Origins, Ancestry and Alliance: Explorations in Austronesian Ethnography

Table of Contents

Preliminary Pages
1. Introduction
The Comparative Austronesian Project
Origins, Ancestry and Alliance
The Austronesian Language Context
The Discourse on Origins Among the Austronesians
Idioms in the Discourse on Origins
Precedence as Discourse and Practice
Origin Narratives and Historical Formations
2. Hierarchy, Founder Ideology and Austronesian Expansion
Early Austronesian Ranking: The Evidence
Founder-Focused Ideology Among Austronesian-Speakers
Founder-Focused Ideology: Some Instances
Initial Austronesian Expansion: Some Parameters
Founder Rank Enhancement and its Possible Significance
Some Afterthoughts
3. The Elder and the Younger — Foreign and Autochthonous Origin and Hierarchy in the Cook Islands
In Principle, Everything is so Simple
Genealogy or Genealogies: Path and Birth
4. Rank, Hierarchy and Routes of Migration: Chieftainship in the Central Caroline Islands of Micronesia
Socio-Political Organization
Oral History of Satawal: Chiefly and Commoner Clans
Two Legendary Homelands of the Caroline Islanders
Political Relationship Between Yap and the Outer Islands
Clan and Land
5. “All Threads Are White”: Iban Egalitarianism Reconsidered
The Iban, Borneo, and the “Egalitarianism” Debate
Iban Egalitarianism
Equality and Adat
Egalitarian Leadership
The Concept of Pun
Objective Inequality and the Absence of Stratification
Equality and Hierarchy
The Political Economy of Traditional Inequality
Textiles and “Women’s Warfare”
Ritual and Hierarchy
6. Origin, Hierarchy and Egalitarianism Among the Mandaya of Southeast Mindanao, Philippines
Culture as Value and as Precedence
The Context of Mandaya Precedence and Egalitarianism
Conceptions of Precedence
Egalitarianism as Culture Value
7. The Transformation of Progenitor Lines of Origin: Patterns of Precedence in Eastern Indonesia
Precedence in Eastern Indonesia
The Concept of Origin Group: Genitor and Progenitor
1. The Mambai
2. The Ema
3. The Rotinese
4. The Atoni Meto
5. The Tetun of the Southern Plain of Wehali
6. The Ata Tana ’Ai
Comment and Conclusion
8. Origin Structures and Precedence in the Social Orders of Tana ’Ai and Sikka
Clans, Houses and History: The Origin Structure of Tana Wai Brama
Protogenitrix Lines and the Precedence of Houses Within Tana ’Ai Clans
The Generation of Houses Within Tana ’Ai Clans
Precedence and the Delegation of Authority in Tana Wai Brama
Precedence, Delegation and the Origin Structure of Sikka
Authority, Precedence and Delegation in Tana ’Ai and Sikka
9. Precedence Among the Domains of the Three Hearth Stones:
Some Categories of the Social Order
The Ceremonial Cycles of the Domains of Water Buffalo Blood
Political and Ceremonial Alliance
The “Domains of the Three Hearth Stones”: Pre-Sacrifice
The Ko’a Ceremonial Cycle, 1985-1988: Categorical Inversion
10. The Founding of the House and the Source of Life: Two Complementary Origin Structures in Buru Society
An Overview of Buru
The Founding of the House
The Source of Life
11. Histories of Diversity, Hierarchies of Unity: The Politics of Origins in a South-West Moluccan Village
The Setting
“Histories” of Diversity
Hierarchies of Unity
Concluding Remarks
12. Rivals and Wives: Affinal Politics and the Tongan Ramage
Complexities of Rank: Blood and Garland
Affinal Politics
Twentieth-Century Foundations
The Affinal Politics of the Twentieth Century
The King’s Body
13. The Politics of Marriage and the Marriage of Polities in Gowa, South Sula Wesi, During the 16th and 17th Centuries
The Wider Background
Background to Gowa
Makassar Titles and Their Wider Equivalents
Correlations in Titulation Across Next-Of-Kin
Horizontal Links Between the Royal Cores
Makassar Status Lineages
Makassar Lineage Groups
Gowa’s Initial Expansion (c.1500-1593)
The Golden Period of Greater Gowa (1593-1667)
The Survivors (Post-1667)
14. The Cultural Construction of Rank, Identity and Ethnic Origins in the Sulu Archipelago

List of Figures

3.1. Figure. 1. Genealogical connections of Ma‘uke and ‘Atiu.
4.1. Map 1. The Micronesia Islands.
4.2. Figure 1. The flow of the tributes (Ushijima 1987).
5.1. Figure 1. Hierarchy and equality
8.4. Figure 4
8.5. Figure 5. A version of the genealogy of the Ratu of Sikka. [Source: Mo’ang Mandalangi Pareira, Sikka Genealogy Book, pp.112ff.]
8.6. Figure 6
8.7. Figure 7
8.8. Figure 8
8.9. Figure 9 (cf. Fox 1989:52)
9.1. Map 1: Political and ceremonial alliance among the “domains of water buffalo blood”.
9.2. Map 2. Tana Ko’a and Tana Cawalo: the “domains of the coconut palm tree”.
10.1. Map 1. Central Maluku.
10.2. Figure 1. Life (-ennewet) and source (-lahin) relatives.
10.3. Figure 2. Mara and halan: reckoning maternal noro as the source of life.
12.1. Figure 1. A simplified representation of the Tongan title system (adapted from Biersack 1982 [1974]:197 [Figure 1]).
12.2. Figure 2. Succession to the Tuita title.*
12.3. Map 1. Tongatapu.
12.4. Figure 3. Fusipala and the elevation of the Tu‘i Pelehake (TP) title (adapted from Bott 1982:147 [Figure 24]).
12.5. Figure 4 Rival dynastic lines 1780-1938 (adapted from Ellem 1981:451 [Figure 2]).
12.6. Map 2. Tonga.
12.7. Figure 5. Genealogy of the present King (synthesized from materials in Bott (1982) and Ellem 1981)).
13.1. Map 1. “Lineage groups” (capitalized) and other key places.
13.2. Figure 1. Skeletal genealogical outline of royal Makassar history.
13.3. Figure 2. Schematic representation of Greater Gowa’s organization.
14.1. Figure 1. Dimensions of hierarchy in Sulu and Zamboanga.

List of Tables

4.1. Table 1. Lineage, population and landholding in Satawal Island (Sudo 1987)
9.1. Table 1. Domains of water buffalo and pig blood
9.2. Table 2. Categorical asymmetry and recursive complementarity: pre-sacrifice (m = male, f = female; male > female)
9.3. Table 3. Categorical inversion: duration of sacrifice
9.4. Table 4. Categorical asymmetry and recursive complementarity: post-sacrifice
13.1. Table 1. Percentages of Makassar titles linked with toponyms
13.2. Table 2. Cross-tabulation of titles against sex
13.3. Table 3. Comparisons of titulation across next-of-kin
13.5. Table 4. Relationship of wife to her related husband (where a conjugal pair forms the closest common ancestors)
13.6. Table 5. Relationship of wife to her related husband (closest ancestry traced via step siblings)
13.7. Table 6. Status and patrilineality of male-dominated posts
13.8. Table 7. Sixteenth Century Marriages Between Lineage Groups
13.9. Table 8. Marriages Between Lineage Groups c.1593-1667
13.10. Table 9. Post-1667 Marriages Between Lineage Groups
14.1. Table 1. Some ethnonyms of Sulu and Zamboanga (in rough rank order)