# Contextualising the Neolithic Occupation of Southern Vietnam

List of Figures

1.1 |
C. F. W. Higham’s chronological chart showing the cultural sequences in the different regions of Southeast and East Asia. |

1.2 |
Map of An Sơn and the Southeast Asian sites mentioned in the text. |

1.3 |
Map of An Sơn and neighbouring southern Vietnam archaeological sites. |

2.1 |
Regions of Southeast Asia mentioned in Chapter 2. |

3.1 |
Schematic diagram of the three trenches of the 2009 excavation to display the applied alphanumeric system. |

3.2 |
Initial sorting of ceramic sherds. The circled categories of ceramic sherds were subjected to further analysis. |

4.1 |
Trench 1, 1997 excavation, stratigraphy. |

4.2 |
Plan of the excavation trenches at the mound of An Sơn. |

4.3 |
Trench 1, stratigraphy. Main mound is towards the northwest. |

4.4 |
Trench 2, stratigraphy. |

4.5 |
Trench 3, stratigraphy. Main mound is towards the north. |

4.6 |
Plot of the calibrated radiocarbon dates in Table 4.4. |

4.7 |
Total weight (kg) of ceramic sherds in each trench, total = 2618.13 kg. |

4.8 |
Total number of ceramic sherds in each trench, total = 230,848. |

4.9 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 1, squares A1–A12, weight (kg) per square. |

4.10 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 1, squares A1–A12, number of sherds per square. |

4.11 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 1, squares B1–B12, weight (kg) per square. |

4.12 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 1, squares B1–B12, number of sherds per square. |

4.13 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 1, squares C1–C12, weight (kg) per square. |

4.14 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 1, squares C1–C12, number of sherds per square. |

4.15 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares A1–A5, weight (kg) per square. |

4.16 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares A1–A5, number of sherds per square. |

4.17 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares B1–B5, weight (kg) per square. |

4.18 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares B1–B5, number of sherds per square. |

4.19 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares C1–C5, weight (kg) per square. |

4.20 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares C1–C5, number of sherds per square. |

4.21 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares D1–D5, weight (kg) per square. |

4.22 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares D1–D5, number of sherds per square. |

4.23 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares E1–E5, weight (kg) per square. |

4.24 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 2, squares E1–E5, number of sherds per square. |

4.25 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 3, squares A1–A10, weight (kg) per square. |

4.26 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 3, squares A1–A10, number of sherds per square. |

4.27 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 3, squares B1–B10, weight (kg) per square. |

4.28 |
Distribution of ceramic sherds, Trench 3, squares B1–B10, number of sherds per square. |

4.29 |
Clay lumps that have been pressed against cà ràng projections. |

4.30 |
Weight (kg) of clay lumps, Trench 1 by layer, total = 340.50 kg. |

4.31 |
Weight (kg) of clay lumps, Trench 2 by layer, total = 42.87 kg. |

4.32 |
Weight (kg) of clay lumps, Trench 2 by square, total = 181.35 kg. |

4.33 |
Clay pellet, Trench 3, layer 1/2, B7. |

4.34 |
Total number of clay pellets in each trench, total = 69. |

4.35 |
Diameter (mm) of clay pellets, total = 69, average = 17.18 mm. |

4.36 |
Distribution of clay pellets by layer, total = 66. |

4.37 |
Distribution of clay pellets by square, Trench 1, total = 32. |

4.38 |
Distribution of clay pellets by square, Trench 2, total = 30. |

4.39 |
Ceramic roundel, Trench 1, layer 5, B5. |

4.40 |
Total number of ceramic roundels in each trench, total = 48. |

4.41 |
Diameter (mm) of ceramic roundels, total = 44, average = 42.4 mm. |

4.42 |
Thickness (mm) of ceramic roundels, total = 39, average = 5.17 mm. |

4.43 |
Relationship of thickness (mm) versus diameter (mm) of ceramic roundels, total = 41. |

4.44 |
Distribution of ceramic roundels by layer, total = 46. |

4.45 |
Distribution of ceramic roundels by square, Trench 1, total = 33. |

4.46 |
Perforated ceramic roundel, Trench 1, layer 6, A3. |

4.47 |
Stone bangle fragment, Trench 3, layer 1, B8. |

4.48 |
Selected shouldered and unshouldered lithic adzes. |

4.49 |
Total number of lithic artefacts in each trench, total = 1287. |

4.50 |
Stone spearhead, Trench 2, layer 2–3, E4. |

4.51 |
Burnishing stone, Trench 1, layer 8, A10, burial 2. |

4.52 |
Number of lithic artefacts in each trench, total = 1287. |

4.53 |
Distribution of complete unshouldered adzes by layer, total = 23. |

4.54 |
Distribution of complete shouldered adzes by layer, total = 6. |

4.55 |
Distribution of broken, chipped/reflaked and unfinished unshouldered adzes by layer, total = 58. |

4.56 |
Distribution of broken, chipped/reflaked and unfinished shouldered adzes by layer, total = 28. |

4.57 |
Relationship of width (mm) versus length (mm) of unshouldered adzes, total = 86. |

4.58 |
Relationship of width (mm) versus length (mm) of shouldered adzes, total = 56. |

4.59 |
Disc-shaped and rectangular/cylindrical shell beads, Trench 2, layer 5/6, D2. |

4.60 |
Number of shell beads by shape, total = 196. |

4.61 |
Diameter (mm) and length (mm) of rectangular/cylindrical beads and diameter of disc-shaped beads. |

4.62 |
Shell bead necklace, 2004 excavation, Trench 3, burial 1. |

4.63 |
Bone fishhook fragment, Trench 2, layer 15, A2–A5/B2–B5. |

4.64 |
Bone artefacts from 1997 excavation. |

4.65 |
Ivory bangle fragment (left) and pointed tool (right). |

4.66 |
Clay beads. |

4.67 |
Possible stone for lighting fires, Trench 2, layer 3, C5. |

4.68 |
Trench 1, burial 1. |

4.69 |
Trench 1, burial 2. |

4.70 |
Trench 1, burials 3 and 4. |

4.71 |
Trench 2, burial 1. |

4.72 |
Trench 2, burial 2. |

4.73 |
Trench 2, burial 3. |

5.1 |
Categorisation of An Sơn ceramic rim forms. |

5.2 |
Variations within the An Sơn ceramic rim forms categorised in Figure 5.1. |

5.3 |
Proportion of rim form classes A1, A2, B, C, D1, D2 and E by layers, Trench 1, all squares. |

5.4 |
Proportion of rim forms by layer, Trench 1, all squares. |

5.5 |
Proportion of rim form classes A1, A2, B, C, D1, D2 and E by layer, Trench 1, squares A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2. |

5.6 |
Proportion of rim forms by layer, Trench 1, squares A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2. |

5.7 |
Proportion of rim form classes A1, A2, B, C, D1, D2 and E by depth, Trench 2. |

5.8 |
Proportion of rim forms by depth, Trench 2. |

5.9 |
Proportion of rim form classes A1, A2, B, C, D1, D2 and E by layer, Trench 3. |

5.10 |
Proportion of rim forms by layer, Trench 3. |

5.11 |
Proportion of rim form classes A1, A2, B, C, D1, D2 and E by depth, Test Square. |

5.12 |
Proportion of rim forms by depth, Test Square. |

5.13 |
Proportion of rim forms by layer, 1997 excavation, base layers. |

5.14 |
Complete ceramic vessel forms at An Sơn. |

5.15 |
Complete class D vessels, wavy and serrated rims. |

5.16 |
Complete decorated vessels with not to scale detail images of incised and impressed motifs (not to scale). |

5.17 |
Modes of decoration at An Sơn. |

5.18 |
Quantity of sherds with a single decorative mode or a combination of multiple decorative modes by layer, Trench 1. |

5.19 |
Quantity of sherds with surface treatments on each portion of the vessel by layer, Trench 1. |

5.20 |
Quantity of sherds with each macroscopically observed temper group by layer, Trench 1. |

5.21 |
Proportion of each surface treatment/decoration by layer, Trench 1. |

5.22 |
Quantity of sherds with a single decorative mode or a combination of multiple decorative modes by layer, 1997 excavation, layers 3–4 and 3–5. |

5.23 |
Quantity of sherds with surface treatments on each portion of the vessel by layer, 1997 excavation, layers 3–4 and 3–5. |

5.24 |
Quantity of sherds with each macroscopically observed temper group by layer, 1997 excavation, layers 3–4 and 3–5. |

5.25 |
Proportion of each surface treatment/decoration by layer, 1997 excavation, layers 3–4 and 3–5. |

5.26 |
Stratigraphy of the north wall, Trench 1, squares A1, B1, C1. |

5.27 |
Proportion of rim forms by layer, Trench 2. |

5.28 |
Comparison of proportions of each rim form between Trench 1 (squares A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2) (left) and Trench 2 (right). |

6.1 |
SEM backscatter images of the main tempers identified in the An Sơn assemblage. |

6.2 |
SEM backscatter images showing the difference between orthodox grog and iron-rich clay. |

6.3 |
Proportion of each temper group in the An Sơn ceramic sample. |

6.4 |
Bivariate plots of the concentration of each element oxide against SiO2 in the analysed sample. |

6.5 |
PCA biplot, excluding V2O5. |

6.6 |
PCA plot, excluding V2O5. |

6.7 |
PCA biplot, excluding MnO and V2O5. |

6.8 |
PCA plot, excluding MnO and V2O5. |

6.9 |
PCA biplot, excluding P2O5 and V2O5. |

6.10 |
PCA plot, excluding P2O5 and V2O5. |

6.11 |
PCA biplot, excluding SO3 and V2O5. |

6.12 |
PCA plot, excluding SO3 and V2O5. |

6.13 |
PCA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1. |

6.14 |
PCA plot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1. |

6.15 |
Average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis dendrogram of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1. |

6.16 |
CVA biplot of rim forms and vessel components of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1. |

6.17 |
CVA plot of rim forms and vessel components with 95% confidence circles of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1. |

6.18 |
CVA biplot of layers of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1. |

6.19 |
CVA plot of layers with 95% confidence circles of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1. |

6.20 |
CVA biplot of tempers of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1. |

6.21 |
CVA biplot of tempers with average value circle perimeters of the An Sơn ceramic samples, Trench 1 square C1. |

6.22 |
PCA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic sample. |

6.23 |
PCA plot of the An Sơn ceramic sample. |

6.24 |
Average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis dendrogram of the An Sơn ceramic sample. |

6.25 |
PCA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic sample, excluding samples 43, 60 and 61. |

6.26 |
PCA plot of the An Sơn ceramic sample, excluding samples 43, 60 and 61. |

6.27 |
Average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis dendrogram of the An Sơn ceramic sample, excluding samples 43, 60 and 61. |

6.28 |
CVA biplot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components. |

6.29 |
CVA plot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components with 95% confidence circles. |

6.30 |
CVA biplot of the An Sơn layers. |

6.31 |
CVA plot of the An Sơn layers with 95% confidence circles. |

6.32 |
CVA biplot of the An Sơn tempers. |

6.33 |
CVA biplot of the An Sơn tempers with 95% confidence circles. |

6.34 |
PCA biplot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components, rim forms A2a, B1b, C1b, D1a, D1b and D2a. |

6.35 |
PCA plot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components, rim forms A2a, B1b, C1b, D1a, D1b and D2a. |

6.36 |
Average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis dendrogram of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components, rim forms A2a, B1b, C1b, D1a, D1b and D2a. |

6.37 |
CVA biplot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components, rim forms A2a, B1b, C1b, D1a, D1b and D2a. |

6.38 |
CVA plot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components with 95% confidence circles, rim forms A2a, B1b, C1b, D1a, D1b and D2a. |

6.39 |
CVA biplot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components, clays and other site samples. |

6.40 |
CVA plot of the An Sơn rim forms and vessel components, clays and other site samples with 95% confidence circles. |

6.41 |
PCA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples. |

6.42 |
PCA plot of the An Sơn ceramic sample, clays and other site samples. |

6.43 |
Average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis dendrogram of the An Sơn ceramic sample, clays and other site samples. |

6.44 |
CVA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples. |

6.45 |
CVA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples. |

6.46 |
CVA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples with 95% confidence circles. |

6.47 |
CVA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples. |

6.48 |
CVA plot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples with 95% confidence circles. |

6.49 |
CVA biplot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples. |

6.50 |
CVA plot of the An Sơn ceramic samples, clays and other site samples with 95% confidence circles. |

7.1 |
The measured dimensional variables used in the study of standardisation for each vessel class. |

7.2 |
PCA plot of class A1 dimensional variables with rim forms labelled. |

7.3 |
Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of class A1 dimensional variables with rim forms labelled. |

7.4 |
CVA plot of class A1 dimensional variables with 95% confidence circles and rim forms labelled. |

7.5 |
Number of class A1 samples of each rim form in the study of standardisation. |

7.6 |
Number of variables with CV values 0–60% for each rim form in the class A1 sample. |

7.7 |
PCA plot of class A2 dimensional variables with rim forms labelled. |

7.8 |
Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of class A2 dimensional variables with rim forms labelled. |

7.9 |
CVA plot of class A2 dimensional variables with 95% confidence circles and rim forms labelled. |

7.10 |
Number of class A2 samples of each rim form in the study of standardisation. |

7.11 |
Number of variables with CV values 0–40% for each rim form in the class A2 sample. |

7.12 |
PCA plot of class B dimensional variables with rim forms labelled. |

7.13 |
Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of class B dimensional variables with rim forms labelled. |

7.14 |
CVA plot of class B dimensional variables with 95% confidence circles and rim forms labelled. |

7.15 |
Number of class B samples of each rim form in the study of standardisation. |

7.16 |
Number of variables with CV values 0–>60% for each rim form in the class B sample. |

7.17 |
PCA plot of class C dimensional variables with rim forms labelled. |

7.18 |
Dendrogram of average–linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of class C dimensional variables with rim forms labelled. |

7.19 |
CVA plot of class C dimensional variables with 95% confidence circles and rim forms labelled. |

7.20 |
Number of class C samples of each rim form in the study of standardisation. |

7.21 |
Number of variables with CV values 0–50% for each rim form in the class C sample. |

7.22 |
PCA plot of class D dimensional variables with rim forms labelled. |

7.23 |
Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of class D dimensional variables with rim forms labelled. |

7.24 |
CVA plot of class D dimensional variables with 95% confidence circles and rim forms labelled. |

7.25 |
Number of class D samples of each rim form in the study of standardisation. |

7.26 |
Number of variables with CV values 0–>60% for each rim form in the class D sample. |

7.27 |
PCA plot of form A2a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.28 |
Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of form A2a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.29 |
CVA plot of form A2a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.30 |
Number of form A2a samples of each layer/provenance in the study of standardisation. |

7.31 |
Number of variables with CV values 0–50% for each layer/provenance in the form A2a sample. |

7.32 |
Roulette stamped decorations on form A2a vessels. |

7.33 |
Number of form A2a sherds with each mode of decoration and the width (mm) of the decorative band. |

7.34 |
Number of form A2a samples with each mode or shape of decoration in the study of standardisation. |

7.35 |
Number of variables with CV values 0–>50% for decorative mode or shape in the form A2a sample. |

7.36 |
PCA plot of form A2a clay matrix composition with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.37 |
PCA plot of form B1a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.38 |
Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of form B1a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.39 |
CVA plot of form B1a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.40 |
Number of form B1a samples of each layer/provenance in the study of standardisation. |

7.41 |
Number of variables with CV values 0–>40% for each layer/provenance in the form B1a sample. |

7.42 |
PCA plot of form B1a clay matrix composition with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.43 |
PCA plot of form C1b dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.44 |
Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of form C1b dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.45 |
CVA plot of form C1b dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.46 |
Number of form C1b samples of each layer/provenance in the study of standardisation. |

7.47 |
Number of variables with CV values 0–>60% for each layer/provenance in the form C1b sample. |

7.48 |
PCA plot of form C1b clay matrix composition with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.49 |
PCA plot of form D1a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.50 |
Dendrogram of average-linkage hierarchical cluster analysis of form D1a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.51 |
CVA plot of form D1a dimensional variables with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.52 |
Number of form D1a samples of each layer/provenance in the study of standardisation. |

7.53 |
Number of variables with CV values 0–>60% for each layer/provenance in the form D1a sample. |

7.54 |
PCA plot of form D1a clay matrix composition with layers/provenance labelled. |

7.55 |
CV values (%) of each dimensional variable from represented layers of Trench 1 for each rim form. |

7.56 |
CV values (%) of each dimensional variable for each rim form. |

7.57 |
Average of CV values (%) for each rim form. |

7.58 |
Proportion of CV values (%) for each variable within each rim form. |

7.59 |
Total CV values (%) for each variable for each form. |

8.1 |
Bến Ðò vessel forms, 1977 excavation. |

8.2 |
Bình Đa vessel forms, 1979 and 1993 excavations. |

8.3 |
Cái Vạn vessel forms. |

8.4 |
Cầu Sắt vessel form. |

8.5 |
Cù Lao Rùa vessel forms, 2003 excavation. |

8.6 |
Đa Kai vessel forms, 1997 excavation. |

8.7 |
Lộc Giang incised and roulette stamped sherds. |

8.8 |
Lộc Giang vessel forms, 1988 and 1993 excavations. |

8.9 |
Rạch Núi vessel forms, 1977 and 2012 excavations. |

8.10 |
Suối Linh vessel forms, 2002 excavation. |

8.11 |
CA plots for all southern Vietnam neolithic material culture variables. |

8.12 |
CA plots for the southern Vietnam neolithic ceramic vessel variables. |

8.13 |
Distribution of CA groups in Table 8.12 according to material culture variables in southern Vietnam. |

9.1 |
Ban Non Wat ceramic vessel forms, neolithic occupation layers, 2008–2009 excavation. |

9.2 |
Ban Non Wat ceramic modes of decoration, neolithic occupation layers, 2008–2009 excavation. |

9.3 |
Ban Non Wat ceramic vessel forms and modes of decoration, Neolithic burial phases 1 and 2. |

9.4 |
Tha Kae red painted and incised and impressed ceramic vessels. |

9.5 |
Khok Charoen vessel forms and modes of decoration. |

9.6 |
Khok Phanom Di vessel forms and modes of decoration. |

9.7 |
Nong Nor phase 1 ceramic vessel forms and modes of decoration. |

9.8 |
Nong Nor phase 2 ceramic vessel forms and modes of decoration. |

9.9 |
Laang Spean vessel forms and modes of decoration. |

9.10 |
Samrong Sen ceramic vessel forms and modes of decoration. |

9.11 |
Krek ceramic vessel forms and modes of decoration. |

9.12 |
Bàu Tró culture ceramic vessel forms and modes of decoration. |

9.13 |
Mán Bạc vessel forms and modes of decoration, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007 and 2008 excavations. |

9.14 |
CA plots for the Southeast Asian neolithic cultural variables. |

9.15 |
CA plots for the Southeast Asian neolithic cultural variables. |

9.16 |
Distribution of notable non-ceramic material culture in mainland Southeast Asia. |

9.17 |
Distribution of notable An Sơn ceramic vessel forms and dominant tempers in mainland Southeast Asia. |

9.18 |
Distribution of notable modes of decoration on ceramic vessels in mainland Southeast Asia. |

10.1 |
The sequence of class D vessels at An Sơn. |

10.2 |
An overview of the variables involved in ceramic vessel manufacture from the mental template to the choices made by the potter and the incidences where variability occurs. |

10.3 |
The reconstructed mental templates of An Sơn vessel forms A1a, A2a, B1a, C1b and D1a. |

Note: All figures without sources are by the author, C. Sarjeant.

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