The Joy of Sanskrit
Week 20. Vocabulary
Week 20. Makkomas-sūtras
20.1 Verbal classes 1,4,6 and 10 (‘thematic verbs’) are ‘easy’, stems all end in -a, single form of stem only.
20.2 Non-1,4,6 and 10s (‘athematic verbs’) are ‘tricky’, stems often end in consonants, and have weak and strong forms.
20.3 In Non-1,4,6, and 10s, the singular (plus others) are strong.
20.4 Active construction: ‘The dog bites the man’. Passive construction: ‘The man is bitten by the dog’.
20.5 Passives are built off the root, add -ya- plus middle endings.
20.6 In a passive construction, the logical object of the verb is the grammatical subject of the sentence.