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Indigenous and Minority Placenames Australian and International Perspectives

2. Comitative placenames in central NSW1

David Nash

The Australian National University and Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies

1. Introduction

Jerilderie, Narrandera, Cootamundra, Gilgandra are placenames familiar beyond their districts in inland New South Wales (NSW), and the casual observer can notice dozens of placenames with similar endings -dra, -drie, -dgery (and other English spellings), all taken (correctly) to be of Indigenous origin. The places with these names are all in inland NSW, and not in adjacent Victoria (or elsewhere in Australia).

The common ending of these placenames reflect a particular ending in Wiradjuri, a widespread Indigenous language of inland NSW. Indeed the ending is also present in the name of the language, and has had dozens of variant spellings, notably Wiradhuri, and Waradgery (as in the commemorative names Waradgery County and Waradgery Shire centred on Hay). The ending (or suffix) involved indicates a meaning which in English is conveyed by a separate word such as ‘with’, ‘having’, ‘accompanied by’, and so on. The term Comitative or Proprietive has been used to designate a suffix with such meanings; here I use Comitative to denote the suffix. The modern Wiradjuri dictionary lists the suffix thus:

-dhuray having, often used in place names applied to the name of an animal or vegetable, as in the following: Cootamundra (gudhamang-dhuray = having tortoise), Narrandera (ngarrang-dhuray, having frilled-lizard) Jerildery (dyiril-dhuray, having reeds) (R)2 (Grant and Rudder 2010: 351)

This study looks into the etymology of placenames bearing the -dhuray suffix and shows that the evidence of these placenames can throw light on linguistic matters (such as on variation in morphology), on linguistic geography, and potentially on some aspects of culture.

2. Method

This study concentrates on the most securely documented instances of Comitative placenames: ones with a convincing combination of supporting information. I take as convincing the combination of two kinds of information from old sources (usually a source dating from the 19th century3 when the Wiradjuri language was still widely known): (a) an attribution of meaning to the particular placename bearing the Comitative suffix, together with (b) a corroboration in the Wiradjuri lexicon of the implied stem. Thus we are considering the more securely documented placenames with an etymology based on older records (‘testimony’) and wordlist data. For these we can have ‘greatest certainty about the meaning of a placename’ (Koch 2009: 147–148).

The investigation began when I combed the historical sources on Wiradjuri, and on other sources which include placename origins for the general area including Wiradjuri country. I compiled a list of those placenames apparently bearing the Wiradjuri Comitative suffix (ones terminating in -dra, -drie, -dgery etc) and concentrated on those with supporting etymological information.

As a check whether I had overlooked relevant placenames, I used the Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW (Geographical Names Board 2011). All names with location west of Longitude 150°E were extracted from the GNR, as the 150°E meridian falls conveniently to the east of Wiradjuri country and excludes most of the NSW placenames on and east of the Great Dividing Range (which form the majority). This subset of NSW placenames was then sorted from the end of the word, thereby grouping spellings ending such as dra, dry, drie, dgery, gerie, and some in dara. For only a handful of the extracted placenames does the GNR provide any ‘Meaning’ information (and what does occur usually repeats information I had already found in an old source).

These potentially relevant placenames and the etymological information (where available) were combined into a spreadsheet along with attributes of location and feature type.4 Along with the coordinates these placenames were transferred (via CSV format and GPSBabel+ software) to a KML file, and then displayed with software such as Google Maps, Google Earth, and QGIS.

Ch.%202%20Map1.tiff

Map 1: Location of placenames with the Comitative suffix, from historical sources (table 1), Equirectangular projection.

Source: Made with QGIS and Natural Earth, free vector and raster map data from naturalearthdata.com.

3. Wiradjuri Comitative placenames

As can be seen in map 1, the placenames of this study form a north-south band across central NSW. The form of the ending falls into three main types, as indicated by the location symbol used on the map:

  1. 1. -dVra dera, dra Narrandera, Gilgandra, …
  2. 2. -dVri dry, drie, darie, thery Jerilderie, Mulyandry, …
  3. 3. -djVri dgery, gerie, gery, jerry Eumungerie, Coradgery, …

The placenames shown in map 1 are listed in table 1 along with information on the etymology. The first four columns provide the coordinates (in decimal degrees), the placename, and its feature type. All this information has been copied from the GNR where possible, however a few extra placenames are included from other sources. The ‘source’ column in table 1 is where the placename is associated with a meaning in old (usually 19th century) records. The ‘stem’ and ‘gloss’ column provides the stem and its meaning (usually in Grant and Rudder’s spelling or sometimes a similar spelling using cover symbols such as R for an indeterminate rhotic, or D for an indeterminate non-peripheral stop consonant).

Note that the first vowel of the Comitative suffix is the high vowel /u/, and so placenames ending like dara are unlikely candidates to involve the Comitative suffix. This fits with the lack of etymological information for any of the potential candidates (such as Wattamondara). Also, no placenames happen to be included whose spelling terminates like djVra, again because for none of the candidates (such as Cookamidgera) is there etymological information.

In table 2 are other placenames in the same general area which appear to involve the Comitative ending, with for each the Wiradjuri stem which appears best to match with the form of the placename. The placenames in Table 2, however, lack supporting testimony from older sources, and the association with the Wiradjuri stem is no more than a suggestion, one that may tested by further research. The placenames listed in Table 2 are shown on Map 2.

Ch.revised-2%20Map2.tif

Map 2: Location of placenames possibly with the Comitative suffix, without historical corroboration (Table 2), Equirectangular projection.

Source: Made with QGIS and Natural Earth, free vector and raster map data from naturalearthdata.com.

4. Discussion

Now that we have assembled the fairly secure information in Table 1 (and Map 1), and the more speculative but nonetheless valuable information in Table 2 (and Map 2), we can make some generalisations about the geographic distribution of the Wiradjuri Comitative placenames, and about the form of the suffix, and about its meaning and that of words bearing the suffix.

4.1. Geographic distribution

The placenames with a fairly secure Wiradjuri etymology (those in Table 1 and on Map 1) are, unsurprisingly, within the territory of Wiradjuri. This can be seen more clearly on Map 3, on which the language areas have been marked by Bowern (2011) in accordance with Tindale’s (1970) map and similar sources.

The only names not within the Wiradjuri area indicated on Map 3 are a couple of names (Cajildry etc, and Gradgery) within Ngiyampaa country not far north-west of Wiradjuri country, and Teridgerie in the north. Interestingly the GNR tells us that Teridgerie Creek has Terembone Creek as an alternate name, and previous names ‘Myall Creek; Urawilkie or Terembong Creek Teridg; Urawilkie Creek’; among these Terembone ~ Terembong bears the Comitative suffix -buwan of the local language.

The names of Table 1 are noticeably absent from a strip along the east of Wiradjuri territory. The absence may be an accidental by-product of the adventitious ways in which Indigenous placenames made it onto colonial maps, or there may be some underlying causes discernible from the history of the early colonial period. One is that the colonists spreading westward from the Sydney region when first encountering Wiradjuri tended not to record Indigenous placenames, especially in the period before it was encouraged by the authorities (notably Macquarie and Mitchell). Another possibility is that Wiradjuri language is not involved in placenames in this eastern strip, and that the Wiradjuri spread eastward to occupy the strip when the original owning groups could not sustain their presence there (whether from disease, massacre, or forced relocation). Clearly this is a fraught topic, and I leave it for considered historical investigation.5

Ch.%20revised-2%20Map3.tiff

Map 3: Placenames of Table 1 overlain on language areas map (Bowern 2011), Equirectangular projection.

Source: Made wth QGIS and Natural Earth, free vector and raster map data from naturalearthdata.com.

Turning to the placenames with speculative etymology involving the Wiradjuri Comitative, the names of Table 2, it is readily apparent that these (as on Map 2) are spread over a broader area. More so than on Maps 1 and 3, a number are located away from the focal cluster, and we can suspect these are not actually original Wiradjuri Comitative placenames. There are a couple of possible explanations for the existence of these outliers. One is that the placename shows a chance resemblance to a Wiradjuri word, but actually derives from its local language and does not exhibit the Wiradjuri Comitative ending. One possible example of this is Gindantherie Parish (about 35 km north of Lithgow).6

Another explanation for an apparent outlier is that it is a transplanted name, that is, one copied to another location in the colonial period or later. I have tried to minimise the effect of transplanted copy names in this study by the rule of thumb that names borne by natural or indigenous features are more likely to be original than names borne by an introduced feature (such as a street, house or small property). A copy name is noticeable when it is geographically out of place and spelled the same as a prior placename recorded within the focal cluster. A candidate example is Tarrabandra, a name applied to three separate Parishes; the ones in the far north-west and far south of the state may well have been copied, whereas the intermediate Parish is associated with a Rural Place (near Gundagai). We need to look for further historical evidence bearing on whether the outlier placenames were indeed transplanted.

Of course a transplanted name might be located well within traditional Wiradjuri country, and thus will not have an anomalous location. Similarly, some unanalysed placename may just show a chance resemblance to the Comitative ending. It has to be accepted that, given our incomplete record of the full Wiradjuri lexicon, and an absence of origin information for some placenames, there will be some placenames with unresolvable etymologies.

4.2. The Wiradjuri Comitative suffix

Grant and Rudder’s Wiradjuri Dictionary (quoted in the Introduction) draws on the two previous published descriptions of Wiradjuri grammar. Both those descriptions date from the period 1838–40, at the Wellington Valley Mission, and were written independently of each other. Both arose from a missionary who was learning the language, namely J.W. Günther, and William Watson. (None of Watson’s original analysis survives, and we know of it from his collaboration with the visiting philologist Horatio Hale.)

The 19th century grammars describe the Comitative suffix, and transcribed it as follows:

-durai ‘Conjunctive case’ (Günther 1892)

-dhurei, -dhurai (Watson in Hale 1846)

-durei ‘with, in company with’ (Hale 1846: 492)7

Consistent with this, Austin (1997: 39) reconstructed *-dhurraay ‘comitative’ for the Ngiyampaa-Wiradjuri subgroup of Proto Central NSW (pCNSW), drawing also on Donaldson’s (1980) grammar of Ngiyampaa, Wiradjuri’s closest neighbour, and the only other language whose Comitative suffix can have the same form as Wiradjuri’s:

-DHuray is occasionally substituted for -buwan by some Trida speakers. It does not appear to function differently from -buwan in any way, except that it is rarely used. (Donaldson 1980: 112).

In Ngiyampaa as in Wiradjuri, the suffix is the nominal Comitative, and “can often be conveniently glossed as ‘having’ or ‘(being) with’” (Donaldson 1980: 107). Note however there are next to no recorded placenames containing -DHuray in Ngiyampaa country (the exception is Cajildry etc on the Bogan River, mentioned in section 4.1 above). This would fit with Donaldson’s (1980: 107) observation that the Ngiyampaa Comitative ‘cannot mark forms whose reference is definite’: placenames, like any proper name, are inherently definite.

The 19th century grammars of Wiradjuri described allomorphy in the nominal case endings of the Ergative and Locative, but mention no variation in the Comitative.8 That is, they do not tell us about variation that is now readily seen in the recorded Wiradjuri placenames. Consider the placenames of types dVra and dVri on Map 1; both types have much the same spread across the Wiradjuri area. Notice though that almost all the placenames of types dVra and dVri in Table 1 have a n or l immediately preceding the suffix (as in Narrandera, Jerilderie, and so on), whereas in the djVri type a palatal nasal (in pronunciation) or vowel immediately precedes the suffix (as in Eumungerie, Coradgery). There is only one vowel-final stem (dhulu ‘spear’) represented in the dVra and dVri types in Table 1.

The pattern can be described as an assimilation of the first consonant of the suffix, along these lines:

  • • DH  d immediately following n or l
  • • DH  dj immediately following a palatal consonant (y, ny)

Note that some of the djVri type are derived from a stem ending in y, such as garay in Coradgery, and the y drops out when the suffix is added. The general allomorphy pattern here accords with the pattern in Ngiyampaa, as detailed by Donaldson (1980).

4.3 Final vowel variation and doublets

There is variation evident also in the final vowel of the Comitative placenames. It seems that the -DHuray suffix can take two forms -DHura (the dVra type above) and -DHuri (the dVri and djVri types above). This variation was not described in the 19th century grammars of Wiradjuri. I have not detected any pattern to the final vowel variation, apart from a partial geographical component: most dVra type placenames on Map 1 (represented by a red pushpin) are in the southern half of the distribution. There are only two in the northern half: Bulgandramine and Bindogandra, and both of these are somewhat unusual: Bulgandramine is the only placename where the stem+Comitative is compounded with another noun, barrgan+dura-mayin ‘boomerang+Comitative-man’;9 and Bindogandra has an alternate of dVri type, Bindogandri. On the other hand, several of the dVra type placenames with speculative etymologies (Table 2) are in the north, such as Gilgandra, Gunnegaldra and Tenandra.

It can be noted here that there are a few Comitative placenames recorded by Günther near his Wellington Valley Mission, and they include the only known placenames which retained the final diphthong of the Comitative. These are presented in Table 3. Two of these, Dawindurai ~ Douwingerie and Yurugaidyurai, are not listed in the GNR and there appears to be no other record of Yurugaidyurai. We might infer from this slim evidence that the pronunciation of the final ay diphthong changed to a simple vowel a or i during the 19th century.

Further on this variation, there are some pairs of similar placenames differing mainly in the final vowel of the ending (on the same stem), like the Bindogandra / Bindogandri pair already dicussed. Some of the pairs are quite distinct locations (such as Geraldra / Gereldery / Jerilderie, and Willandra / Willanthry Willandry), and some are a single location with variant forms of what we can presume is the one name (such as Cootamundra / Cootamundry and Gunnegaldrie / Gunnegaldra). The others to be found in the tables are Ulandra / Ulundry Yullundry, and Timaldra / Timaldrie. (Another pair, not listed in the tables because of the lack of even a speculative etymology, is Mundawaddra / Mundawaddery in the Lockhart district.) The spread of these variant pairs counts against the north/south pattern discerned on Map 1, and we are left without a satisfactory explanation for the final variation.

4.4 Semantic pattern

Consideration of semantics can assist the assessment of the fragmentary etymological information. For the placenames with relatively secure etymology, in Table 1, we can see that the stem meanings are concrete entities: flora and fauna terms, some artefacts, and some topographic terms. This semantic range corresponds fairly well with the range seen across the speculative etymologies indicated in Table 2.

5. Conclusion

The study shows that placename evidence can provide linguistic information to supplement grammatical description, and can demonstrate the affiliation with country of a particular Indigenous language. The study of this one suffix used to form placenames in one language (Wiradjuri) has shown a logical pattern in variations in the form of the suffix. The geographic distribution of the placenames is shown to match, and thereby be a further expression of, the extent of Wiradjuri country.

Table 1. Toponyms in -DHurray with recorded source, in form types, each ordered alphabetically by stem.

Lat

Long

Placename

designation

source

stem

gloss

dVra

-32.60

148.10

Bulgandramine

Rural place

DDB (Dubbo) AAJ 1.2,12; JJ Garnsey SM 3.6,98

barrganA

boomerang (etc)

-32.63

148.20

Bulgandramine

Parish

-33.13

148.30

Bindogundra

Rural Place

bindugan

mussel

-33.17

148.35

Bindogundra

Parish

-33.13

148.33

Bindogundra Creek

Creek

-33.13

148.70

Brymedura

Rural Place, Parish

SM 7.6,88 Manildra; Stutchbury 1852

?

‘a mallee hen’s nest’

-34.38

147.88

Geraldra

Parish

dyiRil

reeds

-34.37

147.90

Geraldra

Trig. Station

-34.37

147.90

Geraldra Hill

Hill

-35.33

147.48

Cajaldura Hill

Hill

JJ Baylis

gadyal

hollow

-33.15

148.25

Kamandra

Parish

‘old woman’ Western Champion 21/12/1916,22 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112321812

ngamandhurayB

a marriageable woman

-34.81

147.28

Kindra

Trig. Station

JJ Baylis

giiN-

tree sp.

-34.75

147.38

Kindra Creek

River

-

-34.65

148.03

Cootamundra

Locality

C Richards SM 5.11,181; Kuta-mundra ‘river turtle’ Howitt 1904:56C

guDamang

turtle

-34.63

147.00

Cootamundra

Parish

-34.68

148.02

Cootamundra

Trig. Station

-35.90

147.18

Mulyanjandera

JFH Mitchell p6 = SM 8.4,15 Yan is to go.

maliyaN

eaglehawk

-35.90

147.14

Mullanjandra

Trig. Station

maliyaN

eaglehawk

-35.90

147.18

Mullanjandra

Parish

-35.92

147.13

Mullanjandra Creek

Creek

-35.90

147.01

Mullengandra

Trig. Station

(maluŋgaN?)D

-35.92

147.13

Mullengandra

Locality, Ck

-35.90

147.18

Mullengandra

Parish

-34.72

146.55

Narrandera

Parish

C Richards SM 5.11,181; Nurrung-derry Woolrych 1890:68, Howitt 1904:56C

ngaRang

frill-necked lizard, ‘prickly lizard’

-34.73

146.50

Narrandera

Trig. Station

-34.75

146.55

Narrandera

Locality

-33.18

146.20

Hyandra

Parish

‘trees growing in locality now called Oak’ RASA 2004:137 Euabalong

ngany (ngayiny?) Ngain(y) ‘The “Forest” oak or “Belar” tree’ (C Richards SM 5.10,165) (sc. Casuarina cristata)

oak tree, ‘bull oak Casuarina luehmannii’ (Grant & Rudder 2010)

-32.88

148.43

Hyandra

Parish

-32.30

148.47

Hyandra

Rural Place

-32.38

148.43

Hyandra Well

Spring

-34.77

147.90

Ulandra

Parish

yulang

‘a little shrub’ (G in F 109)

-34.82

147.90

Ulandra

Trig. Station

-34.75

147.82

Ulandra Creek

Creek

dVri

-35.62

146.60

Bulgandry

Rural Place

TL Richardson SM 2.11,212

bargan ~ balgang

boomerang

-35.62

146.63

Bulgandry

Trig. Station

-35.59

146.64

Bulgandry

Parish

-33.13

148.33

Bindogandri Creek

Creek

bindugan

mussel

-33.13

148.30

Bindogandri

Rural Place

-33.17

148.35

Bindogandri

Parish

-32.57

148.43

Dilladerry Spring

Spring

SM 7.4,43 Dubbo District

dhulu

spear (G in F 82)

-33.23

148.62

Dulladerry Creek

Creek

A Dulhunty SM 3.2,32

dhulu

-33.18

148.53

Delladerry

Ck

dhulu

-35.27

147.80

Dellateroy CreekE

Creek

dhulu

-32.70

148.53

Dilladerry

Rural Place

dhulu

-32.43

148.60

Dilladery Creek

Creek

-33.23

148.62

Dulladerry

Creek, Parish

‘Dulladulladerry Ck’ Stutchbury 1852

dhulu, dhuludhulu

big logs of wood (G in F 82)

-34.74

147.07

Dulah Dulah Derry Lagoon

Lagoon

RB Mackenzie SM 7.3,43

dhuludhulu

-35.36

145.75

Jerilderie

Town

C Richards SM 5.11,181

dyiRil

reeds, reed spear

-35.70

145.82

Gereldery

Parish

dyiRil

-35.35

145.73

Jerilderie

Trig. Station

dyiRil

-31.98

147.33

Cajildry

HS

TL Richardson SM 2.9,155[166]

gadhal

smoke (cf gadjal ‘hollow’)

-32.00

147.50

Cadduldury

gadhal

-32.08

147.33

Caduldary

gadhal

-32.00

147.50

Cagildry

SM 7.6,90 Dandaloo

gadhal

-32.25

147.30

Cajildry

Parish

gadhal

-32.00

147.50

Cudduldury

gadhal

-34.55

146.30

Gogeldrie

Locality

JJ Baylis

gadyal

hollow

-34.62

146.33

Gogeldrie

Parish

-32.68

147.58

Gobondery

Rural Place

guba(ng)

Cooba, native willow

-33.08

146.80

Coobothery

HS

guba(ng)

-32.77

147.57

Gobondry

Parish

guba(ng)

-32.80

147.57

Gobondry Mountains

Hill

guba(ng)

-33.15

146.82

Goobothery

Parish

guba(ng)

-33.13

146.77

Goobothery Ridge

Ridge

SM 7.6,88 Condobolin

guba(ng)

-33.52

147.73

Gooburthery Hill

Hill

guba(ng)

-34.68

148.02

Cootamundry

Trig. Station

gudhamang

turtle

-34.65

148.03

Cootamundry

Town

-34.63

148.02

Cootamundry Creek

Creek

-33.53

148.13

Mulyandry

Locality

maliyaN

eaglehawk

-33.53

148.12

Mulyandry

Parish

-33.55

148.17

Mulyandry

Trig. Station

-33.57

148.25

Mulyandry Creek

Creek

-35.70

146.72

Walbundrie

Locality

JJ Baylis ‘hurt in the hip’

wirbunba

lame (G in F 106)

-32.62

149.03

Waughgundrie

SM 7.6,89 Wellington

waagan

crow

-34.02

146.90

Wallandry CreekF

Creek

G in F 65

walang

stone

-35.15

147.18

Yarragundry

Trig. Station

JJ Baylis ‘black lumps on gum trees’

yaRa-gaN-

white gum -?

-32.83

148.68

Yullundry

Locality

SM 7.6.90 Walgett

yulang

‘a little shrub’ (G in F 109)

-31.22

148.50

Ulundry

Parish

yulang

-32.87

148.62

Yullundry

Trig. Station

yulang

-35.12

147.25

Uranquintry

Parish, Town

JJ Baylis Yerongquinty ‘plenty of rain’, Reed 1969:143

yuRung

cloud, rain

-34.35

145.30

Uardry

Parish

JJ Baylis

yuwaR

yellow box tree

-34.60

146.20

Euwarderry Lagoon

Anabranch

yuwaR

dVrai

-32.58

148.97

Dawindurai

G 1840 MS p341=97

dhawiny

stone axe

djVri

-32.58

148.97

Balbudgerie

SM 7.6,89 Wellington

barrbay

rock wallaby

-34.70

147.18

Berry Jerry

Trig. Station

JJ Baylis AAJ 1.2,12

birri

white box tree, E. albens

-35.00

147.75

WantabadgeryG

Parish

SM 7.6,89 Mudgee ‘fighting’

bundi-nya

to fall

-35.07

147.70

Wantabadgery Lagoon

Lagoon

-30.90

148.83

Teridgerie

Locality

Cain 1923:372 Tirridgeree ‘rough bushes which grows in creeks’

daRi

old stumps of grassH

-30.80

148.89

Teridgerie

Parish

daRi

-30.68

148.62

Teridgerie

Creek

daRi

-32.58

148.97

Douwingerie

SM 7.6,89 Wellington

dhawiny

stone axe

-32.62

149.05

Galwadgerie Gully

Gully

SM 7.6,89 Wellington

galuwa

lizard

-32.65

148.98

Galwadgere

Parish

galuwa

-32.90

148.03

Coradgery

Rural Place

SM 7.6,90 Peak Hill

garay

sand

-33.45

147.82

Corradgery Range

Ridge

garay

sand

-31.23

147.83

Gradgery

Rural Place

garay

sand

-33.32

147.77

Corridgery

Parish

garay

sand

-33.35

147.80

Corridgery

Trig. Station

-33.35

147.80

Corridgery Ridge

Ridge

-31.23

147.90

Gradgery

Parish

garay

sand

-31.25

147.92

Gradgery

Trig. Station

-32.40

148.73

Murrumbidgerie

Locality, Parish

‘Murrumbidgere’ Stuchbury 1852; E Gastelow SM 2.11,209

maRumbang

very good

-32.41

148.70

Murrumbidgerie Fall

Rapids

-32.48

147.92

Mungery

Rural Place

DDB (Dubbo) AAJ 1.2,12; ‘a place of native willow’ (SM 2.11,211-3); ‘sticky mud’ (SM 3.6,98 7.4,58, 14.2,39), ‘red ground’ (SM 7.6,90 Peak Hill)

muny

swampy black soil; a kind of ground spider G in F 99

-32.49

147.86

Mungery

Trig. Station

-31.10

148.67

Mungery

Parish

-31.08

148.67

Mungery Creek

Creek

-34.37

146.92

Yarranjerry Creek

Creek

G in F 108

yarrany

Acacia homalophylla

djVrai

-32.60

148.95

Yurugaidyurai

G in F 109

yuRugay

thistle

Note A: The placename is glossed as ‘blackfellow with a boomerang in his hand’ (DDB (Dubbo) AAJ 1.2,12) Also Bulgandirramine dirra ‘hand’ RB Mackenzie SM 7.3,43; ‘throwing boomerang from the hand’ SM 7.4,58, corrected ‘man with a shield’ SM 7.5,77; ‘where boomerangs are found’ Peak Hill SM 7.6,90; Bulgandrammi from bulgan-derria-mine SM 14.2,39 (? from JJ Garnsey). The second stem is mayiN ‘Aboriginal man’.

Note B: ‘Ngamondurai—a marriageable woman’ ‘Ngamon—milk’ (Günther 1892: 91).

Note C: Howitt (1904: 56) says this name applies to one of the sections (hordes) of the Wiradjuri ‘perpetuated in the names of the places where these sections had their headquarters’.

Note D: The GNR gives Mullanjandra as the previous spelling of the four Mullengandra. Donaldson (1985: 77) proposed the etymology Maliyan-kaan-thurray ‘with a small or young eaglehawk or eaglehawks’. The modern pronunciation of Mullengandra (with g pronounced [g]) might also allow the stem maluŋgaN ‘girl’, as for Mullengudgery (Table).

Note E: The placename Dellateroy is included because of its similarity to Dilladery, which in turn is sometimes given as an alternate of Dulladerry, and thus related to dhulu ‘spear’. However, it is in a separate locality, has no related origin information itself, and is the only placename in this Table where the ending is spelled as a voiceless stop (t) rather than a voiced stop (d, dj, etc.).

Note F: Another possible placename with the stem walang is Wallanthery (a Locality and Parish at 33.35°S 145.83°E).

Note G: Charles Sturt first recorded this placename as Pondebadgery Plain (1829) (Reed 1969: 145), which form could be derived from the verb bundi-nya ‘to fall’, fighting with the meaning ‘fighting’. However the connection with the ‘fighting’ meaning is by no means certain, as it is recorded in a Mudgee list, from a long way north of Wantabadgery; the Mudgee list may relate to Wantabudgery Creek (31.66°S 149.02°E) east of Gilgandra. Also J.J. Baylis recorded Wantabadgery ‘getting wet’, which lacks corroboration.

Note H: Darri ‘old stumps of grass’ (Günther 1892: 80) may be the same word as Dtha’ree ‘pitted, excavated, hollow, casts’ (C. Richards 1902: 166).

Table 2. Toponyms in -DHurray with no recorded source, in form types, each ordered alphabetically by suggested stem.

Lat

Long

Placename

designation

source

suggested stem

gloss

dVra

-34.17

147.63

Boginderra

Parish

bagin

wound, sore; evil spirit

-34.28

147.63

Boginderra Hills

Hill

-34.77

146.17

Banandra

Parish

baNang

flesh (not edible)

-34.72

146.20

Banandra State Forest

Forest

-32.83

149.07

Boduldura Creek

Creek

buDul buDul

far off, high; bluish air at a distance

-32.88

149.10

Boduldura

Parish

-32.77

148.88

Blathery Creek

Creek

biilaa

forest oak or belah Casuarina cristata

-33.3

148.60

Blathery

Stuchbury 1852

-35.12

148.18

Tarrabandra

Rural Place

dhaRabaN

having many wives; to sit cross-legged

-29.67

143.24

Tarrabandra

Parish

-35.15

148.17

Tarrabandra

Parish

-36.90

148.50

Tarrabandra

Parish

-35.97

146.85

Jindera

Trig. Station

dhin

meat, flesh; inner rind of wild pear

-35.97

146.88

Jindera

Locality

-35.97

146.92

Jindera

Parish

-36.02

146.83

Jindera Hills

Hill

-36.05

147.93

Tintaldra

dhindDar

bald-headed

-31.60

147.85

Tenandra

Locality

dhinhang

foot

-35.07

147.82

Tenandra

Trig. Station

-35.00

147.83

Tenandra

Parish

-31.47

147.93

Tenandra

Parish

-31.22

148.77

Tenandra

Rural Place

-33.67

148.78

Tenandra

Parish

-32.33

148.98

Tenandra

Parish

-32.95

148.03

Tenandra Creek

Creek

-31.20

148.72

Tenandra Creek

Creek

-33.68

148.75

Tenandra Creek

Creek

-31.33

149.07

Tenandra Creek

Creek

-31.22

148.73

Tenandra Hill

Hill

-33.65

148.70

Tenandra Knob

Hill

-32.95

148.05

Tenandra Plain

Plain

-31.71

148.67

Gilgandra

Locality

gilgaayI

gilgai, holes on ground

-31.70

147.83

Gunnegaldra

HS

guNigal

plain, valley

-33.20

148.62

Manildra

Locality

Minildra on Stuchbury 1852; cf. Nash 2010

?

-30.92

144.56

Wallandra

Parish

walang ?

stone ?

-33.19

145.68

Wallandra

Parish

-34.28

143.02

Willandra Billabong

Billabong

?

?

-32.95

143.82

Willandra

Parish

-33.03

143.85

Willandra Anabranch

Creek

-33.16

144.34

Willandra

Parish

-33.20

145.13

Willandra

Rural Place

‘little waters, creek’ E Sharpe SM 2.11,211

-33.20

145.27

Willandra Creek (previously Billabong)

Creek

-33.97

146.89

Willandra, previously Wallandra

Trig. Station

-34.03

146.92

Willandra

Parish

-32.23

148.52

Whylandra Creek, Willandra Creek, Woolandra Creek

Creek

-32.37

149.68

Wyaldra

Trig. Station

wayal

kangaroo skin

-32.37

149.65

Wyaldra

Parish

-32.32

149.60

Wyaldra Creek

Creek

-32.36

148.93

Windora

Rural Place

wiing

wood, fire

-33.25

146.63

Yaddra

Rural Place

McCarthy (1963) in GNR

yaDal

to be too narrow

-32.53

147.57

Yethera

Rural Place

yaDal

to be too narrow

dVri

-34.05

146.03

Ballandry

Trig. Station

JJ Baylis AAJ 1.2,12 ‘far away’

balang

head; Ballanda ‘long ago; at the first; in the beginning’ (G in F 70)

-34.08

146.10

Ballandry Tank

Tank

-32.40

147.12

Bumbaldry

Parish

? banbalJ

the place where the native men meet first in the morning; a place of assembly (G)

-33.87

148.42

Bumbaldry

Locality

-33.90

148.43

Bumbaldry

Village

-33.92

148.50

Bumbaldry

Parish

-33.90

148.42

Bumbaldry Creek

Creek

-33.85

148.42

Bumbaldry Hills

Ridge

-31.14

145.89

Tindayrey

Parish

dhin

meat, flesh

-35.70

149.32

Tinderry

Locality

dhin

meat, flesh

-32.87

149.00

Tinandry

dhinhang

foot

-32.82

148.85

Gerotherie

HS?

dyiru

kangaroo rat

-34.28

146.98

Kildary Creek

Creek

gil

urine

-34.13

147.00

Kildary

Rural Place

-34.27

147.03

Kildary

Trig. Station

-34.15

147.12

Kildary

Parish

-33.17

150.25

Gindantherie

Parish

gindhaany

ringtail possum

-33.20

148.30

Cookamethery

out station

Western Champion 21/12/1916,22 http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112321812; later Cookamidgera

-32.87

148.78

Googodery Creek

Creek

gugu

water, cup

-32.63

149.42

Goondudery

Popl

gundhay

red stringybark tree

-33.23

146.13

Gooniguldry

Pond

guNigal

plain, valley

-31.67

147.73

Gunnegaldrie Tank

Tank

guNigal

-33.23

146.13

Gunniguldrie

Hs

guNigal

-32.87

148.02

Coogoorderoy

Ck

guugur

knee

-34.35

147.33

Quandary

Parish

guwaNK

blood

-34.33

147.35

Quandary

Trig. Station

-34.38

147.32

Quandary

Locality

-34.40

147.32

Quandary Tank

Dam

-35.47

147.60

Murraguldrie

Parish

?

-35.47

147.68

Murraguldrie Creek

Ck

-31.78

147.92

Wambandry

Hs

-33.20

147.18

Willamundry Creek

Creek

wuluma

calf of leg

-32.52

149.60

Eurunderee

Locality

yuRun, yuRiin

Yoo' roon(y) ‘a scab, a cicatrix’ (Richards 1903:183), Yuren ‘a scratch, scar, sore’ (G in F 109)

-32.49

149.63

Eurundury

Trig. Station

-32.48

149.65

Eurundury

Parish

-32.55

149.72

Eurundury Creek

Creek

djVra

-33.20

148.30

Cookamidgera

Parish, Village

formerly Cookamethery (see above)

-30.30

149.18

Gundidgera

gundyi

bark shelter; Goon' jee-gang, Goon' jee, Gon'ya ‘house of Europeans not native huts or camps’ cf. Goon'dthai ‘stringey-bark tree’ (Richards 1902–03:83)

-35.33

147.65

Keajura

Parish

giyal? giyan?

ashamed, stung, dug into, ground down; cf. Keadool (Nash, this volume); Gee' yan ‘centipede; harlot’ (Richards 1903:83)

-35.32

147.63

Keajura

Rural Place

-35.37

147.67

Keajura Creek

Creek

-35.37

147.67

Keajura or Six Mile Creek

Creek

djVri

-32.82

148.60

Bolderogery

Parish

Balderodgery JJ Garnsey SM 3.6,98; Balduraidurai ‘owl’ (G in F);

baal(d)aRa-djuri ‘spur-with’

a small ploverL

-32.85

148.50

Balrudgery Creek

Creek

-32.8

148.5

Braldrugery

locality ?

Stuchbury 1852

-34.73

146.60

Bundidjarie Hill

Hill

J.J. Baylis AAJ 1.2,12

bundi

club, cudgel

-35.53

146.07

Boreegerry

Trig. Station

burri

boree tree, weeping myall A. pendula

-33.60

148.58

Boridgery

locality ? www.bonzle.com; Boridgery Lane

-33.75

148.57

Cocudgery

gugu

water, cup

-33.47

148.35

TrajereM

Rural Place, Parish

‘where the gum leaves lie in the lagoon, flavouring and staining the water’ RASA 1 p286

?

cf. Teridgerie above

-31.70

147.42

Mullengudgery

Locality

maluŋgaN

young woman, female; a little girl (G), cf. Mullengandra above

-31.60

147.47

Mullengudgery

Parish

maluŋgaN

-33.24

148.46

Mandagery

Locality

mandang

wood (G)

-33.24

148.53

Mandagery

Trig. Station

-33.30

148.62

Mandagery

Parish

-33.07

148.81

Mandagery Creek

Creek

-33.28

148.57

Mandagery Ridge

Ridge

-35.58

146.00

Algudgerie Creek

Creek

walgawalga

marks as on the trees near a native grave (G) [dendroglyphs]

-33.00

148.03

Weridgery

Parish

wirri

flat, level

-31.96

148.54

Eumungerie

Trig. Station

yumang

native willow, A. stenophylla

-31.95

148.53

Eumungerie

Parish

-31.95

148.63

Eumungerie

Locality

­

Note I: Carlgindra a long waterhole. ‘So called because of the large natural waterhole in the Castlereagh at this point’ (W.N. Thomas SM 7.4,58). The form and sense of gilgaay are both somewhat at variance with W.N. Thomas’ record; and gilgaay has not been recorded with a final nasal. Donaldson’s (1985: 77) etymology is kilkaanhthurray ‘with a water-hole or gilgai’.

Note J: According the surveyor Woolrych (1890: 65), Bumbaldry was “A head station near the source of the Tyagong Creek. A water hole and great bathing place of the blacks. ‘Bumbáld’ indicates the jumping in of the gins or women, and darée (noise) — the noise made by their plunging into the water together.” Some of Woolrych’s other etymologies are rather fanciful, and the elements of this one are not corroborated, other than Bambinga ‘to swim’ (G).

Note K: Donaldson (1984: 32n26) proposed the derivation from ‘blood’, parallel to Quambone kuwaympuwan ‘blood-having’ in Ngiyampaa, and also repeated “a tradition, recorded by a local historian, that ‘Quondary [as it was first spelt] … is the aboriginal word for “place of the possum”’.” The GNR also has ‘place of the possum’. Donaldson found it difficult to corroborate a derivation from a ‘possum’ word.

Note L: If this placename contains the Comitative, it is internal (i.e. it is the word baal(d)aRa-djuri ‘spur-with’ meaning ‘plover’), whereas all the others here considered are formed with the Comitative externally. There is an alternative that the word is a partial reduplication not involving the Comitative, *baaldharradharra ‘plover’ pGY, 43 (Austin 1997), though this matches less well the form of the placenames.

Note M: Other spellings are Tragere (Stutchbury 1852) and Trajaree (Wellington District 1870 Runs of Crown Lands, Names of Lessees, and Rents. http://www.dcstechnical.com.au/Rusheen/1.0_People.htm).

Table 3: Comitative placenames recorded by Günther.

Günther placename

source

comment

Dawindurai

‘present sheep station’ (Günther 1840 MS, p. 341=97)

Douwingerie ‘rocks from which stone tomahawks were made’ (Wellington district, Science of Man 7.6(1904),89), from dhawiny ‘axe, stone axe’

Gunnandurai

‘a constellation of three stars seen in the eastern horizon soon after sunset’ G 1839 MS6 p. 73

root possibly meaning ‘yellow’, cf. gunanggunang ‘yellow ochre’

Murrumbìrraíduraí ~ Murrumbugirrí

Günther 1840 MS p. 343

cf. Murrumbidgerie in Table 1

Yurugaidyurai

‘name of the mountain near my home’ (Günther 1892:109)

Yurugai ‘thistle’ (Günther 1892:109)

References

Abbreviations in tables 1 and 2:

AAJ = Australasian Anthropological Journal (continued by SM)

G in F = Günther in Fraser: Günther 1892

GNR = Geographical Names Board 2011

R = Richards (1902–03)

RASA = Royal Anthropological Society of Australia

SM = Science of man and journal of the Royal Anthropological Society of Australasia

Some further details on sources are given at http://www.anu.edu.au/linguistics/nash/aust/wira/.

Austin, P. 1997, ‘Proto central New South Wales phonology’, in Boundary Rider: Essays in Honour of Geoffrey O’Grady, Darrell Tryon and Michael Walsh (eds), Pacific Linguistics C-136, Canberra: 21–49.

Baylis, J. J. 1900, Vocabulary of the Wiradjuri language, AIATSIS PMS 3887.

— 1927, The Waradgery language (also spelled Wiradjuri or Wiradhuri), [J. Baylis], Euroa, [Vic.]. Reel CY 2549; Original held at Mitchell Library at MLAb 159/1.

Bowern, C. 2011, Centroid Coordinates for Australian Languages v2.0. Google Earth .kmz file, available from http://pamanyungan.sites.yale.edu/language-resources (accessed 7 July 2013).

Cain, M. J. 1923. ‘Coonabarabran in the ’Sixties’, Royal Australian Historical Society — Journal and Proceedings 8, supplement: 370–373. Reproduced in RASA 2004, roll 2, PDF, pp. 23–26.

Donaldson, T. 1980, ‘Ngiyambaa, the Language of the Wangaaybuwan’, Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 29, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

— 1984, ‘What’s in a name? An etymological view of land, language and social identification from central western New South Wales’, Aboriginal History 8(1/2): 21–44.

— 1985, ‘Hearing the first Australians’, in Seeing the First Australians, Ian Donaldson and Tamsin Donaldson (eds), George Allen & Unwin, Sydney, London, Boston: 76–91.

Geographical Names Board 2011, Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW, Land and Property Information, New South Wales, http://www.gnb.nsw.gov.au/name_search (accessed 6 May 2012).

Geoscience Australia 2008, Gazetteer of Australia 2008 Release, searchable at http://www.ga.gov.au/map/names/ (accessed 6 May 2012). See also Gazetteer of Australia 2010 Release.

Grant, S. and J. Rudder 2010, A New Wiradjuri Dictionary, Restoration House, O’Connor, ACT.

Günther, Rev. J. W. (Jakob Wilhelm) 1838–40, Vocabulary of the Native/Aboriginal Dialect … spoken in the Wellington District &c &c &c; Unpublished manuscripts: 1838 MS Wirradurri, 1839 MS Wirradhurri (microfilm at AIATSIS Library), 1840 MS Wirradhurrei.

Günther, J.W. 1892, ‘Grammar and vocabulary of the Aboriginal dialect called the Wirradhuri’, Appendix D, in An Australian language as spoken by the Awabakal ‘re-arranged, condensed and edited with an appendix by John Fraser’, Charles Potter, Govt. Printer, Sydney: 56–120. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Page:An_Australian_language_as_spoken_by_the_Awabakal.djvu/376 (accessed 8 July 2013).

Hale, H. 1846, ‘The languages of Australia [including ‘Wiradurei’]’, in Ethnology and Philology, Volume 6 of Narrative of the U.S. Exploring Expedition during the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N, C. Sherman, Philadelphia: 479–531. http://www.sil.si.edu/digitalcollections/usexex/navigation/ScientificText/usexex19_07b.cfm?start=502 (accessed 8 July 2013).

Howitt, A.W. 1904, The Native Tribes of South-East Australia, Macmillan and Company, London.

Koch, H. 2009, ‘The methodology of reconstructing Indigenous placenames: Australian Capital Territory and south-eastern New South Wales’, in Aboriginal Placenames: Naming and Re-naming the Australian Landscape, edited by Harold Koch and Luise Hercus (eds), Aboriginal History Monograph 19, ANU E Press and Aboriginal History Incorporated, Canberra: 115–171. http://epress.anu.edu.au?p=17331/ (accessed 6 May 2012).

McCarthy, F. D. 1963, New South Wales Aboriginal Place Names and Euphonious Words, with their Meanings, Australian Museum, Sydney.

Nash, D. 1974, ‘The comitative affix in Wiradhuri’, ANU Linguistics (Arts) term paper, copy held at AIAS Library, pMs 3688.

— 2010, ‘A further note on Manildra’, Placenames Australia: Newsletter of the Australian National Placenames Survey, December 2010: 6–7. http://www.anps.org.au/documents/Dec_2010.pdf (accessed 8 July 2013).

Reed, A.W. 1969, Place-names of New South Wales: Their Origins and Meanings, Reed, Halstead Press, Sydney.

Richards, C. 1902–03, ‘Wirra'athooree. Wirrai'yarrai'. Wirrach'aree'. Wirra'jerree' (or, Aboriginal dialects)’, Science of Man 5(5): 81–83 (G); 5(6): 98–102 (G,B); 5(7): 114–119 (B,G,W); 5(8): 133–138 (M,N,Ny); 5(9): 146–149 (Ng); 5(10): 165–168 (Ng,J,Dth); 5(11): 180–183 (Dth,Y); 5(12): 198–201 (Y,Gw,I,E).

Royal Anthropological Society of Australia (RASA) 2004, Royal Anthropological Society of Australia manuscripts dated 1900. ‘anthropological society of aus roll 1’, PDF file. CD-ROM, Geographic Names Board of NSW.

[Stutchbury, S.] 1852, [Geological map of area south of Dubbo to Lachlan River], State Library of New South Wales, Call No. Ca 85/35. http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/albumView.aspx?itemID=977102&acmsid=0 (accessed 8 July 2013).

Woolrych, F.B.W. 1890, ‘Native names of some of the runs &c. in the Lachlan District’, Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 24: 63–70. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/131299 (accessed 8 July 2013).

1 This study overlaps with my presentation on the Wiradjuri Comitative suffix to the 11th Australian Languages Workshop, hosted by the University of Queensland at its Moreton Bay Research Station, Stradbroke Island, on 9-11 March 2012, and to the Parkes Wiradjuri Language Group on 13 March 2012. I am grateful to the participants, and subsequently to Ray Wood, for helpful comments. An earlier version of the data was included in Nash (1974), and Donaldson’s (1984,1985) work on related topics has provided guidance.

2 (R) is a reference to the source Richards (1902–03).

3 The majority of the sources are lists published in the early 1900s in the journal Science of Man (SM). These lists are usually traceable to manuscript lists reproduced in Royal Anthropological Society of Australia (2004), comprising manuscript questionnaires on placenames returned in about 1899 from local Police and other officials.

4 The placenames in the spreadsheet can also be grouped into ‘toponymic sets’: placenames which involve the same base name (in the same spelling) in the one locality. Typically the places in such a set are differentiatied by feature type, and/or by various derivations of the base name (such as Tenandra Creek, Tenandra Hill, Tenandra Plain, Tenandra Knob). In this study, the toponymic sets were simplified by excluding names of the built environment, and prefering those of natural features and of intermediate types such as names of trignometrical stations (usually on a hill or mountain summit) or localities or cadastral divisions (parishes and counties).

5 There is a parallel clustering of placenames ending in bri, such as Narrabri, Boggabri, Collarenebri, Kenebri, Mickibri. These derive from the Gamilaraay Yuwaalaraay suffix -Baraay (the reflex of *-baraay ‘Comitative’ pGY, Austin 1997: 33). Another parallel cluster is formed by placenames ending in bone (in English spelling), such as Quambone, Girilambone, Galargambone, Buttabone, exhibiting the Comitative suffix -buwan (as found in Ngiyaampa). These parallel placename endings are ripe for being analysed along similar lines.

6 The name is borne also by a natural feature in the area, Gindantherie Pinnacle, for which the GNR records ‘Named after the Parish in which it is situated.’ This is an example counter to my rule of thumb: normally we would expect a Parish to be named after a natural feature rather than the reverse; however the natural feature name is of recent origin, and was ‘Proposed 17th October 2006’.

7 Hale (1846: 483-484) differed from ‘the orthography of the missionaries’ in ‘the omission of unnecessary letters, such as double consonants, and the h, which is employed by them to denote sometimes a nasal and sometimes a dental pronunciation of the consonant which it accompanies’ and it is clear from his notes that he observed a dental articulation of the stop beginning this suffix. Hale implies that the r is rolled or trilled (not the glide as in standard English). Hale also noted that the language basically had three vowels, and that e, o were variants of i, u respectively. Hence the three analysts effectively agree on the form and meaning of the suffix.

8 Richards (1902–03) does comment on variation between dh and dj (and y) variants, as witness the title of his articles.

9 The final y of -DHuray also deletes before the suffix -Da in forming the instrumental suffix combination -DHurada; just as the final y of a stem (such as garay mentioned above, or wiray ‘no’ in the name Wiradjuri) deletes before -DHuray.


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