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Contextualising the Neolithic Occupation of Southern Vietnam

List of Figures

1.1

C. F. W. Higham’s chronological chart showing the cultural sequences in the different regions of Southeast and East Asia.

1.2

Map of An Sơn and the Southeast Asian sites mentioned in the text.

1.3

Map of An Sơn and neighbouring southern Vietnam archaeological sites.

2.1

Regions of Southeast Asia mentioned in Chapter 2.

3.1

Schematic diagram of the three trenches of the 2009 excavation to display the applied alphanumeric system.

3.2

Initial sorting of ceramic sherds. The circled categories of ceramic sherds were subjected to further analysis.

4.1

Trench 1, 1997 excavation, stratigraphy.

4.2

Plan of the excavation trenches at the mound of An Sơn.

4.3

Trench 1, stratigraphy. Main mound is towards the northwest.

4.4

Trench 2, stratigraphy.

4.5

Trench 3, stratigraphy. Main mound is towards the north.

4.6

Plot of the calibrated radiocarbon dates in Table 4.4.

4.7

Total weight (kg) of ceramic sherds in each trench, total = 2618.13 kg.

4.8

Total number of ceramic sherds in each trench, total = 230,848.

4.9

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 1, squares A1–A12, weight (kg) per square.

4.10

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 1, squares A1–A12, number of sherds per square.

4.11

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 1, squares B1–B12, weight (kg) per square.

4.12

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 1, squares B1–B12, number of sherds per square.

4.13

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 1, squares C1–C12, weight (kg) per square.

4.14

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 1, squares C1–C12, number of sherds per square.

4.15

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares A1–A5, weight (kg) per square.

4.16

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares A1–A5, number of sherds per square.

4.17

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares B1–B5, weight (kg) per square.

4.18

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares B1–B5, number of sherds per square.

4.19

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares C1–C5, weight (kg) per square.

4.20

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares C1–C5, number of sherds per square.

4.21

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares D1–D5, weight (kg) per square.

4.22

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares D1–D5, number of sherds per square.

4.23

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares E1–E5, weight (kg) per square.

4.24

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares E1–E5, number of sherds per square.

4.25

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 3, squares A1–A10, weight (kg) per square.

4.26

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 3, squares A1–A10, number of sherds per square.

4.27

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 3, squares B1–B10, weight (kg) per square.

4.28

Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 3, squares B1–B10, number of sherds per square.

4.29

Clay lumps that have been pressed against cà ràng projections.

4.30

Weight (kg) of clay lumps, Trench 1 by layer, total = 340.50 kg.

4.31

Weight (kg) of clay lumps, Trench 2 by layer, total = 42.87 kg.

4.32

Weight (kg) of clay lumps, Trench 2 by square, total = 181.35 kg.

4.33

Clay pellet, Trench 3, layer 1/2, B7.

4.34

Total number of clay pellets in each trench, total = 69.

4.35

Diameter (mm) of clay pellets, total = 69, average = 17.18 mm.

4.36

Distribution of clay pellets by layer, total = 66.

4.37

Distribution of clay pellets by square, Trench 1, total = 32.

4.38

Distribution of clay pellets by square, Trench 2, total = 30.

4.39

Ceramic roundel, Trench 1, layer 5, B5.

4.40

Total number of ceramic roundels in each trench, total = 48.

4.41

Diameter (mm) of ceramic roundels, total = 44, average = 42.4 mm.

4.42

Thickness (mm) of ceramic roundels, total = 39, average = 5.17 mm.

4.43

Relationship of thickness (mm) versus diameter (mm) of ceramic roundels, total = 41.

4.44

Distribution of ceramic roundels by layer, total = 46.

4.45

Distribution of ceramic roundels by square, Trench 1, total = 33.

4.46

Perforated ceramic roundel, Trench 1, layer 6, A3.

4.47

Stone bangle fragment, Trench 3, layer 1, B8.

4.48

Selected shouldered and unshouldered lithic adzes.

4.49

Total number of lithic artefacts in each trench, total = 1287.

4.50

Stone spearhead, Trench 2, layer 2–3, E4.

4.51

Burnishing stone, Trench 1, layer 8, A10, burial 2.

4.52

Number of lithic artefacts in each trench, total = 1287.

4.53

Distribution of complete unshouldered adzes by layer, total = 23.

4.54

Distribution of complete shouldered adzes by layer, total = 6.

4.55

Distribution of broken, chipped/reflaked and unfinished unshouldered adzes by layer, total = 58.

4.56

Distribution of broken, chipped/reflaked and unfinished shouldered adzes by layer, total = 28.

4.57

Relationship of width (mm) versus length (mm) of unshouldered adzes, total = 86.

4.58

Relationship of width (mm) versus length (mm) of shouldered adzes, total = 56.

4.59

Disc-shaped and rectangular/cylindrical shell beads, Trench 2, layer 5/6, D2.

4.60

Number of shell beads by shape, total = 196.

4.61

Diameter (mm) and length (mm) of rectangular/cylindrical beads and diameter of disc-shaped beads.

4.62

Shell bead necklace, 2004 excavation, Trench 3, burial 1.

4.63

Bone fishhook fragment, Trench 2, layer 15, A2–A5/B2–B5.

4.64

Bone artefacts from 1997 excavation.

4.65

Ivory bangle fragment (left) and pointed tool (right).

4.66

Clay beads.

4.67

Possible stone for lighting fires, Trench 2, layer 3, C5.

4.68

Trench 1, burial 1.

4.69

Trench 1, burial 2.

4.70

Trench 1, burials 3 and 4.

4.71

Trench 2, burial 1.

4.72

Trench 2, burial 2.

4.73

Trench 2, burial 3.

5.1

Categorisation of An Sơn ceramic rim forms.

5.2

Variations within the An Sơn ceramic rim forms categorised in Figure 5.1.

5.3

Proportion of rim form classes A1, A2, B, C, D1, D2 and E by layers, Trench 1, all squares.

5.4

Proportion of rim forms by layer, Trench 1, all squares.

5.5

Proportion of rim form classes A1, A2, B, C, D1, D2 and E by layer, Trench 1, squares A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2.

5.6

Proportion of rim forms by layer, Trench 1, squares A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2.

5.7

Proportion of rim form classes A1, A2, B, C, D1, D2 and E by depth, Trench 2.

5.8

Proportion of rim forms by depth, Trench 2.

5.9

Proportion of rim form classes A1, A2, B, C, D1, D2 and E by layer, Trench 3.

5.10

Proportion of rim forms by layer, Trench 3.

5.11

Proportion of rim form classes A1, A2, B, C, D1, D2 and E by depth, Test Square.

5.12

Proportion of rim forms by depth, Test Square.

5.13

Proportion of rim forms by layer, 1997 excavation, base layers.

5.14

Complete ceramic vessel forms at An Sơn.

5.15

Complete class D vessels, wavy and serrated rims.

5.16

Complete decorated vessels with not to scale detail images of incised and impressed motifs (not to scale).

5.17

Modes of decoration at An Sơn.

5.18

Quantity of sherds with a single decorative mode or a combination of multiple decorative modes by layer, Trench 1.

5.19

Quantity of sherds with surface treatments on each portion of the vessel by layer, Trench 1.

5.20

Quantity of sherds with each macroscopically observed temper group by layer, Trench 1.

5.21

Proportion of each surface treatment/decoration by layer, Trench 1.

5.22

Quantity of sherds with a single decorative mode or a combination of multiple decorative modes by layer, 1997 excavation, layers 3–4 and 3–5.

5.23

Quantity of sherds with surface treatments on each portion of the vessel by layer, 1997 excavation, layers 3–4 and 3–5.

5.24

Quantity of sherds with each macroscopically observed temper group by layer, 1997 excavation, layers 3–4 and 3–5.

5.25

Proportion of each surface treatment/decoration by layer, 1997 excavation, layers 3–4 and 3–5.

5.26

Stratigraphy of the north wall, Trench 1, squares A1, B1, C1.

5.27

Proportion of rim forms by layer, Trench 2.

5.28

Comparison of proportions of each rim form between Trench 1 (squares A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2) (left) and Trench 2 (right).

6.1

SEM backscatter images of the main tempers identified in the An Sơn assemblage.

6.2

SEM backscatter images showing the difference between orthodox grog and iron-rich clay.

6.3

Proportion of each temper group in the An Sơn ceramic sample.

6.4

Bivariate plots of the concentration of each element oxide against SiO2 in the analysed sample.

6.5

PCA biplot, excluding V2O5.

6.6

PCA plot, excluding V2O5.

6.7

PCA biplot, excluding MnO and V2O5.

6.8

PCA plot, excluding MnO and V2O5.

6.9

PCA biplot, excluding P2O5 and V2O5.

6.10

PCA plot, excluding P2O5 and V2O5.

6.11

PCA biplot, excluding SO3 and V2O5.

6.12

PCA plot, excluding SO3 and V2O5.

6.13

PCA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1.

6.14

PCA plot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1.

6.15

Average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis dendrogram of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1.

6.16

CVA biplot of rim forms and vessel components of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1.

6.17

CVA plot of rim forms and vessel components with 95% confidence circles of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1.

6.18

CVA biplot of layers of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1.

6.19

CVA plot of layers with 95% confidence circles of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1.

6.20

CVA biplot of tempers of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1.

6.21

CVA biplot of tempers with average value circle perimeters of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1.

6.22

PCA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic sample.

6.23

PCA plot of the An Sơn ceramic sample.

6.24

Average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis dendrogram of the An Sơn ceramic sample.

6.25

PCA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic sample, excluding samples 43, 60 and 61.

6.26

PCA plot of the An Sơn ceramic sample, excluding samples 43, 60 and 61.

6.27

Average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis dendrogram of the An Sơn ceramic sample, excluding samples 43, 60 and 61.

6.28

CVA biplot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components.

6.29

CVA plot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components with 95% confidence circles.

6.30

CVA biplot of the An Sơn layers.

6.31

CVA plot of the An Sơn layers with 95% confidence circles.

6.32

CVA biplot of the An Sơn tempers.

6.33

CVA biplot of the An Sơn tempers with 95% confidence circles.

6.34

PCA biplot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components, rim forms A2a, B1b, C1b, D1a, D1b and D2a.

6.35

PCA plot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components, rim forms A2a, B1b, C1b, D1a, D1b and D2a.

6.36

Average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis dendrogram of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components, rim forms A2a, B1b, C1b, D1a, D1b and D2a.

6.37

CVA biplot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components, rim forms A2a, B1b, C1b, D1a, D1b and D2a.

6.38

CVA plot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components with 95% confidence circles, rim forms A2a, B1b, C1b, D1a, D1b and D2a.

6.39

CVA biplot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components, clays and other site samples.

6.40

CVA plot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components, clays and other site samples with 95% confidence circles.

6.41

PCA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples.

6.42

PCA plot of the An Sơn ceramic sample, clays and other site samples.

6.43

Average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis dendrogram of the An Sơn ceramic sample, clays and other site samples.

6.44

CVA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples.

6.45

CVA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples.

6.46

CVA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples with 95% confidence circles.

6.47

CVA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples.

6.48

CVA plot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples with 95% confidence circles.

6.49

CVA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples.

6.50

CVA plot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples with 95% confidence circles.

7.1

The measured dimensional variables used in the study of standardisation for each vessel class.

7.2

PCA plot of class A1 dimensional variables with rim forms labelled.

7.3

Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of class A1 dimensional variables with rim forms labelled.

7.4

CVA plot of class A1 dimensional variables with 95% confidence circles and rim forms labelled.

7.5

Number of class A1 samples of each rim form in the study of standardisation.

7.6

Number of variables with CV values 0–60% for each rim form in the class A1 sample.

7.7

PCA plot of class A2 dimensional variables with rim forms labelled.

7.8

Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of class A2 dimensional variables with rim forms labelled.

7.9

CVA plot of class A2 dimensional variables with 95% confidence circles and rim forms labelled.

7.10

Number of class A2 samples of each rim form in the study of standardisation.

7.11

Number of variables with CV values 0–40% for each rim form in the class A2 sample.

7.12

PCA plot of class B dimensional variables with rim forms labelled.

7.13

Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of class B dimensional variables with rim forms labelled.

7.14

CVA plot of class B dimensional variables with 95% confidence circles and rim forms labelled.

7.15

Number of class B samples of each rim form in the study of standardisation.

7.16

Number of variables with CV values 0–>60% for each rim form in the class B sample.

7.17

PCA plot of class C dimensional variables with rim forms labelled.

7.18

Dendrogram of average–linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of class C dimensional variables with rim forms labelled.

7.19

CVA plot of class C dimensional variables with 95% confidence circles and rim forms labelled.

7.20

Number of class C samples of each rim form in the study of standardisation.

7.21

Number of variables with CV values 0–50% for each rim form in the class C sample.

7.22

PCA plot of class D dimensional variables with rim forms labelled.

7.23

Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of class D dimensional variables with rim forms labelled.

7.24

CVA plot of class D dimensional variables with 95% confidence circles and rim forms labelled.

7.25

Number of class D samples of each rim form in the study of standardisation.

7.26

Number of variables with CV values 0–>60% for each rim form in the class D sample.

7.27

PCA plot of form A2a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled.

7.28

Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of form A2a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled.

7.29

CVA plot of form A2a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled.

7.30

Number of form A2a samples of each layer/provenance in the study of standardisation.

7.31

Number of variables with CV values 0–50% for each layer/provenance in the form A2a sample.

7.32

Roulette stamped decorations on form A2a vessels.

7.33

Number of form A2a sherds with each mode of decoration and the width (mm) of the decorative band.

7.34

Number of form A2a samples with each mode or shape of decoration in the study of standardisation.

7.35

Number of variables with CV values 0–>50% for decorative mode or shape in the form A2a sample.

7.36

PCA plot of form A2a clay matrix composition with layers/provenance labelled.

7.37

PCA plot of form B1a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled.

7.38

Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of form B1a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled.

7.39

CVA plot of form B1a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled.

7.40

Number of form B1a samples of each layer/provenance in the study of standardisation.

7.41

Number of variables with CV values 0–>40% for each layer/provenance in the form B1a sample.

7.42

PCA plot of form B1a clay matrix composition with layers/provenance labelled.

7.43

PCA plot of form C1b dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled.

7.44

Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of form C1b dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled.

7.45

CVA plot of form C1b dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled.

7.46

Number of form C1b samples of each layer/provenance in the study of standardisation.

7.47

Number of variables with CV values 0–>60% for each layer/provenance in the form C1b sample.

7.48

PCA plot of form C1b clay matrix composition with layers/provenance labelled.

7.49

PCA plot of form D1a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled.

7.50

Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of form D1a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled.

7.51

CVA plot of form D1a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled.

7.52

Number of form D1a samples of each layer/provenance in the study of standardisation.

7.53

Number of variables with CV values 0–>60% for each layer/provenance in the form D1a sample.

7.54

PCA plot of form D1a clay matrix composition with layers/provenance labelled.

7.55

CV values (%) of each dimensional variable from represented layers of Trench 1 for each rim form.

7.56

CV values (%) of each dimensional variable for each rim form.

7.57

Average of CV values (%) for each rim form.

7.58

Proportion of CV values (%) for each variable within each rim form.

7.59

Total CV values (%) for each variable for each form.

8.1

Bến Ðò vessel forms, 1977 excavation.

8.2

Bình Đa vessel forms, 1979 and 1993 excavations.

8.3

Cái Vạn vessel forms.

8.4

Cầu Sắt vessel form.

8.5

Cù Lao Rùa vessel forms, 2003 excavation.

8.6

Đa Kai vessel forms, 1997 excavation.

8.7

Lộc Giang incised and roulette stamped sherds.

8.8

Lộc Giang vessel forms, 1988 and 1993 excavations.

8.9

Rạch Núi vessel forms, 1977 and 2012 excavations.

8.10

Suối Linh vessel forms, 2002 excavation.

8.11

CA plots for all southern Vietnam neolithic material culture variables.

8.12

CA plots for the southern Vietnam neolithic ceramic vessel variables.

8.13

Distribution of CA groups in Table 8.12 according to material culture variables in southern Vietnam.

9.1

Ban Non Wat ceramic vessel forms, neolithic occupation layers, 2008–2009 excavation.

9.2

Ban Non Wat ceramic modes of decoration, neolithic occupation layers, 2008–2009 excavation.

9.3

Ban Non Wat ceramic vessel forms and modes of decoration, Neolithic burial phases 1 and 2.

9.4

Tha Kae red painted and incised and impressed ceramic vessels.

9.5

Khok Charoen vessel forms and modes of decoration.

9.6

Khok Phanom Di vessel forms and modes of decoration.

9.7

Nong Nor phase 1 ceramic vessel forms and modes of decoration.

9.8

Nong Nor phase 2 ceramic vessel forms and modes of decoration.

9.9

Laang Spean vessel forms and modes of decoration.

9.10

Samrong Sen ceramic vessel forms and modes of decoration.

9.11

Krek ceramic vessel forms and modes of decoration.

9.12

Bàu Tró culture ceramic vessel forms and modes of decoration.

9.13

Mán Bạc vessel forms and modes of decoration, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007 and 2008 excavations.

9.14

CA plots for the Southeast Asian neolithic cultural variables.

9.15

CA plots for the Southeast Asian neolithic cultural variables.

9.16

Distribution of notable non-ceramic material culture in mainland Southeast Asia.

9.17

Distribution of notable An Sơn ceramic vessel forms and dominant tempers in mainland Southeast Asia.

9.18

Distribution of notable modes of decoration on ceramic vessels in mainland Southeast Asia.

10.1

The sequence of class D vessels at An Sơn.

10.2

An overview of the variables involved in ceramic vessel manufacture from the mental template to the choices made by the potter and the incidences where variability occurs.

10.3

The reconstructed mental templates of An Sơn vessel forms A1a, A2a, B1a, C1b and D1a.

Note: All figures without sources are by the author, C. Sarjeant.


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