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Long History, Deep Time


Figure 1.1: Visitors and friends from the Willandra Lakes World Heritage region at The Australian National University in June 2013.

Figure 4.1: Map of northern Australia showing places mentioned in the text. 69

Figure 4.2: Nuggett Collins Japarta making boomerangs for the winnun exchange, circa June 1986.

Figure 4.3: The bundles of ochred boomerangs ready for exchange, circa June 1986.

Figure 4.4: The winnun exchange taking place at Yarralin Aboriginal community, circa July 1986. One of the bundles of boomerangs is in the foreground and the bamboo spears are tied to the roof of the truck.

Figure 5.1: Devil Devil, Djambu Burra Burra (1937–2005), 2001.

Figure 5.2: Warndarrang elder Rosalind Munur points to the three Catfish tors that guard the entrance to Burrunju, 1984. Also in the photograph is Ngukurr elder Dawson Daniels.

Figure 5.3: Warndarrang elder Ngangigee, Cara Thompson, late 1930s.

Figure 5.4: Warndarrang elder Ruth Cook, Mungranjyajua, Katherine, Northern Territory, 2006.

Figure 5.5: Ngarrindjeri elder Aunty Inez Jean Birt, the Coorong, South Australia, 2002.

Figure 6.1: A kangaroo painted in x-ray style, Gaagudju people, western Arnhem Land, 1994

Figure 6.2: A yam painted with diamond patterns, Oenpelli, western Arnhem Land, 1994

Figure 6.3: A buffalo painted in x-ray style, Gaagudju people, western Arnhem Land, 1994

Figure 6.4: John Mawurndjul Mardayin at Kudjarnngal, 2003

Figure 11.1: A fine portrait of an Aboriginal man, probably from central Australia by Charles P. Mountford, which appeared as the frontispiece to Ion Idriess’s book Our Living Stone Age (Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1963) with the caption ‘Stone Age Man’.

Figure 11.2: A photograph appearing in Charles Barrett’s Coast of Adventure (Robertson and Mullens, 1941) showing some boys preparing a lunch-time meal and captioned in the original ‘Primitive boys prepare a primitive meal on Wessel Island’.

Figure 12.1: Narrative map of modern human dispersals

Figure 12.2: Diagram from Darwin’s The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) to illustrate the evolutionary process

Figure 13.1: Lake Mungo is one of several large and numerous smaller lake basins making up the Willandra Lakes, a relict overflow system in south-eastern Australia.

Figure 13.2: The location of the study area in the central Mungo lunette.

Figure 13.3: A silcrete core and refitting flakes, representing at least part of a single knapping event.

Figure 13.4: A partially burned emu egg in the position in which it was cracked open after cooking.

Figure 13.5: A fireplace comprising ash and lightly baked sediment, with an associated scatter of bettong bones representing a single individual (white flags) and a scatter of stone tools struck from the same nodule of silcrete (black flags). The artefact scatter includes six sets of refits.

Figure 13.6: A schematic cross-section summarising the stratigraphic sequence in the central Mungo lunette.

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