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Contextualising the Neolithic Occupation of Southern Vietnam

List of Abbreviations and Terms

Abbreviations

An Sơn

09AS

2009 An Sơn excavation season

97AS

1997 An Sơn excavation season

AS

An Sơn

FC

Fired clay

UC

Unfired clay

H1

Trench 1

H2

Trench 2

H3

Trench 3

M

Burial (e.g. M1 = burial 1)

TS

Test Square

L

Layer

S

Spit

Most ceramic samples are labelled as: 09AS-H1-A1-L1-S1-1 (2009 An Sơn excavation-Trench 1-square A1-layer 1-spit 1-sample 1 from this context)

Sites

BNW

Ban Non Wat

CCN

Cồn Cổ Ngựa

CLR

Cù Lao Rùa

DB

Đa Bút

DO

Đình Ông

GCV

Giồng Cá Vồ

HD

Hòa Diêm

LG

Lộc Giang

MB

Mán Bạc

Methods

CPCRU

Chemical Paste Compositional Reference Unit

CA

Correspondence Analysis

CV

Coefficient of variation

CVA

Canonical Variate Analysis

EDX

Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry

keV

kiloelectronvolt

μm

micrometre

PCA

Principal Component Analysis

SEM

Scanning Electron Microscope

SG

Subgroup

TG

Temper Group

WDS

Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry

Terms

Bleb

Crushed rice and clay fired balls used as temper

Cà ràng

Vietnamese term for earthenware vessel with three projections for resting another vessel on top; used as a stove or earth oven for cooking

Ceramic fabric

The structural and material contents of a pot, includes temper, non-plastic inclusions, and clay

Clay

Naturally occurring material with fine-grained minerals and plastic properties and grain size less than 4μm

Clay matrix

Fabric or paste within pottery vessel that is plastic, i.e. not a non-plastic inclusion or temper

Earthenware

Pottery typically fired between 800 to 1150°C

Fibre temper

Frequently used by Vietnamese archaeologists, this term is applied in this monograph to describe ceramics tempered with organic material. While this was often identified as rice chaff (often rice husk and stem fragments) at An Sơn, the term is used generically to include all plant remains that may have been used as temper

Paddle linear impression

This impression mimics linear incisions created by a comb when a paddle is carved with lines, which are then impressed onto the ceramic surface; paddles with cord wrapped around produce “cord-marked” impressions

Non-plastic inclusion

Can include manually added temper materials or natural minerals within plastic clay

Paddle and anvil

Tools for pot forming. The paddle is often wooden and is used to beat the pot into shape on the outside of the vessel, while the anvil, often ceramic or stone, is held on the inside

Punctate stamping

Decoration formed by impressing dots on ceramic surface

Roulette stamping

Decoration formed by rolling a stamp with an impressed or relief motif around a vessel: stamps can be created by carving a cylindrical item, perhaps wood, or adhering plant weaving or knotted cord around a cylindrical item, in particular motifs that are then impressed onto the ceramic surface; also called “rocker stamping”

Sand

Grain size: very fine, 63 to 125 μm; fine, 125 to 250 μm; medium, 250 μm to 0.5 mm; coarse, 0.5 to 1 mm

Silt

Grain size: fine to medium silt, 4 to 32 μm; coarse silt, 32 to 63 μm

Temper

Manually added materials to potting clays to aid forming and firing of a pot


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