In the Eye of the Beholder


Archival material

Australian Dictionary of Biography Files, Australian National University Archives, Canberra

Correspondence to Professor Pike from John Kirkland Wilson Pike, 7 December 1965; Eaves Walton & Stewart, Legal & Historical Research papers, in ‘Katherine Kirkland Biographical File’.

‘David Cannon McConnel Biographical File’.

National Library of Australia

Index to Passengers to Sydney 1838–1842, Habart Samuel – Justus John, Archives Authority of New South Wales, AO Reel 4; Immigration Agents’ Immigration Lists, April 1838–November 1841:Assisted Immigration, NLA mfm N229, Archives Authority of NSW, Reel No. 2134.

Flinders, M 1814, Chart of Terra Australis, Sheet III, East coast [cartographic material], G and W Nicol, London.

Nathan F. Spielvogel, ‘When White Men First Looked on Ballarat’, NLA MS 3776.

State Records Authority of New South Wales

Reports of John Baxter, Joseph Corralis, Lieutenant Otter, Captain Foster Fyans and John Graham, SZ976, COD 183.

State Library of New South Wales

Martens, Conrad, ‘Bulimba on the Brisbane River, D. C. McConnel Esq., Nov. 21, 1851’, Pencil 19 x 29.5 cm (ML PXC972, f.3).

‘Scott family: mainly studio portraits of the Scott and Townsend families, ca. 1864–1886’, SLNSW, Sydney, PXB 276.

State Library of Queensland, John Oxley Library, Brisbane

McConnel, J C I 1963, ‘The Lives of Frederic and John [sic] Anne McConnel’, McConnel Family Papers, microform no. 755399.

State Library of South Australia

‘Letter from George Gawler to Henry Cox, 1839’, D 3063(L).

Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies

Casey, Melba and Rolly Gilbert 1986, ‘Kurtjar Stories’, School of Australian Linguistics, Darwin Institute of Technology.

Parliamentary papers and government gazettes

The Public General Statutes of New South Wales (1852–1862), 1862, Government Printer, Sydney.

Queensland Government Gazette, 16 December 1897.

Queensland Government Gazette, 1914, Vol. CII, No. 50.

Registrars, New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia Births, Deaths and Marriages

Votes and Proceedings of the Victorian Legislative Assembly, 1877–78.


Australian Pastoral Directory, 1907, 1915, 1917, 1919, 1921, 1923, 1925, 1927.

Bailliere’s Victorian Gazetteer and Road Guide Containing the Most Recent and Accurate Information as to Every Place in the Colony, 1865, Compiled by Robt. P Whitworth, F F Bailliere, Melbourne.

The Official Post Office Directory of Queensland, 1871.

Whitworth, R R, Compiled Under the Authority of the Postmaster-General 1874, The Official Post Office Directory (Professional, Squatting, and Trade) of Queensland, F F Bailliere, Brisbane, Sydney.

Wise’s Queensland Post Office Directory, 1895–1899.

Wise’s Queensland Post Office and Official Directory, 1900–1911.

Primary source books, pamphlets, articles

A Mother’s Offering to Her Children by A Lady Long Resident in New South Wales, 1979 [1841], Facsimile edition, The Jacaranda Press, Milton, Queensland; first printed by the Gazette, Sydney.

A Statement of the Objects of the Committee of the Societies for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts and for Promoting Christian Knowledge (Australia), 1836, Stephen and Stokes, Sydney.

Arthur, Timothy Shay 1874, Woman to the Rescue. A Story of the New Crusade, J M Stoddart & Co., Queen City Publishing Co., Cincinnati (NLA microfilm mc 109).

Balfour, J O 1845, A Sketch of New South Wales, Smith, Elder and Co., London.

Banks, Mary Macleod 1931, Memories of Pioneer Days in Queensland, Heath Cranton Limited, London.

Bates, Daisy 1938, The Passing of the Aborigines: a Lifetime spent among the Natives of Australia, John Murray, London.

Beaglehole, J C (ed.) 1962, The Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks 1768–1771, Volume II, The Trustees of the Public Library of New South Wales in association with Angus and Robertson, Sydney.

Bentham, Jeremy 1970 [1789], AnIntroduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, edited by J H Burns and H L A Hart, Athlone Press, London.

Bladen, F H (ed.) 1895, Historical Records Of New South Wales, Vol. III–Hunter 1796–1799, Charles Potter, Sydney.

Boldrewood, Rolf (Thomas Alexander Browne) 1888, Robbery Under Arms, first published in serial form by the Sydney Mail in 1882; and in book form by Remington, London.

— 1969 [1884], Old Melbourne Memories, William Heinemann Ltd, Melbourne.

Bride, Thomas Francis (ed.) 1983 [1898], Letters from Victorian Pioneers: A Series of Papers on the Early Occupation of the Colony, the Aborigines, Etc, Lloyd O’Neil Pty Ltd, South Yarra, Victoria.

Brown, P L (ed.) 1935, The Narrative of George Russell of Golf Hill will Russellania and Selected Papers, OUP, London.

— 1958, Clyde Company Papers, Vol. III, 1841–45, OUP, London.

Bynoe, Charles 1992, Memories of Normanton: An Aboriginal Perspective, Normanton State School.

Chambers’s Miscellany of Useful and Entertaining Tracts 1845, William and Robert Chambers, Edinburgh, Vol. 1, No. 8.

Chambers, W 1882, Story of A Long and Busy Life, W & R Chambers, Edinburgh and London.

Clark, Ian D (ed.) 2000, The Journals of George Augustus Robinson, Chief Protector, Port Phillip Aboriginal Protectorate, Volume One: 1 January 1839 – 30 September 1840, Second Edition, Heritage Matters, Ballarat, Victoria.

Cunningham, P 1827, Two Years in New South Wales; A Series of Letters, Comprising Sketches of the Actual State of Society in that Colony; Of Its Peculiar Advantages to Emigrants; Of Its Topography, Natural History, &c. &c., In Two Volumes, Vol. II, Henry Colburn, London.

Curr, Edward M 2001 [1883], Recollections of Squatting in Victoria, Then Called the Port Phillip District (From 1841 to 1851), Rich Rivers Printers, Echuca, Victoria.

Curtis, John 1838, Shipwreck of the Stirling Castle containing A Faithful Narrative of the Dreadful Sufferings of the Crew, and the Cruel Murder of Captain Fraser by the Savages. Also, The Horrible Barbarity of the Cannibals Inflicted upon The Captain’s Widow, Whose Unparalleled Sufferings are Stated by Herself, and Corroborated by the Other Survivors. To Which is Added, The Narrative of the Wreck of the Charles Eaton, in the Same Latitude, George Virtue, London.

Dampier, William 1937 [1697], A New Voyage Round the World, With an Introduction by Sir Albert Gray, Adam and Charles Black, London.

Darwin, Charles 1889, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the Voyage of H.M.S. “Beagle” Round the World, Sixth Edition, Ward, Lock and Co., London, New York, and Melbourne.

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Darwin, Charles and Alfred Russel Wallace 1958, Evolution by Natural Selection, Published for the XV International Congress of Zoology and The Linnean Society of London, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Defoe, Daniel 1719, The Life and Strange and Surprizing Adventures on Robinson Crusoe of York, Mariner: who lived eight and twenty years, all alone in an uninhabited island on the coast of America, near the mouth of the great river of Oroonoque; having been cast on shore by shipwreck, whereon all the men perished but himself. With an account of how he was at last as strangely deliver’d by pyrates. Written by himself, W Taylor, London.

Flanagan, Roderick 1888, The Aborigines of Australia, first published as a series of articles in 1853–54 in the Sydney Empire, Edward F Flanagan and George Robertson and Company.

Ford, Henry A and Mrs Kate B Ford 1881, History of Cincinnati, Ohio, With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches, L A Williams & Co., Cleveland, Ohio.

Haggard, H Rider 1969 [1886], She: A History of Adventure, Macdonald & Co., London.

Hamilton, J C n.d., Pioneering Days in Western Victoria, n.p.

Hill, W R O 1907, Forty-Five Years’ Experience in North Queensland, H Pole & Co., Brisbane.

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Jersey, Margaret Elizabeth Leigh Child-Villiers (The Dowager Countess of Jersey) 1922, Fifty-one Years of Victorian Life, John Murray, London.

Johnston, William 1918, ‘Old Bulimba’, The Historical Society of Queensland Journal, Vol. 1, No. 5.

Keynes, Richard Darwin (ed.) 1988, Charles Darwin’s Beagle Diary, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Lang, John Dunmore 1861, Queensland, Australia; A Highly Eligible Field For Emigration, and the Future Cotton-Field of Great Britain: with a Disquisition on The Origin, Manners, and Customs of the Aborigines, Edward Stanford, London.

Long, Edward 1774, The History of Jamaica, Or, General Survey of the Antient [sic] and Modern State of that Island: with Reflections on its Situation, Settlements, Inhabitants, Climate, Products, Laws, and Government, T Lowndes, London.

Martin, Joseph Lemuel 1870, The Voice of the Seven Thunders: Or Lectures on the Apocalypse, Central Book Concern, Chicago and Cincinnati.

Mathew, John 1910, Two Representative Tribes of Queensland: With an Inquiry concerning the Origin of the Australian Race, T Fisher Unwin, London and Leipsic.

Memorandum of Association of the Australasian Pioneers’ Club, 1915, H J Gurd & Co., Sydney.

Millett, Mrs Edward 1980 [1872], An Australian Parsonage or, The Settler and the Savage in Western Australia, Facsimile Edition, Univerity of Western Australia Press, Nedlands, Western Australia (originally published by Edward Stanford, London).

Mitchell, Thomas Livingston 1839, Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia: with Descriptions of the Recently Explored Region of Australia Felix and of the Present Colony of New South Wales, Volume 1, Second edition, T & W Boone, London.

Mundy, Lt Colonel Godfrey Charles 1852, Our Antipodes: Or, Residence and Rambles in The Australian Colonies. With A Glimpse Of The Gold Fields, In Three Volumes, Second Edition, Revised, Richard Bentley, London, Vol. I.

Narrative of the Capture, Sufferings, and Miraculous Escape of Mrs Eliza Fraser, 1837, Charles S Webb, New York.

Nevins, Allan (ed.) 1954, James Fenimore Cooper’s The Leatherstocking Saga: being those parts of The Deerslayer, The Last of the Mohicans, The Pathfinder, The Pioneers, and The Prairie which specially pertain to Natty Bumppo otherwise known as Pathfinder, Deerslayer, or Hawkeye; the whole arranged in chronological order from Hawkeye’s youth on the New York frontier in King George’s War until his death on the Western prairies in Jefferson’s Administration, Pantheon Books, New York.

Nott, Josiah and George Gliddon 1857, Types of Mankind: or, Ethnological Researches, Based Upon the Ancient Monuments, Paintings, Sculptures, and Crania of Races, 8th edition, J B Lippincott, Philadelphia.

Palmer, Edward 1983 [1903], Early Days in North Queensland, Angus & Robertson, London, Sydney.

Richardson, Samuel 1740, Pamela; or Virtue Rewarded, Messrs Rivington and Osborn, London.

Romanov-Hughes, Alexander (compiler) 1995, Coastal Passengers to Port Phillip, 1839, Romanov-Hughes, Taradale, Victoria.

Russell, Henry Stuart 1989 [1888], The Genesis of Queensland, Vintage Books, Toowoomba, Queensland.

Russell, William 1991 [1914], My Recollections, The Oaks Historical Society, Camden, NSW.

Scott, Sir Walter, Marmion, Canto VI, 17.

Smiles, Samuel 1874 [1859], Self-Help: With Illustrations of Conduct and Perseverance, John Murray, London.

— 1879 [1871], Character, New edition, John Murray, London.

— 1880 [1875], Thrift, John Murray, London.

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Smyth, R Brough 1878, The Aborigines of Victoria: with Notes Relating to the Habits of the Natives of other Parts of Australia and Tasmania, Volume II, George Robertson, Melbourne.

Sturt, Charles 1982, Mount Bryan Expedition 1839, Sullivan’s Cove, Adelaide.

Sturt, Mrs Napier George 1899, Life of Charles Sturt, Sometime Capt, 39th Regt and Australian Explorer, Smith, Elder, & Co., London.

Swift, Jonathan 1940 [1726], Gulliver’s Travels, J M Dent & Sons Ltd, London.

Tench, Captain Watkin 1979, Sydney’s First Four Years: A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay and A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson 1788–1791, introduced and annotated by L F Fitzhardinge, Library of Australian History in association with the Royal Australian Historical Society, Sydney.

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Newspapers and periodicals


Bell’s Weekly Messenger

Brisbane Courier

The Edinburgh Evening Courant

Geelong Advertiser

Illawarra Mercury

Kiama Examiner

Moreton Bay Courier

Morning Bulletin, Rockhampton

Newcastle Mining Herald and Miners’ Advocate

Newcastle Morning Herald

Port Phillip Gazette

Port Phillip Herald

Queensland Naturalist: Journal of the Queensland Naturalists’ Club, Vol. 19, Nos 1–3, November 1968, ‘Fraser Island Number’.

South Australian Advertiser

Sydney Gazette

Sydney Herald

Sydney Mail

The Free Church of Scotland Monthly Record

The Historical Society of Queensland Journal

The Pastoralists’ Review

The Sun (Sydney)

Australian Dictionary of Biography entries

‘Angas, George Fife (1789–1879)’

‘Angas, John Howard (1823–1904)’, Sally O’Neill

‘Barton, Charlotte (1796–1867)’, Patricia Clarke

‘Browne, Thomas Alexander [Rolf Boldrewood] (1826–1915)’, T Inglis Moore

‘Fraser, Eliza Anne (c. 1798–1858?)’, Elaine Brown

‘Gawler, George (1795–1869)’, R Hetherington

‘Gould, John (1804–1881)’, A H Chisholm

‘Groom, William Henry (1833–1901)’, D B Waterson

‘Hamilton, Edward William Terrick (1809–1898)’, J R Robertson

‘Howe, Ann (c. 1802–1842)’, Sandy Blair

‘Kirkland, Katherine (1808–1892)’, Jean Hagger

‘McConnel, David Cannon (1818–1885)’, H J Gibbney

‘Mitchell, David Scott (1836–1907)’, G D Richardson

‘Morehead, Boyd Dunlop (1843–1905)’

‘Murphy, Sir Francis (1809–1891)’, Margot Beever

‘Scott, Helenus (1802–1879)’, Nancy Gray

‘Scott, Robert (1799–1844)’, Nancy Gray

‘Scott, Rose (1847–1925)’, Judith Allen

‘Smith, Christina (1809?–1893)’, Leith G MacGillivray

‘Spielvogel, Nathan Frederick (1874–1956)’, Weston Bate

‘Stow, Catherine Eliza Somerville (Katie) (1856–1940)’, Marcie Muir

‘Thomson, Sir Edward Deas (1800–1879)’, M E Osborne

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Adelaide, Debra 1988, Australian Women Writers: A Bibliographic Guide, Pandora Press, London.

Adelaide, Debra (ed.) 1988, A Bright and Fiery Troop: Australian Women Writers of the Nineteenth Century, Penguin Books, Ringwood, Victoria.

Adelaide, Debra 1991, Bibliography of Australian Women’s Literature 1795–1990: A Listing of Fiction, Poetry, Drama and Non-fiction Published in Monograph Form Arranged Alphabetically by Author, D W Thorpe in association with National Centre for Australian Studies, Port Melbourne.

Allen, Maureen 1996, Cressbrook, published by author, Caldbeck, Cumbria, United Kingdom.

Alexander, Michael, (adapted by Ida Veitch) 1981, Mrs Fraser On The Fatal Shore, Thomas Nelson Australia Pty Ltd, Melbourne.

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— 1973, Victorian People and Ideas: A Companion for the Modern Reader of Victorian Literature, W W Norton and Co. Inc., New York.

Anderson, Hugh 1969, The Flowers of the Field: A History of Ripon Shire, Together with Mrs Kirkland’s Life in the Bush from Chambers’s Miscellany, 1845, Hill of Content Publishing Co. Pty Ltd, Melbourne.

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— 2005, Aboriginal Victorians: A History Since 1800, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW, Supported by La Trobe University, Melbourne.

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Brown, Elaine 1994, ‘The legend of Eliza Fraser – a survey of the sources’, Journal of the Royal Historical Society of Queensland, Vol. XV, No. 7.

— 2000, Cooloola Coast: Noosa to Fraser Island: The Aboriginal and Settler Histories of a Unique Environment, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Queensland.

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Buxton, G L 1977, ‘1870–90’, in F K Crowley (ed.), A New History of Australia, William Heinemann, Melbourne.

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Clark, Ian D 1995, Scars in the Landscape: A Register of Massacre Sites in Western Victoria, 1803–1859, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Report Series, Canberra.

— 2003, ‘That’s My Country Belonging to Me’: Aboriginal Land Tenure and Dispossession in Nineteenth Century Western Victoria, Ballarat Heritage Services, Ballarat.

Clarke, Patricia 1985, The Governesses: Letters From The Colonies 1862–1882, Hutchison of Australia, Hawthorn, Victoria.

— 1986, A Colonial Woman: The Life and Times of Mary Braidwood Mowle 1827–1857, Allen & Unwin, North Sydney.

— 1988, Pen Portraits: Women Writers and Journalists in Nineteenth Century Australia, Allen & Unwin, North Sydney.

— 1990, Pioneer Writer: The Life of Louisa Atkinson: Novelist, Journalist, Naturalist, Allen & Unwin, North Sydney.

— 1999, Rosa! Rosa! A Life of Rosa Praed, Novelist and Spiritualist, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.

Clarke, Patricia and Dale Spender 1992, Life Lines: Australian Women’s Letters and Diaries, 1788–1840, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, NSW.

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— 2006, ‘The history question: Who owns the past?’, Quarterly Essay, Issue 23.

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Curthoys, Ann and Ann McGrath (eds) 2000, Writing Histories: Imagination and Narration, School of Historical Studies, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria.

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Dawson, Barbara 1996, ‘Holding Selectors at Bay: An Analysis of the Robertson Land Acts on the Property of Bibbenluke in the Southern Monaro 1861–1884’, MA Thesis, ANU.

— 1999, ‘The end of pastoral paternalism: William Bradley of Bibbenluke and Robert Campbell of Duntroon’, Canberra Historical Journal, New Series No. 43.

Dawson, Barbara (Chambers) 2000, ‘Striking out for independence: moves towards self-determination and self-sufficiency on the southern Monaro property of Bibbenluke, 1861–1884’, Labour History, No. 79.

— 2002, ‘Sisters under the skin? Friendship: crossing the racial gulf’, Crossings: Bulletin of the International Australian Studies Association, Australian Studies Centre, University of Queensland, Vol. 7.3: E-journal.

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Drummond, Yolanda 1993, ‘Progress of Eliza Fraser’, Journal of the Royal Historical Society of Queensland, Vol. XV, No. 1.

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— 2004, ‘“Plenty shoot ’em”: the destruction of Aboriginal societies along the Queensland frontier’, in A Dirk Moses (ed.), Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History, Berghahn Books, New York and Oxford.

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Foster, Robert, Rick Hosking and Amanda Nettelbeck 2001, Fatal Collisions: The South Australian Frontier and the Violence of Memory, Wakefield Press, Kent Town, South Australia.

Foster, Stephen 2010, A Private Empire, Pier 9, Millers Point, NSW.

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Frost, Lucy 1992, A Face in the Glass: The Journal and Life of Annie Baxter Dawbin, William Heinemann Australia, Port Melbourne, Victoria.

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