Globalisation and Governance in the Pacific Islands

Table of Contents

1. Keynote Address — From Neo-Liberalism to the New Medievalism
2. Treading Water in Rapids? Non-Governmental Organisations and Resistance to Neo-Liberalism in Pacific Island States
Global civil society challenges to neo-liberalism
Neo-liberal reform and civil society resistance in the Pacific region
Recent NGO challenges to Pacific governments and the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat
NGO constraints and challenges
3. Regionalism and Cultural Identity: Putting the Pacific back into the plan
The plan
The process
The content of the plan and culture
Making culture central to the plan: building on the past
The difficulties of integrating culture
Culture and regionalism: a strategy
Labour Migration
4. Migration, Dependency and Inequality in the Pacific: Old Wine in Bigger Bottles? (Part 1)
An economic context
A population context?
Internal migration
International migration
A rationale
5. Migration, Dependency and Inequality in the Pacific: Old Wine in Bigger Bottles? (Part 2)
Selectivity and skilled migration
Outcome of skill loss
Return migration
A policy context?
Conclusion: the outward urge
References (Parts 1 and 2)
6. Globalisation, New Labour Migration and Development in Fiji
Globalisation and transnational migration
Dimensions of international migration
International migration and development
Migration trends in Oceania
The changing nature of labour migration in Fiji
1. Mass immigration phase (1879–1920 and 1920–36)
2. Permanent labour migration phase (since 1970)
3. Temporary labour migration phase (since the early 1990s)
Fiji’s international peacekeeping
4. Contemporary immigration
Remittances in Fiji
Migration and development in Fiji
7. ‘Tonga Only Wants Our Money’: The children of Tongan migrants
The sustainability of remittances
Investigating second-generation transnationalism
Piloting the ‘Tongan ties’ project
More migration as a solution?
8. Labour Mobility in the Pacific: Creating seasonal work programs in Australia
Remittances and Pacific development
Labour mobility and trade negotiations
The growing importance of remittances
Case study: Iraq
Social impacts
Remittances and development
Modelling seasonal work schemes in Australia
Labour mobility from the Pacific
Requirements for effective seasonal workers’ schemes
Labour rights and working conditions
Recruitment and government regulation
Addressing social impacts on families
Information and community support
Creating incentives to avoid overstaying
Government policy to support migrant workers
Sharing the costs
Conclusion — beyond trade and economics
9. Contemporary Migration Within the Pacific Islands: The case of Fijian skilled workers in Kiribati and Marshall Islands
A profile of the Fijian migrants
Push factors for mobility out of Fiji
Case study one: Fijian migrants’ salaries at Ebeye Health Clinic, Marshall Islands, 2002
Case study two: Remittances of Fijian nurses in Ebeye, Marshall Islands
Legal aspects of work and travel
Sugar and Garments
10. Fiji: Sugar and sweatshirts, migrants and remittances
Sugar and garments
Scenario one: Migrants, settlements and the informal economy
Scenario two: Workers and remittances
11. End of the Line? Globalisation and Fiji’s Garment Industry
The local/regional/global origins of the Fijian garment industry
The Tax-Free Factory/Tax-Free Zone scheme
The Fijian garment industry: Dependent development
New initiatives: Breathing life or buying time?
The impact of shifting from regionalism to globalisation: three chronicles
‘Local companies’
‘Regional companies’
‘Global companies’
The industry today and tomorrow: multiple futures
Who benefits from a competitive garment industry?
The end of the line?
Corporate and State Governance in Mining and Forestry
12. Global Capital and Local Ownership in Solomon Islands’ Forestry Industry
Global capital and local resources
Solomon Islands forestry: A brief background
Logging and local communities
13. Mining, Social Change and Corporate Social Responsibility: Drawing lines in the Papua New Guinea mud
Mining as the driver of change
Entering the sustainability debate
Drawing lines
14. The ‘Resource Curse’ and Governance: A Papua New Guinean perspective
The ‘resource curse’
The Mineral Revenue Stabilisation Fund (MRSF)
Institutional reforms
Development forum
Tax Credit Scheme (TCS)
Mineral Resources Authority (MRA)
Tradition, Culture and Politics
15. Keynote Address — Governance in Fiji: The interplay between indigenous tradition, culture and politics
16. The State of the State in Fiji: Some failings in the periphery
A post-1987 coup story
The nature of the Fijian State
State institutions and ethnicity
State functions
State personnel
Intensification of market-led development
The State and affirmative action
Increasing social inequality and poverty
The changing global politico-economic environment
17. Power Sharing in Fiji and New Caledonia
The making and unmaking of Fiji’s multi-party cabinet laws
Outcomes of the 1999 election
Outcomes of the 2001 polls
2002 Court of Appeal judgment
2003 Supreme Court judgment
The 2004 Supreme Court judgment
Unravelling majoritarian rule in New Caledonia
The 1999 elections
Outcomes of the 2004 polls
Lessons with regards to power-sharing institutions
18. More Than 20 Years of Political Stability in Samoa under the Human Rights Protection Party
The Constitution
Political leadership
19. Matai Titles and Modern Corruption in Samoa: Costs, expectations and consequences for families and society
Who gave what and where did it come from?
Where did this cash come from?
The installation ceremony and the political agenda
The gifting
Seeds of corruption
Media, Civil Society and Democracy
20. Keynote Address — Keeping the Information Flow Open: A key condition for good government in Micronesia
The crusade for good governance
As the theory goes
The machinery of government
What foreigners can do to help
Knowledge as a valued commodity
Even a little knowledge is a dangerous thing
Enter the media
The media as a watchdog
21. Governance, Globalisation and the PNG Media: A survival dilemma
The PNG media today
Governance and the PNG media
War against corruption
Daily coverage of governance-related issues
Global issues and the PNG media
Critical analysis of the PNG media’s role towards governance
a. Journalists
b. Media organisations
c. The public’s perception
d. Access to media
e. Government information
f. Use of paid advertisements for governance issues
g. Locally driven agendas
h. Coordinated campaigns
i. Taking for granted the reader’s ability to understand
j. The media’s adaptation of foreign issues
22. Democracy in Papua New Guinea: Challenges from a rights-based approach
The political context in PNG: Challenges and critical issues
A rights-based approach to democracy
Rights-based approach: A developmental perspective
Analytical framework
Empirical reasons for a rights-based approach
The Organic Law and LPV system: Opportunities for democracy in PNG
The democratic role of political parties
Limited Preferential Voting system
23. Governance and Livelihood Realities in Solomon Islands
Community perspective on governance
Governance issues at the community and national level
Governance and civil society
Governance, livelihood realities and challenges
The need for good governance and livelihood interventions
List of Contributors

List of Figures

Figure 1. Log production, export and estimated sustainable yield for natural forest (CBSI log export records; Forestry Review 1995; ADB 1998)
Figure 2. Log volume to major export destinations 1994-1998 (Log export data from CBSI.)
Figure 3: Export values of principal commodity groups (CBSI data on value of exports by commodity)

List of Tables

Table 1: Emigration of Fijian citizens by ethnic group and professional workers, 1987–2004
Table 2: Trends in personal remittances in Fiji, 1993–2004
Table 3: Sectoral foreign exchange earnings and remittances in Fiji, 1999–2004
Table 1: Increase in foreign exchange earnings for Fiji, 1994–2004
Table 1: Occupational categories for Fijian migrants by sex in Kiribati and Marshall Islands, 2002.
Table 2: Academic qualifications of Fijian skilled migrants in Kiribati and Marshall Islands, 2002.
Table 3: Reasons for departing from Fiji by order of importance.
Table 4: Fijian nurses — salary levels by ranges by percentage of nursing positions, 2002.
Table 5: Fiji/Marshall Islands teachers — salary levels by position, 2003.
Case study one: Salaries for Fijian migrant health workers, Ebeye Health Clinic, 2002.
Table 6: Fortnightly monetary remittances sent by Fijian migrants by host country, 2002.
Table 7: Money and other items received from Fiji.
Table 8: Cash remittances sent by Fijian nurses, Ebeye Health Clinic, 2002.
Table 1: Fiji’s garment exports, 1986–2005 ($F million).
Table 2: The minimum wage: a liveable wage?
Table 1: Composition of the Fijian Parliament, eligibility of parties under the 10 per cent rule and the make-up of cabinet as of June 11, 1999
Table 2: Composition of Fijian Parliament, eligibility of parties under the 10 per cent rule and make-up of cabinet as of September 26, 2001
Table 3: Congress slates and cabinet portfolios after the 1999 polls in New Caledonia
Table 4: Congress slates and cabinet portfolios in New Caledonia as of June 24, 2004