dean *Acheson he developed the policy of ‘containment’ of Communism. The *Marshall Plan, announced in June 1947, provided massive economic aid to war-ravaged European nations. As Cold War tensions increased, Stalin rejected an offer of Marshall Plan assistance to the Soviet bloc.

In November 1946 the Democrats were heavily defeated in elections for the 80th Congress and Truman faced a Southern challenge for nomination in 1948. The Democrats split three ways, with J. Strom *Thurmond, on the right, standing as a ‘Dixiecrat’, Truman taking the middle ground and Wallace, on the left, running as a ‘Progressive’. Thomas E. *Dewey was the Republican nominee. Truman travelled 48,300 kilometres in a ‘whistle-stop’ railway tour across the nation, making 315 speeches. He won an unexpected (but comfortable) victory, with Electoral College votes from 28 states. In 1949 the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established and the ‘Point Four’ program provided technical assistance to the Third World. However, *Mao’s victory in China caused a violent anti-Communist reaction in the US (exacerbated by the *Hiss and *Rosenberg trials), contributing to the rise of Joe *McCarthy and Richard *Nixon. When North Korea invaded the South (June 1950), Truman sent in US troops, under Douglas *MacArthur, supported by a UN mandate. He dismissed MacArthur (April 1951) for publicly proposing a military strike against China, which was thought (wrongly) to have initiated the Korean War. This provoked a huge political reaction in the US which soon subsided. In 1952 the US tested the world’s first hydrogen bomb. Truman’s domestic policy, the ‘Fair Deal’ aimed to promote racial harmony and help the poor. He declined to stand for re-election in 1952 and secured the nomination of Adlai *Stevenson, who then lost to *Eisenhower. He wrote Memoirs (1955–56). His reputation grew after his retirement. In 19 Presidential ranking lists by historians and political scientists, Truman scored No. 6 in the aggregate.

Truman, M. Harry Truman. 1973; McCullough, D. Truman 1992.

Trump, Donald John (1946– ). 45th President of the United States 2017– . Born in New York, he was the son of a property developer of German descent, and a Scottish mother. Educated at Wharton College in the University of Pennsylvania, he owned hotels, casinos and golf courses, became a beauty pageant impresario and won a national reputation on television for his brash optimism, propensity for stunts, and natural aggression as the host of The Apprentice 2004–14. He founded the now defunct Trump University in 2005. In June 2015 he announced his candidature for the Republican presidential nomination. His populist appeal to nationalism and occasional racism and misogyny was successful with voters in primaries, but threatened the Republican establishment and alarmed America’s allies. He won the Republican nomination for President in May 2016, after defeating 15 rivals. In November 2016 he beat Hillary *Clinton, winning 30 states, and a narrow lead in the Electoral College, with a popular vote of 63 million, 2.8 million behind Clinton’s. Only 55.7 per cent of those eligible actually voted. Trump was the oldest and the richest person to be elected President, and the only one without experience in government or the military. Twitter was his preferred mode of communication. He described himself as ‘a very stable genius’ with a ‘very, very large brain’.

He developed a close relationship with Saudi Arabia and Israel, had a wary respect for Russia and North Korea, and was dismissive of leadership in Canada, France, Germany and—until Boris *Johnson became Prime Minister—the UK. He withdrew the US from the Paris Climate Accords, insisting that ‘the future belongs to patriots’.

In December 2019, the House of Representatives voted to impeach President Trump on two counts: (i) abuse of power, in applying pressure on Ukraine that unless Joe *Biden’s family was investigated military hardware would be withheld; and (ii) obstruction of Congress, by refusing to allow witnesses who had been subpoenaed to give evidence. In the ensuing trial, the Senate voted narrowly against calling witnesses or examining documents, and voted to acquit (5 February 2020) on party lines, although Senator Mitt *Romney voted guilty on the first count.

His response to the COVID-19 pandemic (2020) was marked by denial, confusion, delay, false claims and the attribution of blame elsewhere.

Woodward, B., Fear: Trump in the White House. 2018.

Trumper, Victor Thomas (1877–1915). Australian cricketer. His batting achievements included 3163 runs in test cricket, of which 2263 were made against England. His greatest performance was 300 not out made in 1899 against Sussex at Hove.

Mallett, A., Trumper, 1985.

Truth, Sojourner (c.1797–1883). American evangelist, born in Ulster County, New York. Born a slave and given the name Isabella, she was freed in 1827, became a touring evangelist and a passionate campaigner for abolition of slavery and for female suffrage.

Tsai Lun see Cai Lun

Tshombe, Moïse Kapenda (1919–1969). Congolese politician. After the Belgian Congo had become an independent republic (1960) he declared the independence of Katanga, the copper-producing province of which he was President. United Nations troops were sent against him on the invitation of the Congo Prime Minister, Patrice *Lumumba, for whose mysterious death (1961) Tshombe was alleged by his enemies to have some responsibility. In 1963 having lost health and power, he went into exile, but in 1964, after a change of political climate, he was recalled to be Prime Minister by President *Kasavubu. In 1965, both President and Prime Minister had to give way to the military leader General *Mobutu. After fleeing abroad he was kidnapped and flown to Algiers (1967) where he died.

Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin Eduardovich (1857–1935). Russian physicist. Originally a school teacher (hampered by extreme deafness), he carried out fundamental research into aeronautics, constructed the first ‘wind-tunnel’ and by 1895 was writing about space travel. From 1898 he was predicting (with a high degree of accuracy) future space exploration in rockets using liquid fuel. The launching of Sputnik I (1957) was timed to coincide with his centenary.

Tsvangirai, Morgan Richard (1952–2018). Zimbabwean politician. A Shona tribesman, after leaving high school he worked as a miner and became active in the trade union movement. He was leader of the Movement for Democratic Change, he contested the presidency against Robert *Mugabe in 2002 and 2008, and in a power-sharing arrangement with Robert *Mugabe became Prime Minister 2009–13.

Tsvetaeva, Marina Ivanovna (1892–1941). Russian poet, born in Moscow. Her father was a professor who founded the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts. She observed the Revolution and the following famine, lived in Paris from 1922, returning in 1939, but was ostracised. Her husband was executed in 1941, her daughter jailed as a spy and she hanged herself (although it could have been murder). Her lyric poetry, most written in exile, was published in 1961 and championed by Vladimir *Nabokov and Joseph *Brodsky. Minor planet 3511 Tsvetaeva was named for her in 1982.

Tswett, Mikhail Semenovich (1872–1919). Russian chemist and botanist. Inventor of the important chemical technique known as chromatography, he showed (1906) that plant pigments dissolved in petrol could be separated by means of their differential rates of absorption by powdered calcium carbonate in a vertical glass tube. This method of analysis has since been widely developed.

Tubman, William Vachanarat Shadrach (1895–1971). Liberian politician. A lawyer, judge and leader of the ‘True Whig’ party, he was elected President in 1944 and re-elected six times, dying in office. He attempted social, economic and educational reforms.

Tuchman, Barbara (née Wertheim) (1912–1989). American historian, born in New York. A journalist, she twice won the Pulitzer Prize, with The Guns of August (1962) and Stilwell and the American Experience in China 1941–45 (1971). Other books include The Proud Tower (1966), A Distant Mirror (1978) and The March of Folly: From Troy to Vietnam (1984).

Tudjman, Franjo (1922–1999). Croatian politician. During World War II, he became the youngest general in *Tito’s partisans, was a fervent Marxist, then an academic, teaching history at the university of Zagreb. He was expelled from the Yugoslav CP in 1967 for his advocacy of Croatian nationalism. In 1989 he founded the Croatian Democratic Union, was elected President of Croatia 1990–99 and declared its independence in 1991. War with Serbia, the fourth in 90 years, broke out with massive loss of life, only token intervention by the UN and an ineffective response by the European Community.

Tudor (ap Tewdwr). Welsh dynastic family that ruled England from the accession of *Henry VII (1485) to the death of *Elizabeth I (1603). Its links with the English royal line were established by the marriage of Owen Tudor (né Owain ap Maredudd ap Tewdwr) (1392–1461) to *Henry V’s widow *Catherine of Valois; he was defeated and beheaded at Hereford at the outset of the Wars of the Roses. Henry VII’s claim to the throne rested, however, upon the marriage of his father Edmund Tudor, son of Owen, to Margaret Beaufort, granddaughter of John Beaufort, one of the legitimised children of *John of Gaunt and Catherine *Swynford.

Tudor, Antony (né originally William Cook) (1908–1987). Anglo-American ballet dancer and choreographer. He trained in England but worked in the US from 1940. He was a driving force in the American Ballet Theatre, linked with *Balanchine as a creator of modern ballet.

Tukhachevsky, Mikhail Nikolaievich (1893–1937). Russian marshal. Of noble origin, he joined the army in 1911 and was a prisoner-of-war 1915–18. He supported the Bolsheviks in 1918, commanding the Red Army in the Caucasus during the civil war, and becoming Chief of Staff 1925–28 and Deputy Commissar of Defence 1931–37. He was accused of treason and shot on the basis of evidence by the NKVD and the Gestapo. *Khrushchev rehabilitated him in 1958.

Tull, Jethro (1674–1741). English agriculturist. Called to the bar in 1699, as a result of the enclosure system, which by bringing large acreages under direct control of landlords encouraged more scientific agriculture, he turned to farming. A prolonged tour of Europe enlarged his knowledge, among the things learnt being the value of the cultivator in aerating the soil and allowing access of water. His practices were explained in Horse-hoeing Husbandry (1733). He invented a seed drill (1701), and his advocacy of planting cereals and turnips in rows instead of by broadcasting the seed was of the greatest importance in improving yields.

Tunney, ‘Gene’ (James Joseph) (1897–1978). American boxer. A skilful tactician, he fought 68 professional bouts and lost only one. By defeating Jack Dempsey, he became world heavyweight champion (1926) and retired undefeated (1928).

Tupolev, Andrei Nikolaievich (1888–1972). Russian aeronautical engineer. Educated at the Moscow Higher Technical School, in 1922 he became director of the Central Aero-hydro-dynamic Institute. He fell into disfavour with the authorities in 1938 but was reinstated in 1943. He was responsible for over 100 aircraft both civilian and military. The Tu-104 (1955) was the first jet transport to provide a regular commercial service for passengers. The Tu-144 (‘Charger’) was a supersonic transport (SST), first flown in December 1968, just before the Anglo-French ‘Concorde’. It had serious design flaws and after spectacular crashes was grounded.

Turenne, Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne, Vicomte de (1611–1675). French soldier. A grandson of *William the Silent (Prince of Orange), after his father’s death he was brought up in Holland as a Protestant. He returned to France in 1630 and soon showed his military abilities during the Thirty Years’ War. In 1641 he was given the supreme command and in 1643 was rewarded for his conquest of Roussillon from the Spanish by being made a marshal of France. He ended the Thirty Years’ War with triumphant campaigns in Bavaria and Flanders. In the civil wars that ensued he at first joined the Fronde, but later was reconciled with the regency government led by *Mazarin, and thus found himself opposed to his great military rival *Condé. From a period of confused fighting Turenne emerged victorious, while Condé, a declared traitor, crossed the frontier and took service with Spain. The contest between the two men continued with Condé leading the Spanish army, Turenne the French, and was only finally settled when Turenne, after overrunning much of the Spanish Netherlands, finally, with the help of a force of *Cromwell’s Ironsides, defeated Condé at the Battle of the Dunes (1658), which led to the surrender of Dunkirk. Peace followed (1659) and when hostilities were resumed (1667) Condé had been pardoned and taken into favour by *Louis XIV. In 1668 Turenne turned Catholic. In the war (1672) with Holland, soon joined by the emperor Leopold and other allies, the two great commanders campaigned in concert. In the winter of 1674–75 Turenne fought his last and most brilliant campaign in Alsace but in the spring, while reconnoitring the imperialist position near the defile of Sassbach, he was struck by a cannon ball and killed.

Weygand, M., Turenne: Marshal of France. 1930; Longueville, T. and Lloyd, F., Marshal Turenne. 2007.

Turgenev (or Tourgeneff), Ivan Sergeievich (1818–1883). Russian novelist, born in Oryol. Brought up on the family estate, he quarrelled with his masterful and neurotic mother about her treatment of the serfs. After a university education and a short time in the civil service he achieved his first popular success as a writer with A Sportsman’s Sketches (1847–52), a series of delightful rural sketches. In 1843 he fell in love with Pauline *Viardot (née Garcia), a famous singer then visiting Russia. She was married but, moved by a hopeless but enduring passion, he followed her around from place to place in Germany and France. He even maintained a friendship with her husband and collaborated with him in the French translations of his works, sometimes even sharing their home. This barren love affair may explain why so many of the men in Turgenev’s books are such emotional weaklings. Turgenev was on bad terms with *Dostoevsky, *Tolstoy and other Russian contemporaries. After 1856 he spent much time in Paris, where he was a friend of *Flaubert, *Zola, *Daudet, the *Goncourt brothers and Henry *James. He died near Paris.

His most important novels, among which are A Nest of Gentlefolk (1859), Fathers and Sons (1862), a story of political conflicts between the generations, and Virgin Soil (1876), belong to a series referring to social and historical developments in Russia between 1830 and 1870. These were criticised both by the progressives and the reactionaries although much admired outside Russia. Of equal or greater fascination are the short stories, love stories, tales of the countryside and of the supernatural. Here the fastidious elegance of his style can be appreciated at its best.

Schapiro, L., Turgenev: His Life and Times. 1978.

Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques (1727–1781). French economist and administrator. Having abandoned the idea of a Church career, he lived in Paris in the midst of the great intellectual ferment of which *Diderot’s great Encyclopédie was the symbol. Turgot’s interests were mainly economic and in his writings on the subject, especially in his advocacy of free trade, he anticipated the work of Adam *Smith. As intendant of Limoges (1761–64) he was able to put theory into practice: by substituting a money tax for the corvée (the compulsory road-labour of peasants dating from feudal times) he greatly improved communications; and by establishing free trade in corn, by stimulating the porcelain industry and encouraging new ones he transformed the Limousin from one of the poorest into one of the richest regions of France.

On the accession (1774) of *Louis XVI he was called upon to do for the country what he had done for the region. As controller general with the watchwords ‘no bankruptcies, no tax increase, no loans’, he began by making stringent economies, including the suppression of some 32,000 government posts. The measures which followed – abolition of the corvée, free trade in corn (followed by bread riots), and a minor land tax on nobles and clergy – produced such a selfish outcry from those adversely affected and the privileged classes in general that Louis lost his nerve and in 1776 Turgot had to resign. His declared conviction that the alternative to far reaching reforms was revolution was soon borne out

Turing, Alan Mathison (1912–1954). English computer scientist, logician, mathematician and cryptographer, born in London. Educated at King’s College, Cambridge and Princeton (where he worked with Alonzo *Church), he published a paper ‘On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entschiedungsproblem’ (1937), referring to a challenge about the ‘halting problem’ made by the German mathematician David *Hilbert. This proposed a formal theory of how a universal computer would work, embodying the logic of all future computing machines. During World War II, he worked as a cryptographer at Bletchley Park, Bucks., and produced a device (the ‘bombe’) that cracked the German Enigma naval codes and was decisive in winning the Battle of the Atlantic. Reader in mathematics at Manchester University 1945–49, he worked on the Manchester Mark I computer, investigated artificial intelligence and morphogenesis (mathematical biology) and became FRS in 1951. Convicted, in 1952, of an ‘act of gross indecency’ with a young man, he accepted chemical castration as an alternative to imprisonment and committed suicide by eating an apple laced with cyanide. In 2009, Prime Minister Gordon *Brown made an official apology about Turing’s treatment. He received a posthumous royal pardon in December 2013 and in 2019 his image appeared on the £50 banknote.

Hodges, A., Alan Turing: the enigma. 1983.

Turnbull, Malcolm Bligh (1954– ). Australian lawyer, banker, writer and Liberal politician, born in Sydney. Educated at Sydney University, and a Rhodes Scholar in Oxford, he became a journalist, barrister and merchant banker, leading the ‘Yes’ campaign in the failed 1999 Referendum on a Republic. Member of the Australian Parliament 2004–18, he was Minister for the Environment and Water 2007, under John *Howard. He replaced Brendan Nelson to become the Leader of the Opposition 2008–09 until deposed, narrowly, by Tony *Abbott, on the issue of climate change. Minister for Communications 2013–15, he defeated Abbott in a Liberal Party room ballot and was Prime Minister 2015–18. Internal tensions over energy policy, climate change and resentment over same sex marriage led to a party coup in August 2018. Turnbull was forced out but ensured that he was succeeded by Scott *Morrison, and not the hard-right candidate, Peter *Dutton.

Manning, P., Born to Rule. 2015; Turnbull, M. B., A Bigger Picture. 2020.

Turner, Frederick Jackson (1861–1932). American historian. Professor of history at Wisconsin University 1892–1910 and Harvard 1910–24, he was the proponent of the ‘frontier school’ of American historiography, arguing that pushing back the frontier created the essential and distinctive elements of American society, culture, politics and the economy.

Turner, John Napier Wyndham (1929– ). Canadian politician and lawyer, born in England. Educated at the University of British Columbia, he was a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, became a lawyer in Montréal and a Liberal MP 1962–76; 1984–93, serving as Attorney-General 1968–72 and Minister for Finance 1972–75. In 1975 he resigned over policy differences with Pierre *Trudeau, became active in business, and was nominated to succeed him as party leader and Prime Minister of Canada, June 1984, although he was not an MP or senator. In September 1984 his government was overwhelmingly defeated but Turner remained as Opposition Leader until 1990.

Turner, J(oseph) M(allord) W(illiam) (1775–1851). English painter, born in London. His father kept a barber’s shop in Maiden Lane, Covent Garden. He was sent to the free school at Brentford and in 1789 gained entrance to the Royal Academy school. His first money was made by selling sketches in his father’s shop and colouring engravings. With his savings he made sketching tours and also worked with his friend Thomas *Girtin, whose style in water colours influenced him greatly. His first Academy exhibit was shown in 1791. His early oil paintings were influenced by Richard Wilson and *Claude Lorrain but after going to the Continent (1802) he came to admire *Titian and *Poussin. Elected ARA in 1799, he became RA in 1802. By about 1810 he had fully developed the technique that made him famous, showing the subject of his picture, whether a natural phenomenon, mythological figures, or – in accordance with the romantic vogue of the time – an ancient building, through cascades and explosions of light and colour. He sometimes painted direct from nature but usually in the studio, where an astonishing visual memory enabled him to reproduce almost exactly the original scene. He would execute a subject, e.g. Blois, as watercolour, gouache and oil (Blois on the Loire, c.1829). They were often reproduced as etchings or engravings, as in the series Rivers of England (1823–27) and Rivers of France (1833–35) which popularised his work. He visited France, Italy, Switzerland and Germany several times, and his best paintings include many studies of Venice. Among his greatest works are Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons (1834), The Fighting Téméraire (1838), The Slave Ship (Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying, Typhoon Coming On), (1840) and Rain, Steam and Speed—The Great Western Railway (1844). Despite prolonged attacks by the leading art critics of the time Turner was supported by the Royal Academy and, to his surprise, by John *Ruskin and above all, by Lord Egremont of Petworth, with whom Turner often stayed and where some of the best of his pictures are still exhibited. He took a keen interest in photography, and J. J. E. Mayall took a daguerreotype portrait of him in 1847. In his old age Turner lived as a recluse in Chelsea under an assumed name and there died. He was buried in St Paul’s Cathedral. He left £140,000, more than 300 oils, 20,000 water colours and 19,000 drawings to the nation, many exhibited in the Tate Gallery, in extensions built by Sir Joseph *Duveen (1908) and Sir Charles *Clore (1987). Until the 20th century his works were more admired in Europe than in Britain. Rome from Mount Aventine (1835) sold in London for $US47.6 million in 2014.

Lindsay, J., J.M.W. Turner: his life and work. 1966; Walker, J., Turner. 1976; Wilton, A., The Life and Work of J. M. W. Turner. 1979; Hamilton, J., Turner. 1997; Hermann, L., and Harrison, C., J. M. W. Turner. 2000; Moyle, F., Turner: The Extraordinary Life and Momentous Times of J. M. W. Turner. 2017.

Turner, Ted (Robert Edward III) (1938– ). American broadcasting executive. He inherited an advertising agency from his father, moved into radio and television and in 1980 founded Cable News Network (CNN), a global 24–hour newscast, which reached its highest penetration during the Gulf War (1991). The immediacy of CNN’s coverage not only influenced reporting but policy outcomes and, by breaking down frontiers, illustrated Marshall *McLuhan’s concept of ‘the global village’. Turner won the America’s Cup for yachting, owned the Atlanta Hawks and in 1991 married the actor Jane *Fonda. He sold CNN to Time-Warner, gave $US1 billion to the UN for an environment fund and was the biggest landowner in the US.

Turpin, Dick (1706–1739). English criminal. Romanticised in Ainsworth’s novel Rookwood (1834), he was a brutal thief engaged in smuggling, housebreaking and highway robbery. He was hanged at York. The legend of his ride on ‘Black Bess’ seems to have been adapted from the story of ‘Swift John Nevison’, who is said to have established an alibi for a murder at Gadshill at 4 a.m. by arriving at 7.45 p.m. on the same day at York (1676).

Tussaud, Marie (née Grosholtz) (1760–1850). Swiss modeller. Founder of the waxworks that bear her name, she learned modelling in Paris from her uncle, J. C. Curtius, whose wax museums she inherited (1793). She prepared death masks from heads severed by the guillotine. Having separated (1800) from her soldier husband she established her exhibition in London, first at the Lyceum Theatre and then (1835) in Baker Street. The move to Marylebone Road was made in 1884 after her death.

Tutankhamun (Tut-ankh-amun, originally Tut-ankh-aten: regnal name Nebkheperure) (c.1341–c.1323 BCE). Egyptian pharoah of the XVIIIth dynasty 1332–23 BCE. He was son of *Akhenaten (and one of his sisters), and, after two short reigns by family members, succeeded, ruling through his vizier (and, later, pharoah), Ay. Akhenaten had tried to impose a form of monotheism, with Aten as the one god. Popular and priestly opposition had rent the kingdom, and under the young pharaoh the country reverted to its former polytheism, with Amun as a principal god. He died at 18 or 19, after a reign of six years, possibly of gangrene, after the fracture of a leg, probably compromised by malaria. Despite his youth, the many weapons and warlike images found in his tomb suggest that he sought to be a warrior king. His tomb was found undisturbed by Howard *Carter (funded by Lord *Carnarvon) in November 1922 and the artefacts (5398 objects), notably the golden death mask, iron-gold dagger and six chariots, are magnificent. They have toured internationally but are normally housed in the new Grand Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

Desroches-Noblecourt, C., Tutankhamen. 1963; Hoving, T., Tutankhamun. 1978; James, T. G. H., Tutankhamun. 2000.

Tutu, Desmond Mpilo (1931– ). South African prelate, born in Klerksdorp. Of Xhosa and Motswana descent, he became a teacher, then an Anglican priest (1960), and studied in London. Bishop of Lesotho 1976–78 and Johannesburg 1985–86, he was General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches 1978–86. He received the 1984 Nobel Prize for Peace and was appointed Archbishop of Cape Town 1986–06. He chaired the Truth and Reconciliation Commission 1995–98. He was awarded the Templeton Prize (2013) and an Honorary CH.

Twain, Mark (pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens) (1835–1910). American author and humorist, born in Florida, Missouri. His father was a Virginia lawyer who had moved west to seek a fortune by land speculation but died poor (1847). The boy, who had a casual upbringing in Hannibal, Missouri, where the river provided many scenes for his later books, became a journeyman printer. After some years of wandering, he visited New Orleans and became a pilot on the Mississippi (1857–61). His later pseudonym was derived from the leadsman’s cry indicating that the water was two fathoms deep. The Civil War ended this chapter and he joined his brother in Nevada to prospect for gold. But soon his early humorous writings began to appear. He was encouraged by Artemus *Ward and in his writings for the San Francisco papers by Bret *Harte. A commission to visit and write about the Sandwich Islands was followed by a lecture tour in the east which proved a great success. A Mediterranean tour resulting in Innocents Abroad (1869) established his fame. Having married Olivia Langdon of New York State (1870) he settled down as editor of the Buffalo Express but was fortunately encouraged by friends to draw on his boyhood memories of life on the great rivers for Tom Sawyer (1876) and his masterpiece Huckleberry Finn (1884). In later life, as well as having to submit to much ceremonial and hero worship he dissipated his energies in foreign travel. A Tramp Abroad (1880) records a European walking tour and business ventures which sometimes involved heavy losses. Meanwhile, and partly to recoup himself, he continued to write with industry and versatility. The burlesque A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court (1889) is sometimes very funny; Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc (1896) reveals a long-felt devotion to this historic heroine. Others, e.g. The Stolen White Elephant, show his satirical gifts. He went on a round-the-world lecture tour (1895–96) and visited Australia and New Zealand. He will always be remembered by the books which owe their inspiration, vigour and freshness to the river lands of his childhood. His journalism was powerful and incisive and he attacked the conventional wisdom with zest and courage.

Kaplan, J., Mister Clemens and Mark Twain. 1966; Twain, M., Tales, Sketches, Speeches and Essays. 2 vols, 1992.

Tweedsmuir, 1st Baron see Buchan, John

Tyler, John (1790–1862). 10th President of the US 1841–45. Son of a governor of Virginia, he became a lawyer, congressman 1816–21, Governor of Virginia 1825–27 and US Senator 1827–36. Supporting States’ rights he joined the new Whig party formed by President *Jackson’s opponents. In 1841 he became Vice President to W. H. *Harrison, on whose death, a month after inauguration, he succeeded as President. His term of office was rendered largely ineffective by the party split created by the conflict between the national policies of Henry *Clay and the belief in States’ rights favoured by the president. It was marked, however, by the *Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1843), which resolved difficulties with Great Britain and the annexation of Texas (1845). Tyler sought re-election in 1844 but soon dropped out and endorsed James K. *Polk. In 1861, he supported the Confederacy when the Civil War broke out but soon died.

Tyler, Wat (or Walter) (d.1381). English rebel and popular leader. In the Peasants’ Revolt (1381) he led the Kentishmen, who with the men of Essex converged on London to present their demands, of which the main one was the abolition of serfdom and the crippling poll-tax. Three days and nights of burning and looting had already occurred when, at a conference with *Richard II at Smithfield, Tyler, acting as spokesman, was struck down by Lord Mayor Walworth. He was killed in the subsequent scuffle; only Richard’s courage in taking over the leadership of the peasants saved the situation. The gesture was a token one, however, and few of the rebels’ grievances were met or their hardships lightened.

Tylor, Sir Edward Burnet (1832–1917). English anthropologist. A journey through Mexico with the ethnologist Henry Christy, described in Anahuac, or Mexico and the Mexicans (1861), gained him a considerable reputation as an anthropologist. His later books included Primitive Culture (2 volumes, 1871), which quickly became a standard work, and an excellent introduction to the subject, Anthropology (1881). He was professor of anthropology at Oxford 1896–1909.

Tynan, Kenneth (Peacock) (1927–1980). English critic. Immensely influential, he wrote for The Observer and The New Yorker, worked with Laurence *Olivier at the National Theatre and arranged the sexually explicit revue Oh! Calcutta! (1969).

Tyndale, William (c.1494–1536). English Biblical translator, born in Gloucestershire. He graduated at Hart Hall, Oxford, and later at Cambridge came under the influence of humanists such as *Erasmus (one of whose works he translated) and the religious reformers. He mastered eight languages, and translated directly from Greek and Hebrew. Having set his heart on biblical translation but having failed to get patronage in London he went (1524) to Hamburg, to Wittenberg (where he met *Luther) and to Cologne. Here he began printing his New Testament but, forbidden to proceed, fled to Worms. Of the edition there printed (1526) and smuggled into England, almost all copies were destroyed. His later works were published at Antwerp and they included translations of the Pentateuch (1530), Jonah (1531) and New Testament revisions. The section Joshua – II Chronicles was left in manuscript. Both in his marginal notes to the biblical books and in his many theological works he revealed his Lutheran doctrines and attacked papal supremacy. He engaged in bitter controversy with Thomas *More. In May 1535 Tyndale was lured out of the ‘English House’ on a pretext by an appalling opportunist, Henry Phelips, arrested and, after 16 months’ imprisonment at Vilvoorde, near Brussels, convicted of heresy by an Imperial court. Despite sporadic efforts by *Henry VIII to save him, he was strangled there and his body burned at the stake.

His translations were incorporated (without attribution) in the ‘Matthew Bible’ (1537) and the ‘Great Bible’ (1539), both publications being secured by Thomas *Cromwell.

His superb use of the words and rhythms of the English language is enshrined in the Authorised Version of the Bible: about 84 per cent of the New Testament, and 76 per cent of those books in the Old that he completed, is his work. His influence on written English was comparable with Luther’s on German. His monosyllabic style is at its best in 2 Kings iv:8–37.

Daniell, D., William Tyndale. 1994; Moynihan, B., William Tyndale: If God Spare My Life. A story of martyrdom, betrayal and the English Bible. 2002; Bragg, M., William Tyndale. 2017.

Tyndall, John (1820–1893). Anglo-Irish physicist, born in Ireland. Son of a policeman, he worked as teacher and draftsman, then studied at Marburg, worked for years on polar diamagnetism and became (1853) professor of natural philosophy at the Royal Institution in London, where he later succeeded (1867) *Faraday, whose biography he wrote, as superintendent. In 1859 he identified the role of water vapour, CO² and methane as key factors that absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infra-red range (‘the greenhouse effect’) and in determining atmospheric temperature. Interest in glaciers and meteorology turned him into a mountaineer: he was among the first to climb the Matterhorn, and made a first ascent of the Weisshorn (1861). His other researches concerned heat, sound (lighthouse sirens) and light (the ‘Tyndall effect’: the imitation of the blue of the sky by passing a beam of light through a cloud of very fine particles). A very prolific writer and active populariser of science, he supported *Darwin and was deeply sceptical about religion. He died from an accidental overdose.

Jackson, R., The Ascent of John Tyndall. 2018.

Tyson, Edward (1650–1708). English anatomist. Best known for his Orang-Outang of 1699, describing the anatomy of a primate (actually a chimpanzee) brought back from Malaya. Tyson saw the specimen as halfway between a man and an ape, a link on the Great Chain of Being. Fierce debate continued throughout the 18th century as to whether such higher primates were really forms of men, or of monkey, and whether man gradually shaded into the primates, or whether there was a sharp distinction.

Tzara, Tristan (originally Samuel Rosenstock) (1896–1963). French poet and essayist, born in Romania. In 1916 in Zürich he founded the ‘dadaist’ movement, using random assemblages of ideas, words and objects, and became a Surrealist by 1922. He later joined the Communist Party and the Resistance.

Tz’u Hsi. Dowager empress of China see Cixi.


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