The Austronesians

Historical and Comparative Perspectives

Table of Contents

1. The Austronesians in History: Common Origins and Diverse Transformations
Austronesian Languages as Witnesses for Cultural and Biological Ancestry at the Population Level
The Austronesians as a Phylogenetic Unit
Comparative Methods in Linguistics and Anthropology
Origins and Dispersals
Historical Interactions and Transformations
1. Origins and Dispersals
2. Proto-Austronesian and the Major Austronesian Subgroups
The Austronesian Family
Current Subgrouping Hypotheses
Cultural-Historical Implications
3. The Prehistory of Oceanic Languages: A Current View
Some questions
The Comparative Method
The Oceanic Subgroup and Proto-Oceanic Culture
The Dispersal and Diversification of Oceanic Languages
Locating the POc language community and directions of dispersal
Modes of Oceanic dispersal
Change in the Lexicons and Cultures of Oceanic Speakers
4. Borneo as a Cross-Roads for Comparative Austronesian Linguistics
East Barito: Who Were the Malayo-Polynesian Migrants to Madagascar?
Malayic Dayak: Arguments for a Bornean Homeland of Malay
Tamanic: On the Exact Nature of the Relation Between Tamanic Languages and South Sulawesi Languages
Land Dayak: Some Features They Have in Common With Orang Asli Languages
Post Scriptum
5. Austronesian Prehistory in Southeast Asia: Homeland, Expansion and Transformation
Questions of Ultimate Homeland
The Pattern of Austronesian Expansion
Why did the expansion occur?
Some Final Generalizations
6. The Lapita Culture and Austronesian Prehistory in Oceania
An Outline of Archaeological Prehistory
Comparison with Linguistic Prehistory: A Lapita Language?
A Lapita People? The Evidence from Genetics
The Structure of Austronesian Migration in Oceania
Acknowledgements and Dedication
7. The Austronesian Conquest of the Sea — Upwind
The Southeast Asian Archipelago, An Easy First Step
Movements into the Pacific
Boat Construction Before the Austronesians
Relations with the Indian Ocean
The Austronesian Contribution
Sailing Conditions in the Pacific
The Seaways Were Open, Once Explored
Thor Heyerdahl, Going Westward
Exploration Was Upwind
8. Domesticated and Commensal Mammals of Austronesia and Their Histories
Partner in the Padi Fields: The Water-Buffalo
Table-Sharers: Rodents of the Ricefields
Local Contributions: Sapi and Babi
Snappers-up of Unconsidered Trifles: Dogs and, Who Knows, Dingoes Too?
In Conclusion
2. Transformations and Interactions
9. Homo Sapiens is an Evolving Species: Origins of the Austronesians
The Impact of Malaria on Human Genetics
Genetic Markers for Austronesians and Non-Austronesians?
Evolutionary Forces: Definitions
The HLA Data
Evidence from HLA Studies for Mutation
Evidence from HLA Studies for Selection
Evidence from HLA Studies for Migration Effects
Comparative Observations From Other Genetic Systems
10. A Study of Genetic Distance and the Austronesian/Non-Austronesian Dichotomy
The Nature of the Evidence
Unique Allele Distributions
Genetic Distance Studies
Austronesian and Non-Austronesian Populations on the North Coast of Papua New Guinea
Non-Austronesian Diversity and its Contribution to Austronesian Heterogeneity in Melanesia
Linguistic Links Between Sepik-Ramu and Earlier Australian Languages
11. Language Contact and Change in Melanesia
Language Contact and Change in Melanesia
Language Shift and Obsolescence
No Influence
Dialect Borrowing
Cultural Borrowing
Intimate Borrowing
So-called “Mixed” Languages
Implications for Classification and Historical Reconstruction
Future Research Needs
12. Austronesian Societies and Their Transformations
The Concept of Origin
Stranger Kings, Muslim Saints and Brahmana Priests
Origin, Narrative and Journey
Transformations of Austronesian Societies
13. Sea Nomads and Rainforest Hunter-Gatherers: Foraging Adaptations in the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago
Problems in the Ethnogenesis of Southeast Asian Hunter-Gatherers
Adaptive Diversity in Early Austronesian Society
The Pre-Eminence of the Sea
Sea Nomads
The Sama-Bajau
The Orang Laut
The Moken
Forest Foragers
14. Exchange Systems, Political Dynamics, and Colonial Transformations in Nineteenth Century Oceania
Patterns of Difference
The Marquesas
Evolutionary and Non-Evolutionary Models
Indigenous Systems and Colonial Histories
Conclusion: The Distinctiveness of Austronesia
15. Indic Transformation: The Sanskritization of Jawa and the Javanization of the Bharata
The Earliest Indic State: Kutai
The Sanskritization of Jawa
The Spread of Literacy
Śrīwijaya: A Centre of Learning?
“Temples of Language” in Ancient Java
The Javanization of the Mahābhārata
16. Continuity and Change in the Austronesian Transition to Islam and Christianity
Austronesian Boundaries
Islamization as Change
The Idea of the Sacred
17. Christianity and Austronesian Transformations: Church, Polity and Culture in the Philippines and the Pacific
Spain and Catholicism in the Philippines
America and Protestantism in the Philippines
Christianity in the Pacific

List of Figures

2.1. Map 1: The geographical range of the Austronesian family.
3.1. Map 1: Boundaries of the Oceanic subgroup of Austronesian languages.
3.2. Map 2: High-order subgroups of Oceanic Austronesian languages.
3.3. Map 3: Oceanic subgroups in western Melanesia.
3.4. Map 4: The North New Guinea grouping and its subgroups.
3.5. Map 5: The Meso-Melanesian grouping and its subgroups.
3.6. Map 6: The Papuan Tip grouping and its major subgroups.
4.1. Map 1: Borneo language subgroups and their relationships to exo-Bornean subgroups.
5.1. Map 1. Approximate dates for initial Austronesian colonization.
6.1. Map 1: Lapita sites and find spots in the southwest Pacific.
6.2. Figure 1: A dentate-stamped pottery vessel from Malo Island, Vanuatu. The bottom figure is a simplified version of the dentate-stamped composition shown above.
7.1. Figure 1. Basic construction of the Austronesian lashed-lug built-up outrigger canoe.
7.2. Figure 2. The rig of a single-outrigger travelling canoe of Satawal, Caroline Islands, from Pâris (1841).
7.3. Figure 3. Drift currents in the Pacific with the length of each arrow indicating velocity in nautical miles per day. (1 km approx. = 0.625 nautical mile). Seasonal differences (given by Lewis 1972:102) are small.
8.1. Map 1. The distribution, within the past century, of wild Asian buffalo (Bubalus arnee).
8.2. Figure 1. Discriminant analysis of cranial measurements in Asian buffaloes. The circles represent one-standard-deviation limits of samples from Assam, Thailand, Nepal and Bihar/Orissa (wild) and swamp and river samples (domestic).
8.3. Map 2. Distribution of Mus cervicolor.
8.4. Map 3. Distribution of Bandicota bengalensis.
8.5. Map 4. Distribution of wild Sus scrofa, Sus celebensis and hybrids in Southeast Asia. From Groves (1984b).
9.1. Figure 1. Phylogenetic analysis of the distributions of HLA-DR,DQ haplotypes in 20 populations. In Asia-Oceania there were 82 haplotypes; additional haplotypes found in Caucasoids were pooled to generate a 20×83 matrix for genetic distance calculations.
9.2. Figure 2. Eigenvector representation of genetic distances between 20 populations based on HLA-DR, DQ haplotype frequency distributions.
10.1. Map 1. Localities of sampled populations. The linguistic groups sampled from the Bogia District are Saiki, Pila, Tani, Pay, Monumbo, Mikarew, and Manam; those sampled from the Gogol Valley are Munit, Sehan, Ham, Amaimon, and Bemal.
10.2. Figure 1. Maximum likelihood network connecting Austronesian and non-Austronesian-speaking populations from the Bogia District and Gogol Valley on the north coast of Papua New Guinea and from adjacent islands. Branch lengths are drawn in proportion to genetic distance.
10.3. Figure 2. Maximum likelihood network connecting representative Austronesian and non-Austronesian-speaking populations from Indonesia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Branch lengths are drawn in proportion to genetic distance.
11.1. Map 1: The distribution of language types in Melanesia.

List of Tables

3.1. Table 1. Some Oceanic cognate sets.(a)
3.2. Table 2. Reconstructed Proto-Oceanic terms for canoe parts and seafaring.(a)
3.3. Table 3. Reconstructed Proto-Oceanic forms associated with coconut culture.
3.4. Table 4. Reconstructed Proto-Oceanic terms for horticulture and food plants (other than coconuts)
3.5. Table 5. Reconstructed Proto-Oceanic terms associated with pots and pottery.
3.6. Table 6. Reconstructed Proto-Oceanic kinship terms.
9.1. Table 1. The most common HLA-DR,DQ haplotype in each of 19 populations of Asia-Oceania.