Dictionary of World Biography
Zabarella, Jacopo (1533–1589). Italian scientist and philosopher. One of the major figures in the revival of Aristotelian studies, he helped purify, by humanist methods, Aristotelian texts of medieval glosses and inaccuracies. He recognised the fruitfulness of Aristotelian theological and organic approaches to the study of the living body and the practice of medicine. Zabarella wrote extensively on the methodology of science. He tried to show that logic was not so much a system complete in itself but rather a tool for investigation. In this respect he was probably instrumental in reorienting Aristotelianism away from rationalist metaphysics and in the direction of a more experimental approach.
Zafar see Bahadur Shah II Zafar
Zaghloul, Saad (1859–1927). Egyptian politician. Born into a peasant family, he was educated at the al-Azhar University in Cairo, and became a lawyer, journalist, judge and Minister of Education 1906–10. He encouraged introduction of Western, secular civilisation in Egypt but sought to end both the nominal rule by the Ottomans and the British protectorate. In 1918, he founded the Wafd party, clashed with *Wingate and was deported to Malta (1919). Negotiations with *Allenby and *Milner led (after a period of exile in the Seychelles) to a degree of independence in 1922 and Zaghloul was Prime Minister briefly in 1924.
Zaharoff, Sir Basil (1850–1936). Greek-French financier, born in Mugla, Turkey. Partly educated in England, he became an agent for the armaments manufacturers, T. V. Nordenfelt, Maxim-Nordenfelt and Vickers and acquired the sobriquet ‘the merchant of death’. He was active in oil, shipbuilding and banking. He became a French citizen in 1913, worked with allied intelligence during World War I and was awarded a GBE (1918) and GCB (1919). He promoted the Greek-Turkish War (1919–22), owned the Monte Carlo casino, married a Spanish duchess and endowed university chairs in England, France and Russia.
Allfrey, A., Sir Basil Zaharoff. 1986.
Zahir Shah, Muhammad (1914–2007). King of Afghanistan 1933–73. He succeeded to the throne after the assassination of his father *Nadir Shah and continued a policy of orderly progress. He showed considerable astuteness in using the rivalry between the US and Russia after World War II to secure aid from both for his country. He was deposed in a coup organised by his cousin.
Zamenhof, L(ejzer) L(udwik) (1859–1917). Polish-Jewish philologist, born in Bialystok. He practised as an oculist in Warsaw and invented Esperanto [‘one who hopes’], the best known of the artificial international languages, publishing the textbook Lingvo Internacia (1887). He translated the Old Testament, Hamlet, and works by *Molière, *Goethe and Hans *Andersen. The first International Esperanto Congress was held in 1905.
Zamora, Niceto Alcalá see Alcalá Zamora, Niceto
Zamyatin, Yevgenyi Ivanovich (1884–1937). Russian novelist. A naval engineer, he served in England 1914–17, became an early left-wing critic of *Lenin’s regime and had his works suppressed. He lived in Paris from 1931. An important anti-Utopian, his novel We (1924) was a forerunner of *Huxley’s Brave New World and *Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-four.
Zangwill, Israel (1864–1926). Anglo-Jewish writer. The best known of his novels and plays of Jewish life was Children of the Ghetto (1892, dramatised 1899). A philanthropist and keen Zionist, he organised the Jewish Territorial Organisation, which was a failure.
Zanuck, Darryl Francis (1902–1979). American film producer. He began his film career in the 1920s, writing scenarios first for the Fox Film Company and later for Warner Brothers, becoming an associate producer there. In 1933, he and Joseph M. Schenk founded 20th Century, and in 1935 they combined with the Fox Film Company to become 20th Century Fox. As head of production Zanuck was noted for his direct involvement with filming, picking good directors and letting them think for themselves. He moved to his own independent company in 1957, and retired in 1971. The last of the tycoons of Hollywood, his main concern was to tell a strong story and make money from it. His varied productions include The Jazz Singer, 42nd Street, Little Caesar, The Grapes of Wrath, 12 o’clock High, Cleopatra, and The Sound of Music.
Zapata, Emiliano (1879–1919). Mexican revolutionary. He led the first major agrarian revolution of the 20th century against *Carranza, became a guerrilla and died in an ambush. He has been a folk legend ever since.
Zappa, Frank (1940–1993). American rock musician. Leader of The Mothers of Invention, flourishing mainly in the 1960s and early 1970s, his major records include Lumpy Gravy, We’re Only In It for the Money, Grand Wazoo and Bongo Fury.
Zatopek, Emil (1922–2000). Czech athlete. Noted as a long-distance runner, between the Olympic Games of 1948 and those of 1952 he broke 13 world records in the 5,000 metres, 10,000 metres and Marathon. He was considered the best of his time.
Zedillo Ponce de Leon, Ernesto (1951– ). Mexican economist and politician. He studied in the US and UK and became a banker, serving as a member of UNESCO’s Executive Board 1989–93, Secretary of Public Instruction 1992–93 and President of Mexico 1994–2000. In 2000 the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) was defeated after having held power since 1929.
Zeeman, Pieter (1865–1943). Dutch physicist. Professor of physics at Amsterdam (1900–35), he discovered (1896) the ‘Zeeman effect’, the splitting of spectral lines when a beam of light passes through a magnetic field. The effect was explained by *Lorentz and led to the development of magneto-optics. Zeeman also demonstrated the existence of magnetic fields around the sun and the stars. He shared the Nobel Prize for Physics (1902) with Lorentz.
Zeffirelli, Franco (1923– ). Italian theatre and film director. He began his career in the theatre, as an actor and designer, in 1945. He produced his first opera (La Cenerentola) at La Scala, Milan, in 1953 and later worked at Covent Garden and the New York Metropolitan. His notable stage productions included Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet, both marked by keen perception of the author’s intentions and vivid clarity in interpreting them. His films include Romeo and Juliet (1967), The Taming of the Shrew (1968), Othello (1986) and Hamlet (1990). He served as a senator 1994–2001 and was awarded an Hon. KBE in 2004.
Zeffirelli, F., Zeffirelli: An Autobiography. 1986.
Zeiss, Carl (1816–1888). German optical instrument manufacturer. He founded the famous firm at Jena, renowned for the precision with which lenses for telescopes, microscopes, field-glasses, cameras etc. were made. He was a pioneer of co-partnership.
Zelensky, Volodymyr Oleksandrvych (1978– ). Ukrainian comedian, screenwriter and politician. He had a law degree, worked as an actor, screenwriter and producer and played the role of President of the Ukraine in a popular television series Servant of the People (2015). He created a party of that name and, campaigning on social media, heavily defeated the incumbent Petro Poroshenko, to become President 2019– . Pressure applied on Zelensky by Donald *Trump to provide military equipment in return for damaging information about Joe *Biden’s family was the triggering factor in Trump’s impeachment proceedings.
Zeno of Citium (335–263 BCE). Greek philosopher, born in Cyprus. He founded the Stoic system of philosophy, called after the Stoa Poikile (‘painted porch’) in Athens where he taught a modification of the Socratic ideals of virtue, endurance and independence.
Zeno of Elea (fl. c.450 BCE). Greek philosopher, born in Elea (now Velia), Southern Italy. He came to Athens with *Parmenides, of whom he was a disciple. According to *Aristotle he introduced the form of argument known as ‘reduction to absurdity’. A famous example of his method is his ‘proof’ that a hare can never overtake a tortoise, because by the time that the hare has covered the distance between them the tortoise will have made some small advance. When this distance, too, has been covered by the hare, another advance, however small, will have been made by the tortoise and so on indefinitely, there will always be a fractional gap between them.
Zenobia (fl. c.260–270). Queen of Palmyra in Syria. After the death of her husband Odenathus, Rome’s ally against Persia, she ruled as regent for her son, established a brilliant court at Palmyra and increased her realm until she exercised power from the Egyptian frontier to the Black Sea. In 272 she revolted from Rome, her armies were defeated and her capital destroyed. Zenobia, in chains of gold, was led in the emperor *Aurelian’s triumphal procession through Rome. She died in a villa at Tivoli.
Zeppelin, Ferdinand, Count [Graf] von (1838–1917). German airship designer. As an officer in the Württemberg army, he became an observer in the American Civil War and retired in 1891 as a lieutenant-general. He soon fulfilled a long-held ambition to construct a rigid and dirigible airship. This he first accomplished in 1900. In 1912 he made a 12–hour flight which stirred such enthusiasm in Germany that 6,000,000 marks were raised for him to start a Zeppelin Institute for their manufacture. In World War I Zeppelins made several raids on England but their hydrogen-filled containers made them very vulnerable and they played only a restricted role. After the war Zeppelins were used commercially on flights between Germany and North and South America, but the superiority of aeroplanes and a series of disastrous accidents, notably the explosion of the ‘Hindenburg’ in Lakehurst, New Jersey, in May 1937, led to their abandonment.
Zernike, Fritz (1888–1966). Dutch physicist. Professor at Groningen University 1920–58, he won the Nobel Prize for Physics (1953) for his work from 1932 on the phase-contrast principle in microscopy, which made it possible to observe transparent, colourless micro-organisms in the living state.
Zetterling, Mai (1925–1994). Swedish actor and film director. Her most notable roles included Hedvig in The Wild Duck and Nora in The Doll’s House (film). She directed Night Games (1966) and Vincent the Dutchman (1973).
Zhang Yimou (1951– ). Chinese film actor and director, born in Xi’an. His highly acclaimed films include Red Sorghum (1987), Raise the Red Lantern (1991), The Story of Qiu Ju (1993) and To Live (1994), all featuring the actor Gong Li, and Hero (2004).
Zhang Zuolin (1873–1928). Chinese war lord. In the lawless period following the downfall of the Qing (Manchu) dynasty, Zhang with some aid from Japan, managed to carve out for himself in Manchuria almost a separate state and ruled in complete defiance of the central government. His power was, however, already waning when, while retreating before a government force, he was killed by a bomb. His son, Zhang Xueliang (1901–2001) succeeded his father as ruler of Manchuria until forced out by the Japanese (1931). In 1936 he kidnapped *Chiang Kaishek in the Xi’an incident and was imprisoned by the Guomintang in Taiwan 1949–61.
Zhao Ziyang (1918–2005). Chinese Communist politician. After serving as a party official in Guangdong province (1965–67), he was purged in the Cultural Revolution, rehabilitated and became First Secretary in Sichuan province 1975–80. A protégé of *Deng Xiaoping, he was Premier of China 1980–87 and General Secretary of the CCP 1987–89. He was dismissed from all posts because of his sympathy for the Tiananmen Square demonstrators and remained under house arrest until his death.
Zhdanov, Andrei Aleksandrovich (1896–1948). Russian politician. Son of a teacher, he became Communist Party Chief of Leningrad, succeeding *Kirov (1934–44) and was a Politburo member 1939–48. He organised the defence of Leningrad during the war, then emerged as *Stalin’s favourite, chief party ideologist and promoter of the ‘Zhdanov line’, which chastised composers and writers for deviating from party orthodoxy.
Zheng He (also Jen Ho, originally Ma He or San Bao) (c.1371–1433). Chinese admiral and diplomat. Born to a Mongol family, he became a eunuch in the Ming court and led seven great voyages of exploration for the *Yongle emperor (1405–07, 1409, 1411, 1413–15, 1417, 1421–23, 1433), visiting India, Ceylon, Persia, Java, Arabia and East Africa. His largest excursion involved 300 ships and 27,000 men and it has been speculated that Chinese ships visited North and South America, Greenland, Australia and New Zealand.
Menzies, G., 1421: The Year China Discovered the World. 2002.
Zhirinovsky, Vladimir Volfovich (1946– ). Russian nationalist politician. He founded the Liberal Democrats, a nationalist and xenophobic party that urged a return to Russia’s tsarist frontiers, opposed market reforms, resisted Western cultural influence and called for more military spending. He contested the presidential election in 1991, running third to Yeltsin. In December 1993 his party won 25 per cent of the popular vote in elections to the Duma.
Zhivkov, Todor Christov (1911–1998). Bulgarian Communist politician. A printer, he rose through the Communist Party apparatus and became First Secretary in 1954. Premier of Bulgaria 1962–71 and President 1971–89, he was a devoted follower of Moscow. His daughter Liudmilla Zhivkova (1942–1981), educated at Oxford, began to liberalise arts and media policy, then died suddenly of a cerebral haemorrhage. Convicted of embezzlement and abuse of power in 1992, he was kept under house arrest until 1997, then published self-serving Memoirs. He was the longest serving party leader in the Soviet bloc.
Zhou. Chinese dynasty, formerly called Chou (Wade-Giles). The Western Zhou were dominant in the period c.1100–771 BCE, the Eastern Zhou 770–256 BCE (in the time of *Confucius and *Lao Zi) and the Northern Zhou 557–81 CE.
Zhou Enlai (also Chou En Lai) (1898–1976). Chinese Communist politician, born in Kiangsu Province. Son of a bankrupt mandarin, he studied in Tianjin and Tokyo, was jailed in 1920, then went to Europe until 1924, mostly living in Paris (where he worked at a Renault plant). He joined the Chinese Communist Youth League (1921) and became a student organiser in France and Germany. He returned as CCP Secretary in Guangzhou (Canton), working closely with the Guomindang and their Russian military advisers, then taught at the Huangpu Military Academy and was a political commissar with *Chiang Kaishek’s 1st Army (1926). In 1927 he broke with Chiang, led an abortive rising in Shanghai, escaped with a price on his head and became a member of the CCP Politburo 1927–76, a record term. He worked in Moscow in 1928, then shared party leadership with *Li Lisan until another unsuccessful rising at Nangchan (1930) led to direct Russian political intervention in the CCP. He retreated to Jiangxi (Kiangsi) in 1931 and was a rival of Mao’s until the ‘Long March’ began. He then deferred to Mao (1935), accepted his ‘peasant strategy’ and was a leader in the March. His wife Deng Yingchao (1904–1992) was one of only 50 women who survived the entire Long March. When the Japanese war began, he was the CCP’s liaison officer with Chiang’s HQ at Chongqing (Chungking) (1937–45). After the revolution, he was first premier of the Peoples’ Republic 1949–76 and Foreign Minister 1949–58. Fluent in English and French, he was the best known figure of the regime overseas. He favoured greater technological change and closer links with the US to counter-balance Soviet influence in Asia. His position was strengthened by the 1973 Party Congress, then weakened by his own illness. Under *Deng Xiaoping his widow was elected to the Politburo (1978) and became head of the Chinese Peoples’ Political Consultative Committee 1983–88.
Wilson, D., Zhou Enlai. 1984.
Zhu De (also Chu Teh) (1886–1976). Chinese marshal and politician, born in Sichuan province. Son of a rich peasant, he took part in the 1911 Revolution against the Qing (Manchu) dynasty. He joined the army, rising to the rank of brigadier in 1916. He became an opium addict but, after breaking himself of the habit, was sent to Germany to study engineering in 1921. He joined the Communist Party in Berlin in 1922 and was expelled from Germany in 1926. He led the Nanchang rising against *Chiang Kaishek (1927) and in 1928 organised an army with *Mao Zedong. He became Commander-in-Chief of the 4th Red Army from 1931. With Mao he led the celebrated ‘Long March’ from Jiangxi to Yan’an (1934–36). He commanded the 8th Route Army against the Japanese until 1945, was Commander-in-Chief of the People’s Liberation Army 1945–54 and, after Chiang’s defeat, became Vice President of the People’s Republic 1949–59. He served as acting head of state 1968–76.
Zhu Di see Yongle emperor
Zhu Rongji (1928– ). Chinese Communist official. Trained as an engineer at Qinghua University, he joined the CCP in 1949 and worked through the Shanghai party machine. He was Mayor of Shanghai 1988–91, then appointed Deputy Prime Minister 1991–98, with special responsibility for promoting economic reforms, especially the ‘socialist market economy’. He succeeded *Li Peng as Prime Minister 1998–2003.
Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi) (1130–1200). Chinese philosopher, teacher and writer, born in Fukien province. As a civil servant under the *Song dynasty, finally working at the Imperial court, he wrote four commentaries on *Confucius (The Four Books, 1189) which became the basis of neo-Confucianism and were extremely influential in China, Japan and Korea, incorporating elements of Taoism and Buddhism, with a strong moral emphasis. His ideas became institutionalised and used as the basis of examinations for the civil service from 1313 until the 20th century. By then his thoughtful teachings had become fossilised.
Fung Yu-Lan, A History of Chinese Philosophy. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. 1953; Wing-Tsit Chan, An Outline and Annotated Bibliography of Chinese Philosophy. Rev. ed. 1969.
Zhu Yuanzhang see Hongwu emperor
Zhukov, Georgi Konstantinovich (1896–1974). Russian marshal. Son of a peasant, he served uncommissioned in World War I, joined the Red Army (1919) and rose steadily in rank until, in World War II, he became a marshal. When the Germans invaded Russia (1941) he commanded the central front and as Deputy Commissar for Defence 1942–44 (under *Stalin) directed the defence of Moscow and operations at Leningrad. His encirclement of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) resulted in the surrender of Field Marshal von Paulus (February 1943), the first major German defeat. He commanded the successful Ukraine offensive. The Battle of Kursk (July–August 1943) was the war’s greatest armoured engagement, both sides having more than a million men and 3000 tanks, marking defeat for the German summer offensive. Zhukov led Soviet forces into Poland and Romania (1944), captured Berlin in the last days of the war, received the German surrender (1945) and commanded the Russian occupation forces (1945–46). Stalin, fearing his popularity, kept him away from Moscow but in 1953 the new Soviet leaders made him Deputy Minister of Defence under *Bulganin. As Defence Minister (1955–57), he backed *Khrushchev in June 1955 after a Presidium majority voted to oust him, helped organise a reversal by the Central Committee and was rewarded first with promotion to the Presidium, then (October) with dismissal since the counter-coup proved his strength as a potential rival. His Memories and Reflections appeared in 1969.
Zia ul-Haq (1924–1988). Pakistani general. He rose to the rank of Lieutenant General and was appointed Army Chief of Staff by Z. A. *Bhutto in 1976. In July 1977, Zia took power as President and martial law administrator, and Bhutto was executed on a murder charge in 1979. He was killed in a plane crash.
Ziegfeld, Florenz (1869–1932). American impresario born in Chicago. He was renowned as a showman with the lavish production (1907) of the Ziegfield Follies, from whose chorus line many dancers, later well known, started their stage or matrimonial careers. Showboat (1927) was among his many successes. He worked with Jerome *Kern, Irving *Berlin and W. C. *Fields.
Ziegler, Karl Waldemar (1898–1973). German chemist. He was best known for his observation of the Ziegler Catalysts (e.g. titanium trichloride) which produce stereospecific polymers leading to greatly improved industrial plastics. He shared the 1963 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
Zieten, Hans Joachim von (1699–1786). Prussian soldier. A brilliant trainer and leader of cavalry, his exploits in the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years’ War made him a national hero. In the latter he was made a cavalry general on the battlefield of Liegnitz (1760) and by his dash won acclaim at Prague, Leuthen and Torgau. In his old age he was in high favour with *Friedrich II (‘the Great’).
Zinoviev, Grigori Evseyevich (né Hirsch Apfelbaum, later Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomylsky) (1883–1936). Russian revolutionary politician. He left Russia (1908) and lived abroad with *Lenin, as a Bolshevik propagandist. He was a foundation member of the CPSU Politburo 1917–26, President of the Third International 1919–26 and Party Chief in Leningrad 1921–26. He had become notorious in British politics when the publication (1924) of a letter, allegedly by him, urging the supporters in Britain to prepare for violent insurrection, contributed materially to Ramsay *MacDonald’s electoral defeat. After Lenin died (1924), party leadership was held by a triumvirate of *Stalin, *Kamenev and *Zinoviev. As Stalin moved towards one-man rule, Zinoviev allied himself with *Trotsky and was expelled from the party in 1926. Re-admission followed recantation but he was never again secure and was executed with Kamenev after condemnation in the 1936 treason trials. Kirovograd was named Zinoviesk after him between 1924 and 1936. He was ‘rehabilitated’ in 1988.
Zinzendorf, Nicolaus Ludwig, Graf [Count] von (1700–1760). German religious leader. By sheltering the persecuted Moravian Brethren on his estates. he enabled a revival to take place. His visits to England (where he came to know *Wesley), America and elsewhere greatly extended their influence.
Žižek, Slavoj (1949– ). Slovene philosopher and critic, born in Ljubljana. Educated at the University of Ljubljana, he was exceptionally versatile and a charismatic presenter as a celebrity philosopher, fluent in five languages, teaching in Ljubljana, Switzerland and London, a prolific writer and enthusiastic participant in conferences and television. Especially interested in Marxism, psychoanalysis and film theory, he declared a commitment to the elusive Communist ideal. His books include The Sublime Object of Ideology (1989), The Ticklish Subject (1999), The Parallax View (2006), First as Tragedy, Then as Farce (2009) and Living in the End Times (2011).
Zoë (Porphyrogenita) (c.978–1050). Byzantine Empress 1028–50. ‘Born to the purple’ (as her name indicates), she was the daughter of Emperor Constantine VIII. She had a tense relationship with her sister Theodora (980–1056), who was co-empress 1042 and sole empress 1055–56. Zoë’s three husbands Romanos II, Mikhaēl IV and *Constantine IX, were crowned as co-rulers. She was involved in the deaths of the first two.
Zoffany, John (c.1734–1810). German painter. Resident in England from c.1758, among his early patrons was David *Garrick for whom he painted Garrick in ‘The Farmer’s Return’ (1762) and similar works. From 1766 *George III commissioned royal portraits and conversation pieces and in 1768 he became a founder member of the Royal Academy. During a visit to India (1783–90) he found exotic subjects to extend his range. Although not a great painter, his works attract by their liveliness and glitter.
Millar, O., Zoffany and his Tribuna. 1967.
Zog I (Ahmed Bey Zogu) (1895–1961). King of Albania 1928–39. Before becoming King he had been Premier 1922–24 and President 1925–28. As King he was forced to rely on Italian support but he became irked by his dependence. As soon, however, as he tried to assert himself, *Mussolini ordered the invasion of his country. Zog took refuge abroad and was never able to return.
Zola, Émile (Édouard Charles Antoine) (1840–1902). French writer, born in Paris. After his father’s death (1847) he was brought up in poverty at Aix-en-Provence, where at the Collège de Bourbon he became a great friend of *Cézanne. His first novel, Thérèse Raquin (1867), a psychological crime story, established a new trend in fiction. Soon, however, he became deeply concerned about social evils and planned a series of novels relating the effects of environment on a single family (Les Rougon-Macquart) and intended to be an indictment of *Napoléon III’s regime. The empire had, however, collapsed years before the novels began to appear. This resulted in serious anachronisms as in Germinal (1885), where child labour in the coalfields, long abolished, was assailed as though it were one of the contemporary evils with which the novel was concerned. Other well known novels of this series include L’Assommoir (1877) on drunkenness and Nana (1880) on prostitution. His works lack humour, but their realism is impressive and few have evoked more convincingly the sordidness and stresses that accompanied the growth of industrialism. An exception was La Débâcle, a vivid story of the catastrophe of the Franco-Prussian War. Zola also made a name for himself in critical journalism and in 1898 made a sensational incursion into public affairs with ‘J’accuse’, an open letter to the French president which forced reconsideration of the celebrated *Dreyfus case. Also an excellent photographer, he accidentally gassed himself.
Wilson, A., Émile Zola: An Introductory Study of His Novels. 2nd ed. 1965; Rosen, M., The Disappearance of Émile Zola. 2015.
Zoroaster (c.630–c.553 BCE). Persian prophet. Little is known about him except that in middle life he appears to have converted a King Wishtaspa (Hystaspes) and to have lived and preached under his protection. His teaching postulates a contest between Good, personified as Ormuzd, and Evil, unmentionable by name but represented by the evil spirit Alriman and Asmodeus (wrath). The tradition of Zoroastrianism is maintained by the Parsees and their sacred writings, the Ayesta. These include the Gathas, philosophic poems almost certainly attributable to Zoroaster himself. In Thus Spake Zarathustra *Nietzsche makes Zoroaster the spokesman of his own ideas.
Zoser (Djoser) (c.2686–2613 BCE). Egyptian pharaoh of the IIIrd dynasty. The first major ruler of Egypt, he established his capital at Memphis (near modern Cairo) and created an efficient administrative system. His chief minister was *Imhotep. He built the first great pyramid, a six-step stone structure intended as his tomb, at Sakkara.
Zuckerberg, Mark Elliott (1984– ). American entrepreneur and programmer, born in New York. Educated at Harvard, in 2004 he became the co-founder of Facebook, was a billionaire at 23, and in 2018 was worth $US66 billion; by then Facebook had 2.2 billion users (more than the total number of Christians). Facebook was the most significant element in ‘social media’, which involved feedback loops, addictive behaviour, alienation, loss of privacy, withdrawal from civil discourse, disinformation and disregard for rational analysis, based on evidence. Facebook sold personal data of 87 million users, contributing to corruption in the 2016 US Presidential election.
Zuckerman, Solly Zuckerman, Baron (1904–1993). British anatomist, born in South Africa. Educated at Cape Town and London universities, he carried out research on the anatomy of monkeys and apes, and became professor of anatomy at Birmingham 1943–68. He advised the RAF against the saturation bombing of German cities during World War II and was chief scientific adviser to the British Government 1964–71. He was Secretary of the London Zoo 1955–77 and received the OM in 1968. His books include Star Wars in a Nuclear World (1987) and Monkeys, Men and Missiles (1988).
Zukerman, Pinchas (1948– ). Israeli violinist and conductor, born in Tel Aviv. He studied in Israel and New York, and was mentored by Isaac *Stern. He toured and recorded extensively, began conducting in 1970, directing orchestras in the US, UK and Canada.
Zuma, Jacob Gedleyihlekisa (1942– ). South African (Zulu) politician, born in Natal. He had no formal education, but became active both in the African National Congress (ANC) and the Communist Party. He was imprisoned on Robben Island with Nelson *Mandel, then worked with exiles in Mozambique, leaving the Communist Party in 1990. Deputy President of South Africa 1999–2005, he was elected leader of the ANC in 2007, defeating Thabo *Mbeki. After being acquitted of rape, corruption charges were dropped. Zuma was elected President of South Africa 2009–18, with a comfortable margin, being re-elected in 2014. He faced constant charges of rape and corruption, living in grandiose luxury, and in 2017 the ANC leadership was won by Cyril *Ramaphosa, who forced Zuma’s resignation (February 2018).
Zurbarán, Francisco de (1598–c.1664). Spanish painter. He worked mostly in Seville and in Madrid, but though he painted at the court of *Philip IV, his best work is found in his religious works and especially in pictures of single figures—saints and ascetic monks—at their devotions. The naturalism of his Spanish contemporary *Velázquez and the chiaroscuro of *Caravaggio are clear influences. His Still-life with Lemons, Oranges and a Rose (1633, Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena) has an extraordinary ecstatic quality and is his most reproduced work.
Sona, M. S., The Paintings of Zurbarán. 1953.
Zweig, Arnold (1887–1968). German writer, born in Silesia. His most famous work was The Case of Sergeant Grischa (1927). He left Germany to live in Palestine in 1934, returning to East Germany in 1948.
Zweig, Stefan (1881–1942). Austrian writer. Having gained an early reputation by his translations from English and French, he wrote a number of biographical essays, published in groups of three, e.g. *Balzac, *Dostoevsky and *Dickens (1910), *Casanova, *Stendhal and *Tolstoy (1928). He also wrote plays, short stories, essays and memoirs, e.g. The World of Yesterday (1943). He left Austria in 1934 and, after some years in England, reached Brazil where he and his wife committed suicide in despair at the condition of the world. His collection of musical manuscripts is in the British Library.
Prochnik, G., The Impossible Exile. Stefan Zweig at the End of the World. 2014.
Zwingli, Huldrych (or Ulrich) (1484–1531). Swiss religious reformer, born in Wildhaus, Sankt Gallen. After graduating at Basle University he became a parish priest at Glarus, and having served as chaplain in Italy denounced the mercenary system. In 1516 he moved to Einsiedeln, and denounced the superstitions connected with that place of pilgrimage. His wider influence, began with his appointment (1518) as preacher at the Great Minster in Zürich. Having persuaded the civil council to forbid the entry of indulgence sellers and the enlistment of mercenaries, he went on to preach that only those acts definitely forbidden in the scriptures need be regarded as sinful. Thus it was decided by the council that meat could be eaten in Lent, and other changes, e.g. the removal of images from church, were made after public discussion and debate. Eventually (1528) after a great disputation at Berne the Ten Theses of the Reformed Church were adopted. Meanwhile monasteries had been secularised and a communion service substituted for the Mass. In 1524 Zwingli’s own marriage was announced. An attempt by Philip of Hesse to bring German and Swiss Protestantism into accord failed at the Colloquy of Marburg (1529), Zwingli’s belief that the Communion should be only commemorative being in conflict with *Luther’s sacramental doctrines. But the Roman Catholic cantons of his native Switzerland were the immediate threat. Although a treaty between Romanist and Protestant cantons had been signed in 1529, the Catholics attacked Zurich territory and at the battle of Kappel (October 1531) Zwingli, once more a chaplain with the troops, was killed. He was the least dogmatic of the great reformers. His urge to reform the Church sprang not from striking religious experiences but from his studies of the Scriptures.
Potter, G., Zwingli. 1978; Stephens, W. P., Zwingli. An Introduction to His Thought. 1992.
Zworykin, Vladimir Kosma (1889–1982). American electronics engineer, born in Russia. He migrated to the US in 1919, investigated the photoelectric effect and, while working for the Westinghouse Electric Corp, developed (1924) a primitive electronic television camera, the kinescope, based on the cathode ray tube. Westinghouse showed little interest and in 1929 he joined RCA. By 1938 he had perfected his ‘Iconoscope’ which superseded the method of mechanical scanning devised by *Baird. He also worked on an electronic microscope with far greater magnifying power than optical instruments. Zworykin was called ‘the father of modern television’ (Philo *Farnsworth).
Zyuganov, Gennady Andreyevich (1944– ). Russian Communist politician. A teacher from the Orel region, he became Chairman of the Executive of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation 1993– , a Duma member and a presidential candidate, losing to *Yeltsin in the elections of June–July 1996. He also ran for president in 2000, 2008 and 2012, in the last polling 17 per cent against Vladimir *Putin.