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The Joy of Sanskrit

Week 20. Vocabulary




Week 20. Makkomas-sūtras


20.1 Verbal classes 1,4,6 and 10 (‘thematic verbs’) are ‘easy’, stems all end in -a, single form of stem only.

20.2 Non-1,4,6 and 10s (‘athematic verbs’) are ‘tricky’, stems often end in consonants, and have weak and strong forms. 

20.3 In Non-1,4,6, and 10s, the singular (plus others) are strong.

20.4 Active construction: ‘The dog bites the man’. Passive construction: ‘The man is bitten by the dog’.

20.5 Passives are built off the root, add -ya- plus middle endings.

20.6 In a passive construction, the logical object of the verb is the grammatical subject of the sentence.


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